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On an unexpected trip to Jackson and West Tennessee, I was able to stop by and take a few photos around town. This is the NC & StL/Jackson, TN Train Depot and Railroad Museum located on South Royal Street.

 

The Tennessee Midland Railroad Depot open its doors for the east to west trackage in Jackson on June 1888. The Tennessee Midland Railroad was purchased by the L & N Railroad in 1898. The L & N also gained controlling interest of the N.C. & St.L. Railway through a stock buy out. They combined the two railroads and released it back to the N.C. & St.L.Railway for 99 years and operated it as a separate company. The Tennessee Midland depot was used until 1906 when it was moved 200 yards east of its location, to be used as a general freight office. The present depot was built across the street by the N.C. & St.L. Railway in 1906-07, with the freight office and warehouse on the east side of the new depot. Mayor Hu Anderson welcomed dignitaries to the new structure with a grand opening. In the late 1800'S and early 1900's depots were like community centers, people set around and socialize. The depot had many surrounding attractions including Landcaster Park which its waters was famous for its “healing powers”. Other interest were a zoo, ballpark, swimming hole, lakes and Johnny's popcorn. Two circuses, Ringling Brothers, Haggenback and Wallace, and a carnival, the Royal American show unloaded here and presented their show. The depot was just a fun place to hang out to see who came in and left on the many trains each day. The other railroads in town went north to south, while the N.C. & St.L. went east and west from Memphis to Nashville, Chattanooga, Atlanta. From Atlanta the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad would take you to your Florida vacation. The N.C.& St.L. Railway played a big part in the nations railroads. This was the only railroad that made money during the depression. They had a passenger train named after the the city of Jackson called the Jackson Bell. It ran from Jackson to Memphis in 3 hours and 15 minutes. In the 1940's they put on a train called the City of Memphis that made the round trip from Memphis to Nashville in record time, it averaged 47mph. Most of the men from this area leaving for WWII hopped the train from this depot. 100's of folks came down to send them off with big celebration.

 

In the 1950's the N.C. & St.L Railway was the first in the nation to have total centralized block system control. This along with declining passenger service and the need for tighter control of finances forced the L.&N. Railroad to consolidate the two roads in 1957. In 1958, the N.C. & St.L.Railway (name) stopped in Jackson for the last time. The L.&N. Railroad continued to run the route until 1967 although the last few years it was just a night train. The N.C. & St.L.. Depot was used as a Trails Ways Bus terminal until the Mid 70's and then the doors closed. Due to the efforts of a few rail fans in Jackson, the City of Jackson purchased the depot in 1994. It is the only depot left in Jackson, a town who's heritage is deep rooted with the railroad industry. Today the depot remains in close to original

condition and houses a museum of local railroad history.

 

Three bracketed photos were taken and combined with Photomatix to create this HDR image. Additional adjustments were made in Photoshop CS5.

 

"For I know the plans I have for you,” declares the LORD, “plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future." ~Jeremiah 29:11

I really like tulips and I found these in our office and couldn't resist photographing them. They are nearly perfect I think. The lighting behind and slightly above the flowers made them almost transparent and they appear to glow.

You can purchase this photo at:

Michael's Photography

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Went out to do a little photo walk with Matt this afternoon and it was super hot. Before though, I went and picked up a pretty cool little accessory for my iPad. For some reason, I felt compelled to pick up the iPad camera connection kit since I bought mine. Since I primarily shoot a 50D (uses CF cards), I was a little hesitant to do it. Well, today my hesitation ran out. Along with my hesitation, I also ended up running out of room on my CF card too. Having the sense to also carry my T1i, I switched out and continued shooting. Here is where my new gadget came in handy.

 

Instead of needing to be in my office planted in front of my Mac, I was able to grab this shot off my card and edit it on my iPad. It did cost me an extra 5 bucks as I also took a gamble on a more versatile editing app than the free version of Photoshop Express I'd always used. Since I already use several different applications for editing from NIK Software on my Mac, I purchased NIK Snapseed for iPad. This really is an amazing app and I will definately be reviewing it in more detail in the future (stay tuned).

 

Here's the best part though. This photo was taken right off my SD card to my iPad, edited on my iPad and uploaded to flickr straight from the editing software. Really convenient for a busy dude on a project 365. I only wish I could add a little typo but that seems to be my only wish list item.

 

Canon T1i | Canon EF 50mm f/1.4 USM

Peter Duesberg is a "scientist" who is widely recognised as being one of the foremost idiots who thinks that HIV does not cause AIDS. He thinks that everyone gets it from taking ARVs and doing too much poppers and too many recreational drugs. Celia "Thats why they put blood on my face" Farber has spent an awful long time defending this lunatic "faith".

 

A new Harvard study has claimed that the deaths of around 330,000 South Africans occured as a direct result of Mbeki's HIV denial.

 

Peter Duesberg was on Mbeki's AIDS panel, so advised him in his murderous denial.

 

Of course I am not pointing the finger directly at Duesberg as the buck stopped with Mbeki and his health minister Dr Beetroot, and the policies they enacted.

 

However it would be wrong to completely ignore the role that Duesberg and others played in the deaths of all of these people.

 

Duesberg is currently employed by the University of California Berkeley. Maybe in light of this new evidence they should seriously consider his position within their (ANY!) teaching institution.

 

Mbeki Aids policy 'led to 330,000 deaths'

Sarah Boseley Thursday November 27 2008 00.01 GMT

 

The Aids policies of former president Thabo Mbeki's government were directly responsible for the avoidable deaths of a third of a million people in South Africa, according to research from Harvard University.

 

South Africa has one of the most severe HIV/Aids epidemics in the world. About 5.5 million people, or 18.8% of the adult population, have HIV, according to the UN. In 2005 there were 900 deaths a day.

 

But from the late 90s Mbeki turned his back on the scientific consensus that Aids was caused by a viral infection which could be combated, though not cured, by sophisticated and expensive drugs. He came under the influence of maverick scientists known as Aids-denialists, most prominent among whom was Peter Duesberg from Berkeley, California.

 

In 2000 Mbeki called a round-table of experts, including Duesberg and his supporters but also their opponents, to discuss the cause of Aids. Later that year, at the international Aids conference in Durban, he publicly rejected the accepted wisdom. Aids, he said, was indeed brought about by the collapse of the immune system - but not because of a virus. The cause, he said, was poverty, bad nourishment and general ill-health. The solution was not expensive western medicine but the alleviation of poverty in Africa.

 

In a new paper Harvard researchers have quantified the death toll resulting from Mbeki's stance, which caused him to reject offers of free drugs and grants and led to foot-dragging over a treatment programme, even after Mbeki had taken a vow of silence on the issue.

 

"We contend that the South African government acted as a major obstacle in the provision of medication to patients with Aids," write Pride Chigwedere and colleagues from the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

 

They have made their calculations by comparing the scale-up of treatment programmes in neighbouring Botswana and Namibia with the limited availability of drugs in South Africa from 2000-2005.

 

Expensive antiretrovirals came down in price dramatically as a result of activists' campaigning and public pressure. In July 2000 the pharmaceutical company Boehringer Ingelheim offered to donate its drug nevirapine, which could prevent the transmission of HIV from mother to child during labour. But South Africa restricted the availability of nevirapine to two pilot sites a province until December 2002.

 

Eventually, under international pressure, South Africa did launch a national programme for the prevention of mother to child transmission in August 2003 and a national adult treatment programme in 2004. But by 2005, the paper's authors estimate, there was still only 23% drug coverage and less than 30% prevention of mother to child transmission.

 

By comparison, Botswana achieved 85% treatment coverage and Namibia 71% by 2005, and both had 70% mother to child transmission programmes coverage.

 

The authors estimate that more than 330,000 people died unnecessarily in South Africa over the period and that 35,000 HIV-infected babies were born who could have been protected from the virus but would now probably have a limited life.

 

Their calculations will withstand scrutiny, they say. "The analysis is robust," said Dr Chigwedere. "We used a transparent and accessible calculation, publicly available data, and, where we made assumptions, we explained their basis. We purposely chose very conservative assumptions and performed sensitivity analyses to test whether the results would qualitatively change if a different assumption were used."

 

The authors conclude: "Access to appropriate public health practice is often determined by a small number of political leaders. In the case of South Africa, many lives were lost because of a failure to accept the use of available ARVs to prevent and treat HIV/Aids in a timely manner."

 

Since Mbeki's ousting from the leadership of the African National Congress in September South Africa has urgently pursued new policies to get treatment to as many people as possible under a new health minister, Barbara Hogan.

 

November 26, 2008

Study Cites Toll of AIDS Policy in South Africa

By CELIA W. DUGGER

www.nytimes.com/2008/11/26/world/africa/26aids.html?_r=1

JOHANNESBURG — A new study by Harvard researchers estimates that the South African government would have prevented the premature deaths of 365,000 people earlier this decade if it had provided antiretroviral drugs to AIDS patients and widely administered drugs to help prevent pregnant women from infecting their babies.

 

The Harvard study concluded that the policies grew out of President Thabo Mbeki’s denial of the well-established scientific consensus about the viral cause of AIDS and the essential role of antiretroviral drugs in treating it.

 

Coming in the wake of Mr. Mbeki’s ouster in September after a power struggle in his party, the African National Congress, the report has reignited questions about why Mr. Mbeki, a man of great acumen, was so influenced by AIDS denialists.

 

And it has again caused soul-searching about why his colleagues in the party did not act earlier to challenge his resistance to broadly accepted methods of treating and preventing AIDS.

 

Reckoning with a legacy of such policies, Mr. Mbeki’s’s successor, Kgalema Motlanthe, acted on the first day of his presidency two months ago to remove the health minister, Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, a polarizing figure who had proposed garlic, lemon juice and beetroot as AIDS remedies.

 

He replaced her with Barbara Hogan, who has brought South Africa — the most powerful country in a region at the epicenter of the world’s AIDS pandemic — back into the mainstream.

 

“I feel ashamed that we have to own up to what Harvard is saying,” Ms. Hogan, an A.N.C. stalwart who was imprisoned for a decade during the anti-apartheid struggle, said in a recent interview. “The era of denialism is over completely in South Africa.”

 

For years, the South African government did not provide antiretroviral medicines, even as Botswana and Namibia, neighboring countries with epidemics of similar scale, took action, the Harvard study reported.

 

The Harvard researchers quantified the human cost of that inaction by comparing the number of people who got antiretrovirals in South Africa from 2000 to 2005 with the number the government could have reached had it put in place a workable treatment and prevention program.

 

They estimated that by 2005, South Africa could have been helping half those in need but had reached only 23 percent. By comparison, Botswana was already providing treatment to 85 percent of those in need, and Namibia to 71 percent.

 

The 330,000 South Africans who died for lack of treatment and the 35,000 babies who perished because they were infected with H.I.V. together lost at least 3.8 million years of life, the study concluded.

 

Epidemiologists and biostatisticians who reviewed the study for The New York Times said the researchers had based their estimates on conservative assumptions and used a sound methodology.

 

“They have truly used conservative estimates for their calculations, and I would consider their numbers quite reasonable,” James Chin, a professor of epidemiology at the University of California at Berkeley’s School of Public Health, said in an e-mail message.

 

The report was posted online last month and will be published on Monday in the peer-reviewed Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.

 

Max Essex, the virologist who has led the Harvard School of Public Health’s AIDS research program for the past 20 years and who oversaw the study, called South Africa’s response to AIDS under Mr. Mbeki “a case of bad, or even evil, public health.”

 

Mr. Mbeki has maintained a silence on his AIDS legacy since his forced resignation. His spokesman, Mukoni Ratshitanga, said Mr. Mbeki would not discuss his thinking on H.I.V. and AIDS, explaining that policy decisions were made collectively by the cabinet and so questions should be addressed to the government.

 

The new government is now trying to hasten the expansion of antiretroviral treatments. The task is urgent. South Africa today is home to 5.7 million people who are H.I.V.-positive — more than any other nation, almost one in five adults. More than 900 people a day die here as a result of AIDS, the United Nations estimates.

 

Since the party forced Mr. Mbeki from office and some of his loyalists split off to start a new party, rivalries have flared and stories about what happened inside the A.N.C. have begun to tumble out, offering unsettling glimpses of how South Africa’s AIDS policies went so wrong.

 

From the first year of his presidency in 1999, Mr. Mbeki became consumed with the thinking of a small group of dissident scientists who argued that H.I.V. was not the cause of AIDS, his biographers say.

 

As president he wielded enormous power, and those who disagreed with him said they feared they would be sidelined if they spoke out. Even Nelson Mandela, the revered former president, was not immune from opprobrium.

 

In a column in The Sunday Times of Johannesburg on Oct. 19, Ngoako Ramatlhodi, a senior party member now running the party’s 2009 election campaign, recounted how Mr. Mandela, known affectionately as Madiba, was humiliated during a 2002 A.N.C. meeting after he made a rare appearance to question the party’s stance on AIDS.

 

Mr. Ramatlhodi described speakers competing to show greater loyalty to Mr. Mbeki by verbally attacking Mr. Mandela as Mr. Mbeki looked on silently. “After his vicious mauling, Madiba looked twice his age, old and ashen,” Mr. Ramatlhodi wrote.

 

Mr. Ramatlhodi himself acknowledged in a recent interview that in 2001 he sent a 22-page letter, drafted by Mr. Mbeki’s office, to another of Mr. Mbeki’s most credible critics, Prof. Malegapuru Makgoba, an immunologist who was one of South Africa’s leading scientists. The letter accused Professor Makgoba of defending Western science and its racist ideas about Africans at the expense of Mr. Mbeki.

 

In 2000 Mr. Mbeki had provided Professor Makgoba with two bound volumes containing 1,500 pages of documents written by AIDS denialists. After reading them, Professor Makgoba said in an interview that he wrote back to warn Mr. Mbeki that if he adopted the denialists’ ideas, South Africa would “become the laughingstock, if not the pariah, of the world again.”

 

But Mr. Mbeki indicated last year to one of his biographers, Mark Gevisser, that his views on AIDS were essentially unchanged, pointing the writer to a document that, he said, was drafted by A.N.C. leaders and accurately reflected his position.

 

The document’s authors conceded that H.I.V. might be one cause of AIDS but contended that there were many others, like other diseases and malnutrition.

 

The document maintained that antiretrovirals were toxic. And it suggested that powerful vested interests — drug companies, governments, scientists — pushed the consensus view of AIDS in a quest for money and power, while peddling centuries-old white racist beliefs that depicted Africans as sexually rapacious.

 

“Yes, we are sex crazy!” the document’s authors bitterly exclaimed. “Yes, we are diseased! Yes, we spread the deadly H.I. virus through our uncontrolled heterosexual sex!”

 

In 2002, after a prolonged outcry over Mr. Mbeki’s comments about AIDS and the government’s policies, Mr. Mbeki agreed to requests from within his party to withdraw from the public debate. That same year, the Constitutional Court ruled that the government had to provide antiretroviral drugs to prevent the infection of newborns. And in 2003, the cabinet announced plans to go forward with an antiretroviral treatment program.

 

“We did an enormous amount of good in the early days in South Africa, not because of the Health Ministry, but in spite of the Health Ministry,” said Randall L. Tobias, who was appointed by President Bush in 2003 to lead the United States’ $15 billion global AIDS undertaking.

 

In the same years, former President Clinton and his foundation were also deeply involved in helping South Africa get a treatment program going. Mr. Clinton attended Mr. Mandela’s 85th birthday celebration in Johannesburg in 2003. During the dinner, he and Mr. Mbeki slipped away to talk about AIDS, Mr. Clinton recalled in a recent interview.

 

Mr. Clinton said he told Mr. Mbeki how antiretroviral treatment had reduced the AIDS mortality rate in the United States and reminded him, “I’m your friend and I haven’t joined in the public condemnation.” That evening, when Mr. Clinton offered to send in a team of experts to help the country put together a national treatment plan, Mr. Mbeki took him up on it.

 

The Clinton Foundation helped devise a plan and mobilized 20 people to travel to South Africa in 2004 to help carry it out. But the South African government never invited them, Mr. Clinton said. So the foundation, which had projects all over Africa, was to have none in South Africa.

 

Changes since Mr. Mbeki’s fall from power have prompted many to hope for forceful South African political leadership on AIDS. Mr. Mbeki’s rival and successor as head of the party, Jacob Zuma, who is expected to become president after next year’s election, himself made a famously questionable remark about AIDS.

 

In his 2006 rape trial, in which he was acquitted of sexually assaulting a family friend, he testified that he sought to reduce his chances of being infected with H.I.V. by taking a shower after sex. Nonetheless, he seems to have more conventional views on the pandemic.

 

“Who would have thought Jacob Zuma would be better than Mbeki, but he is,” said Richard C. Holbrooke, the former ambassador to the United Nations in the Clinton administration who heads a coalition of businesses fighting AIDS. “The tragedy of Thabo Mbeki is that he’s a smart man who could have been an international statesman on this issue. To this day, you wonder what got into him.”

 

For South Africans who watched the dying and were powerless to stop it, the grief is still raw. Zackie Achmat, the country’s most prominent advocate for people with AIDS, became sick during the almost five years he refused to take antiretrovirals until they were made widely available. He cast Mr. Mbeki as the leading man in this African tragedy.

 

“He is like Macbeth,” Mr. Achmat said. “It’s easier to walk through the blood than to turn back and admit you made a mistake.”

 

Mbeki's opposition to ARVs cost 330,000 lives, shows study

Michael Carter, Thursday, November 27, 2008

www.aidsmap.com/en/news/97BFC49D-E43C-4028-8E4D-CACF15F82...

 

The refusal of the Mbeki government to roll-out antiretroviral therapy and treatment to prevent mother-to child transmission in South Africa resulted in 330,000 needlessly premature HIV-related deaths and 35,000 avoidable case of mother-to-child HIV transmission according to estimates published in the December 1st edition of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.

 

South Africa is one of the countries hardest hit by HIV. UNAIDS estimates that 19% of the adult population is HIV-positive, some 5.5 million individuals. In 2005, an estimated 320,000 individuals died because of HIV.

 

President Thabo Mbeki’s government consistently resisted the provision of antiretroviral therapy. The first important evidence of this was in 1999 when, under pressure to provide AZT monotherapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, President Mbeki announced that the drug was dangerous and that it would therefore not be provided by his government. This was followed by Mbeki publicly questioning that HIV caused AIDS and the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy. The Mbeki administration then resisted the use of nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child transmission and obstructed the acquisition of grants from the Global Fund.

 

US investigators estimated the lost benefits resulting from the Mbeki government’s opposition to provision of antiretroviral therapy and treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission. To do this, they compared the actual number of people who received HIV treatment or therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission between 2000 and 2005 and compared this to the number that could feasibly have been treated during this period. This difference was multiplied by the average efficacy of antiretroviral treatment and treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission to give the lost benefits consequent upon the South African government’s decision to prevent access to anti-HIV drugs.

 

“Our overriding values in choosing methods were transparency and minimization of assumptions and we were purposely conservative”, write the investigators.

 

When estimating the number of people who could reasonably have been provided with antiretroviral therapy or treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission, the investigators noted that HIV treatment became significantly more accessible between 2000-2005. This was because:

 

* The price of anti-HIV drugs fell significantly in this period.

  

* More money was available for donor organisations, such as the Global Fund and PEPFAR, to purchase antiretroviral drugs.

   

Nevertheless, the South African government still maintained opposition to the provision of HIV drugs.

 

To estimate the number of people who should have been eligible to receive antiretroviral therapy, the investigators obtained from UNAIDS the number of HIV-related deaths in South Africa between 2000-2005. Patients who died of HIV without receiving anti-HIV drugs lost the entire potential benefits of antiretroviral therapy.

 

Next, the investigators obtained figures showing how many individuals received antiretroviral therapy in the same period. Their sources were UNAIDS and the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) “3 x 5” antiretroviral treatment access programme. These figures showed that fewer than 3% of patients received antiretroviral treatment in 2000, increasing to approximately 10% in 2003 and 23% in 2005.

 

The researchers considered it reasonable that South Africa could have treated no more than 5% of eligible patients with HIV in 2000. However, because drugs became less expensive and more international funding became available, “ramping up” access to treatment was feasible, meaning that by 2005, 50% of HIV-positive patients in South Africa should have been receiving antiretroviral therapy. They note that the maximum of 50% treatment coverage is significantly lower than the 71% achieved by Namibia and the 85% achieved by Botswana.

 

Finally they estimated the number of life years that would be gained per patient due to antiretroviral therapy. They used the most conservative estimate of 6.7 years.

 

Their calculations showed that 330,000 lives and 2.2 million person years were lost because the Mbeki government resisted the implementation of a reasonable antiretroviral treatment programme.

 

They tested their model using a number of other assumptions. For example, if they reduced the number of patients who could reasonably be expected to receive antiretroviral therapy in 2005 to 40%, then the number of lives lost fell to 226,800 or 1.5 million person years.

 

Consequences of opposition to treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission

 

The researchers' model to test the impact of the Mbeki administration’s opposition to treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission also included a number of conservative assumptions.

 

First, they calculated the number of children infected with HIV vertically. They looked at a number of sources and selected the lowest estimate of 68,000 per year and revised this down to 60,000 to take into account the high adult HIV population and marginal increase in population growth in South Africa during this period.

 

A number of sources suggested that in 2005, coverage of treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission was 30%, having increased from below 3% before 2000.

 

To estimate the proportion of women who could have received treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission, they considered that treatment would have been free during this period, that it is easy to administer and that 84% of pregnant women in South Africa receive antenatal care.

 

Based on these assumptions, the investigators calculated that no more than 5% of women would have received treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission in 2000, but that this could have increased to 55% by 2005.

 

Next the investigators estimated the efficacy of such therapy, taking as their benchmark the HIVNET 012 study which showed that single-dose nevirapine reduced the risk of transmission by 47% compared to short-course AZT amongst women who breastfeed.

 

Finally, they assumed an average life-expectancy at birth of 48 years, and subtracted from this the average three year life-expectancy of infants infected with HIV at birth.

 

The investigators therefore estimated that 35,000 cases of mother-to-child transmission (or 1.6 million life years) were the result of the Mbeki administration’s policies.

 

One again, the investigators tested their results using other assumptions. If they accepted 40% coverage of treatment as acceptable, then the excess number of babies infected because of government policies was 18,000, a loss of 800,00 life years. However, had there been 70% coverage (still below what was achieved in Namibia and Botswana), then HIV infections in 44,000 babies (or 2 million life years), would have been avoided.

 

When the investigators combined their two estimates – years of life lost because of opposition to antiretroviral treatment, and life years lost because of the failure to provide treatment to prevent vertical transmission – they found that some 3.8 million life years were lost because of the Mbeki administration’s policies.

 

They conclude, “in the case of South Africa, many lives were lost because of failure to accept the use of available antiretrovirals to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS in a timely manner.”

 

Reference

 

Chigwedere, P. et al. Estimating the lost benefits of antiretroviral drug use in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 49: 410-15, 2008.

   

I made a blunder the other day. I have spilled noodles on the keyboard which I used habitually more than 20 years carelessly. Because it was the already difficult situation to purchase this keyboard again, I repaired this.

On May 24, 2012 in my office of Ogikubo.

-----

ぼくはとんでもない大失敗しました。20年以上愛用しているキーボードに、カップヌードルをうっかりたっぷりこぼしてしまったのです。 このキーボードをふたたび手に入れることは既に困難な状況なので、ぼくはこれを分解して修理することにしました。

2012年5月24日、荻窪の僕のオフィスにて。

 

DAY 52 -BEING A ROCK STAR HAS ITS PRIVILEGES. Hard rock cafe has locations pretty much every where in the world. I used to always purchase a T-shirt to bring back... this time I wanted something I could hang in my office.

 

Strobist: N/A

 

Natural Light.

 

Camera info: Fuji X100S | 23mm (ƒ/2.0) | ƒ/2| ISO 800 | 1/30th sec —

 

© Andy Cuadra 2014

All rights reserved -

Part 1:

I've had various disappointing experiences with Home Depot over the years. Incompetent sales staff, miscellaneous incorrect charges, inconvenient policies, and difficult-to-navigate aisles. But THIS one takes the cake.

 

I ordered a beautiful chandelier on 12/1...waited for it to arrive with baited breath. It's PERFECT! Unique, huge, colored complimentary to my dining room. Perfect. Additionally, it was only $117. Score!

 

So I ordered it. Game on. Time to have light in my dining room. FInally. Got my order confirmation, got my shipping confirmation, called my contractor for the heads up ("hey, I finally got a chandelier, get ready to install, buddy"). And so I waited. And waited. AND WAITED.

 

I got a home one evening to find a UPS door tag suggesting that they would try to re-deliver the following evening. Fine. I signed the door tag and asked UPS to leave the package on the porch. They didn't.

 

Days later I checked the UPS website, only to discover that it was in Maryland. MARYLAND?!?! So, I called Home Depot to figure out what happened. They claim that the shipment was "rejected" by the receiver (ME) and sent back as a return. What *really* got under my skin was that it took a phone call to figure this out and get a financial return processed. Also: I was told that the only way to get it back was to re-order the chandelier. WTF??

 

So, almost 2 weeks later, I called because the financial return hasn't gone through. (Where's my $117??? Plus tax.) They give me some other number to reference to call my financial institution with. So *I* have to call to make sure that the money was returned??

 

And here's the kicker...when I got back on the website to re-order the chandelier *I HAD ALREADY ORDERED*, the price was up to $534. So the distinctly paranoid woman in me thinks that Home Depot figured out their mistake and called it back themselves. Maybe I'm wrong but I'm waiting on a phone call from customer retention tomorrow. Cross your fingers that I don't have to tear a new asshole into some phone-bank operator that probably doesn't deserve it...

 

Part 2:

When we last left our intrepid consumernaut, I was awaiting a call from Home Depot's customer retention folks. Surprise, surprise: I never got one. So I called *them*.

 

When I finally reached someone who could help me, they couldn't. According to the UPS tracking website, the shipment was "rejected by the receiver" and sent back. (At 11:52pm??) As I would have been home at that time, although likely in varying states of sobriety, but home nonetheless. I expressed this to the woman I was speaking to, and she responded: "If you can get UPS to fax us a letter stating that the nature of the return was not at the receiver's discretion, but at theirs, we can offer you the chandelier at the initial purchase price."

 

And so, I began waging war on UPS. After 20 minutes of wading through various touch-tone voicemail menus, I reached a real person. A real person who just re-iterated what the tracking website said. I was promised a phone call from my local hub. Surprisingly, I got one within 30 minutes. Not surprisingly, they also re-iterated the data from the tracking site. With an interesting new detail: it was rejected my a male. Unless my dog escaped his cage when the doorbell rang, this is not the case.

 

Yet another promise of a phone call from some one more qualified: "I'll leave a note for the day manager to call you." A week later, I had given up on ever getting this chandelier thing resolved, when a co-worker encouraged me to take 1 more crack at it. I considered, I agreed, and I called. When promised another call from the day manger, I thought, "yeah, right."

 

Low and behold, 7am the following morning, my phone is ringing. I explain for the 400th time (well, it feels like that) what has happened. The day manager had the scoop!!! When the driver brought it back to the hub after the first attempt, they determined that it was broken and sent it back themselves. She was happy to send a letter to Home Depot expressing that. Joy! One more hurdle...

 

I called Home Depot several hours later and explained that their letter was en route. Without even waiting for the letter, they offered to ship the chandelier out ASAP, at the original price. (Once again with the paranoia: I think they were testing how far I'd go before admitting they were wrong.) I was given a new confirmation number. I waited.

 

While waiting on my new chandelier, I happened to receive a courtesy call from their Internet Ordering division. I recounted the whole story, and my intense displeasure with Home Depot in general. The phone operator offered her apologies, and started to get a gift card processed for me. I responded (quite audibly, in the middle of my office), "Perhaps you didn't hear me: I'm NEVER shopping at Home Depot again!" This inevitably drew some giggles from some co-workers that had heard me ranting previously...

 

Today, the saga of the weird chandelier has come to an end. After a long, frustrating day at work, I arrived home to find a very large box on my porch. I tore it open like I was 5 and it was Christmas. It's here! All 45 deliciously bizarre pounds of it. Complete, huge, un-broken. Amen.

 

Still never shopping at Home Depot again though...

 

Here is the stock photo. Really doesn't do it justice, actually.

Press "L" to view large, "F" to add as favourite

 

These group of buildings, still under construction, are called the "Barcode" buildings - due to the way their profile looks. Mainly office buildings, but with some apartments too. Built between the Oslo Central Station and the new quarter being built near the seaside, Bjørvika, many have protested against these buildings as they block the sea view for the quarters behind it.

(Check out the lone man on the neighbouring platform - you'll see him better when viewed large. :-)

 

All rights reserved. .If you're interested in purchasing my image, please check my profile page for info.

台灣臺北

Taipei Taiwan

 

台灣橫貫公路風景美圖

The beautiful landscape scenery photos of Taiwan Cross-Island Road

 

The Art Market in Taipei city of Taiwan

  

The metropolitan area of Taipei City has a population of 7,028,583 people ranking the 40th most-populous urban area in the world.

