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*That Hell-Bound Train*

by Robert Bloch (1958)

 

When Martin was a little boy, his daddy was a Railroad Man. Daddy never rode the high iron, but he walked the tracks for the CB&Q, and he was proud of his job. And every night when he got drunk, he sang this old song about That Hell-Bound Train.

 

Martin didn't quite remember any of the words, but he couldn't forget the way his Daddy sang them out. And when Daddy made the mistake of getting drunk in the afternoon and got squeezed between a Pennsy tank-car and an AT&SF gondola, Martin sort of wondered why the Brotherhood didn't sing the song at his funeral.

After that, things didn't go so good for Martin, but somehow he always recalled Daddy's song. When Mom up and ran off with a traveling salesman from Keokuk (Daddy must have turned over in his grave, knowing she'd done such a thing, and with a passenger, too!) Martin hummed the tune to himself every night in the Orphan Home. And after Martin himself ran away, he used to whistle the song softly at night in the jungles, after the other bindlestiffs were asleep.

Martin was on the road for four-five years before he realized he wasn't getting anyplace. Of course he'd tried his hand at a lot of things — picking fruit in Oregon, washing dishes in a Montana hash-house, stealing hubcaps in Denver and tires in Oklahoma City — but by the time he'd put in six months on the chain gang down in Alabama he knew he had no future drifting around this way on his own.

 

So he tried to get on the railroad like his daddy had and they told him that times were bad. But Martin couldn't keep away from the railroads. Wherever he traveled, he rode the rods; he'd rather hop a freight heading north in sub-zero weather than lift his thumb to hitch a ride with a Cadillac headed for Florida. Whenever he managed to get hold of a can of Sterno, he'd sit there under a nice warm culvert, think about the old days, and often as not he'd hum the song about That Hell-Bound Train. That was the train the drunks and the sinners rode — the gambling men and the grifters, the big-time spenders, the skirt-chasers, and all the jolly crew. It would be really fine to take a trip in such good company, but Martin didn't like to think of what happened when that train finally pulled into the Depot Way Down Yonder. He didn't figure on spending eternity stoking boilers in Hell, without even a Company Union to protect him. Still, it would be a lovely ride. If there was such a thing as a Hell-Bound Train. Which, of course, there wasn't.

At least Martin didn't think there was, until that evening when he found himself walking the tracks heading south, just outside of Appleton Junction. The night was cold and dark, the way November nights are in the Fox River Valley, and he knew he'd have to work his way down to New Orleans for the winter, or maybe even Texas. Somehow he didn't much feel like going, even though he'd heard tell that a lot of those Texas automobiles had solid gold hub-caps.

 

No sir, he just wasn't cut out for petty larceny. It was worse than a sin — it was unprofitable, too.

Bad enough to do the Devil's work, but then to get such miserable pay on top of it! Maybe he'd better let the Salvation Army convert him.

Martin trudged along humming Daddy's song, waiting for a rattler to pull out of the Junction behind him. He'd have to catch it — there was nothing else for him to do.

But the first train to come along came from the other direction, roaring toward him along the track from the south.

Martin peered ahead, but his eyes couldn't match his ears, and so far all he could recognize was the sound. It was a train, though; he felt the steel shudder and sing beneath his feet.

And yet, how could it be? The next station south was Neenah-Menasha, and there was nothing due out of there for hours.

 

The clouds were thick overhead, and the field mists rolled like a cold fog in a November midnight. Even so, Martin should have been able to see the headlight as the train rushed on. But there was only the whistle, screaming out of the black throat of the night. Martin could recognize the equipment of just about any locomotive ever built, but he'd never heard a whistle that sounded like this one. It wasn't signaling; it was screaming like a lost soul.

He stepped to one side, for the train was almost on top of him now. And suddenly there it was, looming along the tracks and grinding to a stop in less time than he'd believed possible. The wheels hadn't been oiled, because they screamed too, screamed like the damned. But the train slid to a halt and the screams died away into a series of low, groaning sounds, and Martin looked up and saw that this was a passenger train. It was big and black, without a single light shining in the engine cab or any of the long string of cars; Martin couldn't read any lettering on the sides, but he was pretty sure this train didn't belong on the Northwestern Road.

 

He was even more sure when he saw the man clamber down out of the forward car. There was something wrong about the way he walked, as though one of his feet dragged, and about the lantern he carried. The lantern was dark, and the man held it up to his mouth and blew, and instantly it glowed redly. You don't have to be a member of the Railway Brotherhood to know that this is a mighty peculiar way of lighting a lantern.

As the figure approached, Martin recognized the conductor's cap perched on his head, and this made him feel a little better for a moment — until he noticed that it was worn a bit too high, as though there might be something sticking up on the forehead underneath it.Still, Martin knew his manners, and when the man smiled at him, he said, "Good evening, Mr. Conductor."

"Good evening, Martin."

"How did you know my name?"

 

The man shrugged. "How did you know I was the Conductor?"

"You are, aren't you?"

"To you, yes. Although other people, in other walks of life, may recognize me in different roles. For instance, you ought to see what I look like to the folks out in Hollywood." The man grinned. "I travel a great deal," he explained.

"What brings you here?" Martin asked.

 

"Why, you ought to know the answer to that, Martin. I came because you needed me. Tonight, I suddenly realized you were backsliding.

Thinking of joining the Salvation Army, weren't you?"

 

"Well — " Martin hesitated.

"Don't be ashamed. To err is human, as somebody-or-other-once said. Reader's Digest, wasn't it? Never mind.

The point is, I felt you needed me. So I switched over and came your way.""What for?"

"Why, to offer you a ride, of course. Isn't it better to travel comfortably by train than to march along the cold streets

behind a Salvation Army band? Hard on the feet, they tell me, and even harder on the eardrums."

 

"I'm not sure I'd care to ride your train, sir," Martin said. "Considering where I'm likely to end up."

 

"Ah, yes. The old argument." The Conductor sighed. "I suppose you'd prefer some sort of bargain, is that it?"

"Exactly," Martin answered.

"Well, I'm afraid I'm all through with that sort of thing. There's no shortage of prospective passengers anymore. Why should I offer you any special inducements?"

"You must want me, or else you wouldn't have bothered to go out of your way to find me."

 

The Conductor sighed again. "There you have a point. Pride was always my besetting weakness, I admit. And somehow I'd hate to lose you

to the competition, after thinking of you as my own all these years." He hesitated. "Yes, I'm prepared to deal with you on your own terms, if you insist."

"The terms?" Martin asked.

"Standard proposition. Anything you want."

 

"Ah," said Martin.

"But I warn you in advance, there'll be no tricks. I'll grant you any wish you can name — but in return,

you must promise to ride the train when the time comes."

"Suppose it never comes?"

"It will."

"Suppose I've got the kind of a wish that will keep me off forever?"

"There is no such wish."

"Don't be too sure."

 

"Let me worry about that," the Conductor told him. "No matter what you have in mind, I warn you that I'll collect in the end. And there'll be none of this last-minute hocus-pocus, either. No last-hour repentances, no blonde frauleins or fancy lawyers showing up to get you off. I offer a clean deal. That is to say, you'll get what you want, and I'll get what I want.""I've heard you trick people. They say you're worse than a used-car salesman."

"Now, wait a minute — "

"I apologize," Martin said, hastily. "But it is supposed to be a fact that you can't be trusted."

"I admit it. On the other hand, you seem to think you have found a way out."

 

"A sure-fire proposition."

"Sure-fire? Very funny!" The man began to chuckle, then halted. "But we waste valuable time, Martin. Let's get down to cases. What do you want from me?"

Martin took a deep breath. "I want to be able to stop Time."

"Right now?"

"No. Not yet. And not for everybody. I realize that would be impossible, of course. But I want to be able to stop Time for myself. Just once, in the future. Whenever I get to a point where I know I'm happy and contented, that's where I'd like to stop. So I can just keep on being happy forever."

"That's quite a proposition," the Conductor mused. "I've got to admit I've never heard anything just like it before — and believe me, I've listened to some lulus in my day." He grinned at Martin. "You've really been thinking about this, haven't you?"

 

"for years," Martin admitted. Then he coughed. "Well, what do you say?"

"It's not impossible, in terms of your own subjective time-sense," the Conductor murmured. "Yes, I think it could be arranged."

"But I mean really to stop. Not for me just to imagine it."

"I understand. And it can be done."

"Then you'll agree?"

"Why not? I promised you, didn't I? Give me your hand."

Martin hesitated. "Will it hurt very much? I mean, I don't like the sight of blood, and — "

"Nonsense! You've been listening to a lot of poppycock. We already have made our bargain, my boy. I merely intend to put something into your hand. The ways and means of fulfilling your wish. After all, there's no telling at just what moment you may decide to exercise the agreement, and I can't drop everything and come running. So it's better if you can regulate matters for yourself."

"You're going to give me a Time-stopper?"

 

"That's the general idea. As soon as I can decide what would be practical." The Conductor hesitated. "Ah, the very thing! Here, take my watch."

He pulled it out of his vest-pocket; a railroad watch in a silver case. He opened the back and made a delicate adjustment; Martin tried to see just exactly what he was doing, but the fingers moved in a blinding blur.

"There we are." The Conductor smiled. "It's all set, now. When you finally decide where you'd like to call a halt, merely turn the stem in reverse and unwind the watch until it stops. When it stops, Time stops, for you. Simple enough?" And the Conductor dropped the watch into Martin's hand.

 

The young man closed his fingers tightly around the case. "That's all there is to it, eh?"

"Absolutely. But remember — you can stop the watch only once. So you'd better make sure that you're satisfied with the

moment you choose to prolong. I caution you in all fairness; make very certain of your choice."

"I will." Martin grinned. "And since you've been so fair about it, I'll be fair, too. There's one thing you seem to have forgotten.

It doesn't really matter what moment I choose. Because once I stop Time for myself, that means I stay where I am forever.

I'll never have to get any older. And if I don't get any older, I'll never die. And if I never die, then I'll never have to take a ride on your train."

The Conductor turned away. His shoulders shook convulsively, and he may have been crying. "And you said I was worse than a used-car salesman," he gasped, in a strangled voice.

Then he wandered off into the fog, and the train-whistle gave an impatient shriek, and all at once it was moving swiftly down the track, rumbling out of sight in the darkness.

 

Martin stood there, blinking down at the silver watch in his hand. If it wasn't that he could actually see it and feel it there, and if he couldn't smell that peculiar odor, he might have thought he'd imagined the whole thing from start to finish — train, Conductor, bargain, and all.

But he had the watch, and he could recognize the scent left by the train as it departed, even though there aren't many locomotives around that use sulphur and brimstone as fuel.

And he had no doubts about his bargain. That's what came of thinking things through to a logical conclusion. Some fools would have settled for wealth, or power, or Kim Novak. Daddy might have sold out for a fifth of whiskey.Martin knew that he'd made a better deal. Better? It was foolproof. All he needed to do now was choose his moment.

 

He put the watch in his pocket and started back down the railroad track. He hadn't really had a destination in mind before, but he did now. He was going to find a moment of happiness…

Now young Martin wasn't altogether a ninny. He realized perfectly well that happiness is a relative thing; there are conditions and degrees of contentment, and they vary with one's lot in life. As a hobo, he was often satisfied with a warm handout, a double-length bench in the park, or a can of Sterno made in 1957 (a vintage year). Many a time he had reached a state of momentary bliss through such simple agencies, but he was aware that there were better things. Martin determined to seek them out.

Within two days he was in the great city of Chicago. Quite naturally, he drifted over to West Madison Street, and there he took steps to elevate his role in life. He became a city bum, a panhandler, a moocher. Within a week he had risen to the point where happiness was a meal in a regular one-arm luncheon joint, a two-bit flop on a real army cot in a real flophouse, and a full fifth of muscatel.

 

There was a night, after enjoying all three of these luxuries to the full, when Martin thought of unwinding his watch at the pinnacle of intoxication. But he also thought of the faces of the honest johns he'd braced for a handout today. Sure, they were squares, but they were prosperous. They wore good clothes, held good jobs, drove nice cars. And for them, happiness was even more ecstatic — they ate dinner in fine hotels, they slept on innerspring mattresses, they drank blended whiskey.

 

Squares or no, they had something there. Martin fingered his watch, put aside the temptation to hock it for another bottle of muscatel, and went to sleep determined to get himself a job and improve his happiness-quotient.When he awoke he had a hangover, but the determination was still with him. Before the month was out Martin was working for a general contractor over on the South Side, at one of the big rehabilitation projects. He hated the grind, but the pay was good, and pretty soon he got himself a one-room apartment out on Blue Island Avenue. He was accustomed to eating in decent restaurants now, and he bought himself a comfortable bed, and every Saturday night he went down to the corner tavern. It was all very pleasant, but —

The foreman liked his work and promised him a raise in a month. If he waited around, the raise would mean that he could afford a second-hand car. With a car, he could even start picking up a girl for a date now and then. Other fellows on the job did, and they seemed pretty happy.

 

So Martin kept on working, and the raise came through and the car came through and pretty soon a couple of girls came through.

The first time it happened, he wanted to unwind his watch immediately. Until he got to thinking about what some of the older men always said. There was a guy named Charlie, for example, who worked alongside him on the hoist. "When you're young and don't know the score, maybe you get a kick out of running around with those pigs. But after a while, you want something better. A nice girl of your own. That's the ticket."

Martin felt he owed it to himself to find out. If he didn't like it better, he could always go back to what he had.

Almost six months went by before Martin met Lillian Gillis. By that time he'd had another promotion and was working inside, in the office. They made him go to night school to learn how to do simple bookkeeping, but it meant another fifteen bucks extra a week, and it was nicer working indoors.

And Lillian was a lot of fun. When she told him she'd marry him, Martin was almost sure that the time was now. Except that she was sort of — well, she was a nice girl, and she said they'd have to wait until they were married. Of course, Martin couldn't expect to marry her until he had a little more money saved up, and another raise would help, too.

That took a year. Martin was patient, because he knew it was going to be worth it. Every time he had any doubts, he took out his watch and looked at it. But he never showed it to Lillian, or anybody else. Most of the other men wore expensive wristwatches and the old silver railroad watch looked just a little cheap.

 

Martin smiled as he gazed at the stem. Just a few twists and he'd have something none of these other poor working slobs would ever have. Permanent satisfaction, with his blushing bride — Only getting married turned out to be just the beginning. Sure, it was wonderful, but Lillian told him how much better things would be if they could move into a new place and fix it up. Martin wanted decent furniture, a TV set, a nice car.

So he started taking night courses and got a promotion to the front office. With the baby coming, he wanted to stick around and see his son arrive. And when it came, he realized he'd have to wait until it got a little older, started to walk and talk and develop a personality of its own.

About this time the company sent him out on the road as a trouble-shooter on some of those other jobs, and now he was eating at those good hotels, living high on the hog and the expense-account. More than once he was tempted to unwind his watch. This was the good life… Of course, it would be even better if he just didn't have to work. Sooner or later, if he could cut in on one of the company deals, he could make a pile and retire. Then everything would be ideal. It happened, but it took time. Martin's son was going to high school before he really got up there into the chips. Martin got a strong hunch that it was now or never, because he wasn't exactly a kid anymore.

But right about then he met Sherry Westcott, and she didn't seem to think he was middle-aged at all, in spite of the way he was losing hair and adding stomach. She taught him that a toupee could cover the bald spot and a cummerbund could cover the pot-gut. In fact, she taught him quite a lot and he so enjoyed learning that he actually took out his watch and prepared to unwind it.

 

Unfortunately, he chose the very moment that the private detectives broke down the door of the hotel room, and then there was a long stretch of time when Martin was so busy fighting the divorce action that he couldn't honestly say he was enjoying any given moment.

When he made the final settlement with Lil he was broke again, and Sherry didn't seem to think he was so young, after all. So he squared his shoulders and went back to work.

He made his pile, eventually, but it took longer this time, and there wasn't much chance to have fun along the way. The fancy dames in the fancy cocktail lounges didn't seem to interest him anymore, and neither did the liquor. Besides, the Doc had warned him off that.

But there were other pleasures for a rich man to investigate. Travel, for instance — and not riding the rods from one hick burg to another, either. Martin went around the world by plane and luxury liner. For a while it seemed as though he would find his moment after all, visiting the Taj Mahal by moonlight. Martin pulled out the battered old watch-case, and got ready to unwind it. Nobody else was there to watch him —

And that's why he hesitated. Sure, this was an enjoyable moment, but he was alone. Lil and the kid were gone, Sherry was gone, and somehow he'd never had time to make any friends. Maybe if he found new congenial people, he'd have the ultimate happiness. That must be the answer — it wasn't just money or power or sex or seeing beautiful things. The real satisfaction lay in friendship.So on the boat trip home, Martin tried to strike up a few acquaintances at the ship's bar. But all these people were much younger, and Martin had nothing in common with them. Also they wanted to dance and drink, and Martin wasn't in condition to appreciate such pastimes. Nevertheless, he tried.

Perhaps that's why he had the little accident the day before they docked in San Francisco. "Little accident" was the ship's doctor's way of describing it, but Martin noticed he looked very grave when he told him to stay in bed, and he'd called an ambulance to meet the liner at the dock and take the patient right to the hospital.

 

At the hospital, all the expensive treatment and the expensive smiles and the expensive words didn't fool Martin any. He was an old man with a bad heart,

and they thought he was going to die.But he could fool them. He still had the watch. He found it in his coat when he put on his clothes and sneaked

out of the hospital.He didn't have to die. He could cheat death with a single gesture — and he intended to do it as a free man, out there under a free sky.

That was the real secret of happiness. He understood it now. Not even friendship meant as much as freedom.

This was the best thing of all — to be free of friends or family or the furies of the flesh.

Martin walked slowly beside the embankment under the night sky. Come to think of it, he was just about back where he'd started,

so many years ago. But the moment was good, good enough to prolong forever. Once a bum, always a bum.

 

He smiled as he thought about it, and then the smile twisted sharply and suddenly, like the pain twisting sharply and suddenly in

his chest. The world began to spin and he fell down on the side of the embankment.

He couldn't see very well, but he was still conscious, and he knew what had happened. Another stroke, and a bad one. Maybe this was it.

Except that he wouldn't be a fool any longer. He wouldn't wait to see what was still around the corner.

 

Right now was his chance to use his power and save his life. And he was going to do it. He could still move, nothing could stop him.

He groped in his pocket and pulled out the old silver watch, fumbling with the stem. A few twists and he'd cheat death, he'd never have to

ride that Hell-Bound Train. He could go on forever. Forever.Martin had never really considered the word before. To go on forever — but how?

Did he want to go on forever, like this; a sick old man,lying helplessly here in the grass?

No. He couldn't do it. He wouldn't do it. And suddenly he wanted very much to cry, because he knew that somewhere along the line

he'd outsmarted himself. And now it was too late. His eyes dimmed, there was a roaring in his ears…

He recognized the roaring, of course, and he wasn't at all surprised to see the train come rushing out of the fog up there on the embankment.

He wasn't surprised when it stopped, either, or when the Conductor climbed off and walked slowly toward him.

The Conductor hadn't changed a bit. Even his grin was still the same.

 

"Hello, Martin," he said. "All aboard."

"I know," Martin whispered. "But you'll have to carry me. I can't walk. I'm not even really talking anymore, am I?"

"Yes you are," the Conductor said. "I can hear you fine. And you can walk, too." He leaned down and placed his hand on

Martin's chest. There was a moment of icy numbness, and then, sure enough, Martin could walk after all.

He got up and followed the Conductor along the slope, moving to the side of the train.

"In here?" he asked.

 

"No, the next car," the Conductor murmured. "I guess you're entitled to ride Pullman. After all, you're quite a successful man.

You've tasted the joys of wealth and position and prestige. You've known the pleasures of marriage and fatherhood. You've sampled

the delights of dining and drinking and debauchery, too, and you traveled high, wide, and handsome. So let's not have any last-minute recriminations."

"All right," Martin sighed. "I can't blame you for my mistakes. On the other hand, you can't take credit for what happened,

either. I worked for everything I got. I did it all on my own. I didn't even need your watch."

"So you didn't," the Conductor said, smiling. "But would you mind giving it back to me now?"

"Need it for the next sucker, eh?" Martin muttered.

"Perhaps."

 

Something about the way he said it made Martin look up. He tried to see the Conductor's eyes, but the brim of his cap cast a shadow.

So Martin looked down at the watch instead."Tell me something," he said, softly. "If I give you the watch, what will you do with it?"

"Why, throw it into the ditch," the Conductor told him. "That's all I'll do with it." And he held out his hand.

"What if somebody comes along and finds it? And twists the stem backward, and stops Time?"

"Nobody would do that," the Conductor murmured. "Even if they knew."

"You mean, it was all a trick? This is only an ordinary, cheap watch?"

"I didn't say that," whispered the Conductor. "I only said that no one has ever twisted the stem backward.

They've all been like you, Martin — looking ahead to find that perfect happiness. Waiting for the moment that never comes."

 

The Conductor held out his hand again.

Martin sighed and shook his head. "You cheated me after all."

"You cheated yourself, Martin. And now you're going to ride that Hell-Bound Train."

 

He pushed Martin up the steps and into the car ahead. As he entered, the train began to move and the whistle screamed. And Martin stood there in the swaying Pullman, gazing down the aisle at the other passengers. He could see them sitting there, and somehow it didn't seem strange at all.

Here they were; the drunks and the sinners, the gambling men and the grifters, the big-time spenders, the skirt-chasers, and all the jolly crew. They knew where they were going, of course, but they didn't seem to give a damn. The blinds were drawn on the windows, yet it was light inside, and they were all living it up — singing and passing the bottle and roaring with laughter, throwing the dice and telling their jokes and bragging their big brags, just the way Daddy used to sing about them in the old song.

 

"Mighty nice traveling companions," Martin said. "Why, I've never seen such a pleasant bunch of people. I mean, they seem to be really enjoying themselves!"

The Conductor shrugged. "I'm afraid things won't be quite so jazzy when we pull into that Depot Way Down Yonder."

For the third time, he held out his hand. "Now, before you sit down, if you'll just give me that watch. A bargain's a bargain—"

Martin smiled. "A bargain's a bargain," he echoed. "I agreed to ride your train if I could stop Time when I found the right moment of happiness.

And I think I'm about as happy right here as I've ever been."

 

Very slowly, Martin took hold of the silver watch-stem."No!" gasped the Conductor."No!" But the watch-stem turned.

"Do you realize what you've done?" the Conductor yelled. "Now we'll never reach the Depot! We'll just go on riding, all of us — forever!"

Martin grinned. "I know," he said. "But the fun is in the trip, not the destination. You taught me that. And I'm looking forward to a wonderful trip. Look, maybe I can even help. If you were to find me another one of those caps, now, and let me keep this watch—"

 

And that's the way it finally worked out. Wearing his cap and carrying his battered old silver watch, there's no happier person in or out of this world — now and forever — than Martin. Martin, the new Brakeman on That Hellbound Train.

To my dear friends around the world,

  

About one year ago photography was my most precious hobby. I really liked it and took photos every now and then. I somehow felt that if I wanted to take this thing to the next level, I had to do something extraordinary. A couple of days before New Year's Eve I decided to pull a 365er since I've seen other photographers do it. It really felt like a great idea and I just went for it. What could possibly happen?

  

I signed up for FlickR on January 1st 2013. I wanted to have some sort of diary of the process and the chance to maybe get an audience. I will never forget the moment where the first person favorited a photo of mine and even commented it. It was amazing to see that there are others out there that seem to like what I'm seeing and feeling. As the days and weeks passed by, I still wasn't too sure about what I wanted to shoot. As you can see, my first uploads don't really have a common theme and idea. It was great that way, but after a while I lacked the fuel that kept my machine running. I didn't really have a motor behind my works.

  

After a couple of weeks street photography more and more became an interest of mine. What made me feel really insecure in the first 1-2 months was the fact, that my street photography was in a way different compared to the rest of the street photography community. I just had these typical street shots in black and white with lots of things going on in them in mind and I just couldn't do it. I tried and tried and thought that after I was lousy at portrait photography, this whole photography thing wasn't meant for me. I knew I had something in me, but I just couldn't really set if free. After a while I said to myself "You know what Marius, this is your project and life and you can do whatever you think is right! Most people don't care for your project anyways...". With this attitude in mind I just kept going to give street photography my signture. It felt amazing to take photos the way I felt 'em without thinking in terms of genres and rules. I felt as though I broke my chains for the first time.

  

"Urban Lights", the second most favorited photo I took changed everything back then. As a huge fan of www.reddit.com I submitted this photo to the international Reddit & WideAngle Photo contest just for the fun of it. I never forget the moment when they told me that I was the 1st winner of this contest with a very high quality. I was in tears since this project meant and still means the world to me. This was one of the first moments where I realized that maybe my photography might better than I think. Although awards don't really mean anything to me, it felt amazing to know that even judges liked what I was doing. During the course of the project I won 10 awards around the world and made it to 6 shortlists. These awards made me happy, but I'll never forget the first time someone told me that they started out with photography because of me or that I inspired them. This still puts a smile on my face that no award of prize money could ever give me. I really don't care for money, I care for people.

  

This project changed everything. At first it was a nice change of scene after sitting in the office for 9-10 hours a day as a market researcher for an international media agency. However, after 5-6 months I felt that this photography thing became more important to me than my job. I used every free minute I had to take new shots and did my post processing till 2AM every day. All of a sudden my job that I got straight out of college and that I went to college for (communication science, psychology and marketing) was the change of scenary for me. My heart and soul were commited to my photography. It wasn't a hobby anymore and it wasn't just a passion of mine - it was my life.

  

It wasn't until South Korea that I truly realized that. I took three weeks off to just get some shooting done. Walking down the streets of Seoul got me thinking. How amazing would it be to just travel around the world and take photos. This would be a dream of a life. People over there asked me what I'm doing for a living. I couldn't tell them that I'm a market researcher since I wasn't doing that anymore. I was doing that for a living, but I was living for photography. I always told 'em that and it felt right. Truly right. When I got back from Korea back to my everday life we had a new CEO that wanted to talk to everyone since he was new to the office. He sat down with me and at the end of our conversation he asked me how long I'll stay here since fluctuation was a huge problem. I told him "Look, I could tell you anything right now, but I'm gonna be honest with you. I want to live my dream and I'm gonna leave soon." This was really hard but liberating to say. It was a huuuuge step for me. I felt somehow miserable and relieved for days to come. I told my other supervisors one hour after our talk and handed in my notice one week later. It takes 4 month to get out of my job, so I'm gonna be free in March to live my dream. Even if my old job pays well and offers me a high standard of living, that's not what I want in life. I don't care for money neither do I care for materialistic happiness. True happiness can't be bought. It's the simple things in life like breathing the air, looking at the stars, eating good food, laughing and sharing moments with wonderful people. That's why I love life and art.

  

I always dreamed of this kind of life. Quite a few galeries in Germany are interested in my work and together with an international art dealer I will start to sell my art soon. It's a dream coming true. It demands hard work and perseverance, but hey, let's make the impossible possible. Mark Twain once said that "The two most important days in your life are the day you are born and the day you find out why." This project showed me that I want to live as an artist and photographer. I want to thank everyone who was and still is a part of this journey from the bottom of my heart. I couldn't have done it without you. You seriously mean the world to me!

  

Marius Vieth, January the 19th 2014

  

PS: Since FlickR is really limited when it comes to posts, I will post all news, travel experiences, exhibitions and all other news around my art on my Facebook page. In case you use Facebook, I would love to have you there!

  

PSII: There is not much post processing involved in the photo. It was really foggy that night and I exhaled quite a few times to get that "face". Increased the contrast a little, did some split toning and my most favorite self-portrait was done.

 

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When I shot the post-box for the 101 Pictures group, it was suggested that I should try to get one for each monarch who has reigned since the post as we know it was set up.

 

I thought that was an interesting idea, so here's the first of them - starting at the beginning with Queen Victoria.

 

The Penny Black was the world's first adhesive postage stamp used in a public postal system. It was issued in Britain on 1 May 1840, for official use from 6 May of that year and features a profile of the Queen Victoria.

 

All London post offices received official issues of the new stamps but other offices throughout the United Kingdom did not, continuing to accept postage payments in cash only for a period. Post offices such as those in Bath began offering the stamp unofficially after 2 May 1840.

 

The idea of an adhesive stamp to indicate pre-payment of postage was part of Sir Rowland Hill's 1837 proposals to reform the British postal system; it was normal then for the recipient to pay postage on delivery. A companion idea, which Hill disclosed on 13 February 1837 at a government enquiry, was that of a separate sheet that folded to form an enclosure or envelope for carrying letters. At that time postage was charged by the sheet and on the distance travelled.

 

Postal delivery systems using what may have been adhesive stamps existed before the Penny Black. Apparently the idea had at least been suggested earlier in Austria, Sweden, and possibly Greece

 

Hill was given a two-year contract to run the new system, and together with Henry Cole he ran a competition to identify the best way to pre-pay letters. None of the 2,600 entries were good enough, so Hill launched the service in 1840 with an envelope bearing a reproduction of a design created by the artist William Mulready and a stamp bearing a representation of the profile of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria. There are also references on the record to covers bearing the Mulready design. All British stamps still bear a picture or silhouette of the monarch somewhere on the design, and are the only postage stamps in the world that do not name their country of origin, leaving the monarch's image to symbolise the United Kingdom.

 

In 1839, the British Treasury announced a competition to design the new stamps, but none of the submissions was considered suitable. The Treasury chose a rough design endorsed by Rowland Hill, featuring an easily recognisable profile of 15-year-old former Princess Victoria. Hill believed this would be difficult to forge. The head was engraved by Charles Heath and his son Frederick based on a sketch provided by Henry Corbould. Corbould's sketch was based on the cameo-like head by William Wyon, which had been designed for a medal used to commemorate the visit of Queen Victoria to the City of London in 1837.

 

Initially, Hill specified that the stamps should be 3/4 inch square, but altered the dimensions to 3/4 inch wide by 7/8 inch tall (approx 19 x 22 mm) to accommodate the writing at the bottom. The word "POSTAGE" appeared at the top of the stamp (revenue stamps had long been used in the UK) and "ONE PENNY." at the bottom, indicating the amount that had been pre-paid for the transmission of the letter to which it was affixed. The background consisted of finely engraved engine turnings The two upper corners held Maltese crosses, at the centers of which were radiant solar discs, and the lower corners contained letters designating the position of the stamp in the printed sheet; "A A" for the stamp at the top left, and "T L" for the bottom right. The sheets, printed by Perkins Bacon, consisted of 240 stamps in 20 rows and 12 columns. In this way, one full sheet cost 240 pennies or one pound sterling. One row of 12 stamps cost a shilling. As the name suggests, the stamp was printed in black ink.