 

As of 2007, the metro region of Taipei has a nominal GDP of around US$260 billion, a record that would rank it 13th among world cities by GDP. Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding one of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves of over US$403 billion as of December 2012.

 

The National Palace Museum in Taipei is a great art museum built around a permanent collection centered on ancient Chinese artifacts. It should not be confused with the Palace Museum in Beijing; both institutions trace their origins to the same Forbidden City in Beijing where the Palace of Emperor is located and stored with million pieces of valuable collections by the consecutive Emperors of Qing dynasty. The collections were divided in the 1940s as a result of the Chinese Civil War. The National Palace Museum in Taipei now boasts of a truly international collection while housing one of the world's largest collections of artifacts from ancient China.

 

Along with the cultural education and influence from the nearby National Palace Museum in Taipei, hiking prices and excellent investment returns of art have aroused huge interests of the citizens in Taipei who have been used to be living in a house costs commonly from US$ 1 million to 3 million or so for decades. The art is expensive; but the house is much more expensive than the art.

 

There are over 1,000 shops dealing art business in Taipei and some of them are opened only on Saturdays and Sundays for just two working days per week. Few buyers in Taipei are buying their art collections from international auctioneers and ranking among the top 500 collectors in the world. Most of local citizen-buyers in Taipei are just like million-of-ants and purchase their art goods from local shops and private sellers at millions of dollars by thousands of transactions per day. So the art goods are generally shipped to Taipei from China and worldwide area by containers to meet the art market demand in Taipei.

 

Good paintings and works of art will be sold by themselves once they are exhibited to right buyers at right place. They are not to be sold if they are always stored in a closed warehouse without any exhibition or just exhibited to wrong eyes at wrong venue.

  

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家 Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家

Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

 

共 155 名中國畫家占前 500 名畫家之 31 %

Total 155 Chinese artists / 500 artists = 31 %

 

假如你是西方油畫的收藏家,扣除 31 % 的中國畫家,再扣除 20 % 左右的中國瓷器、青銅器、珠寶玉器、漆器雜項類中國作家,2014年你只是在世界作者市場 49 % 以內經營藝術品而已;可能再過10年,你將成為只是在世界作者市場 30 % 以內經營。

 

If you are a collector of western oil paintings, deducting 31 % for Chinese artists of paintings and further deducting 20% for Chinese artists of ceramics、bronze、jades and jewelry、lacquer and miscellaneous works of art, in 2014 you are only operating works of art within 49% of the world artists market. Maybe after 10 years, you might become operating works of art within 30% of the world artists market.

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover ($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price ($)

 

Page 84 (14 Chinese artists) 第84頁14位中國畫家

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price($)

 

7 QI Baishi (1864-1957) 齊白石 206,245,348 719 7,861,850

9 ZHANG Daqian (1899-1983) 張大千 193,242,992 817 7,476,199

13 ZAO Wou-ki (1921-2013) 趙無極 115,686,349 575 7,161,650

16 FU Baoshi (1904-1965) 傅抱石 103,465,331 142 4,944,050

17 XU Beihong (1895-1953) 徐悲鴻 102,449,141 219 6,532,000

19 HUANG Zhou (1925-1997) 黃冑 96,461,998 625 5,506,020

20 HUANG Binhong (1865-1955) 黃賓虹 88,082,380 303 8,839,900

26 WU Changshuo (1844-1927) 吳昌碩 80,942,833 560 5,463,850

31 LU Yanshao (1909-1993) 陸儼少 66,350,196 443 1,925,760

32 LI Keran (1907-1989) 李可染 65,946,710 207 7,294,500

37 CHU Teh-Chun (1920-2014) 朱德群 60,897,598 241 3,800,000

38 WU Guanzhong (1919-2010) 吳冠中 60,623,435 153 2,967,000

42 LIN Fengmian (1900-1991) 林風眠 54,514,729 253 2,449,500

50 ZENG Fanzhi (1964)曾梵志 43,080,328 50 3,606,400

 

Page 85 (17 Chinese artists) 第85頁17位中國畫家

 

53 PU Ru (1896-1963) 溥儒(溥心畬) 41,246,692 1,042 838,500

55 XIE Zhiliu (1910-1997) 謝稚柳 39,960,699 355 2,367,850

58 WU Hufan (1894-1968) 吳湖帆 37,900,898 320 3,412,500

59 WANG Duo (1592-1652) 王鐸 37,871,423 70 3,013,650

62 PAN Tianshou (1897-1971) 潘天壽 34,790,957 88 3,600,840

67 ZHU Da (1626-1705) 朱耷(八大山人) 32,277,125 38 6,190,200

71 SAN Yu (1901-1966) 常玉 30,027,262 41 9,151,899

75 ZHU Xinjian (1953-2014) 朱新建 28,619,279 1,202 898,150

78 QIANLONG Emperor (1711-1799) 乾隆皇帝 27,079,477 48 16,483,200

81 CHENG Shifa (1921-2007) 程十髮 25,987,069 486 1,959,600

83 QI Gong (1912-2005) 啟功 25,693,155 437 815,500

85 QIAN Songyan (1899-1985) 錢松喦 25,582,974 254 1,053,650

89 FAN Zeng (1938) 范曾 23,416,615 237 2,941,200

93 YU Youren (1879-1964) 于右任 23,032,037 718 521,279

95 ZHOU Chunya (1955) 周春芽 21,226,785 65 1,134,700

96 WANG Hui (1632-1717) 王翬 21,050,636 58 4,569,600

98 ZHANG Xiaogang (1958) 張曉剛 20,783,341 44 10,698,699

 

Page 86 (18 Chinese artists) 第86頁18位中國畫家

 

103 LIU Wei (1965) 刘炜 19,134,174 43 2,935,800

105 WANG Xuetao (1903-1982) 王雪濤 18,896,219 348 827,220

109 HUANG Yongyu (1924) 黄永玉 18,286,630 241 902,430

110 DONG Shouping (1904-1997) 董寿平 18,251,261 309 842,920

112 HE Haixia (1908-1998) 何海霞 17,310,468 144 3,266,000

114 CHEN Yifei (1946-2005) 陳逸飛 16,910,797 29 2,964,699

119 GUAN Liang (1900-1986) 關良 16,014,062 239 2,197,800

120 REN Yi (1840-1896) 任頤(任伯年) 15,959,015 167 1,199,520

128 DONG Qichang (1555-1636) 董其昌 14,722,727 123 2,769,300

130 WEN Zhengming (1470-1559) 文徵明 14,576,419 79 1,633,000

131 YU Fei'an (1888-1959) 于非闇 14,505,161 109 972,600

135 ZHENG Banqiao (1693-1765) 鄭板橋 14,208,977 76 2,200,000

136 LIU Dawei (1945) 刘大为 14,023,225 121 1,621,000

138 LI Kuchan (1899-1983) 李苦禪 13,918,988 276 786,240

139 LIN Sanzhi (1898-1989) 林散之 13,856,855 350 907,760

141 LUO Zhongli (1948) 羅中立 13,483,611 53 6,159,800

148 HONG Yi (1880-1942) 弘一(李叔同) 12,755,950 85 1,306,400

149 LIU Xiaodong (1963) 劉小東 12,589,594 15 7,470,400

 

Page 87 (19 Chinese artists) 第87頁19位中國畫家

 

152 LAI Shaoqi (1915-2000) 赖少其 12,209,093 144 5,538,600

153 CHEN Peiqiu (1922/23) 陈佩秋 12,101,206 194 1,040,000

157 YI Bingshou (1754-1815) 伊秉绶 11,964,497 55 3,242,000

161 LIU Haisu (1896-1994) 劉海粟 11,536,281 138 1,877,950

166 YANG Yan (1958) 楊彥 11,191,811 57 10,784,400

167 TANG Yun (1910-1993) 唐雲 11,031,461 493 293,940

172 FANG Lijun (1963) 方力均 10,814,787 30 6,697,600

178 TANG Yin (1470-1523) 唐寅(唐伯虎) 10,514,886 33 4,956,250

180 GUAN Shanyue (1912-2000) 關山月 10,378,961 119 2,850,750

182 LIU Guosong (1932) 劉國松 10,204,764 83 1,804,599

184 CHEN Shaomei (1909-1954) 陳少梅 10,172,762 89 3,000,700

185 SHI Guoliang (1956) 史國良(釋慧禪) 10,111,795 116 1,588,580

186 HUANG Junbi (1898-1991) 黃君璧 10,051,378 313 319,410

188 FU Shan (1607-1684) 傅山 9,945,247 23 3,890,400

189 HE Jiaying (1957) 何家英 9,919,579 54 859,130

190 ZHOU Sicong (1939-1996) 周思聪 9,888,000 174 1,377,850

191 ZHU Ming (1938) 朱銘 9,699,670 94 1,224,549

196 JIN Nong (1687-1763) 金農 9,367,369 48 1,732,040

200 LIU Danzhai (1931-2011) 刘旦宅 9,177,422 134 1,339,060

 

Page 88 (15 Chinese artists) 第88頁15位中國畫家

 

201 LI Xiongcai (1910-2001) 黎雄才 9,162,598 191 788,160

208 YA Ming (1924-2002) 亚明 8,916,735 251 1,172,160

215 BAI Xueshi (1915-2011) 白雪石 8,571,042 164 456,119

217 LEE Man Fong (1913-1988) 李曼峰 8,494,019 61 3,735,200

218 HONG Ren (1610-1663) 弘仁 8,467,043 5 7,542,300

221 FENG Zikai (1898-1975) 豐子愷 8,411,283 175 437,670

223 SONG Wenzhi (1919-1999) 宋文治 8,326,290 244 469,151

224 XU Lei (1963) 徐累 8,312,432 26 2,606,400

225 WANG Yidong (1955) 王沂東 8,284,639 30 1,458,900

227 WANG Mingming (1952) 王明明 8,207,562 130 453,600

234 JIA Youfu (1942) 賈又福 7,873,366 79 1,864,150

236 WU Zuoren (1908-1997) 吳作人 7,832,988 148 636,090

237 FAN Yang (1955) 范揚 7,806,488 233 243,750

242 WANG Yuanqi (1642-1715) 王原祁 7,678,320 39 1,465,200

250 AI Xuan (1947) 艾轩 7,467,339 43 749,800

 

Page 89 (12 Chinese artists) 第89頁12位中國畫家

 

258 PAN Yuliang (1895-1977) 潘玉良 7,179,153 11 3,870,351

262 ZHAO Zhiqian (1829-1884) 趙之謙 7,060,825 66 1,160,099

265 TIAN Liming (1955) 田黎明 6,999,979 95 315,900

266 EMPEROR KANGXI (1654-1722) 康熙皇帝 6,937,669 14 3,258,000

268 SHI Lu (1919-1982) 石魯 6,852,847 49 1,021,230

271 TIAN Shiguang (1916-1999) 田世光 6,803,606 123 781,920

276 CHOU Ying (1493-1560) 仇英 6,632,784 50 1,823,360

279 DING Yanyong (1902-1978) 丁衍庸 6,584,807 181 592,939

291 GUO Moruo (1892-1978) 郭沫若 6,218,480 61 1,102,280

294 XU Bing (1955) 徐冰 6,130,422 30 1,167,120

297 SHEN Zhou (1427-1509) 沈周 6,066,002 28 1,798,500

299 SHEN Yinmo (1883-1971) 沈尹默 6,003,213 185 1,218,750

 

Page 90 (14 Chinese artists) 第90頁14位中國畫家

 

303 YUE Minjun (1962) 岳敏君 5,851,974 22 1,296,800

306 ZHAO Shao'Ang (1905-1998) 趙少昂 5,809,681 247 259,520

309 XUE Liang (1956) 薛亮 5,717,377 95 1,103,640

316 CHEONG Soo Pieng (1917-1983) 钟泗滨 5,566,836 55 631,609

323 ZHANG Ruitu (1570-1641) 張瑞圖 5,495,433 30 761,870

328 CHEN Hongshou (1598-1652) 陳洪绶 5,458,659 20 1,945,200

329 REN Zhong (1976) 任重 5,452,237 56 423,540

331 ZHU Qizhan (1892-1996) 朱屺瞻 5,417,335 209 260,000

332 ZHAO Puchu (1907-2000) 趙樸初 5,382,881 175 486,300

336 WANG Jian (1598-1677) 王鑒 5,309,438 23 3,811,700

339 YANG Shanshen (1913-2004) 楊善深 5,279,455 184 1,427,360

341 KANG Youwei (1858-1927) 康有為 5,199,080 113 324,200

343 GU Wenda (1955) 谷文達 5,179,178 42 1,119,180

345 LIU Ye (1964) 劉野 5,117,193 34 891,550

 

Page 91 (18 Chinese artists) 第91頁18位中國畫家

 

351 PU Guang (XIII -XIV) 溥光 4,944,050 1 4,944,050

352 HE Shaoji (1799-1873) 何绍基 4,912,933 136 747,500

355 LIU Jiyou (1918-1983) 劉繼卣 4,891,144 108 399,595

358 CHEN Dayu (1912-2001) 陳大羽 4,855,807 247 454,160

365 SHI Tao (1642-1707) 石濤 4,796,775 27 2,269,400

368 ZHU Meicun (1911-1993) 朱梅邨 4,776,671 117 570,150

369 JIA Aili (1979) 贾蔼力 4,758,253 8 1,262,240

370 XI Dejin (1923-1981) 席德進 4,740,558 89 227,080

373 SHEN Peng (1931) 沈鹏 4,670,229 160 701,330

374 AI Weiwei (1957) 艾未未 4,663,696 32 966,749

375 XU Lele (1955) 徐樂樂 4,628,253 155 210,730

383 YE Qianyu (1907-1995) 葉淺予 4,530,685 118 356,620

389 ZHU Yunming (1460-1526) 祝允明 4,462,454 14 1,629,000

393 LI Jin (1958) 李津 4,372,647 94 212,160

394 ZHAN Wang (1962) 展望 4,360,124 13 2,709,000

395 FANG Chuxiong (1950) 方楚雄 4,355,333 148 262,080

397 LU Yushun (1962) 盧禹舜 4,336,840 61 884,520

399 CHEN Wenxi (1906-1991) 陳文希 4,242,709 71 1,095,650

 

Page 92 (13 Chinese artists) 第92頁13位中國畫家

 

402 CHENG Conglin (1954) 程叢林 4,177,932 3 4,052,500

404 TAO Lengyue (1895-1985) 陶冷月 4,141,462 138 457,240

405 HE Duoling (1948) 何多苓 4,131,489 12 1,419,000

409 LONG Rui (1946) 龍瑞 4,047,039 66 956,980

416 LU Yifei (1908-1997) 陸抑非 3,995,369 121 791,293

425 ZHANG Shanzi (1882-1940) 張善孖 3,840,085 90 324,200

428 WANG Guangyi (1957) 王廣義 3,799,843 37 1,167,120

430 WEI Zixi (1915-2002) 魏紫熙 3,791,768 120 235,190

432 YUN Shouping (1633-1690) 惲壽平 3,784,559 78 541,800

437 PAN Gongkai (1947) 潘公凯 3,737,332 16 2,141,040

443 SHA Menghai (1900-1992) 沙孟海 3,702,566 132 293,940

446 HUANG Shen (1687-c.1773) 黃慎 3,685,764 49 425,100

450 LIN Yong (1942) 林墉 3,650,618 117 259,360

 

Page 93 (15 Chinese artists) 第93頁15位中國畫家

 

456 LIAO Chi-Chun (1902-1976) 廖繼春 3,625,280 9 1,252,033

461 LI Shan (1686-1760) 李鱓 3,569,789 38 652,800

462 LAN Ying (1585-c.1664) 蓝瑛 3,562,896 42 438,210

464 YANG Zhiguang (1930) 楊之光 3,525,002 119 195,840

468 ZHANG Enli (1965) 张恩利 3,497,596 12 708,949

471 YANG Feiyun (1954) 杨飞云 3,467,338 14 734,400

472 ZHOU Jingxin (1959) 周京新 3,445,045 113 519,040

475 JIANG Hanting (1904-1963) 江寒汀 3,408,711 125 300,625

476 WANG Ziwu (1936) 王子武 3,404,947 51 653,200

478 LE PHO (1907-2001) 黎譜 3,396,747 96 696,059

479 LIU Yi (1957) 刘溢 3,370,316 20 615,980

481 NI Yuanlu (1593-1644) 倪元璐 3,350,382 10 1,100,000

492 CHIU Ya Tsai (1949-2013) 邱亞才 3,288,319 53 180,459

498 WEN Jia (1501-1583) 文嘉 3,261,051 17 1,986,160

500 WU Dayu (1903-1988) 吴大羽 3,248,689 9 772,800

 

資料來源: 法國 Art price 2014 年全世界藝術市場報告書第 84-93 頁 2014 年全世界拍賣總收入結果前 500 名畫家.

 

Source: The Art Market in 2014 Page 84-93 Top 500 artists by auction revenue in 2014 by Art price

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

99 Fine Chinese Paintings and 12 Antiques in 2013

2013 年 99 幅中國書畫及 12 件古董精品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

 

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

Works of Art List 藝術作品名錄

  

Paintings 書畫作品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

  

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhang Daqian Happy Birthday to Chairman Chang Kaishek of the Government inscribed by Yu Youren 張大千作于右任題大觀高仕祝壽圖手卷

2. Zhang Daqian After the Rising and Warm Green Mountains by Huang Gongwang with Calligraphy 張大千作擬元代黃公望浮巒暖翠山水圖及書法立軸

3. Zhang Daqian Splashed Landscape Fuchun Mountain 張大千作富春山居潑彩山水圖

4. Zhang Daqian Mountain Emei May Be Crossed On Top 張大千作可以橫絕峨嵋巔潑彩山水圖

5. Zhang Daqian A Bird’s-eye View on Taiwan Cross-Island Road near Herhuan 張大千作台灣橫貫公路合歡山鳥瞰金碧潑彩山水圖

6. Zhang Daqian 18 Luohan Disciples Appointed to Witness to Buddhist Truth handscroll 張大千作十八羅漢圖手卷

7. Zhang Daqian The Dreamland of Mountain Qingcheng in Heavenly Place 張大千作夢入靑城天下幽人間仙境圖

8. Zhang Daqian The Heavenly Place in Mankind World 張大千作人家在仙堂潑彩山水圖

9. Zhang Daqian Sun is Rising and Darkness is Fallen allover the Mountain with Calligraphy 張大千作天開影墮潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

10. Zhang Daqian Painting the Elder Bintourlu after Technique of Song Dynasty 張大千作倣宋人畫賓頭盧尊者像

11. Zhang Daqian Listening to the Springs below the Mountains handscroll 張大千作山水生風聽泉入山麓金碧潑彩山水圖手卷

12. Zhang Daqian Waterfall in a Quiet Mountain Valley with Calligraphy 張大千作幽谷飛瀑潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

13. Zhang Daqian Recalling the Beautiful Scenery of Mountain Huang in China 張大千作遙思黃山故景潑彩山水圖

14. Zhang Daqian Splashed Colour Landscape of Beautiful Mountain Qingcheng 張大千作青城天下幽潑彩山水圖

15. Zhang Daqian Golden Outline Red Lotus and a Flying Bird 張大千作香清鈎金紅荷翔鳥圖

16. Zhang Daqian One Flower in One World White Lotus and attached calligraphy 張大千作一花一世界白荷花圖及書法立軸

17. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan Bamboos Parrot Hairpin in Tang’s Clothes 張大千作仿莫高窟初唐人衣飾鸚鵡簪髮飾新篁紈扇仕女圖

18. Zhang Daqian Beauty in Red Hair-kerchief Wooden Shoes White Robe Bamboos 張大千作脩竹紅髮巾木屐白袍裸肩日本美女圖

19. Zhang Daqian Han Changli Composed a Lyric Poem Derived from Chu Dynasty 張大千作韓昌黎作楚語圖

20. Zhang Daqian Scholars Appreciating Maples 張大千作高仕賞楓圖

21. Zhang Daqian Black Cloud Covering on Top of Mt. Emei among Blue Cloud 張大千作可以橫絕峨眉巔黑雲滿布山頂藍雲環繞山間奇景潑墨兼潑彩山水圖

22. Zhang Daqian Dwelling in the Mountain by the Lake Wuting 張大千作五亭湖上山居潑彩山水圖

23. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1979 張大千1979年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

24. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1965 張大千1965年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

25. Zhang Daqian Impressionistic Red Lotus 張大千作寫意紅荷圖

26. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Red Lotus and Double Mandarin Ducks 張大千作愛清氣鈎金紅荷花鴛鴦嘉耦潑彩圖

27. Zhang Daqian High Mountain and Deep Cloud 張大千作山高雲深山水圖

28. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Landscape 張大千作金碧山水圖

29. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan and Bamboos in Splashed Colors 張大千作潑彩竹葉紈扇仕女圖

30. Zhang Daqian Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作七言書法對聯

31. Zhang Daqian Six Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作六言書法對聯

32. Zhang Daqian Splashed Color Golden Outlined Red Lotus on Gold Sheet 張大千作金箋潑彩描金紅荷花圖

  

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

 

1. Qi Baishi Lotus Fish Frogs Shrimps and Crabs handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 齊白石作張大千題香清荷花魚蛙蝦蟹圖手卷

2. Qi Baishi The Ten Elder Men in the Legend of China 齊白石作十全老人神賢圖

3. Qi Baishi Lotus Double Mandarin Ducks and Love Shrimps 齊白石作荷花鴛鴦雙蝦佳偶圖

4. Qi Baishi Wealth and Powerful Honour are Both to Come 齊白石作富貴有期圖

5. Qi Baishi Lotus and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花群蝦圖

6. Qi Baishi A Lotus Pond and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花池塘群蝦圖

7. Qi Baishi A Spring Voice and Great Luck 齊白石作春聲大吉圖

8. Qi Baishi Eagle Perching on the Pine 齊白石作松鷹圖

9. Qi Baishi Prolonging Life Impressionistic Squirrel on Pine Red Peach Double Screens 齊白石作寫意松樹上松鼠與紅桃益壽圖對屏

  

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

 

1. Xu Beihong The Hard Water Drawing of the People Lived in Chongqing handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 徐悲鴻作張大千題巴人汲水圖手卷

2. Xu Beihong Jiufang Gao People in the Chinese Ancient Historical Poem 徐悲鴻作九方皋圖

3. Xu Beihong People in Chinese Ancient Historical Poem of Six Dynasties 徐悲鴻作六朝人詩意圖

4. Xu Beihong China the Wounded Lion Sat Watching American Flying Tiger 徐悲鴻作中國負傷之獅遙望美國飛虎飛將軍

5. Xu Beihong Lions and Snake 徐悲鴻作獅與蛇

6. Xu Beihong The Single Flying Eagle and the Lion 徐悲鴻作獨飛老鷹與獅子圖

7. Xu Beihong Lion and Eagle 徐悲鴻作獅子老鷹圖

8. Xu Beihong Prolonging Life Auspicious Cranes Ganoderma Lucidum Fungus 徐悲鴻作祥鶴靈芝延年益壽圖

 

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Guanzhong The People Live in Mali Village 吳冠中作馬里村頭人物風景圖

2. Wu Guanzhong The Dwellings by the River and Mountain in Southern China 吳冠中作江南民居風景圖

3. Wu Guanzhong The Lion Grove Garden (Lion Woods) 吳冠中作獅子林

4. Wu Guanzhong The Wu Gorge 吳冠中作巫峽魂

5. Wu Guanzhong Rocks by the Sea 吳冠中作海滨石

6. Wu Guanzhong The Single-Log Bridge 吳冠中作獨木橋

7. Wu Guanzhong Expressionistic Lotus 吳冠中作表現主義的荷花

 

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Fu Baoshi Hwan Shyua Showed Painting to Guests in East Jin Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Yu Youren 傅抱石作于右任題詩入畫中桓玄出畫圖手卷

2. Fu Baoshi The Nine Elders of the Poetry by Bai Juyi in Tang Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Xu Beihong 傅抱石作徐悲鴻題元氣淋漓九老圖手卷

3. Fu Baoshi Premier Xie An Brought Beauties to the East Shan Mountain handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 傅抱石作謝稚柳題春風綠揚東山攜妓圖手卷

 

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Li Keran The Landscape of River Li being Well-known Forever 李可染作漓江山水傳千古圖

 

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Lu Yanshao Spring and Rocks Landscape of Mountain Yandang 陸儼少作雁蕩泉石山水圖

 

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Zhou The Children and Father Sitting on the Back of Camels 黃冑作駱駝背上的小學生與父親

 

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Huang Binhong Landscape 黃賓虹作山水圖

2. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (1) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(1)

3. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (2) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(2)

 

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Wu Changshuo Annual Purely Floral and Fruity Tributes 吳昌碩作歲朝清供圖

 

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Lin Fengmian Five Naked Ladies 林風眠作五裸女圖

2. Lin Fengmian Two Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作二美與花瓶圖

3. Lin Fengmian Three Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作三美與花瓶圖

4. Lin Fengmian Court Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作宮女與花瓶圖

 

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 吳湖帆作謝稚柳題春風綠揚枝山居圖手卷

2. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains 吳湖帆作山居圖

3. Wu Hufan Landscape after Zhao Mengfu 吳湖帆作擬趙孟頫山水圖

4. Wu Hufan Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 吳湖帆作七言書法對聯

 

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Xie Zhiliu Landscape in Windy Spirit 謝稚柳作生風抖擻山水圖

 

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (鏡片 mounted)

2. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (立軸 hanging scroll)

 

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Pu Ru Green Mountain and White Cloud handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 溥儒作張大千題青山白雲山水圖手卷

 

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tang Yun Birds and Flowers 唐雲作花鳥圖

 

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhao Shao’Ang Flowers and Bird Double Screen 趙少昂作花鳥圖對屏

2. Zhao Shao’Ang Tall Willow Tree Morning Cicada Bamboos and Little Bird 趙少昂作高柳曉蟬竹葉小鳥圖

 

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. He Haixia Landscape 何海霞作山水圖

 

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Guan Shanyue Spring is coming to Southern Guangdong Landscape 關山月作春到南粵山水圖

 

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Zikai A Small Table Three Friends and Plum Blossoms 豐子愷作小桌三朋梅花圖

 

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Yan Bolong Colorful Birds Flowers and Plants Four Screens 顏伯龍作彩鳥與花草小樹圖四條屏

 

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo Two Beautiful Horses 愛新覺羅溥佐作雙駿馬圖

 

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Yihong Beautiful Flowers Attracting Bees 高逸鴻作群花爭艷招蜂圖

 

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tian Shiguang Flowers and Birds 田世光作花鳥圖

 

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Yuan Songnian Landscape 袁松年作山水圖

 

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Qifeng Flowers and Bamboos 高奇峰作花竹圖

 

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Zhifo Wild Geese under Willow Shadow 陳之佛作柳蔭雁鴨圖

 

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Banding Flowers and Birds 陳半丁 ( 陳年 ) 作花鳥圖

 

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Chaoran Landscape 馮超然作山水圖

 

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Zheng Banqiao Orchids Bamboos and Rocks 鄭板橋作蘭竹石圖

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

  

Antiques 古董

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Bronze Money-Shaking Fortune Tree Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝青銅搖錢樹

2. A Gilt-Bronze Guanyin Bodhisattva Figure Tang Dynasty China 中國唐朝銅鎏金觀音菩薩造像

 

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

 

1. A White Jade Pig-and-Bird-Winged Dragon Winged Mythical Beast Hongshan Culture China 中國紅山文化古白玉雕豬鳥翼形龍

2. A White Jade Persian Face Elephant Puzzle Han Dynasty China 中國漢朝古玉雕波斯人面大象紋益智拼圖

3. A Green Jade Sword Token of Imperial Authority by Emperor Shang Dynasty China 中國商朝古青玉雕玉劍令牌

4. A Jade Fish Wine-Cup Western Zhou Dynasty China 中國西周古玉雕魚形酒杯

5. A Red Jade Military Token Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝古紅玉雕軍事玉令牌

6. A White Jade Cavalrymen War Horses Halberds of Middle Sizes Militarism Worship Cong of the First Emperor of Qin 中國東周戰國至秦朝時期古白玉雕騎兵戰馬中戟紋秦始皇帝崇武玉琮

7. A Pale Celadon Greenish White Jade Linking Nipple Grain Phoenix Twisted Ropes Heaven Worship Bi of Nation Chu 中國東周戰國時期古青白玉淺浮雕勾連乳丁穀紋鳳紋扭繩紋楚國祭天玉璧

8. A Celadon Green Jade Twisted Ropes Triple Sitting Hornless Dragons Green-Dragon-Son-of-Heaven Pendant 中國西周時期古青玉雕扭繩紋三盤螭龍青龍天子珮

 

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Mutton Fat White Jade Linking Clouds Royal Dragon Pendant Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢古羊脂白玉透空圓雕勾連雲紋龍形珮

2. A Coincident Carved Khotan Russet Skin Mutton Fat White Jade Sitting Double-humped Camel Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢和闐黑棗皮古羊脂白玉巧雕坐姿雙峯駱駝

  

Taiwan Web Museum

A Free Exhibition Museum in the Internet World

 

台灣網路藝術美術博物館

網路世界裡的免費博物館

 

台湾网络艺术美术博物馆

网络世界里的免费博物馆

 

Free Website to See Paintings by Chinese Artists Listed in 2011 World Auction Revenue Top 30 and Rare Archaic Chinese Ancient Antiques

 

觀賞2011年列名世界拍賣總收入前30名中國畫家名畫作品及中國古代罕見的古董之免費網址

 

Welcome to identify your Chinese Paintings and Works of Art! Our help is free of charge!

歡迎辨識您的中國書畫及藝術品! 我們的協助是免費的!

 

Mr. Orion Hsu & Brothers (徐氏兄弟珍藏文物)

Private Museum preparatory office

中國書畫文物博物館籌備企劃辦公室

 

#1 orionandhsu@yahoo.com.tw

#2 orionandhsu@gmail.com

 

It's Monday...and you know what that means

 

"In the same boat with a lot of your friends

Waiting for the day your ship will come in

And the tide's gonna turn

And it's all gonna roll your way

 

Working nine to five

What a way to make a living

Barely gettin' by

It's all taking and no giving

They just use your mind

And you never get the credit

It's enough to drive you

Crazy if you let it..."

 

I hate that song yet everytime I go to work, I find myself humming that awful 80's tune.

 

This picture was taken in the office, not the greatest shot but I was too busy to get anything better for the day. It will have to do.

 

I just realized something...

 

Every outfit I purchased for work has been only BLACK AND WHITE.

 

Maybe it's time to introduce some color to my "office wardrobe".

  

Day 156 of 365 days

 

8 JAN 13

 

"The Colors of Memory"

 

I took off my regulation white shoes and set them aside revealing my new socks beneath. The therapist smiled. She instructed me not to wear my lab coat in the room, just my scrubs and my name tag. I was grateful for that because on a dare a few weeks back, I’d ordered my lab coat in a 3x, nearly 4 times my actual size. When it had arrived, it was like a blanket. The joke was funny for 5 minutes until I realized I’d have to go to the hospital in it and wear it around for months. I think most people assumed I was a weight loss case, but they weren’t in on the joke. My instructor, a short tight lipped woman who always walked as if she were late to the airport, had raised an eyebrow when the order came in, “this…is for you,” she’d said,” eyeballing me.

 

The therapist began showing me around. She pointed to the Swiss ball bin and let me know that after each session I would have to go over them with bleach and water and allow them to air dry. She showed me her office, a small glassed in room with papers stacked chin level on her desk. She was pleasant, neat, beautiful even; just the sort of woman I would send my child to if I had one who needed her help.

 

“Everyday, you’ll check in with me, and I’ll give you an assignment. I know your instructor and if I have any issues, she has let me know that I should contact her immediately. For today, I want you to shadow until you get the hang of things. Then I’ll let you have more free reign.”

 

I felt so adult in my blue scrubs. Everyone in the class did. You waited for four years for this moment and it was finally here; all the labs, all the relentless medical terminology flash cards, all the anatomy, all the physics two’s and three’s, and here I was. I fully opened my eyes at the moment to take in the room. It was exceptionally bright. In the center were rows and rows of tumbling mats each dotted with a couple of therapists and their patients. On the right were a set of oddly rigged treadmills that looked more like something out of an S&M magazine, then they did workout equipment. Towards the back were big flat beds with soft black mats with some of the same rigging as the treadmills. For the most part, the room looked like any kids jungle gym, except here the children weren’t running around. They weren’t running at all. The children moved slowly, or did not move much at all. Many were in wheelchairs, or lay virtually motionless, or wore helmets, or were strapped into leg braces and casts of all sorts. They looked fragile, like with any tiny tap, they’d crack like an eggshell. In the few chairs in the room, parents waited, or in most cases sat on the soft bleached mats helping their children. I wiggled my toes and I waited.

 

The therapist who greeted me was a young and energetic woman named Sarah. Just the type of person I imagined I’d be in her position. She had blonde hair, and wore pink scrubs with cats on them. “Nice socks,” she said. Like the therapist before me, she mentioned the bleach. “We make all the new ones take care of the cleaning,” she said with a half-smile. She led me over to a mat in the front of the room to a small black child who lay propped up on his elbows. His legs were bound in braces and turned out the way one would expect a dancers legs to be while warming up. His mother smiled warmly as Sarah introduced me and I tried to look as though I belonged.

 

Sarah did not explain the case to me. She just sat down and tickled the boy’s toes. He reacted by kicking his feet outward into her palms. Sarah asked if the mother wanted to stay, but she said, today, she would come back and pick him up in an hour. The boy looked over at his mother nervously, but she gave him a reassuring kiss and repeated her words to him directly. When his mother left, the boy looked over at me. Not at me per se, but at my socks. He allowed his eyes to wander over them as if they were some long lost treasure he’d just found in the sea. The boy’s tiny hand snaked over to my foot and touched one of my toes. He laughed a tiny laugh when I wiggled it for him. My socks were rainbow toe socks which matched the multitude of colors held within the gym. Sarah said she’d never seen any like mine and would surely purchase a pair of her own soon to add to her ridiculous sock collection. Shoes were not allowed in the gym. For one, they invited germs in, and two, it was dangerous sometimes for the much younger patients if a shoe or heel and all its weight came down accidentally on a limb, so the socks allowed better hygiene and for the therapists and parents to tread lightly.

 

The boy looked as if he were three or four years old. He had short black hair, cut cleanly, and wore a blue shirt and grey shorts. The braces were white and plastic and stood out glaringly against his thin brown legs. He had that distinct look of innocence that made one instantly want to scoop him up and let him know that this was a cruelty of life that should never have been afforded to him, but instead, I knelt down beside him with Sarah who was checking her chart.

 

Last week, when our instructor had brought us round to show us where we’d be assigned, I’d come briefly to this room and noticed that no one was wearing shoes. I’d stuck my head in, but had not gotten a chance to take it all in, because she had a schedule to keep, and that meant, she had to power walk of her own accord to seven other areas leaving us all breathless and sweaty as we desperately tried to keep up before the bus would be back to pick us up.

 

“Never be late,” she’d warned with this ominous look and speaking as fast as she walked, “the bus and I will leave you. I will call the school and notify them that you have been left. Whoever has to pick you up will not be happy when they have to leave work to pick you up. You get one of these. After that, you’re out of the program and will fail my class. Understood?” Her hawk nose had tipped forward and she’d glared at us as if she was attempting to sear the information into our brains from invisible lasers in her eyes. “I have left students before. That is why you are required to wear a watch. You are also required to wear regulation all white tennis shoes, scrubs, your lab coat with insignia, your lanyard, and name tag. Your scrub tops must be tucked in at all times and your entire uniform must be clean…pressed…wrinkle free. I am going to check. I am going to check every day and I will not accept that you just did laundry and don’t know where they are, or the iron wasn’t working, or you spilled your lunch on them. Do not wear them to your other med classes. You will get dirty. Change into them before my class to minimize any risk of dirt and filth on them. You may not wear long nails ladies, or any hanging or dangling jewelry. All hair must be neat, no colors, no hair clips, just pulled back if longer than your shoulders, or hanging neatly around your faces. Ladies and gentleman, I know you love your perfume and cologne, but not in my class. If I can smell you or your scent from more than few feet away, guess who’s going to the bathroom for a water bath? Any deviation from this list will result in a slipping of your grade for each infraction; EACH infraction. Do not embarrass me, or the school. You are going to be professionals and thus you must act like ones. Do not mistake me for your first year teachers. I have little sympathy for your issues.”

 

We knew her words to be true. Everyone in the lower grades had heard the stories of people infamously being left behind and being ripped a new one upon their return. Everyone knew from her reputation that she was strict and true to her word. This year only one person would get left behind, and lucky for him, it was an elevator which had gotten stuck with him in it. Play time for us, if you could even call six or seven hours of homework and papers a night that, had ended the moment we all first glimpsed her leaning against the podium in what surely must have been a dry cleaned lab coat as the seams were perfectly pressed, and the white, perfectly white.

 

Sarah spent the first half hour working all of the child’s joints. At points he seemed largely unaffected by her actions, but at others he would emit small pointed whimpers of protest. At these moments, Sarah would say softly and gently that she would only do this for a little bit and they would help him get better. Considering his age, I wondered if he could even understand that this pain would help him. It was odd to see this tiny boy so chained down by his braces. The top half of him looked ready to jump off and sprint all over the room the way he bubbled over with energy, but his bottom half might as well have been encased in cement. Sarah was done and looked over to me. For legal reasons, at this point, they didn’t allow us to take part in the therapy that involved any sort of physical manipulations, but we could interact and of course, use bleach on Swiss Balls.

 

“Do you mind,” Sarah said with mischievous glint in her eye, “grabbing the T-R-I-K-E over there? Oh, and one for yourself. I think it’s time we had a little more fun.” I went over and found the trike and one of those boards with two side handles which you wiggle from left to right or place your hands on the floor and ‘paddle,’ in order for you to go forward. Sarah took us out into the hall. She’d put the boys shoes on for traction. She placed him in the trike, a helmet on, and strapped his feet and waist in. She instructed me to sit beside him on my wobble board. “We’re going to have a race. First one to the door wins.” I’d known even without her saying it that it was not my job to mercilessly beat this kid to the end of the hall, but to feign a decent attempt at racing him but ultimately allow him to win. Sarah blew an imaginary whistle, and I began to wobble forward, but the boy did not. I stopped wobbling and looked over at him. He was struggling to lift the heavy braces to create the motion needed to propel him forward. I was going to attempt to give him a starting push, when Sarah’s eyes caught my own. They said stop, and I did. Sarah took on a cheerleader disposition and egged the boy on. “She’s going to beat you little one, don’t let her beat you!” The boy’s face soured for the first time in the hour. He pushed and wiggled his bottom and tried to push his feet again. Sarah did not assist him in any way, instead, she continued to cheer as if we were much closer to the finish line, then the start. Two minutes later, the small boy was pedaling and I’d resumed my wobbling. I felt old and out of shape trying to wobble on a board meant for someone his size and age, but I managed. Sure enough, somehow the boy beat me to the finish line and I cheered. Instead of join in, Sarah only looked at us and said, "actually the finish line is all the way around there at that door" she said, pointing around the bend. The boy immediately perked up and started off again at his slow rhythm. He was surely using every ounce of his strength to make it to the end.

 

I thought about my own childhood and how I’d popped wheelies every day in the summer on the huge crack in the sidewalk in front of my house with my brother. I thought about how I’d never had to see a place like this filled with children who had the unpleasant task of learning about some of the harsh realities of life at such early ages. I thought about how unfair this all was, that he had to work so hard to do something so ordinarily pleasurable. It humbled me. In a dead heat, the boy and I neared the finish line, but in a last minute effort, he pulled forward with a burst of energy squealing in delight. I feigned wiping sweat from my brow and congratulated him and said with a fake look of desperation, that I wanted a rematch. We had 5 other rematches before our session ended with the appearance of his mother at the finish line. She stretched out her arms enthusiastically to get him to come to her, and he obliged ending in a huge hug. Sarah and his mother went over what all they’d done that day and I smiled at the young boy and said, I would see him again on Wednesday. I could hear him as he was carried away down the hall talking about the lady with the rainbow socks. It put a smile in my heart.

 

There would be many more sessions with the young boy, then a teenage girl whom they hooked into the treadmill and she was made to run with the aid of the straps, there would be a few patients with simple arm or leg breaks that needed rehab, and then there would be the much more tragic cases of children who ended up in the water room, where doctors would have to fully immerse them in a solution of antiseptics and literally scrape their burned charred diseased flesh from them to prevent further infection. No one ever left that room with a smile, just endless tears and anguish. For all of these moments, there was always the look of joy on a parents face when their young ones accomplished some milestone, some interaction, moved a finger, or lifted their necks unaided for the first time. The joy was all consuming. Others however, knew, they would never get that level of satisfaction, but there was still joy in the little things. Responding to a voice command, picking up a pencil. I saw life in this room and how both tragic and wonderful it could all be. It is the reason, these rainbow socks have remained in my possession. I look at them, I remember the moments, the first touch of a finger to my toe, and I am reminded to be humble, to know that we are all in a way the product of a fate we have very little control over. When faced with adversity, we can overcome, or have the strength to endure. Most importantly the socks remind me to smile, to not take myself too seriously, and to live my life in such a way that there are no regrets.

 

New hope in 2009

有段話我覺得不要翻成英文比較好,老美看了大概會不爽,這張圖我弄好後覺的很像黑人牙膏的mark說....TT我應該把它作成貼紙印出來的!以下就轉貼他的生平:

"Barack" and "Obama" redirect here. For other uses, see Barack (disambiguation) and Obama (disambiguation).

Barack Obama

   

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44th President of the United States

Incumbent

Assumed office

January 20, 2009

Vice President Joe Biden

Preceded by George W. Bush

 

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United States Senator

from Illinois

In office

January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008

Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald

Succeeded by Roland Burris

 

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Member of the Illinois Senate

from the 13th district

In office

January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004

Preceded by Alice Palmer

Succeeded by Kwame Raoul

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Born August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04) (age 47)[1]

Honolulu, Hawaii, United States[2]

Birth name Barack Hussein Obama II[2]

Nationality American

Political party Democratic

Spouse Michelle Obama (m. 1992)

Children Malia Ann (b. 1998)

Natasha (a.k.a. Sasha) (b. 2001)

Residence Chicago, Illinois (private)

White House, Washington, D.C. (official)

Alma mater Occidental College

Columbia University (B.A.)

Harvard Law School (J.D.)

Profession Community organizer

Attorney

Author

Professor

Politician

Religion Protestant Christian[3]

Signature

Website WhiteHouse.gov

This article is part of a series about

Barack Obama

Background · Illinois Senate · U.S. Senate

Political positions · Public image · Family

2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign

Transition · Inauguration · US Presidency

 

Barack Hussein Obama II (pronounced /bəˈrɑːk hʊˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from 2005 until he resigned following his 2008 election to the presidency. He was inaugurated as President on January 20, 2009.

 

Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American president of the Harvard Law Review. He worked as a community organizer, and practiced as a civil rights attorney in Chicago before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. He also taught Constitutional Law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, Obama was elected to the Senate in November 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004.

 

As a member of the Democratic minority in the 109th Congress, Obama helped create legislation to control conventional weapons and to promote greater public accountability in the use of federal funds. He also made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. During the 110th Congress, he helped create legislation regarding lobbying and electoral fraud, climate change, nuclear terrorism, and care for U.S. military personnel returning from combat assignments in Iraq and Afghanistan

Early life and career

Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama

Barack Obama was born at the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women & Children in Honolulu, Hawaii,[4][5] to Stanley Ann Dunham,[6] a White American from Wichita, Kansas,[7][8][9] and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[10][11] The couple married on February 2, 1961.[12] Obama's parents separated when Obama was two years old, and they divorced in 1964.[11] Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[13]

 

After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Soeharto, a military leader in Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all students studying abroad were recalled and the family moved to Indonesia.[14] There Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, such as Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School, until he was ten years old.

 

He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, while attending Punahou School from the fifth grade in 1971 until his graduation from high school in 1979.[15] Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 for five years, and then in 1977 went back to Indonesia, where she worked as an anthropological field worker. She stayed there most of the rest of her life, returning to Hawaii in 1994. She died of ovarian cancer in 1995.[16]

  

Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro-Ng, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s).Of his early childhood, Obama has recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me — that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk — barely registered in my mind."[17] In his 1995 memoir, he described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[18] He wrote that he used alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."[19] At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama identified his high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure."[20]

 

Some of his fellow students at Punahou School later told the Honolulu Star-Bulletin that Obama was mature for his age, and that he sometimes attended college parties and other events in order to associate with African American students and military service people. Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered — to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect — became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[21]

 

Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles, where he studied at Occidental College for two years.[22] He then transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations.[23] Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation[24][25] and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[26][27]

 

After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side. He worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988.[26][28] During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[29] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[30] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[31]

 

Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[32] and president of the journal in his second year.[33] During his summers, he returned to Chicago where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[34] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[35][36] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[32]

 

Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[33] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations.[37] In an effort to recruit him to their faculty, the University of Chicago Law School provided Obama with a fellowship and an office to work on his book.[37] He originally planned to finish the book in one year, but it took much longer as the book evolved into a personal memoir. In order to work without interruptions, Obama and his wife, Michelle, traveled to Bali where he wrote for several months. The manuscript was finally published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[37]

 

From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and seven hundred volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[38][39]

 

For twelve years, Obama served as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School teaching Constitutional Law. He was first classified as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996 and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[40] He also joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[26][41][42]

 

Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[26][43] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Joyce Foundation.[26] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[26] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[26]

  

Political career

 

State legislator: 1997–2004

Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which then spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[44] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[45] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[46] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[47]

 

Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the General Election, and reelected again in 2002.[48] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[49][50]

 

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[51] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[46][52] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[53] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[54]

  

2004 U.S. Senate campaign

See also: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004

In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate; he enlisted political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[55] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[56] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[57] He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.[58]

 

In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[59] After describing his maternal grandfather's experiences as a World War II veteran and a beneficiary of the New Deal's FHA and G.I. Bill programs, Obama spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social priorities. He questioned the Bush administration's management of the Iraq War and highlighted America's obligations to its soldiers. Drawing examples from U.S. history, he criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity in diversity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America."[60] Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news networks, a combined 9.1 million viewers watching on PBS, CNN, MSNBC, Fox News and C-SPAN saw Obama's speech, which was a highlight of the convention and confirmed his status as the Democratic Party's brightest new star.[61]

 

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[62] Two months later and less than three months before Election Day, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[63] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[64] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[65]

  

U.S. Senator: 2005–2008

Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[66] Obama was the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected.[67] He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[68] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[69][70] In 2008, Congress.org ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator.[71] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[72][73] This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of Congress had faced since Warren Harding.[74]

  

Legislation

See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate

 

Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act.[75]Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[76] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[77] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[78] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.[79] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[80]

 

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[81] Obama is not hostile to Tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[82]

 

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[83] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[84] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[85] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[86] neither of which have been signed into law.

  

Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility in August 2005.[87]Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[88] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[89] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[90][91] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[92]

  

Committees

Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[93] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[94] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[95] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[96][97][98][99]

  

2008 Presidential campaign

Main articles: Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008

Wikinews has related news: Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[100][101] The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[102] Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and providing universal health care.[103]

  

Obama stands on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, Feb. 10, 2007.During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[104][105][106] On June 19, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[107]

 

A large number of candidates initially entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. After a few initial contests, the field narrowed to a contest between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton, with each winning some states and the race remaining close throughout the primary process.[108][109][110][111] On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the disputed Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead.[112] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the threshold to become the presumptive nominee.[113][114] On that day, he gave a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[115] From that point on, he campaigned for the general election race against Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee.

 

On August 23, 2008, Obama announced that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[116]

  

Obama delivers his presidential election victory speech.At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Obama's former rival Hillary Clinton gave a speech in support of Obama's candidacy and later called for Obama to be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic presidential candidate.[117][118] On August 28, Obama delivered a speech to 84,000 supporters in Denver. During the speech, which was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide, he accepted his party's nomination and presented his policy goals.[119][120]

 

After McCain was nominated as the Republican presidential candidate, there were three presidential debates between Obama and McCain in September and October 2008.[121][122] In November, Obama won the presidency with 53% of the popular vote and a wide electoral college margin. His election sparked street celebrations in numerous cities in the United States[123] and abroad.

  

Election victory

Main article: Presidential transition of Barack Obama

 

President-elect Obama meets with President George W. Bush in the Oval Office, November 10, 2008.On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama defeated John McCain in the general election with 365 electoral votes to McCain's 173[124] and became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.[125][126][127][128] In his victory speech, delivered before a crowd of hundreds of thousands of his supporters in Chicago's Grant Park, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America".[129]

 

On January 8, 2009, the joint session of the U.S. Congress met to certify the votes of the Electoral College for the 2008 presidential election. Based on the results of the electoral vote count, Barack Obama was declared to have been elected President of the United States and Joseph Biden was declared to have been elected Vice President of the United States.[130]

  

Presidency

Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. The theme of the inauguration was "A New Birth of Freedom," commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.[131]

 

In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda reversing President Bush's ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions (known as the Global Gag Rule),[132] and changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act,[133] directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,[134] and reducing the secrecy given to presidential records,[135] and closing Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010, and "Immediate Review of All Guantánamo Detentions".

  

Political positions

Main article: Political positions of Barack Obama

A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[136] Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the ACU,[137] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the ADA.[138]

  

Obama campaigning in Abington, Pennsylvania, October 2008.Obama was an early opponent of the Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[139] On October 2, 2002, the day President George W. Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[140] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally in Federal Plaza,[141] speaking out against the war.[142][143] On March 16, 2003, the day Bush issued his 48-hour ultimatum to Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq before the U.S. invasion of Iraq,[144] Obama addressed the largest Chicago anti-Iraq War rally to date in Daley Plaza and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[145] Although Obama had previously said he wanted all the U.S. troops out of Iraq within 16 months of becoming President, after he won the primary, he said he might "refine" that promise.[146]

 

Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not "weaponize" space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems," and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.[147]

 

In November 2006, Obama called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[148] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.[149] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without preconditions.[150][151][152] Detailing his strategy for fighting global terrorism in August 2007, Obama said "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[153]

 

In a December 2005, Washington Post opinion column, and at the Save Darfur rally in April 2006, Obama called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[154] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[155] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying that "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."[156]

  

Obama speaking at a rally at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri.In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[157] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[158] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports universal health care in the United States.[159] Obama proposes to reward teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[160]

 

In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[161] His plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, repeal income tax cuts for those making over $250,000 as well as the capital gains and dividends tax cut,[162] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[163] Announcing his presidential campaign's energy plan in October 2007, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[164] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[165]

 

Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other religious groups.[166] In December 2006, he joined Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) at the "Global Summit on AIDS and the Church" organized by church leaders Kay and Rick Warren.[167] Together with Warren and Brownback, Obama took an HIV test, as he had done in Kenya less than four months earlier.[168] He encouraged "others in public life to do the same" and not be ashamed of it.[169] Addressing over 8,000 United Church of Christ members in June 2007, Obama challenged "so-called leaders of the Christian Right" for being "all too eager to exploit what divides us."[170]

  

Family and personal life

Main articles: Early life and career of Barack Obama and Family of Barack Obama

 

Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama.In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson, who later became his wife, when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[171] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.[172] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[173] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[174] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[175] Because of Michelle Obama's employment with the University of Chicago, the Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School.[176]

 

Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[177]

 

Applying the proceeds of a book deal, in 2005 the family moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood.[178] The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's indictment and subsequent conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[179][180]

 

In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[181] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[182]

  

Obama playing basketball with U.S. military at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti in 2006.[183]In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family. "Michelle will tell you that when we get together for Christmas or Thanksgiving, it's like a little mini-United Nations." he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[184] Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[185] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham[186] until her death on November 2, 2008, just before the presidential election.[187] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.[188] Obama's maternal and paternal grandfathers fought in World War II. Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,[189] the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops.[190]

 

Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[191] He is an avid sports fan. Obama follows the Chicago Bears, Chicago White Sox, Chicago Bulls and West Ham United F.C.[192][193][194][195] While he has never been a heavy smoker, Obama has tried to quit smoking several times, including a well-publicized and ongoing effort which he began before launching his presidential campaign.[196] Obama has said he will not smoke in the White House.[197]

 

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views have evolved in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[198][199] He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades.[200][201]

 

Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), at least on a colloquial level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.[202] After the APEC summit in November 2008, Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono related a telephone conversation with Obama in Indonesian to Indonesian media. Obama had told Yudhoyono that he missed Indonesian food like Nasi Goreng, Bakso or Rambutan.[203]

  

Cultural and political image

Main article: Public image of Barack Obama

With his black Kenyan father and white American mother, his upbringing in Honolulu and Jakarta, and his Ivy League education, Obama's early life experiences differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[204] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that the debate is not about his physical appearance or his record on issues of concern to black voters. Obama said that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[205]

 

Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[206] A popular catch phrase distilled the concept: "Rosa sat so Martin could walk; Martin walked so Obama could run; Obama is running so our children can fly."[207]

  

From left: Presidents George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter meet in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009.Obama has been praised as a master of oratory on par with other renowned speakers in the past such as Martin Luther King, Jr.[208][209] His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music in a video produced by Will.i.am, was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,[210] and received an Emmy Award.[211] University of Virginia professor Jonathan Haidt researched the effectiveness of Obama's public speaking and concluded that part of his excellence is because the politician is adept at inspiring the emotion of elevation, the desire to act morally and do good for others.[212] Obama used these communication skills in a series of weekly internet video addresses during his pre-inauguration transition period;[213] he has suggested he will make a series of broadcast and internet addresses similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's famous fireside chats throughout his term as president to explain his policies and actions.[214]

 

Many commentators mentioned Obama's international appeal as a defining factor for his public image.[215] Not only did several polls show strong support for him in other countries,[216] but Obama also established close relationships with prominent foreign politicians and elected officials even before his presidential candidacy, notably with then incumbent British Prime Minister Tony Blair, whom he met in London in 2005,[217] with Italy's Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni, who visited Obama's Senate office in 2005,[218] and with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who also visited him in Washington in 2006.[219]

 

Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of both of his books; for Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[220]

 

In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments."[221]

  

Notes

^ "President Barack Obama". www.whitehouse.gov.

^ a b "Birth Certificate of Barack Obama". Department of Health, Hawaii. PolitiFact.com (August 8, 1961). Retrieved on 2008-12-12.

^ "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. msnbc.com (November 17, 2008). Retrieved on 2009-1-20.

^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible", Politics, Washington Post. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics" (Article), Special to the Star-Bulletin, Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on November 30 2008.

^ For Stanley Ann's first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19

^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck (August 21, 2008). Retrieved on October 24, 2008.

^ Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish", Politics, The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 23 November 2008.

^ "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own - washingtonpost.com". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2008-11-08.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see "Barack Obama: Creation of Tales", East African (2004-11-01). Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.

^ a b Jones, Tim (2007-03-27). "Obama's mom: Not just a girl from Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a future senator", Chicago Tribune, reprinted in The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 9 April 2007.

^ Merida, Kevin (2007-12-14). "The Ghost of a Father", Washington Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Ochieng, Philip (2004-11-01). "From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found", East African. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. In August 2006, Obama flew his wife and two daughters from Chicago to join him in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya. Gnecchi, Nico (2006-02-27). "Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya", Voice of America. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45.

^ Serafin, Peter (2004-03-21). "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. See also: Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Suryakusuma, Julia (2006-11-29). "Obama for President... of Indonesia", Jakarta Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995), pp. 9–10.

^ Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5. See also: Serrano, Richard A (March 11, 2007). "Obama's Peers Didn't See His Angst" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

^ "Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students", Associated Press, Boston Globe (November 21, 2007). Retrieved on 4 January 2008. In Dreams from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it." Obama (1995), pp. 93–94. For analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled."), see: Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen", Washington Post. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q (October 24, 2006). "Obama Offers More Variations From the Norm", New York Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

^ Hornick, Ed (August 17, 2008). "Obama, McCain talk issues at pastor's forum", CNN.com. Retrieved on 4 January 2009.

^ Reyes, B. J (February 8, 2007). "Punahou Left Lasting Impression on Obama", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. "As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks."

^ "Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama '83". Occidental College (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.

^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83", Columbia College Today. Retrieved on 9 June 2008.

^ "Curriculum Vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on 2001-05-09. Retrieved on 2008-11-03.

^ Issenberg, Sasha (2008-08-06). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance: Tied markets to social aid", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ a b c d e f g Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468. ISBN 9780837970110. www.marquiswhoswho.com/products/WAprodinfo.asp. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Scott, Janny (2007-10-30). "Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say", The New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.

^ Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (2007-03-30). "Portrait of a pragmatist", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Lizza, Ryan (2007-03-19). "The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education" (alternate link), New Republic. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295; Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.

^ Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.

^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues 14 (8–9): 40–42. reprinted in: Knoepfle, Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0962087335. Tayler, Letta; Herbert, Keith (2008-03-02). "Obama forged path as Chicago community organizer", Newsday, p. A06. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.

^ a b Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (2007-01-28). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kantor, Jodi (2007-01-28). "In law school, Obama found political voice", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kodama, Marie C (2007-01-19). "Obama left mark on HLS", The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mundy, Liza (2007-08-12). "A series of fortunate events", The Washington Post, p. W10. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Heilemann, John (2007-10-22). "When they were young". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. www.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&titl.... Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.

^ a b Butterfield, Fox (1990-02-06). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review", The New York Times, p. A20. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Ybarra, Michael J (1990-02-07). "Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 3. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Drummond, Tammerlin (1990-03-12). "Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times, p. E1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Evans, Gaynelle (1990-03-15). "Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama", Black Issues in Higher Education, p. 5. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) (1990-04-18). "Law Review's first black president aims to help poor" (paid archive), The Miami Herald, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008.

^ Aguilar, Louis (1990-07-11). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Barack Obama, a summer associate at Hopkins & Sutter in Chicago"

^ Adams, Richard (2007-05-09). "Barack Obama", The Guardian. Retrieved on 26 October 2008.