 

Although 6 May was the official date that the labels became available, there are covers postmarked 2 May, due to postmasters selling the stamps from 1 May. A single example is known on cover dated 1 May 1840

 

The Penny Black was in use for only a little over a year. It was found that a red cancellation was hard to see on a black background and the red ink was easy to remove, making it possible to re-use stamps after they had been cancelled. In 1841, the Treasury switched to the Penny Red and issued cancellation devices with black ink, much more effective as a cancellation and harder to remove. However, the re-use of stamps with the un-cancelled portions of two stamps to form an unused whole impression continued, and in 1864 the stars in the top corners were replaced by the check letters as they appeared in the lower corners, but in reverse order.

 

On an unrelated note - all-red images REALLY confuse automatic colour balancing software... ;-)

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yankee_Stadium

  

Yankee Stadium is a stadium located in The Bronx in New York City, New York. It serves as the home ballpark for the New York Yankees, replacing the previous Yankee Stadium, built in 1923. The new ballpark was constructed across the street, north-northeast of the 1923 Yankee Stadium, on the former site of Macombs Dam Park. The ballpark opened April 2, 2009, when the Yankees hosted a workout day in front of fans from the Bronx community. The first game at the new Yankee Stadium was a pre-season exhibition game against the Chicago Cubs played on April 3, 2009, which the Yankees won 7–4.[4] The first regular season game was played on April 16, a 10–2 Yankee loss to the Cleveland Indians.[5][6]

 

Much of the stadium incorporates design elements from the previous Yankee Stadium, paying homage to the Yankees' history. Although stadium construction began in August 2006, the project of building a new stadium for the Yankees is one that spanned many years and faced many controversies. The stadium was built on what had been 24 acres (97,000 m2) of public parkland. Replacement ballfields, slated to open when the new stadium did, have not been completed. Also controversial was the price tag of $2.3 billion, including $1.2 billion in taxpayer subsidies.[7] It was the third most expensive stadium[citation needed] after Wembley Stadium in London and New Meadowlands Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.[citation needed]

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Planning

1.2 Construction

1.3 Financing

2 Features

2.1 Design and layout

2.2 Field dimensions and playing surface

2.2.1 Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

2.3 Amenities and facilities

3 Accessibility and transportation

4 Public opinion

4.1 Opening and public perception

5 Yankee Stadium firsts

6 Other events

7 See also

8 References

9 External links

  

[edit] History

[edit] Planning

New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner began campaigning for the building of a new stadium in the 1980s, even alleging unsafe conditions around the original Yankee Stadium despite the possibility that such statements could discourage attendance at his own team's games. Yankees ownership allegedly planned to move the team across the Hudson River to New Jersey. The Yankees also considered moving to the West Side of Manhattan, which was where the proposed West Side Stadium would later be considered for the New York Jets.[8][9]

 

New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani had already been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities MCU Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. Shortly before leaving office in December 2001, he announced "tentative agreements" for both the New York Yankees and New York Mets to build new stadiums. Of $1.5 billion sought for the stadiums, city and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation.[10] The plan also said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had already said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams.[11] The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadium, and would get low-cost electricity from the state of New York.[11] Business officials criticized the plan as giving too much money to successful teams with little reason to move to a different city.[11]

 

Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor in 2002, called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare" and exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Yankees and Mets. Bloomberg said that unbeknownst to him, Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Yankees and Mets to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement.[10][11] At the time, Bloomberg said that publicly funded stadiums were a poor investment. Under Bloomberg, the New York City government would only offer public financing for infrastructure improvements; the teams would have to pay for the stadium themselves.

 

The proposal for the current stadium was unveiled by the Yankees in 2004. The team scrapped plans to build a retractable roof, saving $200 million in construction costs.[12]

 

[edit] Construction

 

The stadium under construction in 2007 (top), and the completed venue next to the remains of the former facility in 2010 (bottom)Groundbreaking ceremonies for the stadium took place on August 16, 2006, the 58th anniversary of Babe Ruth's death, with Steinbrenner, Bloomberg and then-Governor of New York George Pataki among the notables donning Yankees hard hats and wielding ceremonial shovels to mark the occasion.[13][14] The Yankees continued to play in the previous Yankee Stadium during the 2007 and 2008 seasons while their new home stadium was built across the street.

 

During construction of the stadium, a construction worker and avid Boston Red Sox fan, buried a replica jersey of Red Sox player David Ortiz underneath the visitors' dugout with the objective of placing a "hex" on the Yankees, much like the "Curse of the Bambino" that had plagued the Red Sox long after trading Ruth to the Yankees. After the worker was exposed by co-workers, he was forced to help exhume the jersey.[15] The Yankees organization then donated the retrieved jersey to the Jimmy Fund, a charity started in 1948 by the Red Sox' National League rivals, the Boston Braves, but long championed by the Red Sox and particularly associated with Ted Williams.[16][17] The worker has since claimed to have buried a 2004 American League Championship Series program/scorecard, but has not said where he placed it.[18] These attempts did not work; the Yankees won the World Series in their first year in the new stadium.[19]

 

[edit] Financing

$1.5 million of New York state tax revenue will be used to build parking garages (as authorized by the State Legislature). The parking garage project would cost $320 million. City and state taxpayers will forgo up to $7.5 million annually in lost taxes resulting from the sale of $225 million in tax-exempt bonds authorized on October 9, 2007, by the New York City Industrial Development Agency (administered by the New York City Economic Development Corporation) to finance construction and renovation of the parking garages.[20][21] However, if the parking revenues are not enough to pay a reported $3.2 million land lease to the city, the entity that will operate the parking garages and collect revenue will be able to defer that payment.[22]

 

[edit] Features

The new stadium is meant to be very similar in design to the original Yankee Stadium, both in its original 1923 state and its post-renovation state in 1976. The exterior resembles the original look of the 1923 Yankee Stadium. The interior, a modern ballpark with greater space and increased amenities, features a playing field that closely resembles the previous ballpark before its closing. The stadium features 4,300 club seats and 68 luxury suites.

 

[edit] Design and layout

 

The Indiana limestone exterior, shown at Gate 4, mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium in 1923.The stadium was designed by the architect firm Populous (formerly HOK Sport). The exterior was made from 11,000 pieces of Indiana limestone, along with granite and pre-cast concrete.[23] The design closely mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium when it first opened in 1923.[23] The exterior features the building's name V-cut and gold-leaf lettered above each gate.[23] The interior of the stadium is adorned with hundreds of photographs capturing the history of the Yankees. The New York Daily News newspaper partnered with the Yankees for the exhibition "The Glory of the Yankees Photo Collection", which was selected from the Daily News' collection of over 2,000 photographs.[24] Sports & The Arts was hired by the Yankees to curate the nearly 1,300 photographs that adorn the building from sources including the Daily News, Getty Images, the Baseball Hall of Fame and Major League Baseball.

 

The seats are laid out similar to the original stadium's stands, with grandstand seating that stretches beyond the foul poles, as well as bleacher seats beyond the outfield fences. The Field Level and Main Level comprise the lower bowl, with suites on the H&R Block Level, and the Upper Level and Grandstand Level comprising the upper bowl.[25] Approximately two-thirds of the stadium's seating is in the lower bowl, the inverse from the original Yankee Stadium.[25] Approximately 51,000 fans can be seated, with a standing room capacity of 52,325.[26] The new stadium's seating is spaced outward in a bowl, unlike the stacked-tiers design at the old stadium. This design places most fans farther back but lower to the field, by about an average of 30 feet (9.1 m). Over 56 suites are located within the ballpark, triple the amount from the previous stadium.[23] Seats are 19–24 inches (48–61 cm) wide, up from the previous stadium's 18–22-inch (46–56 cm) wide seats, while there is 33–39 inches (84–99 cm) of leg room, up from 29.5 inches (75 cm) of leg room in the previous stadium.[25] Many lower level seats are cushioned, while all seats are equipped with cupholders.[25] To allow for the extra seating space, the stadium's capacity is reduced by more than 4,000 seats in comparison to the previous stadium.[25]

  

The frieze that lined the roof of the original Yankee Stadium from 1923-1973 is replicated in its original location.Many design elements of the ballpark's interior are inspired by the original Yankee Stadium. The roof of the new facility features a replica of the frieze that was a trademark of the previous ballpark.[25] In the original Yankee Stadium, a copper frieze originally lined the roof of the upper deck stands, but it was torn down during the 1974–75 renovations and replicated atop the wall beyond the bleachers.[25] The new stadium replicates the frieze in its original location along the upper deck stands.[25] Made of steel coated with zinc for rust protection, it is part of the support system for the cantilevers holding up the top deck and the lighting on the roof.[27] The wall beyond the bleacher seats is "cut out" to reveal the subway trains as they pass by, like they were in the original facility. A manually-operated auxiliary scoreboard is built into the left and right field fences, in the same locations it existed in the pre-renovation iteration of the original Yankee Stadium.[25]

  

The Great Hall is situated along the southern front of the stadium.Between the exterior perimeter wall and interior of the stadium is the "Great Hall", a large concourse that runs between Gates 4 and 6.[28] With seven-story ceilings, the Great Hall features more than 31,000 square feet (2,900 m2) of retail space and is lined with 20 banners of past and present Yankees superstars.[28] The Great Hall features a 5-by-383-foot (1.5 by 117 m) LED (light-emitting diode) ribbon display as well as a 25' by 36' LED video display above the entrance to the ballpark from Daktronics, a company in ‹See Tfd›Brookings, South Dakota.[28] [28]

 

Monument Park, which features the Yankees' retired numbers, as well as monuments and plaques dedicated to distinguished Yankees, has been moved from its location beyond the left field fences in the original Yankee Stadium to its new location beyond the center field fences at the new facility. The newly relocated Monument Park is now situated under the sports bar, this choice of location has drawn criticism as the many monuments are underneath the sports bar and not as in the open as in the previous Yankee Stadium. Fueling this criticism has been the advent of black shades that cover monuments on the back wall during games to prevent interference with the vision of the batter.[29] The new location of the monuments is meant to mirror their original placement in center field at the original pre-renovation Yankee Stadium, albeit when they were on the playing field. The transfer of Monument Park from the old stadium to the new stadium began on November 10, 2008.[30] The first monuments were put in place on February 23, 2009.[31] Yankees pitcher Mariano Rivera requested that the Yankees reposition the team's bullpen, as well as add a door to connect the Yankees' bullpen to Monument Park, in order to allow access to it by Yankee relievers. The organization complied with his request.[23][32]

 

[edit] Field dimensions and playing surface

 

The view from the Grandstand Level (400 Level).The field dimensions for the outfield fences have the same distance markers as the original facility prior to closing yet the dimensions are not identical.[33] Due to the design of the right-field stands and the inclusion of an embedded manual scoreboard, the right-field wall is an average of 5 feet (1.5 m) closer to home plate.[34] Overall, the fences measure 318 feet (97 m) to left field, 399 feet (122 m) to left-center field, 408 feet (124 m) to center field, 385 feet (117 m) to right-center field, and 314 to right field.[25][26] At the old Yankee Stadium, the right field wall curved from the right-field corner to straightaway center, while at the new ballpark the fence takes a sharp, almost entirely straight angle.[34] This results in a difference at certain points between the right field markers of as much as 9 feet (2.7 m).[34] The dimensions in left field are substantially the same despite the presence of an embedded auxiliary scoreboard there as well.[34]

 

The outfield fences measure 8 feet 5 inches (2.57 m) high from the left-field foul pole until the Yankees' bullpen, when the fences begin to gradually descend in height until the right field foul pole, where they are only 8 feet (2.4 m) tall.[25] This also marks a decrease from the previous Yankee Stadium, where the outfield walls stood at a height of approximately 10 feet (3.0 m).[33] The distance from home plate to the backstop is 52 feet 4 inches (15.95 m), a reduction of 20 feet (6.1 m) from the previous facility.[26] The field is made up of Kentucky bluegrass, the same surface as the previous stadium, which is grown on a 1,300 acres (530 ha) farm in Bridgeton, New Jersey. The grass is equipped with a drainage system (featuring over 14,000 feet (4,300 m) of pipe) that makes the field playable an hour after taking 2 inches (51 mm) of rain.[25]

 

[edit] Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

Characteristic Old Stadium [as of 2008] New Stadium

Opening Day April 18, 1923 April 16, 2009

Capacity 56,866 52,325 [35](including standing room)

Seat width 18 inches (46 cm)–22 inches (56 cm) 19 inches (48 cm)–24 inches (61 cm)

Legroom 29.5 inches (75 cm) 33 inches (84 cm)–39 inches (99 cm)

Concourse width (average) 17 feet (5.2 m) 32 feet (9.8 m)

Cup holders Select Field Level Seating For every seat in General Seating

Luxury suites 19 56

Club Seats N/A 4,300

Team stores 6,800 square feet (630 m2) 11,560 square feet (1,074 m2)

Restroom fixture ratio 1 per 89 fans 1 per 60 fans

Public elevators

(passenger lifts) 3

(Otis Traction) 16

(KONE Traction)

Video scoreboard 25 feet (7.6 m) by 33 feet (10 m)

(Standard Definition LED) 59 feet (18 m) by 101 feet (31 m)

(High Definition LED)

Distance from Home Plate to:

Backstop 72 feet 4 inches (22 m) 52 feet 4 inches (16 m)

Left Field 318 feet (97 m)

Left Center 399 feet (122 m)

Center Field 408 feet (124 m)

Right Center 385 feet (117 m)

Right Field 314 feet (96 m)

Sources: The New York Yankees [26] and Andrew Clem [36]

 

[edit] Amenities and facilities

 

A signature by Babe Ruth is one of many autographs in the "ball wall", the centerpiece of the Yankee Museum.Yankee Stadium features a wide array of amenities. It contains 63 percent more space, 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) more in total, than the previous stadium, with wider concourses and open sight lines on concourses.[23] Along with 227 miles (365 km) of wired Ethernet cable, the building has sufficient fiber-optic cable wiring that Cisco Vice President and Treasurer David Holland calls the building "future proof".[23] Over 1,100 high-definition video monitors are placed within the stadium and approximately $10 million worth of baseball merchandise is housed within the ballpark.[23]

 

The center field scoreboard, which measures 59 x 101 feet (31 m) and offers 5,925 square feet (550.5 m2) of viewing area, was the third-largest high definition scoreboard in the world when it opened (behind the 8,736-square-foot (811.6 m2) board at newly renovated Kauffman Stadium and the new 8,066-square-foot (749.4 m2) board at the renovated Tokyo Racecourse).[37] Since then, it has also been surpassed by the world's largest scoreboard at the new Cowboys Stadium.[38] Displaying 5,925 ft (1,806 m)² of video, the scoreboard can display four 1080p high definition images simultaneously.[25]

 