^ Mendell, David. "Barack Obama (American politician)". Retrieved on 2008-10-26.

^ a b c Scott, Janny (2008-05-18). "The story of Obama, written by Obama", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii.

^ White, Jesse (ed.) (2000). Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed.. Springfield, IL: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 83. OCLC 43923973. www.sos.state.il.us/bb/toc.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Jarrett, Vernon (1992-08-11). "'Project Vote' brings power to the people" (paid archive), Chicago Sun-Times, p. 23. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Reynolds, Gretchen (January 1993). "Vote of Confidence". Chicago 42 (1): 53–54. www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/January-1993/Vote-of-.... Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Anderson, Veronica (September 27–October 3 1993). "40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote". Crain's Chicago Business 16 (39): 43.

^ University of Chicago Law School (2008-03-27). "Statement regarding Barack Obama". University of Chicago Law School. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Miller, Joe (2008-03-28). "Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor?". FactCheck.org. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Holan, Angie Drobnic (2008-03-07). "Obama's 20 years of experience". PolitiFact.com. Retrieved on 2008-06-10.<

^ Robinson, Mike (Associated Press) (2007-02-10). "Obama got start in civil rights practice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Pallasch, Abdon M (2007-12-17). "As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking", Chicago Sun-Times, p. 4. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "People" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune (1993-06-27), p. 9 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Business appointments" (paid archive), Chicago-Sun-Times (1993-07-05), p. 40. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Miner, Barnhill & Galland (2008). "About Us". Miner, Barnhill & Galland – Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 438–439, Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106.

^ "ARDC Individual Attorney Record of Public Registration and Public Disciplinary and Disability Information as of October 17, 2008 at 12:52:13 PM". Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission of the Supreme Court of Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.

^ Public Allies (2008). "Fact Sheet on Public Allies' History with Senator Barack and Michelle Obama". Public Allies. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Jackson, David; Ray Long (2007-04-03). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 14 January 2008. [dead link] White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment". Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 65. State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.

^ Slevin, Peter (2007-02-09). "Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol", Washington Post. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-09-23). "In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics", Associated Press, CBS News (2007-01-17). Retrieved on 20 April 2008. "In-Depth Look at Obama's Political Career" (video), CLTV, Chicago Tribune (2007-02-09). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ a b Scott, Janny (2007-07-30). "In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Pearson, Rick; Ray Long (2007-05-03). "Careful Steps, Looking Ahead", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.

^ Allison, Melissa (2000-12-15). "State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Long, Ray; Allison, Melissa (2001-04-18). "Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures.", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 1 June 2008.

^ "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2000-08-24). Archived from the original on 2000-04-12. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2004-10-09). Archived from the original on 2004-08-02. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.

^ "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results - Illinois". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.. See also: "Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid". and Scott, Janny (2007-09-09). "A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ McClelland, Edward (2007-02-12). "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural", Salon. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Wolffe, Richard; Daren Briscoe (2007-07-16). "Across the Divide", Newsweek, MSNBC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. and Wills, Christopher (2007-10-24). "Obama learned from failed Congress run", USA Today. Retrieved on 20 September 2008.

^ Calmes, Jackie (2007-02-23). "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama", Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Tavella, Anne Marie (2003-04-14). "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate", Daily Herald, p. 17. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Haynes, V. Dion (2003-06-29). "Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review", Chicago Tribune, p. 8. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Pearson, Rick (2003-07-17). "Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved on 1 June 2008.

^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (2007-03-14). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals", The Hill. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms", Associated Press, International Herald Tribune (2007-11-12). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Coffee, Melanie (2004-11-06). "Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat", Associated Press, HPKCC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

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^ "Obama, Bond Applaud Senate Passage of Amendment to Expedite the Review of Personality Disorder Discharge Cases".

^ Graham-Silverman, Adam (2007-09-12). "Despite Flurry of Action in House, Congress Unlikely to Act Against Iran", CQ Today. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ "Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2007-12-20). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.

^ "Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2007-08-02). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.

^ "Committee Assignments" (archive). Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2006-12-09). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.

^ "Obama Gets New Committee Assignments", Associated Press, Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2006-11-15). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Baldwin, Tom (2007-12-21). "Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience", Sunday Times (UK). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP", Washington Monthly. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Goudie, Chuck (2006-01-12). "Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor", WLS-TV. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud", News24.com (2006-08-28). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Wamalwa, Chris (2006-09-02). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (2006-09-04). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007.

^ Pearson, Rick; Long, Ray (February 10, 2007). "Obama: I'm running for president", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 20 September 2008.

^ "Obama Launches Presidential Bid", BBC News (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 14 January 2008.

^ "Presidential Campaign Announcement" (video), Obama for America, Brightcove.TV (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 14 January 2008.

^ "Barack Obama on the Issues: What Would Be Your Top Three Overall Priorities If Elected?", Washington Post. Retrieved on 14 April 2008. See also: Falcone, Michael (2007-12-21). "Obama's 'One Thing'", The New York Times. Retrieved on 14 April 2008.

^ Malone, Jim (July 2, 2007). "Obama Fundraising Suggests Close Race for Party Nomination", Voice of America. Retrieved on 14 January 2008.

^ Cummings, Jeanne (September 26, 2007). "Small Donors Rewri

The western front of the United States Capitol in 2011.

General information

Architectural style American Neoclassicism

Town or city Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.

Country United States of America

Construction started September 18, 1793

  

The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States. Located in Washington, D.C., it sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall. Though it has never been the geographic center of the federal district, the Capitol is the origin by which the quadrants of the District are divided and the city was planned.

 

Officially, both the east and west sides of the Capitol are referred to as fronts. Historically, however, only the east front of the building was intended for the arrival of visitors and dignitaries. Like the federal buildings for the executive and judicial branches, it is built in the distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior.

Contents

  

History

See also: History of Washington, D.C. and List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C.

The US Capitol dome at night (photo 2010)

 

Prior to establishing the nation's capital in Washington, D.C., the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia (Independence Hall and Congress Hall), New York City (Federal Hall), and a number of other locations (Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland, Nassau Hall in Princeton, New Jersey).[2] In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, which met from May 1775 to March 1781.

 

After adopting the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall, demanding payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21, 1783,[3] and met in Annapolis, Maryland and Trenton, New Jersey before ending up in New York City.

 

The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790,[4] when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. The decision to locate the capital was contentious, but Alexander Hamilton helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from northern states for locating the capital along the Potomac River. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years (until December 1800), until the nation's capital in Washington, D.C. would be ready.[5]

 

Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city.[6] L'Enfant chose Jenkins Hill as the site for the Capitol building, with a grand boulevard connecting it with the President's House, and a public space stretching westward to the Potomac River.[7] In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from Latin and is associated with the Roman temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill.[8] In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House, however he was dismissed in February 1792 over disagreements with President George Washington and the commissioners, and there were no plans at that point for the Capitol.[9]

Design competition

Design for the U.S. Capitol, "An Elevation for a Capitol", by James Diamond was one of many submitted in the 1792 contest, but not selected.

 

In spring 1792, Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the President's House, and set a four-month deadline. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the federal city. At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol; however the drawings were regarded as crude and amateurish, reflecting the level of architectural skill present in the United States at the time.[10] The most promising of the submissions was by Stephen Hallet, a trained French architect.[11] However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, and were deemed too costly.[12]

 

A late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur, Simplicity, and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the center portion of the design.[13][14] Thornton's design was officially approved in a letter, dated April 5, 1793, from Washington.[15] In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, and serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes to Thornton's design, which he saw as costly to build and problematic.[16] In July 1793, Jefferson convened a five-member commission, bringing Hallet and Thornton together, along with James Hoban, to address problems with and revise Thornton's plan. Hallet suggested changes to the floor plan, which could be fitted within the exterior design by Thornton.[17][18] The revised plan was accepted, except that Jefferson and Washington insisted on an open recess in the center of the East front, which was part of Thornton's original plan.[19]

 

The original design by Thornton was later modified by Benjamin Henry Latrobe and then Charles Bulfinch.[20] The current dome and the House and Senate wings were designed by Thomas U. Walter and August Schoenborn,[21] a German immigrant, and were completed under the supervision of Edward Clark.[22]

Construction

The Capitol when first occupied by Congress (painting circa 1800 by William Russell Birch)

 

L'Enfant secured the lease of quarries at Wigginton Island and along Aquia Creek in Virginia for use in the foundations and outer walls of the Capitol in November 1791.[23] Surveying was underway soon after the Jefferson conference plan for the Capitol was accepted.[17] On September 18, 1793 George Washington, along with eight other Freemasons dressed in masonic regalia, laid the cornerstone, which was made by silversmith Caleb Bentley.[24][25]

 

Construction proceeded with Hallet working under supervision of James Hoban, who was also busy working on construction of the White House. Despite the wishes of Jefferson and the President, Hallet went ahead anyway and modified Thornton's design for the East front and created a square central court that projected from the center, with flanking wings which would house the legislative bodies. Hallet was dismissed by Jefferson on November 15, 1794.[26] George Hadfield was hired on October 15, 1795 as superintendent of construction, but resigned three years later in May 1798, due to dissatisfaction with Thornton's plan and quality of work done thus far.[27]

 

The Senate wing was completed in 1800, while the House wing was completed in 1811. However, the House of Representatives moved into the House wing in 1807. Though the building was incomplete, the Capitol held its first session of United States Congress on November 17, 1800. The legislature was moved to Washington prematurely, at the urging of President John Adams in hopes of securing enough Southern votes to be re-elected for a second term as president.[28]

Early religious usage

 

In its early days, the Capitol building was not only used for governmental functions. On Sundays, church services were regularly held there - a practice that continued until after the Civil War. According to the US Library of Congress exhibit "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic" "It is no exaggeration to say that on Sundays in Washington during the administrations of Thomas Jefferson (1801–1809) and of James Madison (1809–1817) the state became a church. Within a year of his inauguration, Jefferson began attending church services in the House of Representatives. Madison followed Jefferson's example, although unlike Jefferson, who rode on horseback to church in the Capitol, Madison came in a coach and four. Worship services in the House—a practice that continued until after the Civil War—were acceptable to Jefferson because they were nondiscriminatory and voluntary. Preachers of every Protestant denomination appeared. (Catholic priests began officiating in 1826.)"[29]

War of 1812

The Capitol after the burning of Washington, D.C. in the War of 1812 (painting 1814 by George Munger)

See also: Burning of Washington

 

Not long after the completion of both wings, the Capitol was partially burned by the British on August 24, 1814, during the War of 1812. George Bomford, and Joseph Gardner Swift, both military engineers, were called upon to help rebuild the Capitol. Reconstruction began in 1815 and was completed by 1819. Construction continued through to 1826, with the addition of the center Rotunda area and the first dome of the Capitol. Latrobe is principally connected with the original construction and many innovative interior features; his successor, Bulfinch, also played a major role, such as the design of the first dome.

The House and Senate Wings

Daguerreotype of east side of the Capitol (1846 by John Plumbe)

 

By 1850, it became clear that the Capitol could not accommodate the growing number of legislators arriving from newly admitted states. A new design competition was held, and President Millard Fillmore appointed Philadelphia architect Thomas U. Walter to carry out the expansion. Two new wings were added – a new chamber for the House of Representatives on the south side, and a new chamber for the Senate on the north.[30]

 

When the Capitol was expanded in the 1850s, some of the construction labor was carried out by slaves "who cut the logs, laid the stones and baked the bricks".[31] The original plan was to use workers brought in from Europe; however, there was a poor response to recruitment efforts, and African Americans—free and slave—comprised the majority of the work force.[32]

The Capitol Building with flowers in the foreground (photo 2010)

Capitol dome

Main article: United States Capitol dome

 

The 1850 expansion more than doubled the length of the Capitol, dwarfing the original, timber-framed 1818 dome. In 1855, the decision was made to tear it down and replace it with the "wedding-cake style" cast-iron dome that stands today. Also designed by Walter, the new dome stood three times the height of the original dome and 100 feet (30 m) in diameter, yet had to be supported on the existing masonry piers. Like Mansart's dome at Les Invalides (which he had visited in 1838), Walter's dome is double, with a large oculus in the inner dome, through which is seen The Apotheosis of Washington painted on a shell suspended from the supporting ribs, which also support the visible exterior structure and the tholos that supports Freedom, a colossal statue that was added to the top of the dome in 1863. This statue was cast by a slave named Philip Reid. The weight of the cast iron for the dome has been published as 8,909,200 pounds (4,041,100 kg).

Later expansion

US Senate chamber (photo circa 1873)

 

When the Capitol's new dome was finally completed, its massive visual weight, in turn, overpowered the proportions of the columns of the East Portico, built in 1828. The East Front of the Capitol building was rebuilt in 1904, following a design of the architects Carrère and Hastings, who also designed the Senate and House office buildings.

 

The next major expansion to the Capitol started in 1958, with a 33.5 feet (10.2 m) extension of the East Portico.[citation needed] During this project, the dome underwent its last restoration.[33] A marble duplicate of the sandstone East Front was built 33.5 feet (10.2 m) from the old Front. (In 1962, a connecting extension incorporated what formerly was an outside wall as an inside wall.) In the process, the Corinthian columns were removed. It was not until 1984 that landscape designer Russell Page created a suitable setting for them in a large meadow at the National Arboretum as the National Capitol Columns, where they are combined with a reflecting pool in an ensemble that reminds some visitors of Persepolis. Besides the columns, hundreds of blocks of the original stone were removed and are stored behind a National Park Service maintenance yard in Rock Creek Park.[34]

 

In 1960, the dome underwent its last restoration.[33]

National Capitol Columns at the National Arboretum (photo 2008)

 

On December 19, 1960, the Capitol was declared a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service.[35] The building was ranked #6 in a 2007 survey conducted for the American Institute of Architects' "America's Favorite Architecture" list.[36] The Capitol draws heavily from other notable buildings, especially churches and landmarks in Europe, including the dome of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican and St. Paul's Cathedral in London.[37] On the roofs of the Senate and House Chambers are flagpoles that fly the U.S. flag when either is in session. On September 18, 1993, to commemorate the Capitol's bicentennial, the Masonic ritual cornerstone laying with George Washington was reenacted. Strom Thurmond was one of the Freemason politicians who took part in the ceremony.

 

On June 20, 2000, ground was broken for the Capitol Visitor Center, which subsequently opened on December 2, 2008.[38] From 2001 through 2008, the East Front of the Capitol (site of most presidential inaugurations until Ronald Reagan began a new tradition in 1981) was the site of construction for this massive underground complex, designed to facilitate a more orderly entrance for visitors to the Capitol. Prior to the center being built, visitors to the Capitol had to queue on the parking lot and ascend the stairs, whereupon entry was made through the massive sculpted Columbus Doors, through a small narthex cramped with security, and thence directly into the Rotunda. The new underground facility provides a grand entrance hall, a visitors theater, room for exhibits, and dining and restroom facilities, in addition to space for building necessities such as an underground service tunnel.

 

$20 million in work around the base of the dome was done, and before the August 2012 recess, the Senate Appropriations Committee voted to spend $61 million to repair the exterior of the dome, which has at least 1,300 cracks that have led to rusting inside. The House wants to spend less on government operations, making it unlikely the money will be approved.[33]

Interior

Main article: United States Capitol rotunda

See also: United States Capitol Subway System

 

The Capitol building is marked by its central dome above a rotunda and two wings, one for each chamber of Congress: the north wing is the Senate chamber and the south wing is the House of Representatives chamber. Above these chambers are galleries where visitors can watch the Senate and House of Representatives. It is an example of the neoclassical architecture style. The statue on top of the dome is the Statue of Freedom.[39]

 

Underground tunnels and a private subway connect the main Capitol building with each of the Congressional office buildings in the surrounding complex. All rooms in the Capitol are designated as either S (for Senate) or H (for House), depending on whether they are north (Senate) or south (House) of the Rotunda. Additionally, all addresses in Washington, D.C. are designated NE, NW, SE, or SW, in relation to the Rotunda. Since the Capitol Rotunda is not located in the center of the District—it is slightly farther east and south—the four D.C. quadrants are not the same shape and size.

Art

The fresco painted on the interior of the Capitol's dome titled The Apotheosis of Washington was painted by Constantino Brumidi in 1865 (photo 2005)

 

The Capitol has a long history in art of the United States, beginning in 1856 with Italian/Greek American artist Constantino Brumidi and his murals in the hallways of the first floor of the Senate side of the Capitol. The murals, known as the Brumidi Corridors,[40] reflect great moments and people in United States history. Among the original works are those depicting Benjamin Franklin, John Fitch, Robert Fulton, and events such as the Cession of Louisiana. Also decorating the walls are animals, insects and natural flora indigenous to the United States. Brumidi's design left many spaces open so that future events in United States history could be added. Among those added are the Spirit of St. Louis, the Moon landing, and the Challenger shuttle crew.

 

Brumidi also worked within the Rotunda. He is responsible for the painting of The Apotheosis of Washington beneath the top of the dome, and also the famous Frieze of United States History.[41] The Apotheosis of Washington was completed in 11 months and painted by Brumidi while suspended nearly 180 feet (55 m) in the air. It is said to be the first attempt by the United States to deify a founding father. Washington is depicted surrounded by 13 maidens in an inner ring with many Greek and Roman gods and goddesses below him in a second ring. The frieze is located around the inside of the base of the dome and is a chronological, pictorial history of the United States from the landing of Christopher Columbus to the Wright Brothers's flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The frieze was started in 1878 and was not completed until 1953. The frieze was therefore painted by four different artists: Brumidi, Filippo Costaggini, Charles Ayer Whipple, and Allyn Cox. The final scenes depicted in the fresco had not yet occurred when Brumidi began his Frieze of the United States History.

Capitol Rotunda (photo 2005)

 

Within the Rotunda there are eight large paintings about the development of the United States as a nation. On the east side are four paintings depicting major events in the discovery of America. On the west are four paintings depicting the founding of the United States. The east side paintings include The Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman, The Embarkation of the Pilgrims by Robert Walter Weir, The Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell, and The Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn. The paintings on the west side are by John Trumbull: Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, and General George Washington Resigning His Commission. Trumbull was a contemporary of the United States' founding fathers and a participant in the American Revolutionary War; he painted a self-portrait into Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.

 

First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln hangs over the west staircase in the Senate wing.[42]

National Statuary Hall Collection viewed from the South (photo date unknown)[43]

 

The Capitol also houses the National Statuary Hall Collection, comprising two statues donated by each of the fifty states to honor persons notable in their histories. One of the most notable statues in the National Statuary Hall is a bronze statue of King Kamehameha donated by the state of Hawaii upon its accession to the union in 1959. The statue's extraordinary weight of 15,000 pounds (6,804 kg) raised concerns that it might come crashing through the floor, so it was moved to Emancipation Hall of the new Capitol Visitor Center. The 100th, and last statue for the collection, that of Po'pay from the state of New Mexico, was added on September 22, 2005. It was the first statue moved into the Emancipation Hall.

Features

 

Under the Rotunda there is an area known as the Crypt. It was designed to look down on the final resting place of George Washington in the tomb below. However, under the stipulations of his last will, Washington was buried at Mount Vernon, and as such the area remains open to visitors. The Crypt now houses exhibits on the history of the Capitol. A star inlaid in the floor marks the point at which Washington, D.C. is divided into its four quadrants; however, the exact center of the city lies near the White House. At one end of the room near the Old Supreme Court Chamber is a statue of John C. Calhoun. On the right leg of the statue, a mark from a bullet fired during the 1998 shooting incident is clearly visible. The bullet also left a mark on the cape, located on the back right side of the statue.

 

Eleven presidents have lain in state in the Rotunda for public viewing, most recently Gerald Ford. The tomb meant for Washington stored the catafalque which is used to support coffins lying in state or honor in the Capitol. The catafalque is now on display in the Capitol Visitors Center for the general public to see when not in use.

 

The Hall of Columns is located on the House side of the Capitol, home to twenty-eight fluted columns and statues from the National Statuary Hall Collection. In the basement of the Capitol building in a utility room are two marble bathtubs, which are all that remain of the once elaborate Senate baths. These baths were a spa-like facility designed for members of Congress and their guests before many buildings in the city had modern plumbing. The facilities included several bathtubs, a barbershop, and a massage parlor.

 

A steep, metal staircase, totaling 365 steps, leads from the basement to an outdoor walkway on top of the Capitol's dome.[44] The number of steps represents each day of the year.[45]

Height

Main article: Heights of Buildings Act of 1910

See also: The Height of Buildings Act of 1899

See also: List of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C.

 

Contrary to a popular myth, D.C. building height laws have never referenced the height of the Capitol building, which rises to 289 feet (88 m).[46] Indeed, the Capitol is only the fifth-tallest structure in Washington.

House Chamber

 

The House of Representatives Chamber has 448 permanent seats. Unlike Senators, Representatives do not have assigned seats.[47] It is adorned with relief portraits of famous lawmakers and lawgivers throughout history. Of the twenty-three relief portraits only Moses is sculpted from a full front view and is located across from the dais where the Speaker of the House ceremonially sits.

President George W. Bush delivering the annual State of the Union address in the House chamber (photo 2003)

  

There is also a quote etched in the marble of the chamber, as stated by venerable statesman Daniel Webster: "Let us develop the resources of our land, call forth its powers, build up its institutions, promote all its great interests, and see whether we also, in our day and generation, may not perform something worthy to be remembered."[49]

Senate Chamber

Main article: United States Senate Chamber

Old Supreme Court Chamber (photo 2007)

 

The current Senate Chamber opened in 1859[50] and is adorned with white marble busts of the former Presidents of the Senate (Vice Presidents).[51]

Old Supreme Court Chamber

Main article: Old Supreme Court Chamber

 

From 1800 to 1806, this room served as the Senate Chamber and from 1806 until 1860, the room was used as the Supreme Court Chamber. In 1860, the Supreme Court began using the newly vacated Old Senate Chamber. Since 1935, the Supreme Court has met in the United States Supreme Court Building.

Exterior

Grounds

See also: United States Capitol Complex

Capitol Hill and its reflection pool.

Aerial view of the Capitol Grounds from the West (photo date unknown, pre-2001)[52]

 

The Capitol Grounds cover approximately 274 acres (1.11 km²), with the grounds proper consisting mostly of lawns, walkways, streets, drives, and planting areas. Formerly, a number of monumental sculptures were located on the east facade and lawn of the Capitol including The Rescue and George Washington. The current grounds were designed by noted American landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who planned the expansion and landscaping performed from 1874 to 1892. In 1875, as one of his first recommendations, Olmsted proposed the construction of the marble terraces on the north, west, and south sides of the building that exist today.

 

Olmsted also designed the Summer House, the open-air brick building that sits just north of the Capitol. Three arches open into the hexagonal structure, which encloses a fountain and twenty-two brick chairs. A fourth wall holds a small window that looks onto an artificial grotto. Built between 1879 and 1881, the Summer House was intended to answer complaints that visitors to the Capitol had no place to sit and no place to obtain water for their horses and themselves. Modern drinking fountains have since replaced Olmsted's fountain for the latter purpose. Olmsted intended to build a second, matching Summer House on the southern side of the Capitol, but congressional objections led to the project's cancellation.

Flags

 

Up to four U.S. flags can be seen flying over the Capitol. Two flagpoles are located at the base of the dome on the East and West sides. These flagpoles have flown the flag day and night since World War I. The other two flagpoles are above the North (Senate) and South (House of Representatives) wings of the building, and fly only when the chamber below is in session. The flag above the House of Representatives is raised and lowered by House pages. The flag above the United States Senate is raised and lowered by Senate Doorkeepers. To raise the flag, Doorkeepers access the roof of the Capitol from the Senate Sergeant at Arms' office. Several auxiliary flagpoles, to the west of the dome and not visible from the ground, are used to meet congressional requests for flags flown over the Capitol.[citation needed] Constituents pay for U.S. flags flown over the Capitol to commemorate a variety of events such as the death of a veteran family member.

Major events

See also: State funerals in the United States and United States presidential inauguration

The body of former President Ronald Reagan lying in state (photo June 10, 2004)

 

The Capitol, as well as the grounds of Capitol Hill, have played host to major events, including presidential inaugurations held every four years. During an inauguration, the front of the Capitol is outfitted with a platform and a grand staircase. Annual events at the Capitol include Independence Day celebrations, and the National Memorial Day Concert.

In 1922 the US Post Office featured the US capitol on a US Postage stamp

 

The general public has paid respect to a number of individuals lying in state at the Capitol, including numerous former presidents, senators, and other officials. Other Americans lying in honor include Officers Jacob Chestnut and John Gibson, the two officers killed in the 1998 shooting incident. Chestnut was the first African American ever to lie in honor in the Capitol. The public also paid respect to civil rights icon Rosa Parks at the Capitol in 2005. She was the first woman and second African American to lie in honor in the Capitol.

Security

See also: United States Capitol shooting incident (1954), 1983 United States Senate bombing, and United States Capitol shooting incident (1998)

 

On January 30, 1835, what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting President of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol. When President Andrew Jackson was leaving the Capitol out of the East Portico after the funeral of South Carolina Representative Warren R. Davis, Richard Lawrence, an unemployed and deranged housepainter from England, either burst from a crowd or stepped out from hiding behind a column and aimed a pistol at Jackson which misfired. Lawrence then pulled out a second pistol which also misfired. It has since been postulated that the moisture from the humid weather of the day contributed to the double misfiring.[53] Lawrence was then restrained, with legend saying that Jackson attacked Lawrence with his cane, prompting his aides to restrain him. Others present, including David Crockett, restrained and disarmed Lawrence.

 

On July 2, 1915, prior to the United States' entry into World War I, Eric Muenter (aka Frank Holt), a German professor who wanted to stop American support of the Allies in World War I, exploded a bomb in the reception room of the U.S. Senate. The next morning he tried to assassinate J. P. Morgan, Jr., son of the financier, at his home on Long Island, New York. In a letter to the Washington Evening Star published after the explosion, Muenter writing under an assumed name, said he hoped that the detonation would "make enough noise to be heard above the voices that clamor for war." J.P. Morgan's company served as Great Britain's principal U.S. purchasing agent for munitions and other war supplies.

The Capitol at night (photo 2006)

 

In 1954, Puerto Rican nationalists opened fire on members of Congress from the visitors' gallery. On March 1, 1971, a bomb exploded on the ground floor of the Capitol, placed by the radical left domestic terrorist group, the Weather Underground. They placed the bomb as a demonstration against U.S. involvement in Laos. On November 7, 1983, a group called the Armed Resistance Unit claimed responsibility for a bomb that detonated in the lobby outside the office of Senate Minority Leader Robert Byrd.[54] Six people associated with the John Brown Anti-Klan Committee were later found in contempt of court for refusing to testify about the bombing.[55] In 1990, three members of the Armed Resistance Unit were convicted of the bombing, which they claimed was in response to the invasion of Grenada.[56] On July 24, 1998, Russell Eugene Weston Jr. burst into the Capitol and opened fire, killing two Capitol Police officers. The Capitol is believed to have been the intended target of the hijacked United Airlines Flight 93 on September 11, 2001, before it crashed near Shanksville in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, after passengers tried to take over control of the plane from hijackers.[57][58]

 

Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, the roads and grounds around the Capitol have undergone dramatic changes. The United States Capitol Police have also installed checkpoints to inspect vehicles at specific locations around Capitol Hill,[59][60] and have closed a section of one street indefinitely.[60] The level of screening employed varies. On the main east-west thoroughfares of Constitution and Independence Avenues, barricades are implanted in the roads that can be raised in the event of an emergency. Trucks larger than pickups are interdicted by the Capitol Police and are instructed to use other routes. On the checkpoints at the shorter cross streets, the barriers are typically kept in a permanent "emergency" position, and only vehicles with special permits are allowed to pass. All Capitol visitors are screened by a magnetometer, and all items that visitors may bring inside the building are screened by an x-ray device. In both chambers, gas masks are located underneath the chairs in each chamber for members to use in case of emergency.[citation needed] Structures ranging from scores of Jersey barriers to hundreds of ornamental bollards have been erected to obstruct the path of any vehicles that might stray from the designated roadways.[61]

Capitol Visitor Center

Opening ceremony of the Capitol Visitor Center, December 2008. The plaster cast model of the Statue of Freedom is in the foreground.

Main article: United States Capitol Visitor Center

 

The underground, three-level, 580,000-square-foot (54,000 m2) United States Capitol Visitor Center (CVC) opened on December 2, 2008. The CVC is meant to bring all visitors in through one handicap accessible security checkpoint, yards away from the Capitol itself, increasing security and offering visitors educational exhibits, a food court, and restrooms. The estimated final cost of constructing the CVC was US$621 million.[62] The project had long been in the planning stages, but the 1998 killings of two Capitol Police officers provided the impetus to start work. Construction began in the fall of 2001.

 

Critics say that security improvements have been the least of the project's expense. Construction delays and added features by Congress added greatly to the cost. Citizens Against Government Waste have called the CVC a "Monument to Waste".[63] However many, including those who work in the Capitol, consider it a necessary and appropriate historical project. It is located completely underground, though skylights provide views of the Capitol dome.

She was one of the toughest, most resourceful gals I ever knew. She grew up in an orphanage during the midst of the Great Depression. When her husband died and left her with two children to feed, she decided to stay at home and she began to take in alterations. She made cheerleader uniforms, drum major uniforms, men's suits and elegant dresses all by looking at a picture and making patterns out of newspaper. Our home was her workshop, and she had a constant stream of clients coming in to be fitted for garments. She always wanted a Singer sewing machine, but she was content with the one she ordered from Montgomery Wards. She told me Singers were the best. They were durable and needed little adjustment or maintenance. As a boy I learned to maintain her sewing machines. She had several, each set to different types of fabric, because she always had three or four jobs going at once.

 

It's strange what we carry on from our parents. Today, I own and use six different Nikon cameras. They may not be the newest, but they are tough, purpose driven equipment, each set for different conditions with different lenses. Like Mom's sewing machines.

 

When I purchased the building that houses Studio d'Xavier it contained twelve sewing machines and one blind stitch manchine. All but one of them were Singers. How she would have loved to be working with that equipment. Although I needed the room, I could not bring myself to dispose of the machines, either tossing them out or by selling them. I learned to sew from my mother, but I have little time for that now. So I saved the sewing machines, moving them to the back storage room of the studio. Upstairs in my office sits an industrial strength Singer that will sew canvas tarps if need be. Every once in a while, at night, I turn it on and press the electric treadle. The needle hums and the feed dogs and shuttle chatters away as it plays the music that put me to sleep long ago. That sound, more than anything else, reminds me of my mother.

 

We're Here! : Your Mother's Life

 

Running out of ideas for your 365 project? Join We're Here!

 

Strobist: AB1600 with gridded 60X30 softbox camera right. Reflector camera left. AB800 open behind backdrop of white faux suede. Triggered by Cybersync.

 

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Day 353 of 365, Tuesday, April 30, 2013 ---------------------

 

Yesterday I posted a tiny tag of local history about Cement City that was incomplete and a bit confusing. I defend myself with the excuse it was Monday, it was hot, and I was tired. And really, I thought I was the only person who could possibly be interested in an old cement plant in Fairfield. Perhaps I was wrong. Tonight I went back to a different part of the area to capture the only visible remnant I know of – the old rock crusher sometimes referred to as “The Castle”. Here is more of the story, expanded from last night to include a middle and an ending.

 

From 1902 to 1927, Pacific Portland Cement Company operated a company town called Cement City, where up to 1,000 people resided northeast of Fairfield. The cement plant is said to have been one of the largest manufacturing plants on the West Coast. There was a very grand hotel, as well as a school, hospital, jail, fire station, post office, grocery, bakery, livery stable, telephone office, and even a power plant.

 

It was a “company town” in the historical tradition of mining towns. Pacific Portland owned the businesses, services, the cottage dwellings people called home, and the land on which they stood. Business transactions, such as purchases from the grocer or the hotel bar, could be made in company-issued script. Health care and electricity were provided free of charge.

 

Employee turnover was high because of the polluted conditions. Respiratory ailments were common, especially among the men who worked in the crushing-operation area, pictured above. Crude oil was used for incinerating the elements. The smokestacks spouted a hazy cloud of smoke around the hill that was tinted green.

 

In 1927 Cement City ceased to function as a manufacturing center. The supply of rock and clay in the area was exhausted to the point that it was no longer economical to dig, and the company made arrangements to relocate to Redwood City, south of San Francisco. The company sold their land for $100,000 and auctioned individual buildings, which had to be removed from the land. Buildings that were not sold were destroyed.

 

In the years since the few remaining traces of Cement City have gradually disappeared. Modern housing development has covered the old sites, and anything left behind, like “The Castle”, is on private land behind fences. It is interesting however that the area around present-day Cement Hill Road is home to a couple of smaller scale cement companies still in operation.

 

The information for my little tale came from bits and pieces of history I have read since coming to Fairfield, but the particular details related above can be found at these links:

 

www.solanohistorycenter.org/features/

 

www.solanoarticles.com/history/index.php/weblog2/more/cem...

   

19.03.2010

 

When we were at school we used to always call clumpy mascara spider legs. Mine's only clumpy because I just got out the shower...and realised I hadn't taken a photo today. Feeling a bit demotivated with the 365 now that the d700 purchase will have to be delayed. Maybe I'll play the lottery tomorrow in the hope that I win one of the small prizes. If I'm not greedy maybe the lottery god will look kindly upon me!

 

In more amusing news, someone posted an ad in Auto Trader for a Fiat and left my mobile number as a contact. Got another wrong number today but completely unrelated...so I've got two people out there with similar numbers that don't know how to give them out right.

 

A year ago today the daffs were out.

History of Bristol Eye Hospital

 

1810 - Foundation of Bristol Eye Hospital

 

Interest in founding an eye hospital in Bristol was stimulated by the influx of Egyptian Ophthalmia into the country during the Napoleonic wars and the notable success achieved in dealing with this disease at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London in 1805 and Exeter Eye Infirmary in 1808.

 

The Eye Hospital's founder, Dr William Henry Goldwyer, negotiated the use of a house in Lower Maudlin Street, one of several properties owned by the Blind Asylum. Known as The Institution for the Cure of Disease of the Eye Amongst the Poor, the hospital was run by a superintendent, Mrs Dorothea Hughes, at a salary of £10 per annum, and she lived there with her husband who assisted with general duties in exchange for his lodgings.

 

The hospital was funded mainly by annual subscription together, with collection boxes in churches, places of employment and at the offices of societies such as the Foresters, Oddfellows, the Druids and the Amalgamated Friendly Societies.

 

1839 - Hospital purchased from the Blind Asylum

 

The hospital was becoming too small and a newly appointed surgeon, Mr Francis Richardson Cross, convinced the hospital committee of the need to expand, so the adjacent houses were purchased. The hospital buildings were continually improved in the subsequent years: 1895 saw the installation of the telephone and electricity was installed in 1904.

 

1898 - Further properties bought

 

Properties in Blackfriars, Harford and Lower Maudlin Streets were bought and then demolished over the next 20 years. Further extension of the hospital was first proposed in 1923 and finally agreed in 1931.

 

1935 - New hospital completed

 

The new hospital was completed in June 1935 at a cost of £47,365 and was opened by the Duchess of Beaufort on 21 October 1935. The old houses became the Nurses Home.

 

1948 - National Health Service introduced

 

This year saw the birth of the National Health Service and the Eye Hospital became part of the Bristol and Weston Health Authority.

 

1982 - Building demolished

 

Once again the hospital had outgrown itself and the old building was demolished to make way to the one we know today. The hospital decamped for four years to the Bristol Homoeopathic Hospital, St Michaels Hill, Cotham.

 

1986 - Present hospital completed

 

The present hospital was completed and opened by the Rt. Hon. The Lord Mayor of Bristol, Councillor Joan Jones on 30th July 1986. The old houses are still in use as offices and meeting rooms. Five splendid sculptured brick panels decorated the front of this building and depict the theme creation. They were carved by the eminent sculptor Walter Ritchie (1919-1997).

i have a naughty little habit of purchasing things long before i will ever use them. this is a stack of not-yet-used journals that i have picked up. fresh, empty journals just have that come hither look at the store and i can't help myself. i am the same way with books, scrapbooking supplies, and fabric (and i still can't figure out how to sew : )

this is a photo from my office. i'm not sure who else has a boss who would buy you a bag of ball pit balls because you had requested a giant ball pit for the newly built office building....but....it's pretty awesome.

 

strong man is pleased by this purchase.

2013 update: this photograph of mine has been featured in Children of the Can 2 (an excellent title published by Tangent Books about Bristol Graffiti and its history).

 

________________________________

 

Well I guess finally my late night clubbing antics have come in handy. I'm not an early morning person but i'm such a late night person that sunrise is a definite option!

 

I was planning on going to bed when I realised that the sun was coming up and i'd planned this shot for a while but had not yet bought a tripod. Now, no tripod, no excuse.

 

I really wanted to do this justice, because this really is The Daddy of all Bristol's urban decay. Westmoreland House, derelict for longer than I've been alive. The absolute epitome of urban decay. Mindblowingly HUGE, dead city central, and just a stone's throw from our new fancy ass shopping district.

 

HISTORY....for those interested....

 

Westmoreland House is an office building that was damaged by fire and abandoned in 1969. Since then, seven people have died in it. It is privately owned by the same man Luke Comer (chairman of Comer Homes) who owned Tollgate House, an office block that lay derelict for nearly 10 years until it was bought under a Compulsary Purchase Order by the council and demolished for the new Cabot Circus shopping centre development.

 

Apparently the guy wants to develop it into flats, which hasn't been approved. Planning applications come and go....and meanwhile big old Westmoreland House just sits here decaying further...year on year...

 

_______________________________

 

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when I got to work this morning - this was in front of my office door!

 

one of my co-workers had purchased him and I asked her to bring it in so I could shoot him, however, I wasn't expecting him to greet me! He's made of scrap metal!

 

33:365

 

msh0412-17 Scrap

p-мinusTen Nine Eight Seven Six Five Four Three Two ∞ One

 

Good morninggggg pimp fans! Everyone please give a warm welcome to special guest speaker Sherlock Fedora. Detective Fedora, who has come all the way from Scotland to speak for us, will be initiating number 7 of the p-мinus countdown.

It is simplicity itself... My eyes tell me that you are on picture number 359. Obviously there is a state of confusion among this online community being that today’s date is May 26th, 2010. Yet this very picture of the man with the fedora hat and it’s odd reflection was taken on November 30th, 2009. Hence, you see, my initial double deduction is that you had cheated us when this picture did not get posted that same day. But your method of waiting almost 6 full months has proven wisely dear boy.

 

Elementary, my dear pimp!

 

--

 

Holy shit! I’ve turned my fedora into a top hat. In the reflection at least.

 

I think I own like 6 or 7 fedoras, and I’m always looking to add to my collection. Before I started this project, I only owned one. Quickly I began to realize that fedoras, or more specifically brimmed hats, make for fucking excellent self-portraits.

 

On most days, I would have a pack of smokes and at least 2 or 3 different fedoras with me in my car as the bare minimum ensemble to take my daily shot. In the colder months, I also brought several suit coat jackets just so I could mix’n’match. And there were other on the fly variables that I could change out in seconds with me at all times like type of eyewear, a different t-shirt, etc.

 

But no accessory really can even come close to the fedora in terms of transforming me back and forth day after day. It adds this element of inscrutability to a photo that is unmet without it.

 

You know I used to call them “old man hats” when I was younger. Does this mean I am an old man now? I found a couple grey hairs in my hair the other day. Unlike the formally mentioned slight wrinkles, I actually got a little excited about the grey hairs. Not really sure why, but I was.

 

The shot at hand? I had planned on taking one of my 365 day shots in this conference room with that radical table during the whole project. With only a couple days left, I knew I had to finally bang it out if I wanted that idea to ensue. So I grabbed the babe and went to the office late at night and snapped a few shots. The crazy whacked out reflection effect was thought of during post-edit.

 

Location: the conference room at my work; Alameda, California

Taken: November 30th, 2009

Posted: May 26th, 2010

*=lapse

**=continued from pimpexposure

Press "L" to view large, "F" to add as favourite if you like it.

 

The office building known as "The Vase" - the architecture is inspired by the Finnish Aalto vases - reflected in a puddle.

 

All rights reserved. If you're interested in purchasing my image, please check my profile page for info.

Elevation of this entrance to Yellowstone National Park is at 7,365 ft.

 

After camping the night along Rock Creek between Red Lodge, Montana and Yellowstone National Park (northeast entrance), I drove the Beartooth Pass highway (hwy 212) at dawn, to watch the new day arrive at 10.947 ft. That is lots of smoke from "managed" forest fires in the area.

 

Beartooth Pass is one of my favorite highways to drive and even with the forest fire smoke, I enjoyed the route.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

THE CIRQUE OF THE TOWERS Backpacking Trip: September 7th through 9th 2012

Wind River Mountain Range - Wyoming

 

PREFACE:

 

I often write a "story" to go along with the photographs I post on my OLDMANTRAVELS flickr site. I can get pretty wordy and long winded with these stories but the beauty of the situation is you don't have to read one word of it if you don't want to. Just look at the photographs (if you want to).

 

On occasion I have received some flip Flickr flak for my long photo "stories" but, trust me, I am adept and ignoring criticism. Ask any of my photographer friends who try to talk me into using a tripod or even try to become a "real" photographer (instead of a hiker who likes to snap pictures).

 

So, you may be sitting in a work cubicle in a high rise office in L.A., wishing you were any where else in the world but preferably up in the mountains with a pack on your back. You may sitting in an easy chair in your ranch house in Halfway, Wyoming (I want to go there some day, just to say I have been there) looking at flickr photos on your PC or surfing flickr photos on your iPad in a cafe in Halfway, Oregon (I have been there. Cool little town).

 

But wherever you are, be it Halfway,Anywhere or Alltheway, Somewhere - I hope you enjoy some of the photographs and perhaps, some of the story that goes with them. Have fun.

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

Fred and I put together a backpacking trip into Titcomb Basin, in the Northern portion of Wyoming's Wind River Range for September of 2011. With Fred's consent, my brother and a friend of mine, accompanied us on that backpacking trip. We backpacked 27 miles over four days and had spectacular weather. No bugs and very few people. In fact, we pretty much had Upper and Lower Titcomb Lakes to ourselves.

 

The September 2011 Titcomb Basin backpack, was the first time Fred and I had hiked together. We got along great so it was only natural to plan a "follow up hike". During the always long, with short days, winter or 2011-12, we exchanged emails and it became evident that both of us longed for a return trip to the Wind River Range. So early in the year of 2012, we set our sights on the Cirque of the Towers, located in the Southern portion of the Wind River Range. The planning began in earnest.

 

For our 2012 backpacking trip, we invited Fred's sister, whom I shall call "SQ". Fred had told me about her before. He claimed that she was an excellent hiker, backpacker and outdoors person and would be fun to have on our backpacking trip. He was 100% right.

 

Both Fred and SQ both work (they aren't old living on government dole like me) so we set the Cirque of the Towers backpacking trip dates for Friday 9.6.12; Saturday 9.7.12; and Sunday 9.8.12. Weekends might mean more people on the trails but for good company on a backpacking trip, that didn't bother me...so subject to a "reasonable" weather forecast, those are the days we picked.

 

When we got we got within a ten day weather forecast window of our backpacking trip and the forecast looked good, the three of us agreed to "go for it". We all reserved cabins at the Log Cabin Motel in Pinedale, Wyoming for Thursday night September 6th. Our plan would be to head for the Big Sandy trail head on Friday morning - - backpacks loaded and ready.

 

As a shiftless (you could add lazy, stubborn, and unconventional to that) retiree, who no longer works (my wife still works part time), I was free to drive down to the trail head and return back home, at my own whims and predilections. Early on, my wife and I agreed not to include her on this particular backpacking trip as we didn't know how "tough or easy" the route up Jackass Pass (10,800') might be and it would be difficult to get the right days off in September.

 

"THE STORY" DAY ONE: I left our home in Eastern Washington at four in the morning. I had our small, old, high mileage SUV packed with both my backpacking gear and "road travel" gear. It had been packed and double checked, the night before.

 

As with any road trip or hike, the earlier I get going the better I like it. I'm like a kid in that respect. Can't wait.

 

I drove the interstate (I-90) east and at a steady pace. My goal was to reach a camping spot anywhere between Red Lodge, Montana and the Beartooth Pass, leading into the Northeast entrance of Yellowstone National Park.

 

I stayed on I-90 all the way through Spokane, Missoula, Three Forks, Bozeman, and the small town of Columbus, Montana. Here I left the interstate and purposefully drove a highway I had never traveled before. I took Montana highway 78 through Abarokee and "downtown" Roscoe to Red Lodge, Montana.

 

My plan was to camp between Red Lodge and Northeast entrance to Yellowstone NP, so I could travel the spectacular Beartooth Pass highway, right at dawn. My wife and I had tried to travel the pass a few years ago (from south to north) but it was closed so we improvised an took the scenic highway 296 highway to Cody, Wyoming on that trip. But it had been many years since last crossing the Beartooth Pass (10,947') and I was anxious to do so again.

 

There was a problem and that was forest fires. Whether started by lightening, careless people, or on purpose as "managed" fires as they call them, the smoke can diminish the scenic beauty of an area quickly and I had driven through lots of such wildfire smoke on this trip already.

 

I found an excellent place to camp just as dark started to arrive. I backed my old RAV4 up to within a stone's toss of the rumbling creek (Rock Creek) and slept in the bed I had prepared in the back of the old Toyota RAV4 with 150,000 miles on it. Breaking camp the next morning would consist of crawling from the bed in the back to the driver's seat and starting the engine (followed closely by turning the heat to high and the fan to full).

 

"THE STORY" DAY TWO: I arrived at the summit of Beartooth Pass at dawn. As I suspected and feared, the forest fire smoke filtered the landscape views and at times irritated my eyes. Still, I enjoyed every minute of the drive. It is big, spectacular country and I kept reminding myself that forest fires were as much a part of the grand scheme of Mother Nature, as were winds, rain, four seasons, and flowing rivers and streams.

 

I stopped to take a few photos at "Little Bear Lake" and then continued on through Cooke City and Silver Gate into Yellowstone. I drove slowly through Yellowstone, admiring the wildlife (bison, pronghorn, elk, deer, and sandhill cranes) and the scenery. Dunraven Pass had lots of wildfire smoke so I didn't linger there. On through Canyon Village then Lake Village exiting the park on highway 191.

 

Entering Grand Teton National Park on the venerable highway 191 route, I decided to stray from convention and loop over to Jenny Lake, a place I had not visited for many years. So at the south end of Jackson Lake, I took the Teton Park Road to the Jenny Lake visitor center. Lots of people. The tent camp was already full so I spent some quality time talking to a young lady park ranger, with a map spread out in front of us, talking about any places I might camp that night, that wouldn't be full. She recommended Gros Ventre camp, so off I went.

 

At Moose Junction I turned back north on hwy 191 to Antelope Flats Road and headed east. I went past the north end of "Mormon Row" but didn't take time to stop as I wanted most of all to secure a campsite for the night. I then took the paved narrow two lane road south to Kelly (a small "pocket town" on the Gros Ventre River), and turned back west to the Gros Ventre campground. On the way I passed the south end of the gravel road that travels the Mormon Row barns and homesteads, so I now had the lay of the land in my mind.

 

Two women at the campground office worked at finding me a campsite for the night that would lend itself to my goal of a quiet night's sleep with an early morning departure. They put me up at site #199 in Loop "D" for a modest "senior's rate" camp fee. It turned out perfect. My only camping neighbor was a nice couple from Emmett, Idaho, who were in a truck camper and as they said "prepared to camp until the leaves changed color". I liked that.

 

Having secured (posted my receipt on the campsite post) my camping spot for the night, I drove the gravel road north to enjoy the much photographed old buildings of Mormon Row

The places along this row of farms were built in the 1910s up into the early 1930s. The people, who lived here were mostly the Moultons, some Chambers, Thomas Murphy and Thomas Perry. Many of the buildings are gone and all that remain are now part of the national park system. The views of the Grand Teton Mountains from these old buildings are spectacular.

 

After taking some smoke filtered landscape photos at Mormon Row, I was hungry. I carried and ice chest full of cold soda pop and a well stocked plastic tote of sandwich making material, so I drove north up to the Snake River Overlook (a place my wife and I have often stopped at when driving highway 191 through Grand Teton NP).

 

Here I fixed and ate dinner, walked the rim of the Snake River and waited with others for the sun to set behind the Grand Teton range. Now I began to appreciate the forest fire smoke in the area as the sky turned bright orange and pink behind the mountains as the sun disappeared behind them. Well worth the wait. After the sunset scene, I drove back to my campsite, read John Muir's "Travels in Alaska" by LED headlamp, and fell blissfully asleep.

 

"THE STORY" DAY THREE: This was an uneventful, slow paced, rest up, organize, and get ready for the backpacking trip day. Enjoyable.

 

I drove the Moose Entrance to Wilson "scenic road" for the first time. The north end had some good "moose country" habitat and it was an enjoyable drive, but even early in the morning don't expect solitude. It is a popular route. Postscript: I didn't see a single moose along the MOOSE to Wilson road (which reminds me of a joke):

 

Said a well traveled young man: "I spent an entire week on the Canary Islands and during my entire stay, I didn't see one canary. I then traveled to the Virgin Islands for a week long visit there as well. And you know what? ..................... I didn't see a single canary there either.".

 

I stocked up on "hiking food" (scones) at the Albertson store in Jackson Hole, Wyoming then drove on to Hoback Junction and on to Pinedale, Wyoming. I checked into my cabin there and started organizing my backpacking gear, making sandwiches for the backpacking trip, reading, relaxing and hoping that Fred and SQ would arrive without problems from there homes in the Boise, Idaho area.

 

Fred called me by cell phone at 1:30 pm on Thursday and said that they were "on their way" with an ETA of around 9:30 pm (which is about when they arrived). Fred came to my cabin when they got to Pinedale (SQ went directly to her cabin) and the two of us talked about the upcoming hike plans and agreed upon when we would leave Pinedale in the morning.

  

"THE STORY" DAY FOUR: We drove to the Subway for our last "civilization" meal for a few days, then headed off to the Big Sandy trailhead. In some hiking guide books, they make finding the correct turns to make as complicated and difficult. We found quite the contrary. There are just two major turns to make after leaving the pavement on Wyoming highway 353. They aren't hard to find. The dirt roads are in great shape except the last ten miles (when you make the last turn north). There it is pretty rough in places but the scenery and anticipation of the high quality hiking to come, makes it a cinch as well.

 

We signed in at the trail head, shouldered our backpacks and headed up the 5.5 mile trail (with only 600 ft. of elevation gain) to Big Sandy Lake. Fred is a strong hiker and a professional photographer (in addition to his professional "day job"). So it is difficult for him to leave a tripod, camera body, or lens ... behind. SQ whispered to me that he was able to leave his wooden pin hole camera behind on this hike but he took it with him on our September 2011 Titcomb Basin hike.

 

Fred always carries the biggest and heaviest pack but he knows what he is capable of and takes the cameras, lenses, and photographic equipment it takes to get the professional results he does with his photography.

 

SQ had the next biggest and heaviest pack. She too is a strong competent hiker and backpacker and as Fred once warned me "She will out hike us both"...she did. So we put SQ in the lead and asked her to slow down if she saw us "fading" on the trail.

 

I'm the wimp. I carried the lightest load of the three of us. And here comes the first of a couple of backpacking vignettes: Leading up to our backpacking trip, Fred and I exchanged emails dithering and deliberating over how to save weight to carry on our backpacking trip.

This meant all was subject to being left behind , except camera gear for Fred (of course).

 

We both decided that with the favorable weather forecast, for example, we could leave rain pants behind. Nylon hiking pant and long poly prop underwear would handle that issue for me. Then the topic came up of "bear vaults". Both Fred and I have each owned one for years but NEVER has either of us used ours. Hell they weigh TWO pounds each and they are bulky. Besides, we are real men. We can hang our food properly in a bear bag over a cliff or on an sturdy tree limb. So went the thinking.

 

When I confirmed by phone that bear vaults weren't mandatory in the Wind River Range, Fred and I gleefully agreed that we would leave ours at home. Well you have probably already figured out the punch line. given our situation of "the beauty" (SQ) hiking with "the two beasts" (Fred and me). SQ brought her bear vault and Fred and I shamelessly made use of the bear vault SQ packed all the way to Big Sandy Lake in her large heavy backpack.

 

We leap frogged a few backpackers on our way up to Big Sandy Lake. Two women and their four pack carrying dogs became our instant trail favorites. We would run into each other on the backpack into Big Sandy Lake; on the trail coming out of the Cirque of the Towers on Saturday and at least twice on our backpack out to the trail head on Sunday.

 

The four happy hiking trail dogs were a real study in different dog personalities. Walter, was the smallest, slightest built dog of the four and clearly liked to lead. He was also the most affectionate to trail strangers (like us) and seemed to be having the most fun. He was a mutt, as many smart endearing dogs are and a mix between a beagle and Australian shepherd. The other three were magnificent purebred German Shepherds.

 

Walter was always "first up the trail". He made friends quickly with his adorable expression and straight forward manner. As soon as the three German Shepherds saw how well Walter was being petted and scratched behind his ears...they lined up and competed for attention.

 

Almost 75% of the people we saw hiking in and out of Big Sandy Lake had dogs with them and I can tell you that every dog we passed was well mannered and friendly. They were welcome trail companions in my book.

 

The three of us arrived at Big Sandy Lake and were impressed by both the appeal of the lake and the dramatic mountains that surround it. It is a truly lovely lake. I think if any of us had hiked the Cirque of the Towers trail up over Jackass Pass before, and seen the available "best tent sites" in the area, we might have continued to hike there on Friday. We had enough daylight. But with a wind and clouds rolling in at the moment, we decided it would be best to secure a good camping spot at the far end of Big Sandy Lake and then do our exploring with day hikes to the Cirque of the Towers and later to the Clear Lake & Deep Lake - East Temple Peak area - - if we had time.

 

That decided, we set up our three small lightweight backpacking tents in a well spaced row up the left bank of the almost dry creek bed of Lost Creek. The spacing would assure that SQ would not have to lose a night's sleep listening to two world class snorers (Fred and I have our reputations to uphold in that classification). SQ took the top site up close to the marmot's boulder field; then Fred's tent; then mine. We all had quality views of Sandy Mountain; Big Sandy Lake; Haystack and East Temple peaks.

 

Our intent was to spend both Friday and Saturday nights at our Big Sandy Lake/Lost Creek "base camp". Then we could spend all of our time hiking our favorite trails with light day packs (though with Fred's camera gear, I'm pretty certain his day pack load would be close to my entire backpack load in weight). This is what we did and it worked out great.

 

We ate camp dinner and talked for awhile and took a couple of short "reconnaissance" hikes close by camp. We now had a feel for the "Miller Lake/Little Sandy Lake" trail; the Clear Lake/Deep Lake trail; the Black Joe Lake trail as well as the trail junction for the hike up past North Lake and Arrowhead Lake, over Jackass Pass and into the spectacular Cirque of the Towers area.

 

We all retired to our tents for the night. I had brought along a copy of the Sep+Oct 2012 Washington Trails magazine for camp reading. The magazine came with membership in the Washington Trails Association that was "gifted" to me by a good hiking friend of mine, HC.

 

I turned on my LED headlamp and opened up the magazine. There on page three was a familiar name: Andy Porter. He was listed as a "guest contributor". He is a flickr contact of mine and he does indeed take excellent photographs. It seemed ironic, that I had written one person about a waterfall location, in the Cirque area between Hidden and Lonesome Lake, and that was Andy. He was quick to send me a Flickr email back with information that I requested. His Flickr site is: I8Seattle.

 

A quick side note: Flickr has been a wonderful resource for me when researching upcoming hikes and road trips. I really appreciate people like Andy, who willingly share information. I always write to thank people for their help. Some people sent me a flickr email a couple of months ago asking for camping information for the Titcomb Basin hike and some specific camp location questions. I wrote them providing what they asked, and never heard another word. There are people that are "takers" out there, who think nothing of requesting information then are too lazy (or rude) to send a two word reply back. Thank you.

 

Thanks Andy for the "waterfalls" info. Thanks too "HC" for the WTA membership gift and the Trails magazine that comes with it.

 

"THE STORY" DAY FIVE: Fred, the professional photographer, wanted to head up the 2+ mile trail over Jackass Pass before dawn, hiking with a headlamp. I told him I would be happy to join him and asked that he call for me outside my tent if he got up before I did.

 

SQ, who doesn't carry a camera but instead hikes to see and enjoy the scenery, said she would sleep in Saturday morning and start up the trail when she had something to eat and was good and ready. I hope you are starting to get the picture here. A competent smart woman hiker and her brother and her brother's hiking friend (me) that can't seem to wait to get going .. no matter what.

 

What happened Saturday morning? I got up at six. I went over to Fred's tent and said in a nice strong voice "Fred, Fred...Fred". No response. I headed down where we had placed SQ's Bear Vault (filled equally with her food, our food, and our camp food garbage). My intent was to open the bear vault and get some hiking food for my day hike up into the Cirque of the Towers.

 

The lid of the bear vault was iced over and try as I might I couldn't get it open. I squeezed the lid in; wrestled with it; cursed it; but could not open it. I admit to being shamed in knowing that a black bear in the Adirondack Mountains has learned to open the blasted things..yet I could not.

 

I decided with my ample "fat reserve" that I could make it without food for my day hike over and back to the Cirque of the Towers. I threw a couple bottles of diet Mt. Dew (my caffeine fix) in my pack; two small cameras (Canon G9 & G10) a few essentials and a coat, into my light Marmot "day pack" and got ready to head out.

 

Then I noticed that Fred's pack wasn't in sight. So I returned to his tent and called his name a few more times then opened the rain fly of his tent to find him gone.