The Yankees clubhouse features 30,000 ft (9,100 m)² of space, over 2.5 times the space of the clubhouse from the previous facility.[39] The dressing area alone features 3,344 ft (1,019 m)² of space, with each locker equipped with a safety deposit box and touch-screen computer.[39] The Yankees clubhouse features a weight room, training room, video room, and lounge area, while both teams' clubhouses have their own indoor batting cages.[39] The Yankees' therapy room features a hydrotherapy pool with an underwater treadmill.[39] The Yankees are believed to be the first team to chemically treat their uniforms, as well as the showering surfaces with an anti-bacterial agent that reduces the risk of infection.[39]

 

The Yankees Museum, located on the lower level at Gate 6, displays a wide range of Yankees' memorabilia.[40] A "Ball Wall" features hundreds of balls autographed by past and present Yankees, and there are plans to eventually add autographs for every living player who has played for the Yankees.[40] The centerpiece of the museum is a tribute to Don Larsen's perfect game in the 1956 World Series, with a commemorative home plate in the floor and statues of Larsen pitching to Yogi Berra.[40] Along with a facsimile of a current locker from the Yankees' clubhouse, fans can view the locker of the late Thurman Munson, which sat unoccupied in the previous stadium's Yankee clubhouse in honor of Munson.[40]

 

The ballpark offers a wide choice of restaurants. There are 25 fixed concessions stands, along with 112 moveable ones.[28] A Hard Rock Cafe is located within the ballpark, but it is open to anyone at the 161 St. and River Ave. entrance year round.[28] The Hard Rock Cafe at Yankee Stadium officially opened on March 30, 2009, and an opening ceremony took place on April 2, 2009.[41] A steakhouse called NYY Steak is located beyond right field.[28] Celebrity chefs will occasionally make appearances at the ballpark's restaurants and help prepare food for fans in premium seating over the course of the season.[28] Above Monument Park in center field is the Mohegan Sun sports bar, whose tinted black glass acts as the ballpark's batter's eye. The sports bar obstructs the view of approximately 600 bleacher seats in the right and left field bleachers, preventing fans from seeing the action occurring deep in the opposite side of the outfield. In response, the Yankees installed TV monitors on the sides of the sports bar's outer walls, and have reduced the price of these obstructed-view seats from $12 to $5.[42][43]

 

[edit] Accessibility and transportation

 

The stadium is serviced via subway by the 161st Street station on the IRT Jerome Avenue Line (top) (as well as the IND Concourse Line; not shown) and via railroad by the East 153rd Street Metro North station (bottom)The stadium is reachable via the 161st Street – Yankee Stadium station complex, the same that served the old Yankee Stadium, by the 4 B D trains of the New York City Subway. It is also served by the Yankees - East 153rd Street (Metro-North station), which opened on May 23, 2009,[44] which routinely features Hudson Line train service, but on game days, Harlem Line and New Haven Line trains as well as shuttle trains from Grand Central Terminal also platform there. The stadium is also served by multiple bus lines. On game days, NY Waterway operates the "Yankee Clipper" ferry route stopping at Port Imperial (Weehawken) and Hoboken in New Jersey and West 38th Street, the Wall Street Ferry Pier, and East 34th Street in Manhattan, and New York Water Taxi operates a free ferry to the stadium from the Wall Street Ferry Pier before every game only. For selected games, SeaStreak provides high-speed ferry service to Highlands, New Jersey.

 

Yankee Stadium is accessible by car via the Major Deegan Expressway (Interstate 87), with connections to Interstate 95, Interstate 278 and other major thoroughfares. Aside from existing parking lots and garages serving the stadium, construction for additional parking garages is planned. The New York State Legislature agreed to $70 million in subsidies for a $320 million parking garage project. On October 9, 2007, the New York City Industrial Development Agency approved $225 million in tax-exempt bonds to finance construction of three new parking garages that will have 3,600 new parking spaces, and renovation of the existing 5,569 parking spaces nearby.[45] Plans initially called for a fourth new garage, but this was eliminated before the final approval. The garages will be built (and renovated) by the Community Initiatives Development Corporation of Hudson, N.Y., a nonprofit entity that will use the parking revenue to repay the bonds and pay a $3 million yearly land lease to the City of New York. Parking is expected to cost $25 per game.[45]

 

[edit] Public opinion

[edit] Opening and public perception

 

Four F-16C Fighting Falcons from the 174th Fighter Wing fly over the "New" Yankee Stadium on Opening DayAlthough Yankee Stadium has been praised for its amenities and its usage of "classic" design elements from the original facility, the new stadium has been widely criticized for fan-unfriendly practices.[46][47] Seats within the first eight rows in the lower bowl, called the "Legends Suite", rank among the highest priced tickets in professional sports, with the average ticket in the section selling for $510 and the most expensive single game-day ticket costing $2,600.[46] Legends Suite Seats have been regularly empty, with many ticket holders in this section having given up their tickets, and others remaining unsold, despite most other seats in the ballpark selling out. This has created an "embarrassing" image on television of the seats behind home plate being almost completely vacant.[46] Consequently, a surplus of tickets for Legends Seats have emerged in the secondary market, and with supply exceeding demand, resale prices have dropped. Empty seats in the Legends Suite could even be seen during the 2009 playoffs, including World Series games. Even though all playoff games have been sellouts, Legends Suite ticket holders are in the lounges and the restaurant underneath instead of their seats.[48][49]

 

Legends Suite seats are also separate from the other lower bowl seating and are vigorously patrolled by stadium security, with the divider being described as a "concrete moat".[46][47] Fans that do not have tickets within this premium section in the front rows are not allowed to access it or stand behind the dugouts during batting practice to watch players hit and request autographs.[46][47]

 

The Yankee Stadium staff was also criticized for an incident during a May 4, 2009 game, which was interrupted by a rain delay.[50] Fans were told by some staff members that the game was unlikely to resume and consequently, many fans exited the stadium, only for the game to eventually resume play.[50] The fans that left the ballpark were not permitted to re-enter, per the stadium's re-entry policy, and many subsequently got into arguments with stadium personnel.[50] In response to the backlash the Yankees received for the incident, the staff members were required to sign a gag order preventing them from speaking to media, but they did indicate that communication for rain delays would be improved.[50]

 

After less than a season, cracks have appeared on the concrete ramps of the Stadium. The Yankees are trying to determine whether there was something wrong with the cement, or the ramps' installation or design. The company involved in designing the concrete mix were indicted on charges that they either faked or failed to perform some required tests and falsified the results of others.[51]

    

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised because of out-of-date information. Please help improve the article by updating it. There may be additional information on the talk page. (September 2010)

 

In 2009, the stadium was criticized for its propensity for allowing home runs. In its opening season, 237 home runs were hit.Yankee Stadium has quickly acquired a reputation as a "bandbox" and a "launching pad" due to the high number of home runs hit at the new ballpark.[52][53][54][55][56][57] Through its first 23 games, 87 home runs were hit at the venue, easily besting Enron Field's (now called Minute Maid Park) previous record set in 2000.[58] Early in the season, Yankee Stadium was on pace to break Coors Field's 1999 single-season record of 303 home runs allowed, and the hometown New York Daily News newspaper started publishing a daily graphic comparing each stadium's home run totals through a similar number of games.

 

ESPN commentator Peter Gammons has denounced the new facility as "one of the biggest jokes in baseball" and concludes that "[it] was not a very well-planned ballpark."[54] Likewise, Gammons' ESPN colleague Buster Olney has described the stadium as being "on steroids" and likened it to his childhood Wiffle-ball park.[52][59] Newsday columnist Wallace Matthews joined in the criticism, labeling the stadium "ridiculous" and decrying its cheapening of the home run.[53] Former Yankee Reggie Jackson termed the park "too small" to contain current player Alex Rodriguez and suggested it might enable the third baseman to hit 75 home runs in a season.[53]

 

A variety of theories have been posited to account for the dramatic increase in home runs at the new Yankee Stadium over the original stadium, foremost among these the sharper angles of the outfield walls[34] and the speculated presence of a wind tunnel.[52] During construction of the new ballpark, engineers commissioned a wind study, the results of which indicated there would be no noticeable difference between the two stadiums.[60] The franchise is planning to conduct a second study, but Major League rules prohibit it from making any changes to the playing field until the off-season.[60]

 

An independent study by the weather service provider AccuWeather in June 2009 concluded that the shape and height of the right field wall, rather than the wind, is responsible for the proliferation of home runs at the stadium.[61] AccuWeather's analysis found that roughly 20% of the home runs hit at the new ballpark would not have been home runs at the old ballpark due to the gentle curve of its right field corner, and its 10-foot (3.0 m) wall height.[61] Nothing was observed in wind speeds and patterns that would account for the increase.[61]

 

The number of home runs hit at the new stadium slowed significantly as the season progressed,[62] but a new single-season record for most home runs hit at a Yankee home ballpark was nonetheless set in the Yankees' 73rd home game of 2009 when Vladimir Guerrero of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim hit the 216th home run of the season at the venue, surpassing the previous record of 215 set at the original Yankee Stadium in 2005.[63]

 

In 2010, the rate of home runs were markedly less as of May 15, 2010, with 35 home runs hit in 14 games for 2.5 per game (a projection of 205 - in 2009, the stadium was at 2.93 per game for a total of 237.) Several reasons were given for the sudden dropoff in home runs, including a lower April 2010 temperature (56 degrees in comparison with 63 the previous year), slower winds, poor pitching, a change in direction in winds,[64] as well as removal of the original Yankee Stadium and the effect this has had on wind currents.[citation needed] ESPN suggested the prolific home run totals of 2009 were a fluke.[64]

 

[edit] Yankee Stadium firsts

 

Logo for the inaugural season at the Stadium.Before the official Opening Day against the Cleveland Indians April 16, 2009, the Yankees hosted a two-game exhibition series at the Stadium in early April against the Chicago Cubs.[5] Grady Sizemore of the Indians was the first player to hit a grand slam off of Yankee pitcher Dámaso Marte. The Indians and 2008 Cy Young Award winner, Cliff Lee, spoiled the opening of the new stadium by winning 10-2. Before the Yankees went to bat for the first time, the bat that Babe Ruth used to hit his first home run at the old Yankee Stadium in 1923 was placed momentarily on home plate.[65] Jorge Posada hit the first Yankee home run in the new ballpark hitting his off Lee in the same game. Russell Branyan, while playing for the Seattle Mariners, was the first player to hit a home run off of the Mohegan Sun Restaurant in center field. Like its predecessor, the new Yankee Stadium hosted the World Series in its very first season; in the 2009 World Series, the Yankees defeated the Philadelphia Phillies 4 games to 2. It also became the latest stadium to host a World Series-clinching victory by its home team in the venue's first season (after the St. Louis Cardinals won the World Series at Busch Stadium in 2006), when, on November 4, 2009, the Yankees won their 27th World Series championship against the Phillies. The Yankees are the only team to inaugurate two stadiums with World Series wins and also appeared in the 1976 World Series following the refurbishment of the original Yankee Stadium.

 

Statistic Exhibition Regular season Postseason

First game April 3, 2009

Yankees 7, Cubs 4 April 16, 2009

Indians 10, Yankees 2 October 7, 2009

Yankees 7, Twins 2

Ceremonial First Pitch Reggie Jackson Yogi Berra Eric T. Olson

First Pitch Chien-Ming Wang CC Sabathia CC Sabathia

First Batter Aaron Miles (Cubs) Grady Sizemore (Indians) Denard Span (Twins)

First Hit Aaron Miles (Cubs) Johnny Damon Denard Span (Twins)

First Yankees Hit Derek Jeter Johnny Damon Derek Jeter

First Home Run Robinson Cano Jorge Posada Derek Jeter

First Win Chien-Ming Wang Cliff Lee (Indians) CC Sabathia

First Save Jonathan Albaladejo Mariano Rivera (4/17) Mariano Rivera

 

[edit] Other events

 

Football configuration for new Yankee Stadium.The first ever non-baseball event at the Stadium took place on April 25, 2009, with pastor and televangelist Joel Osteen holding a “Historic Night of Hope” prayer service.[66]

 

A New York University graduation ceremony took place on May 13, 2009 with the address being delivered by U.S. Secretary of State and former New York Senator Hillary Clinton. The 2010 NYU ceremony featured alumnus Alec Baldwin as a speaker.[67]

 

The promotional tour for the Manny Pacquiao-Miguel Cotto fight began with an event at Yankee Stadium on September 10, 2009.

 

On June 5, 2010, Yuri Foreman fought Cotto in the first boxing match in The Bronx since 1976. The fight was referred to as the "Stadium Slugfest." Cotto defeated Foreman with a TKO in the ninth round.[68]

 

The Army Black Knights will play a college football game at Yankee Stadium against The Notre Dame Fighting Irish on November 20, 2010. This will mark the two teams' first meeting in the Bronx since 1969.[69] Also, Army will play Air Force, Rutgers, and Boston College in 2011, 2012, and 2014 respectively at Yankee Stadium.

 

Yankee Stadium will also host the newly-created Pinstripe Bowl, an annual college football bowl game that will pit the third-place team from the Big East against the seventh-place team from the Big 12. Organizers plan to hold the inaugural game December 30, 2010.[70]

 

The Yankees were in discussions with the National Hockey League to have Yankee Stadium host the 2011 NHL Winter Classic. However, the NHL chose Heinz Field as the host. The stadium was a candidate to host the 2010 NHL Winter Classic before it was awarded to Boston's Fenway Park.[71]

 

Rappers Jay-Z and Eminem performed the first concert at Yankee Stadium on September 13, 2010.[72]

 

[edit] See also

Citi Field, a new baseball stadium for the New York Mets (National League) also opened in 2009, replacing the Mets' previous home Shea Stadium in northern Queens (New York City).

Barclays Center, an arena for the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association to be built by and over the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Atlantic Avenue railyards in northwestern Brooklyn (New York City) currently under construction.

New Meadowlands Stadium, a new football stadium for the New York Giants and the New York Jets of the National Football League which replaced Giants Stadium at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey that opened in 2010.

Red Bull Arena, a new stadium for the Major League Soccer team New York Red Bulls that opened in 2010, replacing the team's previous home, Giants Stadium.

[edit] References

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^ www.seating-chart.info/mlb/american-league/yankee-stadium/

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^ "New York Yankees-owned steakhouse will be part of new stadium". Daily News. Bloomberg News (New York). June 18, 2008. www.nydailynews.com/money/2008/06/18/2008-06-18_new_york_.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Best, Neil (February 24, 2009). "Old Yankee Stadium's obstructed views make a comeback". Newsday. www.newsday.com/services/newspaper/printedition/wednesday.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Best, Neil (February 25, 2009). "Yankees lower partial-view seat price to $5". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/ny-sptix2612496709feb26,0,5172494..... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Metro-North Railroad (April 1, 2009). "Train Service to MTA Metro-North Railroad's Newest Station Yankees – E. 153rd Street Begins Saturday May 23, 2009". Press release. www.mta.info/mta/news/releases/?en=090401-MNR11. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ a b N.Y.C. IDA Approves $325.3 Million, Most for Yankee Stadium Garages, The Bond Buyer, October 10, 2007

^ a b c d e Green, Sarah (May 5, 2009). "New Yankee Stadium Strikes Out With Customers". Harvard Business Publishing. blogs.harvardbusiness.org/cs/2009/05/new_yankee_stadium_i.... Retrieved 2009-05-07.

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^ Miller, Scott (October 29, 2009). "Yankees create no excitement, and now pressure's on". CBS Sports.com. www.cbssports.com/mlb/story/12436398. Retrieved 2009-10-31.