 

I now concluded correctly that: #1 he had left before dawn and had been unable to stir me from my sleep. AND #2 incorrectly that Fred too had been unable to open the bear vault so he too would be hiking without trail food. I thought the ice and frost on the bear vault lid proved that but I was wrong. Fred (like the black bear in the Adirondacks) did get the vault open but had left so early that a new coating of ice and frost had formed on the lid by the time I tried it. Off I went.

 

It was light enough for me to hike easily without a headlamp up the Cirque of the Towers trail. It did get tough to find the route in a couple of places though and the trail was much more work that I thought it would be so it took a little longer than I might have guessed. I was just amazed that Fred had been able to successfully negotiate the route in the dark, even with a good map and headlamp, given that none of the three of us had ever hiked in the area.

 

I saw Fred's boot prints on the occasional dirt or sand portion of the trail. I just didn't know how early he had left camp, nor how fast or slow he might be hiking, given his load of camera gear.

 

I won't try to describe how magnificent the scenery was on this hike and I hope a photo or two of mine does some justice to it, but my head was constantly on swivel enjoying the ever unfolding beauty of this world class rock climbing area.

 

After a few steep ups and downs in the cairn marked trail, I came to a four way trail intersection above Arrowhead Lake. To my left a faint path lead down to the north end of Arrowhead Lake. to my right was a straight up the hill wide, heavily eroded, rock strewn trail that was clearly the route to Jackass pass (10,800 ft.).

 

Straight ahead was a faint but inviting "climbers' path" that led up to a notched saddle, that I just knew would have a tremendous view of the Cirque, the rock faces, and the landscape as the morning sun was starting to move down the rock faces. I chose to take the path straight ahead.

 

Coming over the crest of the saddle and looking down below at the Cirque and across at all the tremendous spires, faces, and peaks of the Cirque of the Towers was the most dramatic moment of this trip. Wonderful. Beyond words.

 

Right in the middle of the Cirque was "the waterfalls" I wanted to visit and photograph. It was right where Andy Porter said it would be. I could follow the creek down from Hidden Lake (not labeled on all maps you will see of the area) and then see it as it flowed down over the falls and on into the Lonesome Lake basin.

 

I studied the topography of the cirque basin for awhile and picked a line of travel that would avoid tight patches of alpine conifers and the boulder fields that might slow my progress. I had lots of choices and I sat off on what looked like the "best route" down to the waterfalls.

 

The waterfalls are small but their setting makes them dramatic. While at the falls I saw a few rock climbers making their way to Pingora or Wolf Head or some other peak of the Cirque of the Towers, with their rock climbing gear slung across their shoulders.

 

I met a retired backpacker from Kellogg, Idaho, who was camped a ways down stream from the waterfalls. He had his binoculars out and was getting ready to watch the rock climber ply their avocation and skills.

 

I contoured from the waterfalls over to intercept the trail between Lonesome Lake and Jackass Pass. No sign of Fred anywhere but I just knew wherever he was he had a big grin on his face and was happily following photo op after photo op. I knew he was in his element.

 

When I got to the main trail, without losing any altitude, it was a short hike up over Jackass Pass, heading south. Quietly I hoped I could hike fast enough to get back to camp at Big Sandy Lake, eat something (I was determined to get into the Yogi Bear proof bear vault) then head out for a hike to one or more of the lakes down by Temple Mountain.

 

Between Arrowhead Lake and North Lake, on the trail on my way back to Big Sandy Lake camp, I saw SQ coming up the trail at a nice even brisk pace. We hadn't talked much up to this point but there is something about a "side of the trail" talk, that brings out topic after topic.

 

When she found out I hadn't been able to get into the "anybody can do it" (except me), bear vault she started throwing food out of her day pack, insisting that I eat something of hers. I didn't have the heart to eat any of her precious trail chocolate but willingly ate one of her mini-bagel peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.

 

We talked on and on and every few minutes, hikers or climber going in or out of the Cirque of the Towers would stop by and the conversation would expand in topic and in number of participants. What fun.

 

Then we looked down the trail and saw a familiar face coming up the trail. It was "Walter the wonder dog" the trail beagle/Australian shepherd mix, sweetheart of a dog. He seemed to recognize us and made a bee line over for some ear scratching and encouraging "dog talk". He may have also spotted SQ's trail snacks.

 

A much repeated trail ritual ensued with Walter's big German Shepherd companions appearing on the trail The moment they spotted Walter getting attention they once again lined up for their share. The two women, who owned the dogs (by now regular "trail friends") came up too and another animated trail information sessions began again. They told me of how much they had enjoyed the granite slab rock hike between Deep and Clear Lakes, so that nugget of information lodged in my mind.

 

Finally SQ and I headed our different ways. She headed up toward Jackass Pass (armed with my recommendation for at least sampling the "climbers' trail" to the notch). She would find Fred and probably the two of them would spend the rest of the day in the Cirque of the Towers area. I expressed my wish to eat at camp; secure food; and then head south from Big Sandy Lake to hike the Clear Lake/Deep Lake slab stone route OR the entire loop if I found I had time (returning down the Miller Lake route).

 

By 1:30 pm I had successfully opened the bear vault back at "base camp" and had a big lunch. I packed my day pack with more water and my water filter and readied for a day hike toward Temple Mountain. I left an irreverent note for Fred and SQ in the bear vault, so they would know what time I headed out and what my intended destination would be.

 

More hikers and backpackers were now arriving at Big Sandy Lake. That came as no surprise to me given the great weather and it being a Saturday. What did surprise me is that when I took off on the trail up to Clear Lake, I didn't see another person or backpacking tent, until I had hiked up to Deep Lake and returned to Clear Lake. Then, and only then did I run into a few hikers.

 

The hike up the granite slab rock between Clear Lake and Deep Lake was the most enjoyable section of "trail" that I have hiked in the Wind River Range. I just loved it. The steep white granite walls of Haystack and East Temple Mountain were tremendous sights.

 

When I looked at my hiking maps the route from Clear to Deep Lake was obvious so I ignored the cairns and any trails wandering in and out of the woods and just hiked the slab rock to my heart's content. It was really great hiking.

 

I lingered at Deep Lake to filter some water (tasted great), and just enjoy the outstanding views. I was tempted to hang around or perhaps hike on over to Temple Lake so I could be at Deep Lake when the pink early evening light started to hit East Temple Peak. But I thought it best to return the way I came and get back to Big Sandy Lake "base camp" in time to have a early evening meal with Fred & SQ, who would likely be returning from the Cirque of the Towers at around the same time.

 

The weather forecast for Sunday was a 20% chance of rain, which according to hikers coming in, had jumped up to 30%. Fred and SQ had the two plus hour backpack out from Big Sandy Lake to the trail head to do Sunday morning; then a two plus hour drive to Pinedale; then an 8 hour trip back home to Boise - - to be ready for work Monday morning.

 

When the three of us ended up together at our tents at our Big Sandy Lake "base camp" we all agreed to "sleep in" then head out together first thing Sunday morning. Saturday night was a still star filled night. It was a great way to finish out this backpacking trip. We all went to sleep with our own thoughts.

 

"THE STORY" DAY SIX: We all got up the next morning about the same time. Without words we immediately ate something and started striking our tents and packing our packs. Ice had formed on the inside of my rain fly as I had slept with the rain fly door wide open. Still I wouldn't have missed the night view of the stars.

 

At 8 am Sunday morning we shouldered our backpacks and headed down the gentle easy trail from Big Sandy Lake back to our vehicles at the trail head.

 

We talked to several hikers and backpackers as they were heading in and we were heading out. We met two older, but fit looking, women with quality backpacking gear, coming up the trail. Their accents quickly gave them away. They were from Adelaide, Australia.

 

I quickly teased them about the 1/2 hour time zones I had run into when working the area in the 1980s. SQ and the two Aussie women found some common topic threads and a full scale trail meeting began in earnest. Fred and I slowly backed away into the shade of a small pine and watched with pleasure and amusement as the women adroitly shifted topics and punctuated their discussion with hand waving.

 

Then a familiar hiker came running down the trail toward us. Walter the wonder beagle. How funny. Same routine, different location. Now the two dog owning women hikers; joined the two Aussie women; and SQ (surrounded by attention seeking canines) and the trail meeting took on a life of its own.

 

I circled the trail meeting with my camera trying to catch a snapshot that would capture the essence and the spirit of the "meeting". The meeting finally ended and off we all went. it was a good ending to our trail encounters with other hikers and Walter will always have a special place in my heart and a deserved title as "Trail Ambassador" and a very cute and clever dog.

 

We were at our vehicles by 11 am and digging into our ice chests for cold rewards for our three day backpacking and day hiking efforts. We chatted and talked trip highlights at the trail head then convoyed our vehicles back to the paved road. I stopped to photograph a cow and calf moose along the road on the way back to Pinedale but ran into Fred & SQ at the Subway, where we parted ways for the last time on this trip.

 

It had been a wonderful backpacking trip for me. If you made a short list of the qualities you would want in backpacking and hiking companions it would probably include adjectives such as: dependable, fair, courteous, considerate, flexible tolerant, competent, confident, honest, happy, flexible, fit, and a couple of phrases like "great attitude" "self sufficient" etc. Fred and his sister were all of those and more.

 

I have a feeling we will hike together again, unless I get too old too soon to keep up with the two of them. If they ever switch to lighter packs, then I'm already out matched. But somehow, I think the two of them would be fine with hiking slower because that is the kind of nice people that they are. Thanks Fred. Thanks SQ.

 

By the way if you have not yet hiked this area and are thinking about doing so, I highly recommend the map "Cirque of the Towers Wind River Range" by Backpacker Magazine (mytopo - a Trimble company). Fred found it and being the considerate person that he is, bought and sent a copy of the map to both me and to his sister, before our backpacking trip.

 

Also: I have read many backpacking "guides" and the one that hits the right balance for me and seems to be filled with good and "reasonable" advice is: Backpacker: "The Hiking Light Handbook" (carry less and enjoy more) by Karen Berger. I highly recommend it.

 

After leaving Pinedale in the early afternoon I had a planned stop at Trappers Point, just north of Pinedale off highway 191. You can't miss the place now as they are putting in a million dollar "antelope, deer, elk, and cattle" overpass right near the site.. You take a short rough dirt road to the top of a hill and you are looking down upon where Horse Creek enters the Snake River. Here six of the sixteen fur trading "rendezvous" took place.

 

Looking down upon the scene it doesn't take much imagination to time transport your thoughts to the 1830s and 1840s and imagine the colorful events that took place where you are looking. You will be standing where many Native Americans have stood, when hunting at this natural big game corridor. You can understand why this location was chosen for the rendezvous with - - the combination of wood, water, grazing, and bountiful game that would have made this the "place to be" for those many years.

 

You will share views and boot prints with mountain men like Jim Bridger (my hero); the Sublette brothers; Thomas Fitzpatrick; and Jedediah Smith (his story is a great read).

 

After spending much time at Trappers Point, I drove the familiar route through Bondurant, to the Hoback Junction; then down the Snake River to Alpine. From here I purposefully took yet another back road I had never before driven. I took highway 34 through small towns like Freedom, Henry and Soda Springs. I saw moose and pronghorn along the way and lots of early fall color.

 

When I arrived at Interstate 15 the "get home" bug hit me in full and I kept with the interstates from then on, driving up to Pocatello; then over to Burley, Twin Falls, Boise, La Grande, Pendleton and home. I pulled into rest stops, picnic areas, forest camps etc. to catch three of four hours of sleep in my RAV car camping bed, then drove on sipping cold diet Pepsi and eating peanut butter and jelly sandwiches I made along the way using fresh coarse great tasting wheat bread I purchased near Daniel, Wyoming.

 

I got back home Monday morning. You might think I surprised my wife by getting home so early after leaving the trail head at close to noon on Sunday, but not so. She knows me well and greeted me with a big hug and a knowing smile. A good trip. I hope you enjoy some of the photographs and perhaps a bit of the "story" as well. OMT September 2012.

    

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reykjav%C3%ADk

   

Reykjavík (Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈreiːcaˌviːk] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city in Iceland.

Its latitude, at 64°08' N, makes it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxaflói Bay. With a population of around 120,000 (and over 200,000 in the Greater Reykjavík Area), it is the heart of Iceland's economic and governmental activity.

Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, which Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have established around 870 C.E. Until the 18th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew steadily over the next decades, as it transformed into a regional and later national centre of commerce, population, and governmental activities.

   

History

 

The first permanent settlement in Iceland by Norsemen is believed to have been established in Reykjavík by Ingólfur Arnarson around AD 870; this is described in Landnámabók, or the Book of Settlement. Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of his settlement using a traditional Viking method; by casting his high seat pillars (Öndvegissúlur) into the ocean when he saw the coastline, then settled where the pillars came to shore. Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired Reykjavík's name, which loosely translates to Smoke Cove (the city is often referred to as the Bay of Smokes or Bay of Smoke)[2] The original name was Reykjarvík with an additional "r" that vanished around 1300.[citation needed]

Reykjavík is not mentioned in any medieval sources except as a regular farm land but the 18th century saw the beginning of urban concentration there. The Danish rulers of Iceland backed the idea of domestic industry in Iceland that would help to stimulate much-needed progress on the island.[citation needed] In 1752, the King of Denmark donated the estate of Reykjavík to the Innréttingar Corporation; the name comes from Danish "indretninger", meaning enterprise. The leader of this movement was Skúli Magnússon. In the 1750s several houses were constructed to house the wool industry that was to be Reykjavík's most important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its existence. Other crafts were also practiced by the Innréttingar, such as fisheries, sulphur mining, agriculture, and shipbuilding.[citation needed]

The Danish Crown abolished monopoly trading in 1786 and granted six communities around the country an exclusive trading charter, Reykjavík was one of them and the only one to hold on to the charter permanently. The year 1786 is regarded as the date of the city's founding; its 200th anniversary was celebrated in 1986. Trading rights were still limited to the subjects of the Danish Crown however, and Danish traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the following decades, their business in Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade was expanded to all nationalities and the influence of Icelandic merchants started to grow.

 

Rise of nationalism

 

Icelandic nationalist sentiment gained influence in the 19th century and ideas of Icelandic independence became widespread. Reykjavík, as Iceland's only city, was the melting pot of such ideas. Advocates of an independent Iceland realized that a strong Reykjavík was fundamental to that objective. All the important years in the history of the independence struggle are important for Reykjavík as well. In 1845, Alþingi, the general assembly formed in 930AD, was re-established in Reykjavík; it had been suspended a few decades earlier when it was located at Thingvellir. At the time it only functioned as an advisory assembly with the function of advising the King about Icelandic affairs. The location of Alþingi in Reykjavík effectively established the city as the capital of Iceland.

In 1874 Iceland was given a constitution and with it, Alþingi gained some limited legislative powers and in essence became the institution that it is today. The next step was to move most of the executive power to Iceland and that was done by Home Rule in 1904 when the office of minister for Iceland was established in Reykjavík. The biggest step towards an independent Iceland was taken December 1, 1918 when Iceland became a sovereign country under the Crown of Denmark, the Kingdom of Iceland.

In the 1920s and 1930s most of the growing Icelandic fishing trawler fleet sailed from Reykjavík and salt-cod production was the main industry but the Great Depression hit Reykjavík hard with unemployment and labour union struggles that sometimes became violent.

 

World War II

 

In the morning of May 10, 1940, following the German occupation of Denmark and Norway on April 9, four warships approached Reykjavík and anchored in the harbour. Many citizens were relieved to find that they were British rather than German. In a few hours, the allied occupation of Reykjavík was complete. There was no armed resistance and taxi and truck drivers even assisted the invasion force which had no motor vehicles initially. The Icelandic government had received many requests from the British government to consent to the occupation, but they always declined on the basis of the Neutrality Policy. For the remaining years of World War II, British and later American soldiers built bases in Reykjavík; the number of foreign soldiers in Reykjavík became about the same as the local population of the city.

The economic effects of the occupation were quite positive for Reykjavík: the unemployment of the depression years vanished and a lot of construction work was done. The British built Reykjavík Airport, which is still in service today, mostly serving domestic flights; the Americans built Keflavík Airport, which later became Iceland's primary international airport, situated 50 km from Reykjavík. In 1944 the Republic of Iceland was founded and a president elected in popular elections replaced the King; the office of the president was placed in Reykjavík.

 

Post-war development

 

In the post-war years, the growth of Reykjavík accelerated. A mass exodus from the rural countryside began, largely due to improved technology in agriculture that reduced the need for manpower, and because of the population boom resulting from better living conditions in the country. A once primitive village was rapidly transformed into a modern city. Private cars became common and modern apartment complexes rose in the expanding suburbs. Much of Reykjavík lost its village feel. In 1972, Reykjavík hosted the world chess championship between Bobby Fischer and Boris Spassky.

Reykjavík has in the last two decades become a significant player in the global community. The 1986 Reykjavík Summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev underlined Reykjavík's new-found international status. Deregulation in the financial sector and the computer revolution of the 1990s have transformed Reykjavík yet again. The financial sector and information technology are now significant employers in the city. The city has fostered some world famous talents in recent years, such as Björk, Ólafur Arnalds and bands Múm and Sigur Rós, and poet Sjón.

  

Geography

 

Reykjavík is located in southwest Iceland. The Reykjavík area coastline is characterized by peninsulas, coves, straits, and islands.

During the Ice Age (up to 10,000 years ago) a large glacier covered parts of the city area, reaching as far out as Álftanes. Other parts of the city area were covered by sea water. In the warm periods and at the end of the Ice Age, some hills like Öskjuhlíð were islands. The former sea level is indicated by sediments (with clams) reaching (at Öskjuhlíð, for example) as far as 43 m (141.08 ft) above the current sea level. The hills of Öskjuhlíð and Skólavörðuholt appear to be the remains of former shield volcanoes which were active during the warm periods of the Ice Age.

After the Ice Age, the land rose as the heavy load of the glaciers fell away, and began to look as it does today.

But the capital city area continued to be shaped by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, like the one 4500 years ago in the mountain range Bláfjöll, when the lava coming down the Elliðaá valley reached the sea at the bay of Elliðavogur.

The largest river to run through Reykjavík is the Elliðaá River, which is non-navigable. It is one of the best salmon fishing rivers in the country. Mt. Esja, at 914 m (2,998.69 ft), is the highest mountain in the vicinity of Reykjavík.

The city of Reykjavík is mostly located on the Seltjarnarnes peninsula, but the suburbs reach far out to the south and east. Reykjavík is a spread-out city; most of its urban area is in the form of low-density suburbs, and houses are usually widely spaced. The outer residential neighborhoods are also widely spaced from each other; in between them run the main traffic arteries and a lot of empty space.

   

Climate

  

Reykjavík

Climate chart (explanation)

 

JFMAMJJASOND

76

2

−372

3

−282

3

−258

6

044

9

450

12

752

13

862

13

867

10

586

7

273

3

−179

2

−3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: WMO

        

Temperatures very rarely drop below −15 °C (5 °F) in the winter. This is because the Icelandic coastal weather in winter is moderated by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. The climate is subpolar oceanic (Koppen Cfc), and the city is on the northern edge of the temperate zone. The city's coastal location does make it prone to wind, however, and gales are common in winter. Summers are cool, with temperatures fluctuating between 10 to 15 °C (50 to 59 °F), sometimes exceeding 20 °C (68 °F). Reykjavík is not a particularly wet city, but it nevertheless averages 148 days with measurable precipitation every year. Droughts are uncommon although they occur in some summers. In the summer of 2007, no rain was measured for one month. Spring tends to be the sunniest season, May particularly. Annual sunshine hours in Reykjavík are around 1,300,[3] which is comparable with other places in Northern and North-Eastern Europe. The highest ever recorded temperature in Reykjavík was 26.2 °C (79 °F), recorded on July 30, 2008, while the lowest ever recorded temperature was −24.5 °C (−12 °F), recorded on January 21, 1918.[4] The temperature has not dropped to below −20 °C (−4 °F) since January 30, 1971.[

 

City administration

 

The City Council governs the city of Reykjavík according to law number 45/1998[8] and is directly elected by those aged over 18 domiciled in the city. The council has 15 members who are elected using the open list method for 4 year terms.

The council selects members of boards, and each board controls a different field under the city council's authority. The most important board is the City Board that wields the executive rights along with the City Mayor. The City Mayor is the senior public official and also the director of city operations. Other public officials control city institutions under the mayor's authority. Thus the administration consists of two different parts:

•The political power of City Council cascading down to other boards

•Public officials under the authority of the city mayor who administer and manage implementation of policy.

 

Political control

 

The Independence Party had overall control of the city council from the party's establishment in 1929 until 1978, when they narrowly lost their overall majority. From 1978 to 1982 the People's Alliance, the Social Democratic Party and the Progressive Party formed the majority of the council.

The Independence Party regained overall control in the 1982 elections, and held it until 1994. At that election its opponents had formed an alliance, called Reykjavíkurlistinn, or the R-list. That alliance had overall control until 2006. In the May 2006 elections the electorate could choose between five different parties, three of which had formed the R-list. The Independence Party obtained 7 members of the council, and thus failed to gain overall control, but together with the Progressive Party, and its one council member, they were able to form a new majority in the council which took over in June 2006. In October 2007 a new majority was formed on the council, consisting of members of the Progressive Party (1), the Social Democratic Alliance (4), the Left-Greens (2) and the F-list (1) (liberals and independents), after controversy regarding REI, a subsidiary of OR, the city's energy company. However three months later the leader of the F-list formed a new majority together with the Independence Party. Ólafur F. Magnússon, the leader of the F-list, was elected mayor on 24 January 2008, and in March 2009 the Independence Party was due to appoint a new mayor. This changed once again on 14 August 2008 when the fourth majority of the season was formed, when the Independence Party and the Progressive party took over again, with Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir becoming mayor. The latest election in May 2010 saw a new political party, The Best Party, win the most seats on the council.

 

Mayor

 

The mayor is appointed by the city council; usually one of the council members is chosen but they may also appoint a mayor who is not a member of the council.

The office of mayor was introduced from 1907, and in 1908 applications for that position were requested. Two applications were received, from Páll Einarsson, sheriff and town mayor of Hafnarfjörður and from Knud Zimsen, town councillor in Reykjavík. Páll was appointed on 7 May and was mayor for six years. At that time the city mayor received a salary of 4500 ISK per year and 1500 ISK for office expenses. The current mayor is Jón Gnarr.

   

Timeline of mayors

 

MayorFromTo

Páll Einarsson

19081914

Knud Zimsen

19141932

Jón Þorláksson

19321935

Pétur Halldórsson

19351940

Bjarni Benediktsson

8 October 19404 February 1947

Gunnar Thoroddsen

4 February 19476 October 1960

Auður Auðuns and

Geir Hallgrímsson

19 November 19596 October 1960

Geir Hallgrímsson

6 October 19601 December 1972

Birgir Ísleifur Gunnarsson

1 December 197215 August 1978

Egill Skúli Ingibergsson

15 August 197827 May 1982

Davíð Oddsson

27 May 198216 July 1991

Markús Örn Antonsson

16 July 199117 March 1994

Árni Sigfússon

17 March 199413 June 1994

Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir

13 June 19941 February 2003

Þórólfur Árnason

1 February 200330 November 2004

Steinunn Valdís Óskarsdóttir

30 November 200413 June 2006

Vilhjálmur Þ. Vilhjálmsson

13 June 200616 October 2007

Dagur B. Eggertsson

16 October 200724 January 2008

Ólafur F. Magnússon

24 January 200821 August 2008

Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir

21 August 200815 June 2010

Jón Gnarr

15 June 2010Incumbent

  

Demographics

 

Reykjavík is the largest and most populous settlement in Iceland. Present-day Reykjavík is a city with people from at least 100 countries. The most common ethnic minorities are Poles, Filipinos, and Danes. In 2009, foreign-born individuals made up 8% of the total population.[10] Children of foreign origin form a more considerable minority in the city's schools (as much as a third in places); many of whom are adopted.[11] Although in addition to immigrant inhabitants, the city is visited by thousands of tourists, students and other temporary residents weekly, at times outnumbering natives in the city-centre, tending to be educated upper middle-class Scandinavians, other Europeans, North Americans, or Japanese.[12]

Historical population of Reykjavík.

YearCityMetro

1801600-

18601,450-

19016,3218,221

191011,44914,534

192017,45021,347

193028,05233,867

194038,30843,483

195055,98064,813

196072,40788,315

197081,693106,152

198083,766121,698

198589,868--

199097,569145,980

1995104,258--

2000110,852175,000

2005114,800187,105

2006115,420191,612

2007117,721196,161

2008119,848201,585

2011119,108202,341

The population of Reykjavík in 2011 was 119,848, the combined population of the Greater Reykjavík Area being about 202,341. Six of the municipalities of Iceland are in the capital city area, those are as listed below:

•Álftanes: 2,484

•Garðabær: 10,272

•Hafnarfjörður: 26,099

•Kópavogur: 30,779

•Mosfellsbær: 8,642

•Seltjarnarnes: 4,445

  

Districts

 

Reykjavík is divided into 10 districts.

 

•Vesturbær (District 1)

•Miðborg (District 2, city centre)

•Hlíðar (District 3)

•Laugardalur (District 4)

•Háaleiti og Bústaðir (District 5)

•Breiðholt (District 6)

•Árbær (District 7)

•Grafarvogur (District 8)

•Kjalarnes (District 9)

•Grafarholt og Úlfarsárdalur (District 10)

 

Economy

 

Borgartún is the financial centre of Reykjavík, hosting a large number of companies and three investment banks.

Reykjavík has been at the centre of Iceland's economic growth and subsequent economic contraction over the last decade,[which?] a period referred to in foreign media as the "Nordic Tiger" years,[13][14] or "Iceland's Boom Years".[15] The economic boom led to a sharp increase in construction, with large redevelopment projects such as Harpa concert hall and conference centre and others.

In 2009, Reykjavík was listed as the richest city in the world in 2007 by The Economist Group

 

Major companies

 

•66°NORTH - clothing manufacturer

•365 - mass media company

•Advania - information technology service corporation

•Air Iceland - airline

•Arctic Trucks - vehicle modifications

•ÁTVR - alcohol and tobacco store

•Carbon Recycling International - renewable methanol company

•CCP Games - video game developer and publisher

•Dagsbrún - telecommunications and media conglomerate

•Eimskipafélag Íslands - shipping company

•FRISK Software International - software company

•Hagar - retail store holding company

•Hagkaup - hypermarket chain

•HB Grandi - fishing and fish processing company

•Icelandair - airline

•Icelandair Group - airline

•Íslandsbanki - bank

•Íslandspóstur - postal service

•deCODE genetics - biopharmaceutical company

•Mannvit Engineering - engineering firm

•Marorka - marine energy management and research company

•MP Bank - bank

•NBI - bank

•Nói Síríus - chocolate and confection manufacturer

•Nyherji - information technology service corporation

•Össur - orthopaedics manufacturer

•RÚV - mass media company

•Síminn - telecommunications company

•WOW air - airline

   

Infrastructure

 

Roads

 

Per capita car ownership in Iceland is among the highest in the world at roughly 522 vehicles per 1,000 residents,[16] though Reykjavík is not severely affected by congestion. Several multi-lane highways (mainly dual carriageways) run between the most heavily populated areas and most frequently driven routes. Parking spaces are also plentiful in most areas. Public transportation consists of a bus system (called Strætó bs). Route 1 (the Ring Road) runs through the city outskirts and connects it to the rest of Iceland.

 

Airports and seaports

 

Reykjavík Airport, the second largest airport in the country (after Keflavík International Airport), is positioned inside the city, just south of the city centre. It is mainly used for domestic flights as well as flights to Greenland and the Faroe Islands. It was built there by the British occupation force during World War II, when it was on the outskirts of the then much smaller Reykjavík. Since 1962 there has been some controversy regarding the location of the airport, since it takes up a lot of valuable space in central Reykjavík.

Reykjavík has two seaports, the old harbour near the city centre which is mainly used by fishermen and cruise ships and Sundahöfn in the east city which is the largest cargo port in the country.

   

Railways

 

There are no public railways in Iceland, due to its terrain, but the locomotives used to build the docks are on display.

 

District heating

 

Volcanic activity in Iceland provides Reykjavík with geothermal heating systems for both residential- and industrial districts. In 2008, natural hot water was used to heat roughly 90% of all buildings in Iceland.[17] With total use of geothermal energy being at 39 PJ, space heating accounted for 48%.

Most of the district heating in Iceland comes from three main geothermal power plants, producing over 800 MWth:[18]

•Svartsengi combined heat and power plant (CHP)

•Nesjavellir CHP plant

•Hellisheidi CHP plant

    

Cultural heritage

 

The "Culture House" was opened in 1909 and has a number of important exhibits. Originally the National Museum and Natural History Museum, in 2000 it was re-modelled to promote the Icelandic national heritage. Many of Iceland's national treasures are on display, such as the Poetic Edda, and the Sagas, in their original manuscripts. There are also changing exhibitions on various topics.[

  

Lifestyle

  

Nightlife

 

Reykjavík is often dubbed "the nightlife capital of the north".[20] It is famous for its weekend nightlife. Icelanders tend to go out late so bars that look rather quiet can fill up suddenly—usually after midnight on a weekend.

Alcohol is relatively expensive at bars. People tend to drink at home before going out. Beer was banned in Iceland until 1 March 1989, but has since become popular among many Icelanders as their alcoholic drink of choice.[21]

There are over 100 different bars and clubs in Reykjavík; most of them are located on Laugavegur and its side streets. It is very common for an establishment that is a café before dinner to turn into a bar in the evening. Closing time is usually around 4:30 am at weekends and 1 am during the week. The Iceland Airwaves music festival is annually staged in October.

  

New Year's Eve

 

The arrival of the new year is a particular cause for celebration to the people of Reykjavík. Icelandic law states that anyone may purchase and use fireworks during a certain period around New Year's Eve. As a result, every New Year's Eve the city is lit up with fireworks displays.

 

Main sights

 

•Alþingishúsið — the Icelandic parliament

•The Culture House, National Centre for Cultural Heritage, Hversfigata 15, 101 Reykjavík. tel 545 1400[22]

•Bæjarins Beztu Pylsur — a small hotdog stand in central Reykjavík

•Blue Lagoon — geothermal spa located near Reykjavík

•CIA.IS - Center for Icelandic Art — general information on Icelandic visual art

•Hallgrímskirkja — the largest church in Iceland

•Harpa Reykjavík - Reykjavík Concert & Conference Center

•Heiðmörk — the largest forest and nature reserve in the area

•Höfði — the house in which Gorbachev and Reagan met in 1986 for the Iceland Summit

•Kringlan — the second largest mall in Iceland

•Laugardalslaug — Swimming pool

•Laugavegur — main shopping street

•Nauthólsvík — a geothermally heated beach

•Perlan — a glass dome resting on five water tanks

•Rauðhólar — a cluster of red volcanic craters

•Ráðhús Reykjavíkur — city hall

•Reykjavik Art Museum — the largest visual art institution in Iceland

•Tjörnin — the pond

•National and University Library of Iceland (Þjóðarbókhlaðan)

•National Museum of Iceland (Þjóðminjasafnið)

•University of Iceland

•Árbæjarsafn (Reykjavík Open Air Museum) — Reykjavík's Municipal Museum

•Reykjavík 871±2 — exhibition of an archaeological excavation of a Viking age longhouse, from about 930 AD

•Vikin Maritime Museum - a maritime museum located by the old harbour

  

Education

  

Secondary schools

 

•Fjölbrautaskólinn í Breiðholti (FB)

•Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík (MR)

•Menntaskólinn við Hamrahlíð (MH)

•Menntaskólinn við Sund (MS)

•Borgarholtsskóli (Borgó)

•Fjölbrautaskólinn við Ármúla (FÁ)

•Menntaskólinn Hraðbraut

•Kvennaskólinn í Reykjavík (Kvennó)

•Tækniskólinn

•Verzlunarskóli Íslands (Verzló)

  

Universities

•The University of Iceland

•Reykjavík University

•Iceland Academy of the Arts

  

Sports teams

•Glímufélagið Ármann (Ármann)

•Ungmennafélagið Fjölnir

•Fylkir

•Fram

•Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur (KR Reykjavík)

•Víkingur

•Þróttur

•Knattspyrnufélagið Valur (Valur)

•Íþróttafélag fatlaðra í Reykjavík — for disabled people

•Íþróttafélag Reykjavíkur (Í.R.)

•Skotfélag Reykjavíkur

•Skautafélag Reykjavíkur

•Tennis- og badmintonfélag Reykjavíkur

•Skylmingafélag Reykjavíkur

•Leiknir

  

Twin towns and sister cities

  

• Baku, Azerbaijan

• Caracas, Venezuela

• Copenhagen, Denmark

• Moscow, Russia

• Helsinki, Finland

• Nuuk, Greenland

• Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom

• La Paz, Bolivia

• Oslo, Norway

• Seattle, United States

• Stockholm, Sweden

• Saint Petersburg, Russia

• Tórshavn, Faroe Islands

• Vilnius, Lithuania

• Winnipeg, Canada

• Strumica, Macedonia

• Zevenaar, Netherlands

       

So, we have these amazing friends Larry and Roy. Each year, instead of a plain ole Christmas card, Larry creates a piece of art. Every year we look forward to what he has created.

 

This year it was the ornament above. Here is what the attached slip of printed on brown paper bag said:

 

Series Sixteen

Materials: PVC Plastic, Recycled Cardboard, Copper, Metal Grommet.

 

Concept: To create an art piece from materials that I had around the office and the garage. No new materials were purchased for this ornament, and all of the plastic and cardboard are from packing materials that I "hoard" from incoming shipments, including the paper for this information sheet. ENJOY!

 

And this is just what he does for Christmas. (He did 175 of these this year, and each one is numbered and signed)

 

The fact that we get to call these guys our friends is an honor. The fact that we get such great memories made with love to hang on our trees for years to come......Priceless.

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reykjav%C3%ADk

   

Reykjavík (Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈreiːcaˌviːk] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city in Iceland.

Its latitude, at 64°08' N, makes it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxaflói Bay. With a population of around 120,000 (and over 200,000 in the Greater Reykjavík Area), it is the heart of Iceland's economic and governmental activity.

Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, which Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have established around 870 C.E. Until the 18th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew steadily over the next decades, as it transformed into a regional and later national centre of commerce, population, and governmental activities.

   

History

 

The first permanent settlement in Iceland by Norsemen is believed to have been established in Reykjavík by Ingólfur Arnarson around AD 870; this is described in Landnámabók, or the Book of Settlement. Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of his settlement using a traditional Viking method; by casting his high seat pillars (Öndvegissúlur) into the ocean when he saw the coastline, then settled where the pillars came to shore. Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired Reykjavík's name, which loosely translates to Smoke Cove (the city is often referred to as the Bay of Smokes or Bay of Smoke)[2] The original name was Reykjarvík with an additional "r" that vanished around 1300.[citation needed]

Reykjavík is not mentioned in any medieval sources except as a regular farm land but the 18th century saw the beginning of urban concentration there. The Danish rulers of Iceland backed the idea of domestic industry in Iceland that would help to stimulate much-needed progress on the island.[citation needed] In 1752, the King of Denmark donated the estate of Reykjavík to the Innréttingar Corporation; the name comes from Danish "indretninger", meaning enterprise. The leader of this movement was Skúli Magnússon. In the 1750s several houses were constructed to house the wool industry that was to be Reykjavík's most important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its existence. Other crafts were also practiced by the Innréttingar, such as fisheries, sulphur mining, agriculture, and shipbuilding.[citation needed]

The Danish Crown abolished monopoly trading in 1786 and granted six communities around the country an exclusive trading charter, Reykjavík was one of them and the only one to hold on to the charter permanently. The year 1786 is regarded as the date of the city's founding; its 200th anniversary was celebrated in 1986. Trading rights were still limited to the subjects of the Danish Crown however, and Danish traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the following decades, their business in Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade was expanded to all nationalities and the influence of Icelandic merchants started to grow.

 

Rise of nationalism

 

Icelandic nationalist sentiment gained influence in the 19th century and ideas of Icelandic independence became widespread. Reykjavík, as Iceland's only city, was the melting pot of such ideas. Advocates of an independent Iceland realized that a strong Reykjavík was fundamental to that objective. All the important years in the history of the independence struggle are important for Reykjavík as well. In 1845, Alþingi, the general assembly formed in 930AD, was re-established in Reykjavík; it had been suspended a few decades earlier when it was located at Thingvellir. At the time it only functioned as an advisory assembly with the function of advising the King about Icelandic affairs. The location of Alþingi in Reykjavík effectively established the city as the capital of Iceland.

In 1874 Iceland was given a constitution and with it, Alþingi gained some limited legislative powers and in essence became the institution that it is today. The next step was to move most of the executive power to Iceland and that was done by Home Rule in 1904 when the office of minister for Iceland was established in Reykjavík. The biggest step towards an independent Iceland was taken December 1, 1918 when Iceland became a sovereign country under the Crown of Denmark, the Kingdom of Iceland.

In the 1920s and 1930s most of the growing Icelandic fishing trawler fleet sailed from Reykjavík and salt-cod production was the main industry but the Great Depression hit Reykjavík hard with unemployment and labour union struggles that sometimes became violent.

 

World War II

 

In the morning of May 10, 1940, following the German occupation of Denmark and Norway on April 9, four warships approached Reykjavík and anchored in the harbour. Many citizens were relieved to find that they were British rather than German. In a few hours, the allied occupation of Reykjavík was complete. There was no armed resistance and taxi and truck drivers even assisted the invasion force which had no motor vehicles initially. The Icelandic government had received many requests from the British government to consent to the occupation, but they always declined on the basis of the Neutrality Policy. For the remaining years of World War II, British and later American soldiers built bases in Reykjavík; the number of foreign soldiers in Reykjavík became about the same as the local population of the city.

The economic effects of the occupation were quite positive for Reykjavík: the unemployment of the depression years vanished and a lot of construction work was done. The British built Reykjavík Airport, which is still in service today, mostly serving domestic flights; the Americans built Keflavík Airport, which later became Iceland's primary international airport, situated 50 km from Reykjavík. In 1944 the Republic of Iceland was founded and a president elected in popular elections replaced the King; the office of the president was placed in Reykjavík.

 

Post-war development

 

In the post-war years, the growth of Reykjavík accelerated. A mass exodus from the rural countryside began, largely due to improved technology in agriculture that reduced the need for manpower, and because of the population boom resulting from better living conditions in the country. A once primitive village was rapidly transformed into a modern city. Private cars became common and modern apartment complexes rose in the expanding suburbs. Much of Reykjavík lost its village feel. In 1972, Reykjavík hosted the world chess championship between Bobby Fischer and Boris Spassky.

Reykjavík has in the last two decades become a significant player in the global community. The 1986 Reykjavík Summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev underlined Reykjavík's new-found international status. Deregulation in the financial sector and the computer revolution of the 1990s have transformed Reykjavík yet again. The financial sector and information technology are now significant employers in the city. The city has fostered some world famous talents in recent years, such as Björk, Ólafur Arnalds and bands Múm and Sigur Rós, and poet Sjón.

  

Geography

 

Reykjavík is located in southwest Iceland. The Reykjavík area coastline is characterized by peninsulas, coves, straits, and islands.

During the Ice Age (up to 10,000 years ago) a large glacier covered parts of the city area, reaching as far out as Álftanes. Other parts of the city area were covered by sea water. In the warm periods and at the end of the Ice Age, some hills like Öskjuhlíð were islands. The former sea level is indicated by sediments (with clams) reaching (at Öskjuhlíð, for example) as far as 43 m (141.08 ft) above the current sea level. The hills of Öskjuhlíð and Skólavörðuholt appear to be the remains of former shield volcanoes which were active during the warm periods of the Ice Age.

After the Ice Age, the land rose as the heavy load of the glaciers fell away, and began to look as it does today.

But the capital city area continued to be shaped by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, like the one 4500 years ago in the mountain range Bláfjöll, when the lava coming down the Elliðaá valley reached the sea at the bay of Elliðavogur.

The largest river to run through Reykjavík is the Elliðaá River, which is non-navigable. It is one of the best salmon fishing rivers in the country. Mt. Esja, at 914 m (2,998.69 ft), is the highest mountain in the vicinity of Reykjavík.

The city of Reykjavík is mostly located on the Seltjarnarnes peninsula, but the suburbs reach far out to the south and east. Reykjavík is a spread-out city; most of its urban area is in the form of low-density suburbs, and houses are usually widely spaced. The outer residential neighborhoods are also widely spaced from each other; in between them run the main traffic arteries and a lot of empty space.

   

Climate

  

Reykjavík

Climate chart (explanation)

 

JFMAMJJASOND

76

2

−372

3

−282

3

−258

6

044

9

450

12

752

13

862

13

867

10

586

7

273

3

−179

2

−3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: WMO

        

Temperatures very rarely drop below −15 °C (5 °F) in the winter. This is because the Icelandic coastal weather in winter is moderated by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. The climate is subpolar oceanic (Koppen Cfc), and the city is on the northern edge of the temperate zone. The city's coastal location does make it prone to wind, however, and gales are common in winter. Summers are cool, with temperatures fluctuating between 10 to 15 °C (50 to 59 °F), sometimes exceeding 20 °C (68 °F). Reykjavík is not a particularly wet city, but it nevertheless averages 148 days with measurable precipitation every year. Droughts are uncommon although they occur in some summers. In the summer of 2007, no rain was measured for one month. Spring tends to be the sunniest season, May particularly. Annual sunshine hours in Reykjavík are around 1,300,[3] which is comparable with other places in Northern and North-Eastern Europe. The highest ever recorded temperature in Reykjavík was 26.2 °C (79 °F), recorded on July 30, 2008, while the lowest ever recorded temperature was −24.5 °C (−12 °F), recorded on January 21, 1918.[4] The temperature has not dropped to below −20 °C (−4 °F) since January 30, 1971.[

 

City administration

 

The City Council governs the city of Reykjavík according to law number 45/1998[8] and is directly elected by those aged over 18 domiciled in the city. The council has 15 members who are elected using the open list method for 4 year terms.

The council selects members of boards, and each board controls a different field under the city council's authority. The most important board is the City Board that wields the executive rights along with the City Mayor. The City Mayor is the senior public official and also the director of city operations. Other public officials control city institutions under the mayor's authority. Thus the administration consists of two different parts:

•The political power of City Council cascading down to other boards

•Public officials under the authority of the city mayor who administer and manage implementation of policy.

 

Political control

 

The Independence Party had overall control of the city council from the party's establishment in 1929 until 1978, when they narrowly lost their overall majority. From 1978 to 1982 the People's Alliance, the Social Democratic Party and the Progressive Party formed the majority of the council.

The Independence Party regained overall control in the 1982 elections, and held it until 1994. At that election its opponents had formed an alliance, called Reykjavíkurlistinn, or the R-list. That alliance had overall control until 2006. In the May 2006 elections the electorate could choose between five different parties, three of which had formed the R-list. The Independence Party obtained 7 members of the council, and thus failed to gain overall control, but together with the Progressive Party, and its one council member, they were able to form a new majority in the council which took over in June 2006. In October 2007 a new majority was formed on the council, consisting of members of the Progressive Party (1), the Social Democratic Alliance (4), the Left-Greens (2) and the F-list (1) (liberals and independents), after controversy regarding REI, a subsidiary of OR, the city's energy company. However three months later the leader of the F-list formed a new majority together with the Independence Party. Ólafur F. Magnússon, the leader of the F-list, was elected mayor on 24 January 2008, and in March 2009 the Independence Party was due to appoint a new mayor. This changed once again on 14 August 2008 when the fourth majority of the season was formed, when the Independence Party and the Progressive party took over again, with Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir becoming mayor. The latest election in May 2010 saw a new political party, The Best Party, win the most seats on the council.

 

Mayor

 

The mayor is appointed by the city council; usually one of the council members is chosen but they may also appoint a mayor who is not a member of the council.

The office of mayor was introduced from 1907, and in 1908 applications for that position were requested. Two applications were received, from Páll Einarsson, sheriff and town mayor of Hafnarfjörður and from Knud Zimsen, town councillor in Reykjavík. Páll was appointed on 7 May and was mayor for six years. At that time the city mayor received a salary of 4500 ISK per year and 1500 ISK for office expenses. The current mayor is Jón Gnarr.

   

Timeline of mayors

 

MayorFromTo

Páll Einarsson

19081914

Knud Zimsen

19141932

Jón Þorláksson

19321935

Pétur Halldórsson

19351940

Bjarni Benediktsson

8 October 19404 February 1947

Gunnar Thoroddsen

4 February 19476 October 1960

Auður Auðuns and

Geir Hallgrímsson

19 November 19596 October 1960

Geir Hallgrímsson

6 October 19601 December 1972

Birgir Ísleifur Gunnarsson

1 December 197215 August 1978

Egill Skúli Ingibergsson

15 August 197827 May 1982

Davíð Oddsson

27 May 198216 July 1991

Markús Örn Antonsson

16 July 199117 March 1994

Árni Sigfússon

17 March 199413 June 1994

Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir

13 June 19941 February 2003

Þórólfur Árnason

1 February 200330 November 2004

Steinunn Valdís Óskarsdóttir

30 November 200413 June 2006

Vilhjálmur Þ. Vilhjálmsson

13 June 200616 October 2007

Dagur B. Eggertsson

16 October 200724 January 2008

Ólafur F. Magnússon

24 January 200821 August 2008

Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir

21 August 200815 June 2010

Jón Gnarr

15 June 2010Incumbent

  

Demographics

 

Reykjavík is the largest and most populous settlement in Iceland. Present-day Reykjavík is a city with people from at least 100 countries. The most common ethnic minorities are Poles, Filipinos, and Danes. In 2009, foreign-born individuals made up 8% of the total population.[10] Children of foreign origin form a more considerable minority in the city's schools (as much as a third in places); many of whom are adopted.[11] Although in addition to immigrant inhabitants, the city is visited by thousands of tourists, students and other temporary residents weekly, at times outnumbering natives in the city-centre, tending to be educated upper middle-class Scandinavians, other Europeans, North Americans, or Japanese.[12]

Historical population of Reykjavík.

YearCityMetro

1801600-

18601,450-

19016,3218,221

191011,44914,534

192017,45021,347

193028,05233,867

194038,30843,483

195055,98064,813

196072,40788,315

197081,693106,152

198083,766121,698

198589,868--

199097,569145,980

1995104,258--

2000110,852175,000

2005114,800187,105

2006115,420191,612

2007117,721196,161

2008119,848201,585

2011119,108202,341

The population of Reykjavík in 2011 was 119,848, the combined population of the Greater Reykjavík Area being about 202,341. Six of the municipalities of Iceland are in the capital city area, those are as listed below:

•Álftanes: 2,484

•Garðabær: 10,272

•Hafnarfjörður: 26,099

•Kópavogur: 30,779

•Mosfellsbær: 8,642

•Seltjarnarnes: 4,445

  

Districts

 

Reykjavík is divided into 10 districts.

 

•Vesturbær (District 1)

•Miðborg (District 2, city centre)

•Hlíðar (District 3)

•Laugardalur (District 4)

•Háaleiti og Bústaðir (District 5)

•Breiðholt (District 6)

•Árbær (District 7)

•Grafarvogur (District 8)

•Kjalarnes (District 9)

•Grafarholt og Úlfarsárdalur (District 10)

 

Economy

 

Borgartún is the financial centre of Reykjavík, hosting a large number of companies and three investment banks.

Reykjavík has been at the centre of Iceland's economic growth and subsequent economic contraction over the last decade,[which?] a period referred to in foreign media as the "Nordic Tiger" years,[13][14] or "Iceland's Boom Years".[15] The economic boom led to a sharp increase in construction, with large redevelopment projects such as Harpa concert hall and conference centre and others.

In 2009, Reykjavík was listed as the richest city in the world in 2007 by The Economist Group

 

Major companies

 

•66°NORTH - clothing manufacturer

•365 - mass media company

•Advania - information technology service corporation

•Air Iceland - airline

•Arctic Trucks - vehicle modifications

•ÁTVR - alcohol and tobacco store

•Carbon Recycling International - renewable methanol company

•CCP Games - video game developer and publisher

•Dagsbrún - telecommunications and media conglomerate

•Eimskipafélag Íslands - shipping company

•FRISK Software International - software company

•Hagar - retail store holding company

•Hagkaup - hypermarket chain

•HB Grandi - fishing and fish processing company

•Icelandair - airline

•Icelandair Group - airline

•Íslandsbanki - bank

•Íslandspóstur - postal service

•deCODE genetics - biopharmaceutical company

•Mannvit Engineering - engineering firm

•Marorka - marine energy management and research company

•MP Bank - bank

•NBI - bank

•Nói Síríus - chocolate and confection manufacturer

•Nyherji - information technology service corporation

•Össur - orthopaedics manufacturer

•RÚV - mass media company

•Síminn - telecommunications company

•WOW air - airline

   

Infrastructure

 

Roads

 

Per capita car ownership in Iceland is among the highest in the world at roughly 522 vehicles per 1,000 residents,[16] though Reykjavík is not severely affected by congestion. Several multi-lane highways (mainly dual carriageways) run between the most heavily populated areas and most frequently driven routes. Parking spaces are also plentiful in most areas. Public transportation consists of a bus system (called Strætó bs). Route 1 (the Ring Road) runs through the city outskirts and connects it to the rest of Iceland.

 

Airports and seaports

 

Reykjavík Airport, the second largest airport in the country (after Keflavík International Airport), is positioned inside the city, just south of the city centre. It is mainly used for domestic flights as well as flights to Greenland and the Faroe Islands. It was built there by the British occupation force during World War II, when it was on the outskirts of the then much smaller Reykjavík. Since 1962 there has been some controversy regarding the location of the airport, since it takes up a lot of valuable space in central Reykjavík.

Reykjavík has two seaports, the old harbour near the city centre which is mainly used by fishermen and cruise ships and Sundahöfn in the east city which is the largest cargo port in the country.

   

Railways

 

There are no public railways in Iceland, due to its terrain, but the locomotives used to build the docks are on display.

 

District heating

 

Volcanic activity in Iceland provides Reykjavík with geothermal heating systems for both residential- and industrial districts. In 2008, natural hot water was used to heat roughly 90% of all buildings in Iceland.[17] With total use of geothermal energy being at 39 PJ, space heating accounted for 48%.

Most of the district heating in Iceland comes from three main geothermal power plants, producing over 800 MWth:[18]

•Svartsengi combined heat and power plant (CHP)

•Nesjavellir CHP plant

•Hellisheidi CHP plant

    

Cultural heritage

 

The "Culture House" was opened in 1909 and has a number of important exhibits. Originally the National Museum and Natural History Museum, in 2000 it was re-modelled to promote the Icelandic national heritage. Many of Iceland's national treasures are on display, such as the Poetic Edda, and the Sagas, in their original manuscripts. There are also changing exhibitions on various topics.[

  

Lifestyle

  

Nightlife

 

Reykjavík is often dubbed "the nightlife capital of the north".[20] It is famous for its weekend nightlife. Icelanders tend to go out late so bars that look rather quiet can fill up suddenly—usually after midnight on a weekend.

Alcohol is relatively expensive at bars. People tend to drink at home before going out. Beer was banned in Iceland until 1 March 1989, but has since become popular among many Icelanders as their alcoholic drink of choice.[21]

There are over 100 different bars and clubs in Reykjavík; most of them are located on Laugavegur and its side streets. It is very common for an establishment that is a café before dinner to turn into a bar in the evening. Closing time is usually around 4:30 am at weekends and 1 am during the week. The Iceland Airwaves music festival is annually staged in October.

  

New Year's Eve

 

The arrival of the new year is a particular cause for celebration to the people of Reykjavík. Icelandic law states that anyone may purchase and use fireworks during a certain period around New Year's Eve. As a result, every New Year's Eve the city is lit up with fireworks displays.

 

Main sights

 

•Alþingishúsið — the Icelandic parliament

•The Culture House, National Centre for Cultural Heritage, Hversfigata 15, 101 Reykjavík. tel 545 1400[22]

•Bæjarins Beztu Pylsur — a small hotdog stand in central Reykjavík

•Blue Lagoon — geothermal spa located near Reykjavík

•CIA.IS - Center for Icelandic Art — general information on Icelandic visual art

•Hallgrímskirkja — the largest church in Iceland

•Harpa Reykjavík - Reykjavík Concert & Conference Center

•Heiðmörk — the largest forest and nature reserve in the area

•Höfði — the house in which Gorbachev and Reagan met in 1986 for the Iceland Summit

•Kringlan — the second largest mall in Iceland

•Laugardalslaug — Swimming pool

•Laugavegur — main shopping street

•Nauthólsvík — a geothermally heated beach

•Perlan — a glass dome resting on five water tanks

•Rauðhólar — a cluster of red volcanic craters

•Ráðhús Reykjavíkur — city hall

•Reykjavik Art Museum — the largest visual art institution in Iceland

•Tjörnin — the pond

•National and University Library of Iceland (Þjóðarbókhlaðan)

•National Museum of Iceland (Þjóðminjasafnið)

•University of Iceland

•Árbæjarsafn (Reykjavík Open Air Museum) — Reykjavík's Municipal Museum

•Reykjavík 871±2 — exhibition of an archaeological excavation of a Viking age longhouse, from about 930 AD

•Vikin Maritime Museum - a maritime museum located by the old harbour

  

Education

  

Secondary schools

 

•Fjölbrautaskólinn í Breiðholti (FB)

•Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík (MR)

•Menntaskólinn við Hamrahlíð (MH)

•Menntaskólinn við Sund (MS)

•Borgarholtsskóli (Borgó)

•Fjölbrautaskólinn við Ármúla (FÁ)

•Menntaskólinn Hraðbraut

•Kvennaskólinn í Reykjavík (Kvennó)

•Tækniskólinn

•Verzlunarskóli Íslands (Verzló)

  

Universities

•The University of Iceland

•Reykjavík University

•Iceland Academy of the Arts

  

Sports teams

•Glímufélagið Ármann (Ármann)

•Ungmennafélagið Fjölnir

•Fylkir

•Fram

•Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur (KR Reykjavík)

•Víkingur

•Þróttur

•Knattspyrnufélagið Valur (Valur)

•Íþróttafélag fatlaðra í Reykjavík — for disabled people

•Íþróttafélag Reykjavíkur (Í.R.)

•Skotfélag Reykjavíkur

•Skautafélag Reykjavíkur

•Tennis- og badmintonfélag Reykjavíkur

•Skylmingafélag Reykjavíkur

•Leiknir

  

Twin towns and sister cities

  

• Baku, Azerbaijan

• Caracas, Venezuela

• Copenhagen, Denmark

• Moscow, Russia

• Helsinki, Finland

• Nuuk, Greenland

• Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom

• La Paz, Bolivia

• Oslo, Norway

• Seattle, United States

• Stockholm, Sweden

• Saint Petersburg, Russia

• Tórshavn, Faroe Islands

• Vilnius, Lithuania

• Winnipeg, Canada

• Strumica, Macedonia

• Zevenaar, Netherlands

      

Pasted from Wikipedia: Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey

 

• • • • •

 

The Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey is a multi-mission, military, tiltrotor aircraft with both a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft.

 

The V-22 originated from the U.S. Department of Defense Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program started in 1981. It was developed jointly by the Bell Helicopter, and Boeing Helicopters team, known as Bell Boeing, which produce the aircraft.[4] The V-22 first flew in 1989, and began years of flight testing and design alterations.