^ Best, Neil (October 29, 2009). "Empty seats at Yankee Stadium not what they seem". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/empty-seats-at-yankee-stadium-not-.... Retrieved 2009-10-31.

^ a b c d Gagne, Matt (May 6, 2009). "Fallout from Yankeegate lingers with Stadium workers, irate fans". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/05/05/20.... Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ Rashbaum, William K.; Belson, Ken (October 23, 2009). "Cracks Emerge in Ramps at New Yankee Stadium". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2009/10/24/nyregion/24stadium.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

^ a b c Olney, Buster (April 21, 2009). "New Yankee Stadium on steroids?". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/mlb/news/story?id=4080195. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b c Matthews, Wallace (May 20, 2009). "Home runs a cheap thrill at Yankee Stadium". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/ny-spwally2112790416may20.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b "Yankee Stadium: Biggest Joke in Baseball". New York Post. May 22, 2009. www.nypost.com/seven/05222009/sports/yankees/gammons_rips.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Keown, Tim (April 28, 2009). "Trouble at the House that George Built". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=keown/090428. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Roberts, Jeff (May 23, 2009). "Ruthian blasts now a common sight". NorthJersey.com. www.northjersey.com/sports/yankees/45886242.html. Retrieved 2009-05-23. [dead link]

^ McKee, Don (May 21, 2009). "Bronx launching pad awaits Phils". The Philadelphia Inquirer. www.philly.com/philly/news/breaking/20090521_Morning_Repo.... Retrieved 2009-05-23. [dead link]

^ "Phillies' Ruiz finishes Yanks in 11th, takes Lidge off hook". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/mlb/recap?gameId=290524110. Retrieved 2009-05-29.

^ Olney, Buster (May 23, 2009). "Too many homers to right? Add a chicken coop". ESPN.com. insider.espn.go.com/espn/blog/index?entryID=4201092&n.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b Feinsand, Mark (April 21, 2009). "Homer's Odyssey: News tries to solve new Yankee Stadium's quandary". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/04/20/20.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b c Dittmeier, Bobbie (June 10, 2009). "Study: Design cause of Stadium homers". MLB.com. www.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090610&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-06-10.

^ The New Stadium's a Bandbox TheYankeeUniverse.com

^ Hoch, Bryan (September 14, 2009). "Guerrero's homer sets Yankee Stadium mark". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090914&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-09-17.

^ a b Marchand, Andrew (April 30, 2010). "It is high, it is far, it is ... caught!". ESPN. sports.espn.go.com/new-york/mlb/news/story?id=5151275.

^ "Cleveland 10, New York 2". USA Today. April 16, 2009. content.usatoday.com/sportsdata/baseball/mlb/game/Indians.... Retrieved 2009-04-16.

^ Gibson, David (April 19, 2009). "God’s Will in Hard Times". New York Magazine. nymag.com/news/intelligencer/56161/. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Alec Baldwin Speaks At NYU Graduation (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. May 12, 2010. www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/12/alec-baldwin-speaks-at-.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

^ Weichselbaum, Simone; Schapiro, Rich (June 6, 2010). "Yankee Stadium slugfest: Miguel Cotto beats junior middleweight champ Yuri Foreman". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2010/06/06/2010-06-06_boxers.... Retrieved 2010-06-07.

^ Hoch, Bryan (July 20, 2009). "Yanks to host Notre Dame-Army game". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090720&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "First Pinstripe Bowl to Be Held Dec. 30". ESPN.com. March 9, 2010. sports.espn.go.com/ncf/news/story?id=4978803. Retrieved 2010-05-20.

^ "Yankee Stadium to host NHL game in 2011?". Newsday. July 20, 2009. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/yankee-stadium-to-host-nh.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Jay-Z, Eminem to play local ballparks". MLB.com. May 13, 2010. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20100512&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Yankee Stadium

Official Site

Virtual tour of new Yankee Stadium

Newsday.com New Yankee Stadium

Ballparks of Baseball

Ballparks.com overview of proposed stadium

Photographic Updates of the Construction of the New Yankee Stadium

Demolition of Yankee Stadium

Metro-North Railroad station at Yankee Stadium

  

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Title: Canadian grocer July-December 1895

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Car Company Gets U.S. Loan, Builds Cars In Finland

 

With the approval of the Obama administration, an electric car company that received a $529 million federal government loan guarantee is assembling its first line of cars in Finland, saying it could not find a facility in the United States capable of doing the work.

 

Vice President Joseph Biden heralded the Energy Department's $529 million loan to the start-up electric car company called Fisker as a bright new path to thousands of American manufacturing jobs. But two years after the loan was announced, the job of assembling the flashy electric Fisker Karma sports car has been outsourced to Finland.

 

"There was no contract manufacturer in the U.S. that could actually produce our vehicle," the car company's founder and namesake told ABC News. "They don't exist here."

 

Henrik Fisker said the U.S. money so far has been spent on engineering and design work that stayed in the U.S., not on the 500 manufacturing jobs that went to a rural Finnish firm, Valmet Automotive.

 

"We're not in the business of failing; we're in the business of winning. So we make the right decision for the business," Fisker said. "That's why we went to Finland."

 

The loan to Fisker is part of a $1 billion bet the Energy Department has made in two politically connected California-based electric carmakers producing sporty -- and pricey -- cutting-edge autos. Fisker Automotive, backed by a powerhouse venture capital firm whose partners include former Vice President Al Gore, predicts it will eventually be churning out tens of thousands of electric sports sedans at the shuttered GM factory it bought in Delaware. And Tesla Motors, whose prime backers include PayPal mogul Elon Musk and Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, says it will do the same in a massive facility tooling up in Silicon Valley.

 

An investigation by ABC News and the Center for Public Integrity's iWatch News that will air on "Good Morning America" found that the DOE's bet carries risks for taxpayers, has raised concern among industry observers and government auditors, and adds to questions about the way billions of dollars in loans for smart cars and green energy companies have been awarded. Fisker is more than a year behind rolling out its $97,000 luxury vehicle bankrolled in part with DOE money. While more are promised soon, just 40 of its Karma cars (below) have been manufactured and only two delivered to customers' driveways, including one to movie star Leonardo DiCaprio. Tesla's SEC filings reveal the start-up has lost money every quarter. And while its federal funding is intended to help it mass produce a new $57,400 Model S sedan, the company has no experience in a project so vast.

 

There is intense scrutiny of the decisions made by the Department of Energy as it invests billions of taxpayer dollars in alternative energy. The questions come in the wake of the administration's failed $535 million investment in solar panel maker Solyndra. The company's collapse, bankruptcy and raid by FBI agents generated a litany of questions about how the Energy Department doles out billions in highly sought after green energy seed money.

 

A key question, experts and investigators say, is whether another Solyndra is in the offing.

 

In interviews, executives with Tesla and Fisker said comparisons to Solyndra are unfounded. Each said the government's investments will ultimately pay off by supporting a fleet of electric cars that will ease the nation's dependence on fuel and benefit the environment.

 

"It's absolutely a worthwhile risk," said Diarmuid O'Connell, vice president of corporate and business development for Tesla Motors. "I absolutely believe it was a good bet for American taxpayers." Tesla has said its mass production of the sedan will ultimately lead to profitability.

 

Henrik Fisker, the renowned auto designer who founded the car company that carries his name, said his company holds tremendous promise and has accumulated $600 million in private financing.

   

When asked directly by ABC News if taxpayers should worry about the more than $500 million in federal funds on the line, he was emphatic: "No, I don't think they need to worry about it," Fisker said. When asked if Fisker might be the next Solyndra, he said, "Absolutely not."

  

In a lengthy interview, Fisker said he apprised the Department of Energy of his decision to assemble the high-priced Karma in Finland after he could not find an American facility that could handle the work. They signed off, he said, so long as he did not spend the federal loan money in Finland -- something he says the company has taken care to avoid. He said the decision, ultimately, was to help prevent his company from following the path of Solyndra, which exhausted nearly all of its loan money on a high-tech solar manufacturing plant in Freemont, California.

 

"If you just start doing like what Solyndra did, making a factory in a place where it was too expensive to manufacture … [you] obviously fail," he said.

 

By some key measures, Tesla is ahead of Fisker. More than 2,000 of its first electric car, the Tesla Roadster, are on the road, while Fisker is just starting to get its first car into showrooms. And Tesla is further along in advancing a second, lower-cost car, the Model S. While both firms boast of big dollar private investments, Tesla's vulnerabilities are more publicly visible through its SEC filings, in contrast to the privately held Fisker.

 

Chelsea Sexton, a 20-year veteran of the electric car movement and an outspoken advocate for alternative fuel vehicles, said she can plainly see the risks, even though her husband works for Tesla.

 

"None of us with any experience in the industry think there's any sort of guarantee they'll make it," Sexton said of Tesla. "It looks pretty good right now, they're building out their plant, things seem to be on track, so we're all encouraged. But you know, we watched GM and Chrysler go bankrupt."

 

Energy Department officials said such loans, by their nature, are risky because the department is financing innovative, potentially game-changing technologies that could deliver long-term benefits. They said neither firm has missed a loan payment, or sought help from the department to restructure their lending agreements.

"Two years ago, critics said we shouldn't be investing in American auto manufacturing at all because the industry wouldn't survive," said Damien LaVera, an Energy Department spokesman. "They were wrong then and they're wrong today. From well-established names like Ford to innovative startups like Tesla and Fisker, America's auto industry is being reinvented. Continuing this turnaround demands more innovation, not defeatism. While supporting innovative technologies always carries a degree of risk, these investments deliver long-term benefits."

 

Yet an audit this year by the Government Accountability Office, the investigative arm of Congress, criticized the Energy Department for not keeping close enough tabs on its fleet of auto loans -- including those to Fisker and Tesla -- to ensure they meet benchmarks. The funding was issued under the $25 billion Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing loan program, one piece of a giant umbrella of DOE loans and loan guarantees going out the door.

 

"DOE cannot be assured that the projects are on track to deliver the vehicles as agreed," said the GAO report examining the department's ATVM program. "It also means that U.S. taxpayers do not know whether they are getting what they paid for through the loans."

 

Tesla and Fisker stand in rare company in securing the ATVM loans. To date, records show, more than 95 percent of applicants are still awaiting approval or have been rejected from the loan pool.

 

Between them, Fisker, at $529 million, and Tesla, at $465 million, have secured nearly $1 billion to jump-start production of their cars. Combined, the companies have already drawn down more than $300 million, Federal Financing Bank records show.

 

Industry watchers question whether the Department of Energy had the auto industry know-how to make an informed choice, and they worry that another government-backed failure could damage the very industry the program intended to help.

 

"I think we'll absolutely end up having our version of Solyndra in the transport world based on the way the DOE has, and seems to still be executing its loan program without enough veteran diligence in the process," Sexton said.

 

The majority of the DOE funding for Fisker is earmarked for the company to develop a less costly, mass market sedan, called Project Nina. Energy officials issued the loans for a car that, even two years later, has not been publicly revealed.

 

"A half billion dollars for a car that no one has seen a picture of, in the Fisker Nina, was a bit more surprising to people," Sexton said.

 

Fisker said the mass market car Nina has been designed and built, but it remains under wraps to maintain a competitive edge.

 

Heavyweight Support

Standing in a shuttered General Motors plant in Wilmington, Del., Vice President Biden proclaimed that a half-billion-dollar Department of Energy loan would transform the idled site into a production line for electric cars.

 

"Folks, we're making a bet," Biden said on Oct. 27, 2009. "We're making a bet on the future, we're making a bet on the American people, we're making a bet on the market, we're making a bet on innovation."

 

The announcement that the plant would re-open followed a heavy lobbying push by Delaware politicians from both parties, who cited the news as a sign of industry's turnaround. In September 2009, Republican Rep. Mike Castle wrote directly to Energy Secretary Steven Chu, saying the Fisker proposal had "great merit," and urging Chu to give the company "careful consideration" for the loan.

 

The governor and state politicians took turns, along with Biden, to proclaim the project to cheering blue-collar workers clad in jeans, caps and jackets. They said it would produce thousands of jobs and have cars rolling off the line by next year. Fisker said he remains convinced those jobs will come. While he has hired marketing, design and engineering teams in the U.S., the auto plant jobs in Wilmington right now number about 100.

 

The Department of Energy loan to Fisker closed in April 2010, and again Biden took center stage in a department statement announcing the loan. "The story of Fisker is a story of ingenuity of an American company, a commitment to innovation by the U.S. government and the perseverance of the American auto industry," said the vice president.

 

ABC News sent questions to the White House Monday and requested an interview with the vice president. Biden was not made available, but an official in his office said "the Office of the Vice President did not encourage the Department of Energy to choose any particular company over any other but, like others in the Administration, supported the Department's loan program and the creation of car manufacturing jobs in the United States."

 

Energy Department officials have been steadfast that politics never entered the picture and each project was screened by professionals and secured on the merits. And executives from Tesla and Fisker said they won government support because their projects had the best shot at success. They said the involvement of well-connected figures in their companies should not suggest they attempted to use special influence to secure the loans.

 

Both companies have political heavyweights behind them. One of Fisker's biggest financial supporters, records show, is the California venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. The firm financially supports numerous green-tech firms, records show.

 

Kleiner Perkins partner John Doerr, a California billionaire who made a fortune investing in Google, hosted President Obama at a February dinner for high-tech executives at his secluded estate south of San Francisco. Doerr and Kleiner Perkins executives have contributed more than $1 million to federal political causes and campaigns over the last two decades, primarily supporting Democrats. Doerr serves on Obama's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness. Doerr has not replied to interview requests since March.

 

Former Vice President Al Gore is another Kleiner Perkins senior partner. Gore could not be reached for comment.

 

"Their major venture investor is Kleiner Perkins, who has Al Gore as a partner and is certainly politically connected in general," said industry observer Sexton. "Whether that played a role or not is up to the DOE to explain."

 

Tesla brings political pull, as well. A former Tesla board member, Steve Westly, is an Obama bundler who raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for the president in 2008 and for his 2012 re-election campaign. His Westly Group was also a financial supporter of Tesla Motors until Tesla went public in 2010, and Westly continues to back the company. Westly has declined interview requests since February, but has appeared in multiple conferences, forums and TV interviews publicly praising Tesla Motors.

 

Tesla's founder and CEO, Elon Musk, is a hearty political contributor who has primarily backed Democrats, including Obama. According to published reports, another Tesla investor is Nick Pritzker, a donor to Obama and a cousin of Penny Pritzker, the national finance chair of Obama's 2008 campaign.

 

O'Connell, the Tesla executive, said political muscle played no role in the company's award of the $465 million in loans, noting that the initial application was filed under Bush -- though landed under Obama.

 

'Demonstrated Track Record'

In Tesla's case, as in Fisker's, the government loan was broken into two parts.

 

The first chunk, for $365 million, is to finance a manufacturing facility for the Tesla Model S sedan, Tesla's lower-cost answer to its pricey Roadster.

 

The other $100 million funded a facility to manufacture battery packs and electric drive trains used by Teslas and other automakers, including the Smart For Two city car by Daimler. Tesla points to such partnerships - along with investments from Toyota and Panasonic - as signs that long established companies believe in its cars.

 

"We have a demonstrated track record on the financial side," O'Connell said, "that should give great comfort to the American taxpayer, as they think about a loan that's helped us to accelerate our business model."