 

The United States Marine Corps began crew training for the Osprey in 2000, and fielded it in 2007. The Osprey's other operator, the U.S. Air Force fielded their version of the tiltrotor in 2009. Since entering service with the U.S. Marine Corps and Air Force, the Osprey has been deployed for combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

 

Contents

 

1 Development

•• 1.1 Early development

•• 1.2 Flight testing and design changes

•• 1.3 Controversy

•• 1.4 Recent development

2 Design

3 Operational history

•• 3.1 US Marine Corps

•• 3.2 US Air Force

•• 3.3 Potential operators

4 Variants

5 Operators

6 Notable accidents

7 Specifications (MV-22B)

8 Notable appearances in media

9 See also

10 References

11 External links

 

Development

 

Early development

 

The failure of the Iran hostage rescue mission in 1980 demonstrated to the United States military a need[5] for "a new type of aircraft, that could not only take off and land vertically but also could carry combat troops, and do so at speed."[6] The U.S. Department of Defense began the Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program in 1981, under U.S. Army leadership. Later the U.S. Navy/Marine Corps took the lead.[7][8] The JVX combined requirements from the Marine Corps, Air Force, Army and Navy.[9][10] A request for proposals (RFP) was issued in December 1982 for JVX preliminary design work. Interest in the program was expressed by Aérospatiale, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, Grumman, Lockheed, and Westland. The DoD pushed for contractors to form teams. Bell partnered with Boeing Vertol. The Bell Boeing team submitted a proposal for a enlarged version of the Bell XV-15 prototype on 17 February 1983. This was the only proposal received and a preliminary design contract was awarded on 26 April 1983.[11][12]

 

The JVX aircraft was designated V-22 Osprey on 15 January 1985; by March that same year the first six prototypes were being produced, and Boeing Vertol was expanded to deal with the project workload.[13][14] Work has been split evenly between Bell and Boeing. Bell Helicopter manufactures and integrates the wing, nacelles, rotors, drive system, tail surfaces, and aft ramp, as well as integrates the Rolls-Royce engines and performs final assembly. Boeing Helicopters manufactures and integrates the fuselage, cockpit, avionics, and flight controls.[4][15] The USMC variant of the Osprey received the MV-22 designation and the Air Force variant received CV-22; reversed from normal procedure to prevent Marine Ospreys from having a conflicting designation with aircraft carriers (CV).[16] Full-scale development of the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft began in 1986.[2] On 3 May 1986 the Bell-Boeing partnership was awarded a $1.714 billion contract for V-22 aircraft by the Navy, thus at this point the project had acquisition plans with all four arms of the U.S. military.[17]

 

The first V-22 was rolled out with significant media attention in May 1988.[18][19] However the project suffered several political blows. Firstly in the same year, the Army left the program, citing a need to focus its budget on more immediate aviation programs.[20] The project also faced considerable dialogue in the Senate, surviving two votes that both could have resulted in cancellation.[21][22] Despite the Senate's decision, the Department of Defense instructed the Navy not to spend more money on the Osprey.[23] At the same time, the Bush administration sought the cancellation of the project.[23]

 

Flight testing and design changes

 

The first of six MV-22 prototypes first flew on 19 March 1989 in the helicopter mode,[24] and on 14 September 1989 as a fixed-wing plane.[25] The third and fourth prototypes successfully completed the Osprey's first Sea Trials on the USS Wasp in December 1990.[26] However, the fourth and fifth prototypes crashed in 1991-92.[27] Flight tests were resumed in August 1993 after changes were incorporated in the prototypes.[2] From October 1992 until April 1993, Bell and Boeing redesigned the V-22 to reduce empty weight, simplify manufacture and reduce production costs. This redesigned version became the B-model.[28]

 

Flight testing of four full-scale development V-22s began in early 1997 when the first pre-production V-22 was delivered to the Naval Air Warfare Test Center, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland. The first EMD flight took place on 5 February 1997. The first of four low rate initial production aircraft, ordered on 28 April 1997, was delivered on 27 May 1999. Osprey number 10 completed the program's second Sea Trials, this time from the USS Saipan in January 1999.[2] During external load testing in April 1999, Boeing used a V-22 to lift and transport the M777 howitzer.[29] In 2000, Boeing announced that the V-22 would be fitted with a nose-mounted GAU-19 Gatling gun,[30] but the GAU-19 gun was later canceled.[31]

 

In 2000, there were two further fatal crashes, killing a total of 19 Marines, and the production was again halted while the cause of these crashes was investigated and various parts were redesigned.[32] The V-22 completed its final operational evaluation in June 2005. The evaluation was deemed successful; events included long range deployments, high altitude, desert and shipboard operations. The problems identified in various accidents had been addressed.[33]

 

Controversy

 

The V-22's development process has been long and controversial, partly due to its large cost increases.[34] When the development budget, first planned for $2.5 billion in 1986, increased to a projected $30 billion in 1988, then-Defense Secretary Dick Cheney tried to zero out its funding. He was eventually overruled by Congress.[32] As of 2008, $27 billion have been spent on the Osprey program and another $27.2 billion will be required to complete planned production numbers by the end of the program.[2]

 

The V-22 squadron's former commander at Marine Corps Air Station New River, Lt. Colonel Odin Lieberman, was relieved of duty in 2001 after allegations that he instructed his unit that they needed to falsify maintenance records to make the plane appear more reliable.[2][35] Three officers were later implicated in the falsification scandal.[34]

 

The aircraft is incapable of autorotation, and is therefore unable to land safely in helicopter mode if both engines fail. A director of the Pentagon's testing office in 2005 said that if the Osprey loses power while flying like a helicopter below 1,600 feet (490 m), emergency landings "are not likely to be survivable". But Captain Justin (Moon) McKinney, a V-22 pilot, says that this will not be a problem, "We can turn it into a plane and glide it down, just like a C-130".[31] A complete loss of power would require the failure of both engines, as a drive shaft connects the nacelles through the wing; one engine can power both proprotors.[36] While vortex ring state (VRS) contributed to a deadly V-22 accident, the aircraft is less susceptible to the condition than conventional helicopters and recovers more quickly.[5] The Marines now train new pilots in the recognition of and recovery from VRS and have instituted operational envelope limits and instrumentation to help pilots avoid VRS conditions.[32][37]

 

It was planned in 2000 to equip all V-22s with a nose-mounted Gatling gun, to provide "the V-22 with a strong defensive firepower capability to greatly increase the aircraft's survivability in hostile actions."[30] The nose gun project was canceled however, leading to criticism by retired Marine Corps Commandant General James L. Jones, who is not satisfied with the current V-22 armament.[31] A belly-mounted turret was later installed on some of the first V-22s sent to the War in Afghanistan in 2009.[38]

 

With the first combat deployment of the MV-22 in October 2007, Time Magazine ran an article condemning the aircraft as unsafe, overpriced, and completely inadequate.[31] The Marine Corps, however, responded with the assertion that much of the article's data were dated, obsolete, inaccurate, and reflected expectations that ran too high for any new field of aircraft.[39]

 

Recent development

 

On 28 September 2005, the Pentagon formally approved full-rate production for the V-22.[40] The plan is to boost production from 11 a year to between 24 and 48 a year by 2012. Of the 458 total planned, 360 are for the Marine Corps, 48 for the Navy, and 50 for the Air Force at an average cost of $110 million per aircraft, including development costs.[2] The V-22 had an incremental flyaway cost of $70 million per aircraft in 2007,[3] but the Navy hopes to shave about $10 million off that cost after a five-year production contract starts in 2008.[41]

 

The Bell-Boeing Joint Project Office in Amarillo, Texas will design a new integrated avionics processor to resolve electronics obsolescence issues and add new network capabilities.[42]

 

Design

 

The Osprey is the world's first production tiltrotor aircraft, with one three-bladed proprotor, turboprop engine, and transmission nacelle mounted on each wingtip. It is classified as a powered lift aircraft by the Federal Aviation Administration.[43] For takeoff and landing, it typically operates as a helicopter with the nacelles vertical (rotors horizontal). Once airborne, the nacelles rotate forward 90° in as little as 12 seconds for horizontal flight, converting the V-22 to a more fuel-efficient, higher-speed turboprop airplane. STOL rolling-takeoff and landing capability is achieved by having the nacelles tilted forward up to 45°. For compact storage and transport, the V-22's wing rotates to align, front-to-back, with the fuselage. The proprotors can also fold in a sequence taking 90 seconds.[44]

 

Most Osprey missions will use fixed wing flight 75 percent or more of the time, reducing wear and tear on the aircraft and reducing operational costs.[45] This fixed wing flight is higher than typical helicopter missions allowing longer range line-of-sight communications and so improved command and control.[2] Boeing has stated the V-22 design loses 10% of its vertical lift over a Tiltwing design when operating in helicopter mode because of airflow resistance due to the wings, but that the Tiltrotor design has better short takeoff and landing performance.[46]

 

The V-22 is equipped with a glass cockpit, which incorporates four Multi-function displays (MFDs) and one shared Central Display Unit (CDU), allowing the pilots to display a variety of images including: digimaps centered or decentered on current position, FLIR imagery, primary flight instruments, navigation (TACAN, VOR, ILS, GPS, INS), and system status. The flight director panel of the Cockpit Management System (CMS) allows for fully-coupled (aka: autopilot) functions which will take the aircraft from forward flight into a 50-foot hover with no pilot interaction other than programming the system.[47] The glass cockpit of the canceled CH-46X was derived from the V-22.[48]

 

The V-22 is a fly-by-wire aircraft with triple-redundant flight control systems.[49] With the nacelles pointing straight up in conversion mode at 90° the flight computers command the aircraft to fly like a helicopter, with cyclic forces being applied to a conventional swashplate at the rotor hub. With the nacelles in airplane mode (0°) the flaperons, rudder, and elevator fly the aircraft like an airplane. This is a gradual transition and occurs over the rotation range of the nacelles. The lower the nacelles, the greater effect of the airplane-mode control surfaces.[50] The nacelles can rotate past vertical to 97.5° for rearward flight.[51][52]

 

The Osprey can be armed with one M240 7.62x51mm NATO (.308 in caliber) or M2 .50 in caliber (12.7 mm) machine gun on the loading ramp, that can be fired rearward when the ramp is lowered. A GAU-19 three-barrel .50 in gatling gun mounted below the V-22's nose has also been studied for future upgrade.[31][53] BAE Systems developed a remotely operated turreted weapons system for the V-22,[54] which was installed on half of the first V-22s deployed to Afghanistan in 2009.[38] The 7.62 mm belly gun turret is remotely operated by a gunner inside the aircraft, who acquires targets with a separate pod using color television and forward looking infrared imagery.

 

U.S. Naval Air Systems Command is working on upgrades to increase the maximum speed from 250 knots (460 km/h; 290 mph) to 270 knots (500 km/h; 310 mph), increase helicopter mode altitude limit from 10,000 feet (3,000 m) to 12,000 feet (3,700 m) or 14,000 feet (4,300 m), and increase lift performance.[55]

 

Operational history

 

US Marine Corps

 

Marine Corps crew training on the Osprey has been conducted by VMMT-204 since March 2000. On 3 June 2005, the Marine Corps helicopter squadron Marine Medium Helicopter 263 (HMM-263), stood down to begin the process of transitioning to the MV-22 Osprey.[56] On 8 December 2005, Lieutenant General Amos, commander of the II MEF, accepted the delivery of the first fleet of MV-22s, delivered to HMM-263. The unit reactivated on 3 March 2006 as the first MV-22 squadron and was redesignated VMM-263. On 31 August 2006, VMM-162 (the former HMM-162) followed suit. On 23 March 2007, HMM-266 became Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 266 (VMM-266) at Marine Corps Air Station New River, North Carolina.[57]

 

The Osprey has been replacing existing CH-46 Sea Knight squadrons.[58] The MV-22 reached initial operational capability (IOC) with the U.S. Marine Corps on 13 June 2007.[1] On 10 July 2007 an MV-22 Osprey landed aboard the Royal Navy aircraft carrier, HMS Illustrious in the Atlantic Ocean. This marked the first time a V-22 had landed on any non-U.S. vessel.[59]

 

On 13 April 2007, the U.S. Marine Corps announced that it would be sending ten V-22 aircraft to Iraq, the Osprey's first combat deployment. Marine Corps Commandant, General James Conway, indicated that over 150 Marines would accompany the Osprey set for September deployment to Al-Asad Airfield.[60][61] On 17 September 2007, ten MV-22Bs of VMM-263 left for Iraq aboard the USS Wasp. The decision to use a ship rather than use the Osprey's self-deployment capability was made because of concerns over icing during the North Atlantic portion of the trip, lack of available KC-130s for mid-air refueling, and the availability of the USS Wasp.[62]

 

The Osprey has provided support in Iraq, racking up some 2,000 flight hours over three months with a mission capable availability rate of 68.1% as of late-January 2008.[63] They are primarily used in Iraq's western Anbar province for routine cargo and troop movements, and also for riskier "aero-scout" missions. General David Petraeus, the top U.S. military commander in Iraq, used one to fly around Iraq on Christmas Day 2007 to visit troops.[64] Then-presidential candidate Barack Obama also flew in Ospreys during his high profile 2008 tour of Iraq.[65]

 

The only major problem has been obtaining the necessary spare parts to maintain the aircraft.[66] The V-22 had flown 3,000 sorties totaling 5,200 hours in Iraq as of July 2008.[67] USMC leadership expect to deploy MV-22s to Afghanistan in 2009.[66][68] General George J. Trautman, III praised the increased range of the V-22 over the legacy helicopters in Iraq and said that "it turned his battle space from the size of Texas into the size of Rhode Island."[69]

 

Naval Air Systems Command has devised a temporary fix for sailors to place portable heat shields under Osprey engines to prevent damage to the decks of some of the Navy's smaller amphibious ships, but they determined that a long term solution to the problem would require these decks be redesigned with heat resistant deck coatings, passive thermal barriers and changes in ship structure in order to operate V-22s and F-35Bs.[70]

 

A Government Accountability Office study reported that by January 2009 the Marines had 12 MV-22s operating in Iraq and they managed to successfully complete all assigned missions. The same report found that the V-22 deployments had mission capable rates averaging 57% to 68% and an overall full mission capable rate of only 6%. It also stated that the aircraft had shown weakness in situational awareness, maintenance, shipboard operations and the ability to transport troops and external cargo.[71] That study also concluded that the "deployments confirmed that the V-22’s enhanced speed and range enable personnel and internal cargo to be transported faster and farther than is possible with the legacy helicopters it is replacing".[71]

 

The MV-22 saw its first offensive combat mission, Operation Cobra's Anger on 4 December 2009. Ospreys assisted in inserting 1,000 Marines and 150 Afghan troops into the Now Zad Valley of Helmand Province in southern Afghanistan to disrupt communication and supply lines of the Taliban.[38] In January 2010 the MV-22 Osprey is being sent to Haiti as part of Operation Unified Response relief efforts after the earthquake there. This will be the first use the Marine V-22 in a humanitarian mission.[72]

 

US Air Force

 

The Air Force's first operational CV-22 Osprey was delivered to the 58th Special Operations Wing (58th SOW) at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico on 20 March 2006. This and subsequent aircraft will become part of the 58th SOW's fleet of aircraft used for training pilots and crew members for special operations use.[73] On 16 November 2006, the Air Force officially accepted the CV-22 in a ceremony conducted at Hurlburt Field, Florida.[74]

 

The US Air Force's first operational deployment of the Osprey sent four CV-22s to Mali in November 2008 in support of Exercise Flintlock. The CV-22s flew nonstop from Hurlburt Field, Florida with in-flight refueling.[5] AFSOC declared that the 8th Special Operations Squadron reached Initial Operational Capability on 16 March 2009, with six of its planned nine CV-22s operational.[75]

 

In June 2009, CV-22s of the 8th Special Operations Squadron delivered 43,000 pounds (20,000 kg) of humanitarian supplies to remote villages in Honduras that were not accessible by conventional vehicles.[76] In November 2009, the 8th SO Squadron and its six CV-22s returned from a three-month deployment in Iraq.[77]

 

The first possible combat loss of an Osprey occurred on 9 April, 2010, as a CV-22 went down near Qalat, Zabul Province, Afghanistan, killing four.[78][79]

 

Potential operators

 

In 1999 the V-22 was studied for use in the United Kingdom's Royal Navy,[80] it has been raised several times as a candidate for the role of Maritime Airborne Surveillance and Control (MASC).[81]

 

Israel had shown interest in the purchase of MV-22s, but no order was placed.[82][83] Flightglobal reported in late 2009 that Israel has decided to wait for the CH-53K instead.[84]

 

The V-22 Osprey is a candidate for the Norwegian All Weather Search and Rescue Helicopter (NAWSARH) that is planned to replace the Westland Sea King Mk.43B of the Royal Norwegian Air Force in 2015.[85] The other candidates for the NAWSARH contract of 10-12 helicopters are AgustaWestland AW101 Merlin, Eurocopter EC225, NHIndustries NH90 and Sikorsky S-92.[86]

 

Bell Boeing has made an unsolicited offer of the V-22 for US Army medical evacuation needs.[87] However the Joint Personnel Recovery Agency issued a report that said that a common helicopter design would be needed for both combat recovery and medical evacuation and that the V-22 would not be suitable for recovery missions because of the difficulty of hoist operations and lack of self-defense capabilities.[88]

 

The US Navy remains a potential user of the V-22, but its role and mission with the Navy remains unclear. The latest proposal is to replace the C-2 Greyhound with the V-22 in the fleet logistics role. The V-22 would have the advantage of being able to land on and support non-carriers with rapid delivery of supplies and people between the ships of a taskforce or to ships on patrol beyond helicopter range.[89] Loren B. Thompson of the Lexington Institute has suggested V-22s for use in combat search and rescue and Marine One VIP transport, which also need replacement aircraft.[90]

 

Variants

  

V-22A 

•• Pre-production full-scale development aircraft used for flight testing. These are unofficially considered A-variants after 1993 redesign.[91]

  

HV-22 

•• The U.S. Navy considered an HV-22 to provide combat search and rescue, delivery and retrieval of special warfare teams along with fleet logistic support transport. However, it chose the MH-60S for this role in 1992.[92]

  

SV-22 

•• The proposed anti-submarine warfare Navy variant. The Navy studied the SV-22 in the 1980s to replace S-3 and SH-2 aircraft.[93]

  

MV-22B 

•• Basic U.S. Marine Corps transport; original requirement for 552 (now 360). The Marine Corps is the lead service in the development of the V-22 Osprey. The Marine Corps variant, the MV-22B, is an assault transport for troops, equipment and supplies, capable of operating from ships or from expeditionary airfields ashore. It is replacing the Marine Corps' CH-46E[57] and CH-53D.[94]

  

CV-22B 

•• Air Force variant for the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). It will conduct long-range, special operations missions, and is equipped with extra fuel tanks and terrain-following radar.[95][96]

 

Operators

 

 United States

 

United States Air Force

 

•• 8th Special Operations Squadron (8 SOS) at Hurlburt Field, Florida

•• 71st Special Operations Squadron (71 SOS) at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

•• 20th Special Operations Squadron (20 SOS) at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico

 

United States Marine Corps

 

•• VMM-161

•• VMM-162

•• VMM-261

•• VMM-263

•• VMM-264

•• VMM-266

•• VMM-365

•• VMMT-204 - Training squadron

•• VMX-22 - Marine Tiltrotor Operational Test and Evaluation Squadron

 

Notable accidents

 

Main article: Accidents and incidents involving the V-22 Osprey

 

From 1991 to 2000 there were four significant crashes, and a total of 30 fatalities, during testing.[32] Since becoming operational in 2007, the V-22 has had one possible combat loss due to an unknown cause, no losses due to accidents, and seven other notable, but minor, incidents.

 

• On 11 June 1991, a mis-wired flight control system led to two minor injuries when the left nacelle struck the ground while the aircraft was hovering 15 feet (4.6 m) in the air, causing it to bounce and catch fire.[97]

 

• On 20 July 1992, a leaking gearbox led to a fire in the right nacelle, causing the aircraft to drop into the Potomac River in front of an audience of Congressmen and other government officials at Quantico, killing all seven on board and grounding the aircraft for 11 months.[98]

 

• On 8 April 2000, a V-22 loaded with Marines to simulate a rescue, attempted to land at Marana Northwest Regional Airport in Arizona, stalled when its right rotor entered vortex ring state, rolled over, crashed, and exploded, killing all 19 on board.[37]

 

• On 11 December 2000, after a catastrophic hydraulic leak and subsequent software instrument failure, a V-22 fell 1,600 feet (490 m) into a forest in Jacksonville, North Carolina, killing all four aboard. This caused the Marine Corps to ground their fleet of eight V-22s, the second grounding that year.[99][100]

 

Specifications (MV-22B)

 

Data from Boeing Integrated Defense Systems,[101] Naval Air Systems Command,[102] US Air Force CV-22 fact sheet,[95] Norton,[103] and Bell[104]

 

General characteristics

 

Crew: Four (pilot, copilot and two flight engineers)

Capacity: 24 troops (seated), 32 troops (floor loaded) or up to 15,000 lb (6,800 kg) of cargo (dual hook)

Length: 57 ft 4 in (17.5 m)

Rotor diameter: 38 ft 0 in (11.6 m)

Wingspan: 45 ft 10 in (14 m)

Width with rotors: 84 ft 7 in (25.8 m)

Height: 22 ft 1 in/6.73 m; overall with nacelles vertical (17 ft 11 in/5.5 m; at top of tailfins)

Disc area: 2,268 ft² (212 m²)

Wing area: 301.4 ft² (28 m²)

Empty weight: 33,140 lb (15,032 kg)

Loaded weight: 47,500 lb (21,500 kg)

Max takeoff weight: 60,500 lb (27,400 kg)

Powerplant:Rolls-Royce Allison T406/AE 1107C-Liberty turboshafts, 6,150 hp (4,590 kW) each

 

Performance

 

Maximum speed: 250 knots (460 km/h, 290 mph) at sea level / 305 kn (565 km/h; 351 mph) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)[105]

Cruise speed: 241 knots (277 mph, 446 km/h) at sea level

Range: 879 nmi (1,011 mi, 1,627 km)

Combat radius: 370 nmi (426 mi, 685 km)

Ferry range: 1,940 nmi (with auxiliary internal fuel tanks)

Service ceiling: 26,000 ft (7,925 m)

Rate of climb: 2,320 ft/min (11.8 m/s)

Disc loading: 20.9 lb/ft² at 47,500 lb GW (102.23 kg/m²)

Power/mass: 0.259 hp/lb (427 W/kg)

 

Armament

 

• 1× M240 machine gun on ramp, optional

 

Notable appearances in media

 

Main article: Aircraft in fiction#V-22 Osprey

 

See also

 

Elizabeth A. Okoreeh-Baah, USMC - first female to pilot a V-22 Osprey

 

Related development

 

Bell XV-15[106]

Bell/Agusta BA609

Bell Boeing Quad TiltRotor

 

Comparable aircraft

 

Canadair CL-84

LTV XC-142

 

Related lists

 

List of military aircraft of the United States

List of VTOL aircraft

 

References

 

Bibliography

 

• Markman, Steve and Bill Holder. "Bell/Boeing V-22 Osprey Tilt-Engine VTOL Transport (U.S.A.)". Straight Up: A History of Vertical Flight. Schiffer Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7643-1204-9.

• Norton, Bill. Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey, Tiltrotor Tactical Transport. Midland Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-85780-165-2.

 

External links

 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: V-22 Osprey

 

Official Boeing V-22 site

Official Bell V-22 site

V-22 Osprey web, and www.history.navy.mil/planes/v-22.html

CV-22 fact sheet on USAF site

www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/v-22.htm

www.airforce-technology.com/projects/osprey/

Onward and Upward

"Flight of the Osprey", US Navy video of V-22 operations

Sometimes your day is full of surprises. After rising early and enjoying a lovely walk in the rain with Sakari (where I found so many red things, but no camera), we returned home and all I wanted to do was stay at home and bake all day, but a busy work day awaited.

 

While getting ready for work, I received another lovely message and photo from my 13 year old god daughter Bec, who is currently on holiday in the USA with her family. I cant wait for them to return and share in girls experiences. It's been so lovely to keep in touch with her while she is away.

 

I arrived at work feeling great but my morning quickly declined, nagging back pain coupled with the news that an eBay purchase had officially been lost by Aust Post (after two months of chasing it) had me feeling a little deflated. No big deal really in the scheme of life, just a little disappointing.

 

My deflated mood was only short lived as I received a call to say something had arrived for me in our mail room. I wasn't expecting anything (except for perhaps the missing eBay purchase) and was delighted to received this wine box, but who was it from and what was it for?

 

It was actually a bottle of champagne (my favourite) and a thank you. A couple of months ago I was contacted by someone on Flickr to see if they could have permission to use one of my images on their wedding invite, to which I replied yes. This was their way of saying thank you along with a couple of copies of the printed invite, which I have to say look amazing!

 

I was so chuffed, it really made my day. The image they chose is actually one of my all time favourites and I have a huge framed print of it enlarged on my wall. You can see my original pic in comments.

 

I left work again on a high only to have my mood deflated once more. Not more than two minutes after leaving the office, I was t-boned good and proper by a girl pulling out of a driveway and not seeing me . . . ouch!!! We are both ok which is the main thing, but it had me feeling so upset. Perhaps I should have stayed home and baked all day!

 

Talk about a roller coaster ride of a day as far as emotions go . . . that't the thing about life isn't it. Always teaching us something.

  

So I had mentioned on a pic or two that i was trying/hoping to redecorate my cubicle with flickr peeps. I bought a couple of imagekind pieces but decided they were too nice and too expensive too hang in my cube- so i will be hanging them at home. These are some of my fav shots from you guys. I printed them here at work and mounted them on foamboard and double sided them up onto the cloth wall. I really don't want to offend anyone by hanging their stuff if they don't want it, i totally understand- this is why i am posting to ask humbly and sweetly if i can please keep you on my wall?!?!?!?! So many people love it and come by to look at my "mini gallery" it would suck to lose you :( but still, its up to you and i promise to rid the wall of it. If you have an acct somewhere that i can purchase them, i'd be more then happy too- i've been looking around!

 

Again, this is with much love and adoration :) Big ups to my Flickr Peeps!

So today I got stuck in the office until 8:00 again. I don't even want to think about how busy it's going to be tomorrow...and I have 3 move ins!

 

I'm slightly frustrated. I was all excited about coming home and downloading Final Draft 8 off the mac app store, and it kept declining my debit card. I just got paid today so I had like 6 times as much as I needed for the app. For whatever reason my debit card got locked again, and it's showing as a debit and a credit three! times on my statement. WTF. Why do banks make it so hard to purchase things, goodness gracious!

November 5 - 11 is Veterans Week. The last Canadian WW1 Veteran passed away in 2010 at the age of 109.

 

I bought this poppy during one of my last visits to the Canadian War Museum. I wear it faithfully every day from the end of October until the 11th of November on my "day to day" clothes. I still though, purchase a poppy (or more than one because I always loose them) to wear on my coat.

 

Today we have veterans of WWII, Korea and Afghanistan who we will be remembering this week those who fought for freedom and those who paid the ultimate sacrifice for freedom and their Country.

 

Veterans today include still serving Canadian Forces members and I am humbled to be able to say that I call many my friends whom I work with on daily basis. I have many friends who are no longer serving and those too, I am honoured to have been able to wear a uniform along side for a number of years.

 

Canadian Government offices will be closed on November 11th in order to pay our respects to those who served and lost their lives, those who served and have the horrors of war forever etched in their minds and soul. What you and I would only see on a Big Screen or television many I have the honour to work with have seen in real life. God Bless everyone of them.

 

No matter what you are doing on November 11th on the 11th hour please stop, take two minutes of silence to show your respect and to thank those who gave up their lives, those who live with injuries sustained both physical and mental. It's the least we can do to say thank you.

I am so excited to have these! I haven't purchased Girl Scout cookies in years. No one ever came to my door to sell them and I never saw the scouts setting up around town, so I had no idea when cookie season was and how to go about getting them. Thankfully I happened to be in the right place at the right time this year and was able to put my name in when the signup sheet was going around one of the doctor's offices I work with. My favorites: Thin Mints (one box for the counter, one for the freezer), Caramel deLites and Shortbreads.

 

Here's a fun fact for you, as Alex has always called the coconut and caramel ones "Samoas" and I've always called them "Caramel deLites." Apparently this is one of the few cookies in the group that has differences depending on the bakery. Two different bakeries supply two different parts of the country. Samoas are made by Little Brownie Bakers. They are circular, have an orange color, are thicker from top to bottom, usually contain more caramel per coconut and are made with dark chocolate. The Caramel deLites, made by ABC Bakers, are hexagonal, have a more yellowish tinge, are made with milk chocolate and have a lower caramel content.

 

Learning this today, I actually think I'd prefer the Samoas, but oh well. I'll take what I can get...with a glass of cold milk, of course.

The mysterious building # 88 that sits across from the Conrad Weiser Homestead in Womelsdorf, Pennsylvania. It looks to have been used as an office for the greenhouse and landscaping company that once operated behind it.

 

4x5 for 365 Project details: greggobst.com/4x5-for-365/

 

Camera: Calumet 45NX 4x5 large format monorail view camera.

 

Lens: Rodenstock Geronar 150mm F6.3 lens in a Copal 0 shutter. Yellow filter on lens.

 

Film: Kodak Ektascan BR/A single-sided X-Ray film. Purchased from zzmedical.com as 8x10" sheets and cut down to 4x5". Film rated at 80 ISO.

 

Exposure: 1/8 @ F32. Zone III placed on shadows of overhang above the top center window.

 

Development: Self Developed film in Rodinal (Adox Adinol) 1:100 in three reel Paterson Universal Tank using Mod54 six sheet 4x5 insert. Semi-Stand for 15 minutes with initial minute of inversions then 10 seconds of inversion on minutes one and two then let it sit until minute 14 when I do a final ten seconds of inversions. Kodak indicator stop bath. Ilford Rapid Fixer. Photo-Flo. Hung to dry.

 

Scanning: Negative scanned with Epson V600 in two scans and merged back together in PhotoShop since the V600 doesn't natively support 4x5 scans in one pass.

3/26/09: (and TRF) I have had this idea for a shot for awhile now and finally had the nerve to set up my tripod at work and start shooting today. I of course did it at the end of the day while no one was really around. To the right of me next to the lamp is a huge wall of glass windows across from our main office so people are constantly walking by and can see what I'm doing. So shooting photos of myself is not really an option too often.

 

I work in an elementary school as a Technology Resource Teacher. I work with students and teachers on utilizing all sorts of fun tech gadgets and help plan lessons using them. I LOVE my job. I feel I get to use my creativity and put it to good use. And who wouldn't be creative in an office like this??!!

 

My office is the school's "Smart Board" room. Two years ago our PTA bought our school one Interactive Whiteboard. It's like a huge TV crossed with a touch screen computer. The classes in the school get to sign up time in this room to do lessons. Since purchasing this one board our school has since received 13 more boards and my room gets used a lot less by classes now, more by other specialists. It's a good problem, I have gotten to watch my school truly embrace technology over the past 3 years!

 

In any event, I LOVE my office, the colors, the couch, the mural, the rug. They all scream creativity and positive energy. :)

 

I did use a texture by pareeerica on the wall for this one. Don't look at this in original size (you'll see all my PS flaws!)

 

Don't forget you can also follow me on twitter if you so desire!

I'll title it later - I always have trouble with titles. I always have trouble with pregnancies. Mine don't last others' make me sad, jealous. I was drawn to this little figuriine and her purchase benefited a school in Haiti. For some reason she does not make me sad. I can't say she gives me hope, I'm past that stage in this particular area of my life. However, I find myself wanting to rub her belly and to have her near. Maybe she's therapy for me. There is a therapy called acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Maybe she can help me with the acceptance part.