 

Unlike Fisker, Tesla is a public company. Its SEC filings offer a more sober assessment of the obstacles it faces on the road to profitability.

 

Tesla has yet to turn a profit and suffered net losses in each quarter. "Since inception and through the three and six months ended June 30, 2011, we had accumulated net losses of $522.8 million," its most recent 10-K form shows.

 

It has no experience in high-volume manufacturing of electric cars, its filings say -- the very project it sees as the road toward profitability. Tesla said it encountered "significant delays" in launching the Roadster - and acknowledges that developing the Model S will be a more complex undertaking. The newer car is the project financed by DOE.

 

"We have no experience to date in high volume manufacturing of our electric vehicles," Tesla's SEC filings say. "Our future business depends in large part on our ability to execute on our plans to develop, manufacture, market and sell our planned Model S electric vehicle."

   

The Roadster was produced in small quantities with the body assembled by Lotus in the United Kingdom and final assembly by the company at its facility in Menlo Park, Calif. The Model S, by contrast, will have much greater volume and be manufactured in Fremont, Calif. The company said production will begin next year.

 

Industry observers say Tesla's grand plan to launch the Model S is fraught with challenges.

 

"They want to scale up production from 1,000 cars a year to 20,000 cars a year, [and] that's going to be a very hard trick for them to do," said Alex Taylor, a veteran auto industry analyst and writer. "They want to make most of their own parts; Detroit can't do that because it's too inefficient. And Tesla wants to own its own dealerships. Henry Ford tried that back in the 1920s and gave it up because it was too difficult."

 

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O'Connell said the SEC filings present worst case scenarios. He said the company, and its major investors, believe the risk will reap rewards.

 

"It is a risky venture in the best heritage of some of the other great companies that have grown up in the Silicon Valley," he said. "This is a place where people propose ideas, finance those ideas, achieve milestones, attract a greater finance, and succeed along the way."

     

66/365.

 

This is long. Sorry.

 

----

 

Last night, our fish Blue, passed away. He was a good fish, and led a very long life (by Betta standards). He was 4 1/2. RIP Blue.

 

We broke the news to the kids this morning over breakfast since we noticed he was dead after bedtime, and decided that we would go to the pet store today and get another fish. So 1 and 2 went to school, and Chelsea, 3 and I went to PetSmart looking for a fish. We walked out with a cat.

 

This is Tessa, she is a just over 1 year old Maine Coon cross rescued from a shelter in northern BC I believe and sent down to the south by an animal charity to find a good home. This shop does NOT "sell" dogs and cats from breeders, they only facilitate adoptions of rescued animals. The fee you pay to adopt (which is quite reasonable) goes directly to the charity to cover expenses such as vaccinations and spay/neuter etc. Tessa is all up to date with that (in fact she was spayed a week ago).

 

The story is, we walked in, and immediately as you do you see the adoption animals on the left side. We saw her and instantly fell in love. Her eyes caught ours and she started pawing at the glass and meowing. The staff in the store said she was affectionate, and they weren't lying. Immediately when we went into the back room to pet her she snuggled right up to each of us and sniffed and purred as we pet her. She's absolutely adorable.

 

So, we borrowed a carrier from the store, and brought her home. Here is a shot of her as we loaded her into the car taken by my phone.

 

My work had called me this morning after the kids went to school, and switched my flight this evening to a different one that left an hour earlier, so I was going to miss 1 and 2's reaction. So I drove to their school and explained to the secretary what the deal was and picked them up a half hour early telling them that I wasn't going to be able to see them before work because of the change, and I wanted to say bye. They bought it.

 

First Q from 2: "Did you get Goldie?" (we decided on a goldfish, and it was to be named Goldie).

Me: "Sorry sweetie, we didn't get a fish today…" Cue a sad look and choked tears. 1 just fumed (seriously, there was smoke coming out of his ears) and stomped to the car…

 

We get home and I let them in and they were pretty choked at me, backpacks flying, shoes left in disarray, so I led them to the back office where Tessa, Chelsea, 3 and Chel's mom and dad were waiting and opened the door. Well you can guess what happened next… Huge smiles and laughs all around since they have been bugging us FOREVER to get a cat. I videoed the whole thing from them entering the house all pissy-like to when they see her and lose their minds with happiness. So I was busy doing that instead of taking photos.

 

Anyway, I was able to hang out for about 3 mins before I had to bail for work, so the cat-in-the-cage shot is what you get. But I'm sure she'll be featuring in my 365 a couple more times…

 

A few hours in and Chelsea reports that she's adjusting well to her new home. She's found her food and drink, she has a few cozy spaces that she likes to rest in and most importantly, knows where her litterbox is (and how to use it!)

 

Thanks for making it this far. Have a great evening everyone.

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yankee_Stadium

  

Yankee Stadium is a stadium located in The Bronx in New York City, New York. It serves as the home ballpark for the New York Yankees, replacing the previous Yankee Stadium, built in 1923. The new ballpark was constructed across the street, north-northeast of the 1923 Yankee Stadium, on the former site of Macombs Dam Park. The ballpark opened April 2, 2009, when the Yankees hosted a workout day in front of fans from the Bronx community. The first game at the new Yankee Stadium was a pre-season exhibition game against the Chicago Cubs played on April 3, 2009, which the Yankees won 7–4.[4] The first regular season game was played on April 16, a 10–2 Yankee loss to the Cleveland Indians.[5][6]

 

Much of the stadium incorporates design elements from the previous Yankee Stadium, paying homage to the Yankees' history. Although stadium construction began in August 2006, the project of building a new stadium for the Yankees is one that spanned many years and faced many controversies. The stadium was built on what had been 24 acres (97,000 m2) of public parkland. Replacement ballfields, slated to open when the new stadium did, have not been completed. Also controversial was the price tag of $2.3 billion, including $1.2 billion in taxpayer subsidies.[7] It was the third most expensive stadium[citation needed] after Wembley Stadium in London and New Meadowlands Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.[citation needed]

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Planning

1.2 Construction

1.3 Financing

2 Features

2.1 Design and layout

2.2 Field dimensions and playing surface

2.2.1 Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

2.3 Amenities and facilities

3 Accessibility and transportation

4 Public opinion

4.1 Opening and public perception

5 Yankee Stadium firsts

6 Other events

7 See also

8 References

9 External links

  

[edit] History

[edit] Planning

New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner began campaigning for the building of a new stadium in the 1980s, even alleging unsafe conditions around the original Yankee Stadium despite the possibility that such statements could discourage attendance at his own team's games. Yankees ownership allegedly planned to move the team across the Hudson River to New Jersey. The Yankees also considered moving to the West Side of Manhattan, which was where the proposed West Side Stadium would later be considered for the New York Jets.[8][9]

 

New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani had already been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities MCU Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. Shortly before leaving office in December 2001, he announced "tentative agreements" for both the New York Yankees and New York Mets to build new stadiums. Of $1.5 billion sought for the stadiums, city and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation.[10] The plan also said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had already said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams.[11] The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadium, and would get low-cost electricity from the state of New York.[11] Business officials criticized the plan as giving too much money to successful teams with little reason to move to a different city.[11]

 

Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor in 2002, called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare" and exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Yankees and Mets. Bloomberg said that unbeknownst to him, Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Yankees and Mets to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement.[10][11] At the time, Bloomberg said that publicly funded stadiums were a poor investment. Under Bloomberg, the New York City government would only offer public financing for infrastructure improvements; the teams would have to pay for the stadium themselves.

 

The proposal for the current stadium was unveiled by the Yankees in 2004. The team scrapped plans to build a retractable roof, saving $200 million in construction costs.[12]

 

[edit] Construction

 

The stadium under construction in 2007 (top), and the completed venue next to the remains of the former facility in 2010 (bottom)Groundbreaking ceremonies for the stadium took place on August 16, 2006, the 58th anniversary of Babe Ruth's death, with Steinbrenner, Bloomberg and then-Governor of New York George Pataki among the notables donning Yankees hard hats and wielding ceremonial shovels to mark the occasion.[13][14] The Yankees continued to play in the previous Yankee Stadium during the 2007 and 2008 seasons while their new home stadium was built across the street.

 

During construction of the stadium, a construction worker and avid Boston Red Sox fan, buried a replica jersey of Red Sox player David Ortiz underneath the visitors' dugout with the objective of placing a "hex" on the Yankees, much like the "Curse of the Bambino" that had plagued the Red Sox long after trading Ruth to the Yankees. After the worker was exposed by co-workers, he was forced to help exhume the jersey.[15] The Yankees organization then donated the retrieved jersey to the Jimmy Fund, a charity started in 1948 by the Red Sox' National League rivals, the Boston Braves, but long championed by the Red Sox and particularly associated with Ted Williams.[16][17] The worker has since claimed to have buried a 2004 American League Championship Series program/scorecard, but has not said where he placed it.[18] These attempts did not work; the Yankees won the World Series in their first year in the new stadium.[19]

 

[edit] Financing

$1.5 million of New York state tax revenue will be used to build parking garages (as authorized by the State Legislature). The parking garage project would cost $320 million. City and state taxpayers will forgo up to $7.5 million annually in lost taxes resulting from the sale of $225 million in tax-exempt bonds authorized on October 9, 2007, by the New York City Industrial Development Agency (administered by the New York City Economic Development Corporation) to finance construction and renovation of the parking garages.[20][21] However, if the parking revenues are not enough to pay a reported $3.2 million land lease to the city, the entity that will operate the parking garages and collect revenue will be able to defer that payment.[22]

 

[edit] Features

The new stadium is meant to be very similar in design to the original Yankee Stadium, both in its original 1923 state and its post-renovation state in 1976. The exterior resembles the original look of the 1923 Yankee Stadium. The interior, a modern ballpark with greater space and increased amenities, features a playing field that closely resembles the previous ballpark before its closing. The stadium features 4,300 club seats and 68 luxury suites.

 

[edit] Design and layout

 

The Indiana limestone exterior, shown at Gate 4, mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium in 1923.The stadium was designed by the architect firm Populous (formerly HOK Sport). The exterior was made from 11,000 pieces of Indiana limestone, along with granite and pre-cast concrete.[23] The design closely mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium when it first opened in 1923.[23] The exterior features the building's name V-cut and gold-leaf lettered above each gate.[23] The interior of the stadium is adorned with hundreds of photographs capturing the history of the Yankees. The New York Daily News newspaper partnered with the Yankees for the exhibition "The Glory of the Yankees Photo Collection", which was selected from the Daily News' collection of over 2,000 photographs.[24] Sports & The Arts was hired by the Yankees to curate the nearly 1,300 photographs that adorn the building from sources including the Daily News, Getty Images, the Baseball Hall of Fame and Major League Baseball.

 

The seats are laid out similar to the original stadium's stands, with grandstand seating that stretches beyond the foul poles, as well as bleacher seats beyond the outfield fences. The Field Level and Main Level comprise the lower bowl, with suites on the H&R Block Level, and the Upper Level and Grandstand Level comprising the upper bowl.[25] Approximately two-thirds of the stadium's seating is in the lower bowl, the inverse from the original Yankee Stadium.[25] Approximately 51,000 fans can be seated, with a standing room capacity of 52,325.[26] The new stadium's seating is spaced outward in a bowl, unlike the stacked-tiers design at the old stadium. This design places most fans farther back but lower to the field, by about an average of 30 feet (9.1 m). Over 56 suites are located within the ballpark, triple the amount from the previous stadium.[23] Seats are 19–24 inches (48–61 cm) wide, up from the previous stadium's 18–22-inch (46–56 cm) wide seats, while there is 33–39 inches (84–99 cm) of leg room, up from 29.5 inches (75 cm) of leg room in the previous stadium.[25] Many lower level seats are cushioned, while all seats are equipped with cupholders.[25] To allow for the extra seating space, the stadium's capacity is reduced by more than 4,000 seats in comparison to the previous stadium.[25]

  

The frieze that lined the roof of the original Yankee Stadium from 1923-1973 is replicated in its original location.Many design elements of the ballpark's interior are inspired by the original Yankee Stadium. The roof of the new facility features a replica of the frieze that was a trademark of the previous ballpark.[25] In the original Yankee Stadium, a copper frieze originally lined the roof of the upper deck stands, but it was torn down during the 1974–75 renovations and replicated atop the wall beyond the bleachers.[25] The new stadium replicates the frieze in its original location along the upper deck stands.[25] Made of steel coated with zinc for rust protection, it is part of the support system for the cantilevers holding up the top deck and the lighting on the roof.[27] The wall beyond the bleacher seats is "cut out" to reveal the subway trains as they pass by, like they were in the original facility. A manually-operated auxiliary scoreboard is built into the left and right field fences, in the same locations it existed in the pre-renovation iteration of the original Yankee Stadium.[25]

  

The Great Hall is situated along the southern front of the stadium.Between the exterior perimeter wall and interior of the stadium is the "Great Hall", a large concourse that runs between Gates 4 and 6.[28] With seven-story ceilings, the Great Hall features more than 31,000 square feet (2,900 m2) of retail space and is lined with 20 banners of past and present Yankees superstars.[28] The Great Hall features a 5-by-383-foot (1.5 by 117 m) LED (light-emitting diode) ribbon display as well as a 25' by 36' LED video display above the entrance to the ballpark from Daktronics, a company in ‹See Tfd›Brookings, South Dakota.[28] [28]

 

Monument Park, which features the Yankees' retired numbers, as well as monuments and plaques dedicated to distinguished Yankees, has been moved from its location beyond the left field fences in the original Yankee Stadium to its new location beyond the center field fences at the new facility. The newly relocated Monument Park is now situated under the sports bar, this choice of location has drawn criticism as the many monuments are underneath the sports bar and not as in the open as in the previous Yankee Stadium. Fueling this criticism has been the advent of black shades that cover monuments on the back wall during games to prevent interference with the vision of the batter.[29] The new location of the monuments is meant to mirror their original placement in center field at the original pre-renovation Yankee Stadium, albeit when they were on the playing field. The transfer of Monument Park from the old stadium to the new stadium began on November 10, 2008.[30] The first monuments were put in place on February 23, 2009.[31] Yankees pitcher Mariano Rivera requested that the Yankees reposition the team's bullpen, as well as add a door to connect the Yankees' bullpen to Monument Park, in order to allow access to it by Yankee relievers. The organization complied with his request.[23][32]

 

[edit] Field dimensions and playing surface

 

The view from the Grandstand Level (400 Level).The field dimensions for the outfield fences have the same distance markers as the original facility prior to closing yet the dimensions are not identical.[33] Due to the design of the right-field stands and the inclusion of an embedded manual scoreboard, the right-field wall is an average of 5 feet (1.5 m) closer to home plate.[34] Overall, the fences measure 318 feet (97 m) to left field, 399 feet (122 m) to left-center field, 408 feet (124 m) to center field, 385 feet (117 m) to right-center field, and 314 to right field.[25][26] At the old Yankee Stadium, the right field wall curved from the right-field corner to straightaway center, while at the new ballpark the fence takes a sharp, almost entirely straight angle.[34] This results in a difference at certain points between the right field markers of as much as 9 feet (2.7 m).[34] The dimensions in left field are substantially the same despite the presence of an embedded auxiliary scoreboard there as well.[34]

 

The outfield fences measure 8 feet 5 inches (2.57 m) high from the left-field foul pole until the Yankees' bullpen, when the fences begin to gradually descend in height until the right field foul pole, where they are only 8 feet (2.4 m) tall.[25] This also marks a decrease from the previous Yankee Stadium, where the outfield walls stood at a height of approximately 10 feet (3.0 m).[33] The distance from home plate to the backstop is 52 feet 4 inches (15.95 m), a reduction of 20 feet (6.1 m) from the previous facility.[26] The field is made up of Kentucky bluegrass, the same surface as the previous stadium, which is grown on a 1,300 acres (530 ha) farm in Bridgeton, New Jersey. The grass is equipped with a drainage system (featuring over 14,000 feet (4,300 m) of pipe) that makes the field playable an hour after taking 2 inches (51 mm) of rain.[25]

 

[edit] Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

Characteristic Old Stadium [as of 2008] New Stadium

Opening Day April 18, 1923 April 16, 2009

Capacity 56,866 52,325 [35](including standing room)

Seat width 18 inches (46 cm)–22 inches (56 cm) 19 inches (48 cm)–24 inches (61 cm)

Legroom 29.5 inches (75 cm) 33 inches (84 cm)–39 inches (99 cm)

Concourse width (average) 17 feet (5.2 m) 32 feet (9.8 m)

Cup holders Select Field Level Seating For every seat in General Seating

Luxury suites 19 56

Club Seats N/A 4,300

Team stores 6,800 square feet (630 m2) 11,560 square feet (1,074 m2)

Restroom fixture ratio 1 per 89 fans 1 per 60 fans

Public elevators

(passenger lifts) 3

(Otis Traction) 16

(KONE Traction)

Video scoreboard 25 feet (7.6 m) by 33 feet (10 m)

(Standard Definition LED) 59 feet (18 m) by 101 feet (31 m)

(High Definition LED)

Distance from Home Plate to:

Backstop 72 feet 4 inches (22 m) 52 feet 4 inches (16 m)

Left Field 318 feet (97 m)

Left Center 399 feet (122 m)

Center Field 408 feet (124 m)

Right Center 385 feet (117 m)

Right Field 314 feet (96 m)

Sources: The New York Yankees [26] and Andrew Clem [36]

 

[edit] Amenities and facilities

 

A signature by Babe Ruth is one of many autographs in the "ball wall", the centerpiece of the Yankee Museum.Yankee Stadium features a wide array of amenities. It contains 63 percent more space, 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) more in total, than the previous stadium, with wider concourses and open sight lines on concourses.[23] Along with 227 miles (365 km) of wired Ethernet cable, the building has sufficient fiber-optic cable wiring that Cisco Vice President and Treasurer David Holland calls the building "future proof".[23] Over 1,100 high-definition video monitors are placed within the stadium and approximately $10 million worth of baseball merchandise is housed within the ballpark.[23]

 

The center field scoreboard, which measures 59 x 101 feet (31 m) and offers 5,925 square feet (550.5 m2) of viewing area, was the third-largest high definition scoreboard in the world when it opened (behind the 8,736-square-foot (811.6 m2) board at newly renovated Kauffman Stadium and the new 8,066-square-foot (749.4 m2) board at the renovated Tokyo Racecourse).[37] Since then, it has also been surpassed by the world's largest scoreboard at the new Cowboys Stadium.[38] Displaying 5,925 ft (1,806 m)² of video, the scoreboard can display four 1080p high definition images simultaneously.[25]

 

The Yankees clubhouse features 30,000 ft (9,100 m)² of space, over 2.5 times the space of the clubhouse from the previous facility.[39] The dressing area alone features 3,344 ft (1,019 m)² of space, with each locker equipped with a safety deposit box and touch-screen computer.[39] The Yankees clubhouse features a weight room, training room, video room, and lounge area, while both teams' clubhouses have their own indoor batting cages.[39] The Yankees' therapy room features a hydrotherapy pool with an underwater treadmill.[39] The Yankees are believed to be the first team to chemically treat their uniforms, as well as the showering surfaces with an anti-bacterial agent that reduces the risk of infection.[39]

 

The Yankees Museum, located on the lower level at Gate 6, displays a wide range of Yankees' memorabilia.[40] A "Ball Wall" features hundreds of balls autographed by past and present Yankees, and there are plans to eventually add autographs for every living player who has played for the Yankees.[40] The centerpiece of the museum is a tribute to Don Larsen's perfect game in the 1956 World Series, with a commemorative home plate in the floor and statues of Larsen pitching to Yogi Berra.[40] Along with a facsimile of a current locker from the Yankees' clubhouse, fans can view the locker of the late Thurman Munson, which sat unoccupied in the previous stadium's Yankee clubhouse in honor of Munson.[40]

 

The ballpark offers a wide choice of restaurants. There are 25 fixed concessions stands, along with 112 moveable ones.[28] A Hard Rock Cafe is located within the ballpark, but it is open to anyone at the 161 St. and River Ave. entrance year round.[28] The Hard Rock Cafe at Yankee Stadium officially opened on March 30, 2009, and an opening ceremony took place on April 2, 2009.[41] A steakhouse called NYY Steak is located beyond right field.[28] Celebrity chefs will occasionally make appearances at the ballpark's restaurants and help prepare food for fans in premium seating over the course of the season.[28] Above Monument Park in center field is the Mohegan Sun sports bar, whose tinted black glass acts as the ballpark's batter's eye. The sports bar obstructs the view of approximately 600 bleacher seats in the right and left field bleachers, preventing fans from seeing the action occurring deep in the opposite side of the outfield. In response, the Yankees installed TV monitors on the sides of the sports bar's outer walls, and have reduced the price of these obstructed-view seats from $12 to $5.[42][43]

 

[edit] Accessibility and transportation

 

The stadium is serviced via subway by the 161st Street station on the IRT Jerome Avenue Line (top) (as well as the IND Concourse Line; not shown) and via railroad by the East 153rd Street Metro North station (bottom)The stadium is reachable via the 161st Street – Yankee Stadium station complex, the same that served the old Yankee Stadium, by the 4 B D trains of the New York City Subway. It is also served by the Yankees - East 153rd Street (Metro-North station), which opened on May 23, 2009,[44] which routinely features Hudson Line train service, but on game days, Harlem Line and New Haven Line trains as well as shuttle trains from Grand Central Terminal also platform there. The stadium is also served by multiple bus lines. On game days, NY Waterway operates the "Yankee Clipper" ferry route stopping at Port Imperial (Weehawken) and Hoboken in New Jersey and West 38th Street, the Wall Street Ferry Pier, and East 34th Street in Manhattan, and New York Water Taxi operates a free ferry to the stadium from the Wall Street Ferry Pier before every game only. For selected games, SeaStreak provides high-speed ferry service to Highlands, New Jersey.

 

Yankee Stadium is accessible by car via the Major Deegan Expressway (Interstate 87), with connections to Interstate 95, Interstate 278 and other major thoroughfares. Aside from existing parking lots and garages serving the stadium, construction for additional parking garages is planned. The New York State Legislature agreed to $70 million in subsidies for a $320 million parking garage project. On October 9, 2007, the New York City Industrial Development Agency approved $225 million in tax-exempt bonds to finance construction of three new parking garages that will have 3,600 new parking spaces, and renovation of the existing 5,569 parking spaces nearby.[45] Plans initially called for a fourth new garage, but this was eliminated before the final approval. The garages will be built (and renovated) by the Community Initiatives Development Corporation of Hudson, N.Y., a nonprofit entity that will use the parking revenue to repay the bonds and pay a $3 million yearly land lease to the City of New York. Parking is expected to cost $25 per game.[45]

 

[edit] Public opinion

[edit] Opening and public perception

 

Four F-16C Fighting Falcons from the 174th Fighter Wing fly over the "New" Yankee Stadium on Opening DayAlthough Yankee Stadium has been praised for its amenities and its usage of "classic" design elements from the original facility, the new stadium has been widely criticized for fan-unfriendly practices.[46][47] Seats within the first eight rows in the lower bowl, called the "Legends Suite", rank among the highest priced tickets in professional sports, with the average ticket in the section selling for $510 and the most expensive single game-day ticket costing $2,600.[46] Legends Suite Seats have been regularly empty, with many ticket holders in this section having given up their tickets, and others remaining unsold, despite most other seats in the ballpark selling out. This has created an "embarrassing" image on television of the seats behind home plate being almost completely vacant.[46] Consequently, a surplus of tickets for Legends Seats have emerged in the secondary market, and with supply exceeding demand, resale prices have dropped. Empty seats in the Legends Suite could even be seen during the 2009 playoffs, including World Series games. Even though all playoff games have been sellouts, Legends Suite ticket holders are in the lounges and the restaurant underneath instead of their seats.[48][49]

 

Legends Suite seats are also separate from the other lower bowl seating and are vigorously patrolled by stadium security, with the divider being described as a "concrete moat".[46][47] Fans that do not have tickets within this premium section in the front rows are not allowed to access it or stand behind the dugouts during batting practice to watch players hit and request autographs.[46][47]

 

The Yankee Stadium staff was also criticized for an incident during a May 4, 2009 game, which was interrupted by a rain delay.[50] Fans were told by some staff members that the game was unlikely to resume and consequently, many fans exited the stadium, only for the game to eventually resume play.[50] The fans that left the ballpark were not permitted to re-enter, per the stadium's re-entry policy, and many subsequently got into arguments with stadium personnel.[50] In response to the backlash the Yankees received for the incident, the staff members were required to sign a gag order preventing them from speaking to media, but they did indicate that communication for rain delays would be improved.[50]

 

After less than a season, cracks have appeared on the concrete ramps of the Stadium. The Yankees are trying to determine whether there was something wrong with the cement, or the ramps' installation or design. The company involved in designing the concrete mix were indicted on charges that they either faked or failed to perform some required tests and falsified the results of others.[51]

    

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised because of out-of-date information. Please help improve the article by updating it. There may be additional information on the talk page. (September 2010)

 

In 2009, the stadium was criticized for its propensity for allowing home runs. In its opening season, 237 home runs were hit.Yankee Stadium has quickly acquired a reputation as a "bandbox" and a "launching pad" due to the high number of home runs hit at the new ballpark.[52][53][54][55][56][57] Through its first 23 games, 87 home runs were hit at the venue, easily besting Enron Field's (now called Minute Maid Park) previous record set in 2000.[58] Early in the season, Yankee Stadium was on pace to break Coors Field's 1999 single-season record of 303 home runs allowed, and the hometown New York Daily News newspaper started publishing a daily graphic comparing each stadium's home run totals through a similar number of games.

 

ESPN commentator Peter Gammons has denounced the new facility as "one of the biggest jokes in baseball" and concludes that "[it] was not a very well-planned ballpark."[54] Likewise, Gammons' ESPN colleague Buster Olney has described the stadium as being "on steroids" and likened it to his childhood Wiffle-ball park.[52][59] Newsday columnist Wallace Matthews joined in the criticism, labeling the stadium "ridiculous" and decrying its cheapening of the home run.[53] Former Yankee Reggie Jackson termed the park "too small" to contain current player Alex Rodriguez and suggested it might enable the third baseman to hit 75 home runs in a season.[53]

 

A variety of theories have been posited to account for the dramatic increase in home runs at the new Yankee Stadium over the original stadium, foremost among these the sharper angles of the outfield walls[34] and the speculated presence of a wind tunnel.[52] During construction of the new ballpark, engineers commissioned a wind study, the results of which indicated there would be no noticeable difference between the two stadiums.[60] The franchise is planning to conduct a second study, but Major League rules prohibit it from making any changes to the playing field until the off-season.[60]

 

An independent study by the weather service provider AccuWeather in June 2009 concluded that the shape and height of the right field wall, rather than the wind, is responsible for the proliferation of home runs at the stadium.[61] AccuWeather's analysis found that roughly 20% of the home runs hit at the new ballpark would not have been home runs at the old ballpark due to the gentle curve of its right field corner, and its 10-foot (3.0 m) wall height.[61] Nothing was observed in wind speeds and patterns that would account for the increase.[61]

 

The number of home runs hit at the new stadium slowed significantly as the season progressed,[62] but a new single-season record for most home runs hit at a Yankee home ballpark was nonetheless set in the Yankees' 73rd home game of 2009 when Vladimir Guerrero of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim hit the 216th home run of the season at the venue, surpassing the previous record of 215 set at the original Yankee Stadium in 2005.[63]

 

In 2010, the rate of home runs were markedly less as of May 15, 2010, with 35 home runs hit in 14 games for 2.5 per game (a projection of 205 - in 2009, the stadium was at 2.93 per game for a total of 237.) Several reasons were given for the sudden dropoff in home runs, including a lower April 2010 temperature (56 degrees in comparison with 63 the previous year), slower winds, poor pitching, a change in direction in winds,[64] as well as removal of the original Yankee Stadium and the effect this has had on wind currents.[citation needed] ESPN suggested the prolific home run totals of 2009 were a fluke.[64]

 

[edit] Yankee Stadium firsts

 

Logo for the inaugural season at the Stadium.Before the official Opening Day against the Cleveland Indians April 16, 2009, the Yankees hosted a two-game exhibition series at the Stadium in early April against the Chicago Cubs.[5] Grady Sizemore of the Indians was the first player to hit a grand slam off of Yankee pitcher Dámaso Marte. The Indians and 2008 Cy Young Award winner, Cliff Lee, spoiled the opening of the new stadium by winning 10-2. Before the Yankees went to bat for the first time, the bat that Babe Ruth used to hit his first home run at the old Yankee Stadium in 1923 was placed momentarily on home plate.[65] Jorge Posada hit the first Yankee home run in the new ballpark hitting his off Lee in the same game. Russell Branyan, while playing for the Seattle Mariners, was the first player to hit a home run off of the Mohegan Sun Restaurant in center field. Like its predecessor, the new Yankee Stadium hosted the World Series in its very first season; in the 2009 World Series, the Yankees defeated the Philadelphia Phillies 4 games to 2. It also became the latest stadium to host a World Series-clinching victory by its home team in the venue's first season (after the St. Louis Cardinals won the World Series at Busch Stadium in 2006), when, on November 4, 2009, the Yankees won their 27th World Series championship against the Phillies. The Yankees are the only team to inaugurate two stadiums with World Series wins and also appeared in the 1976 World Series following the refurbishment of the original Yankee Stadium.

 

Statistic Exhibition Regular season Postseason

First game April 3, 2009

Yankees 7, Cubs 4 April 16, 2009

Indians 10, Yankees 2 October 7, 2009

Yankees 7, Twins 2

Ceremonial First Pitch Reggie Jackson Yogi Berra Eric T. Olson

First Pitch Chien-Ming Wang CC Sabathia CC Sabathia

First Batter Aaron Miles (Cubs) Grady Sizemore (Indians) Denard Span (Twins)

First Hit Aaron Miles (Cubs) Johnny Damon Denard Span (Twins)

First Yankees Hit Derek Jeter Johnny Damon Derek Jeter

First Home Run Robinson Cano Jorge Posada Derek Jeter

First Win Chien-Ming Wang Cliff Lee (Indians) CC Sabathia

First Save Jonathan Albaladejo Mariano Rivera (4/17) Mariano Rivera

 

[edit] Other events

 

Football configuration for new Yankee Stadium.The first ever non-baseball event at the Stadium took place on April 25, 2009, with pastor and televangelist Joel Osteen holding a “Historic Night of Hope” prayer service.[66]

 

A New York University graduation ceremony took place on May 13, 2009 with the address being delivered by U.S. Secretary of State and former New York Senator Hillary Clinton. The 2010 NYU ceremony featured alumnus Alec Baldwin as a speaker.[67]

 

The promotional tour for the Manny Pacquiao-Miguel Cotto fight began with an event at Yankee Stadium on September 10, 2009.

 

On June 5, 2010, Yuri Foreman fought Cotto in the first boxing match in The Bronx since 1976. The fight was referred to as the "Stadium Slugfest." Cotto defeated Foreman with a TKO in the ninth round.[68]

 

The Army Black Knights will play a college football game at Yankee Stadium against The Notre Dame Fighting Irish on November 20, 2010. This will mark the two teams' first meeting in the Bronx since 1969.[69] Also, Army will play Air Force, Rutgers, and Boston College in 2011, 2012, and 2014 respectively at Yankee Stadium.

 

Yankee Stadium will also host the newly-created Pinstripe Bowl, an annual college football bowl game that will pit the third-place team from the Big East against the seventh-place team from the Big 12. Organizers plan to hold the inaugural game December 30, 2010.[70]

 

The Yankees were in discussions with the National Hockey League to have Yankee Stadium host the 2011 NHL Winter Classic. However, the NHL chose Heinz Field as the host. The stadium was a candidate to host the 2010 NHL Winter Classic before it was awarded to Boston's Fenway Park.[71]

 

Rappers Jay-Z and Eminem performed the first concert at Yankee Stadium on September 13, 2010.[72]

 

[edit] See also

Citi Field, a new baseball stadium for the New York Mets (National League) also opened in 2009, replacing the Mets' previous home Shea Stadium in northern Queens (New York City).

Barclays Center, an arena for the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association to be built by and over the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Atlantic Avenue railyards in northwestern Brooklyn (New York City) currently under construction.

New Meadowlands Stadium, a new football stadium for the New York Giants and the New York Jets of the National Football League which replaced Giants Stadium at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey that opened in 2010.

Red Bull Arena, a new stadium for the Major League Soccer team New York Red Bulls that opened in 2010, replacing the team's previous home, Giants Stadium.

[edit] References

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^ Yankee Stadium Populus.com

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^ Best, Neil (February 24, 2009). "Old Yankee Stadium's obstructed views make a comeback". Newsday. www.newsday.com/services/newspaper/printedition/wednesday.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

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^ Metro-North Railroad (April 1, 2009). "Train Service to MTA Metro-North Railroad's Newest Station Yankees – E. 153rd Street Begins Saturday May 23, 2009". Press release. www.mta.info/mta/news/releases/?en=090401-MNR11. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ a b N.Y.C. IDA Approves $325.3 Million, Most for Yankee Stadium Garages, The Bond Buyer, October 10, 2007

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^ Miller, Scott (October 29, 2009). "Yankees create no excitement, and now pressure's on". CBS Sports.com. www.cbssports.com/mlb/story/12436398. Retrieved 2009-10-31.

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^ Rashbaum, William K.; Belson, Ken (October 23, 2009). "Cracks Emerge in Ramps at New Yankee Stadium". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2009/10/24/nyregion/24stadium.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

^ a b c Olney, Buster (April 21, 2009). "New Yankee Stadium on steroids?". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/mlb/news/story?id=4080195. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b c Matthews, Wallace (May 20, 2009). "Home runs a cheap thrill at Yankee Stadium". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/ny-spwally2112790416may20.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

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^ Keown, Tim (April 28, 2009). "Trouble at the House that George Built". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=keown/090428. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

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^ Olney, Buster (May 23, 2009). "Too many homers to right? Add a chicken coop". ESPN.com. insider.espn.go.com/espn/blog/index?entryID=4201092&n.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

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^ a b c Dittmeier, Bobbie (June 10, 2009). "Study: Design cause of Stadium homers". MLB.com. www.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090610&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-06-10.

^ The New Stadium's a Bandbox TheYankeeUniverse.com

^ Hoch, Bryan (September 14, 2009). "Guerrero's homer sets Yankee Stadium mark". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090914&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-09-17.

^ a b Marchand, Andrew (April 30, 2010). "It is high, it is far, it is ... caught!". ESPN. sports.espn.go.com/new-york/mlb/news/story?id=5151275.

^ "Cleveland 10, New York 2". USA Today. April 16, 2009. content.usatoday.com/sportsdata/baseball/mlb/game/Indians.... Retrieved 2009-04-16.

^ Gibson, David (April 19, 2009). "God’s Will in Hard Times". New York Magazine. nymag.com/news/intelligencer/56161/. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Alec Baldwin Speaks At NYU Graduation (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. May 12, 2010. www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/12/alec-baldwin-speaks-at-.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

^ Weichselbaum, Simone; Schapiro, Rich (June 6, 2010). "Yankee Stadium slugfest: Miguel Cotto beats junior middleweight champ Yuri Foreman". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2010/06/06/2010-06-06_boxers.... Retrieved 2010-06-07.

^ Hoch, Bryan (July 20, 2009). "Yanks to host Notre Dame-Army game". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090720&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "First Pinstripe Bowl to Be Held Dec. 30". ESPN.com. March 9, 2010. sports.espn.go.com/ncf/news/story?id=4978803. Retrieved 2010-05-20.

^ "Yankee Stadium to host NHL game in 2011?". Newsday. July 20, 2009. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/yankee-stadium-to-host-nh.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Jay-Z, Eminem to play local ballparks". MLB.com. May 13, 2010. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20100512&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Yankee Stadium

Official Site

Virtual tour of new Yankee Stadium

Newsday.com New Yankee Stadium

Ballparks of Baseball

Ballparks.com overview of proposed stadium

Photographic Updates of the Construction of the New Yankee Stadium

Demolition of Yankee Stadium

Metro-North Railroad station at Yankee Stadium

  

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"Its as free as you can be" said Skydive instructor Manny Neto of Skydive DeLand, today just after Joyce and Jessica safely returned to earth after a quick decent from nearly 13,500 feet above our green and blue planet at about 120 MPH.

 

This was Joyce's first time skydiving and from the look on her perma-grin you could tell it was one hell of a rush. Jessica had recently made her first jump and described it as amazing yet not as impactful as the her jump. Impactful may not be the right word to use while describing Skydiving as it just sounds like death! "did you see that skydiver plummet to his death?" "Ya, he sure made one hell of a impact!"

 

We arrived at the airport just before noon. The sky was dotted with white fluffy clouds and the wind was breezy at about 15mph. I could tell Joyce was a bit nervous as we walked up to the registration office. The ladies were immediately sat down and instructed to watch a short video explaining that death is a very real threat when jumping out of a plane (obviously). It went on to explain that in the event that you plummet to your instant and very "impactful" death that your aires can not sue. This all from a guy sitting behind a desk with a very long grey beard. The whole video wreaked of a cheap lawyer commercial. I couldn't tell if it was done deliberately or not. while the ladies were signing away their life I decided to see if anyone at the establishment had read my email I sent a week prior. I had went over who I was, what I was doing, what I intended to do for them and most importantly what I wanted. The email I received back basically said that they didn't read the first 2 paragraphs explaining what I did. They told me it would cost x amount of dollars to ride in the plain as a observer. When I got there a young girl that really had NO idea of this email or what I wanted to do basically told me I was getting an attitude and that they run a business and people pay to skydive. I would not be able to see anything as I would be riding copilot. I just get frustrated when I get stonewalled by people not taking me seriously. I know that skydive establishments have no shortage of footage or photos. I just like to think that not being the typical photographer they see daily, I could have brought a interesting twist to what has become a pretty standard look for the sport.

 

The woman wasn't interested in what I had to say and I realized it was a waste of time. I'll wait and coordinate a real shoot with people who want to work with me. I'm working on that now. No hard feelings. I understand that with out really talking to me and looking at my work, most people think I'm just another GWC (guy with camera) looking for a free ticket.

 

So as the ladies suited and prepared for take off, I grabbed one light and my camera. As the ladies took off I was in the spectator area ready for the drop.

 

It didn't take long for the plane to reach its max altitude. I had looked up just as the plane was exiting a cloud. The pilot gave the cue for the jumpers to go. Time was limited as they had a small window in the sky without clouds. Moments after the plane was visible was when I caught sight of the first jumper. 5 jumpers later Jessica jumped, followed lastly by Joyce. In reality I wasn't watching the jumpers exit the plane I was seeing them open their chute after almost 1 minute of free fall.

 

The ladies describe that minute as lasting an eternity. I can only imagine since I've yet to jump out of anything higher than a tree. When I asked if they felt a feeling of falling they said no. You reach terminal velocity pretty quick and the feeling of falling fades. "Pure accelerate" "Exhilarating" "Disorienting" are a few words they used to describe the free fall. To sum their experience up in one word is "Exhilarating" Joyce had mentioned Orgasmic but quickly changed it to Fan-frickin-tastic. They've pretty much sold me!

 

When the ladies landed safely I had to meet the men who made sure they didn't splatter. Manny Neto, the man Jessica was strapped to has over 9 years experience with 9000 jumps under his belt. That sure is a hell of a lot of jumps. Thinking about it mathematically, you'd have to jump nearly 3 times a day for 9 years to to get that many jumps in. He was energetic and rightfully so as he spends a good portion of his day at speeds well over 120mph.

 

Fraser Feltner, the man pictured in today's picture says he got into sky diving because it was on his bucket list. 11 years and 3500 jumps later he still finds it exhilarating as he instructs other extreme adrenaine junkies.

 

Not that I think about the worst case scenario all the time, I just had to inquire as to close calls! Fraser looked at me and smiled as he went into a few scary stories about having to cut away his main parachute on three occasions, one of which was when he was flying tandem. Obviously all ended ok as he was still in one piece and falling daily.

 

Think your too old? Think again. Manny said his oldest jumper was 85. "They can barley walk to the plane!" he said. I just laughed as these guys talked with the same enthusiasm for sky diving as I have for photography.

 

Before leaving the air field we stopped into the bar and grabbed a quick beer. Guinness was on tap and that was all it took. Monday starts the Juice diet so I'm living it up till then!

 

Today I finally broke down and ordered a brand new Macbook Pro 15", 2.2 Ghz Quad core I7 Processor, 750gb HDD, 1GB Video Card. WIth a nifty military discount thanks to Carl Lund I saved just over 200.00. Thank you Carl! I hope you don't mind that Joyce dropped your name. Once they heard the name drop they were like yes sir, hows 200.00 sound. Any friend of Carl is a friend of ours. Boom… Discount.

 

I tried to get a free Macbook battery but I guess I had used up all my hookups. The discount that I did receive was nearly tacked back on with stupid sales tax. Since when do they charge tax for shipped items. Apple tacks on tax to everything according to the state its being delivered in. I should have had it shipped to either New Hampshire, Delaware, Alaska, or Montana as they don't have any sales tax. I know for sure it would have cost less to have a friend ship it from one of those states. I knew it wouldn't of cost anywhere near 145.00 to ship. That just kills me!

St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits at the top of Ludgate Hill, the highest point in the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed within Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme which took place in the city after the Great Fire of London.[2]

 

The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London, with its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominating the skyline for 300 years.[3] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962, and its dome is also among the highest in the world. In terms of area, St Paul's is the second largest church building in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

 

St Paul's Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity of the English population.[4] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as postcard images of the dome standing tall, surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Important services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Sir Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher; Jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer, the launch of the Festival of Britain and the thanksgiving services for the Golden Jubilee, the 80th Birthday and the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. St Paul's Cathedral is a busy working church, with hourly prayer and daily services.

 

A list of the 16 "archbishops" of London was recorded by Jocelyne of Furness in the 12th century, claiming London's Christian community was founded in the 2nd century under the legendary King Lucius and his missionary saints Fagan, Deruvian, Elvanus, and Medwin. None of that is considered credible by modern historians but, although the surviving text is problematic, either Bishop Restitutus or Adelphius at the 314 Council of Arles seems to have come from Londinium.[7] The location of Londinium's original cathedral is unknown. The present structure of St Peter upon Cornhill was designed by Christopher Wren following the Great Fire in 1666 but it stands upon the highest point in the area of old Londinium and medieval legends tie it to the city's earliest Christian community. In 1999, however, a large and ornate 5th-century building on Tower Hill was excavated, which might have been the city's cathedral.[8][9]

 

The Elizabethan antiquarian William Camden argued that a temple to the goddess Diana had stood during Roman times on the site occupied by the medieval St Paul's cathedral.[10] Christopher Wren reported that he had found no trace of any such temple during the works to build the new cathedral after the Great Fire, and Camden's hypothesis is no longer accepted by modern archaeologists.[11]

 

Bede records that in AD 604 St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop.[12] It is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the later medieval and the present cathedrals.

 

On the death of Sæberht in about 616, his pagan sons expelled Mellitus from London, and the East Saxons reverted to paganism. The fate of the first cathedral building is unknown. Christianity was restored among the East Saxons in the late 7th-century and it is presumed that either the Anglo-Saxon cathedral was restored or a new building erected as the seat of bishops such as Cedd, Wine and Earconwald, the last of whom was buried in the cathedral in 693. This building, or a successor, was destroyed by fire in 962, but rebuilt in the same year.[13] King Æthelred the Unready was buried in the cathedral on his death in 1016. The cathedral was burnt, with much of the city, in a fire in 1087, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

 

The fourth St Paul's, generally referred to as Old St Paul's, was begun by the Normans after the 1087 fire. A further fire in 1136 disrupted the work, and the new cathedral was not consecrated until 1240. During the period of construction, the style of architecture had changed from Romanesque to Gothic and this was reflected in the pointed arches and larger windows of the upper parts and East End of the building. The Gothic ribbed vault was constructed, like that of York Minster, of wood rather than stone, which affected the ultimate fate of the building.

 

Lincoln Cathedral and St. Mary's Church, Stralsund. Excavations by Francis Penrose in 1878 showed that it was 585 feet (178 m) long and 100 feet (30 m) wide (290 feet or 87 m across the transepts and crossing). The spire was about 489 feet (149 m).

 

By the 16th century the building was starting to decay. Under Henry VIII and Edward VI, the Dissolution of the Monasteries and Chantries Acts led to the destruction of interior ornamentation and the cloisters, charnels, crypts, chapels, shrines, chantries and other buildings in St Paul's Churchyard. Many of these former religious sites in the churchyard, having been seized by the Crown, were sold as shops and rental properties, especially to printers and booksellers, who were often Puritans. In 1561 the spire was destroyed by lightning, an event that was taken by both Protestants and Roman Catholics as a sign of God's displeasure at the other faction.

 

In the 1630s a west front was added to the building by England's first classical architect, Inigo Jones. There was much defacing and mistreatment of the building by Parliamentarian forces during the Civil War, and the old documents and charters were dispersed and destroyed.[14] During the Commonwealth, those churchyard buildings that were razed supplied ready-dressed building material for construction projects, such as the Lord Protector's city palace, Somerset House. Crowds were drawn to the northeast corner of the churchyard, St Paul's Cross, where open-air preaching took place.

 

In the Great Fire of London of 1666, Old St Pauls was gutted. While it might have been possible to reconstruct it, a decision was taken to build a new cathedral in a modern style. This course of action had been proposed even before the fire.

 

The task of designing a replacement structure was officially assigned to Sir Christopher Wren on 30 July 1669.[15] He had previously been put in charge of the rebuilding of churches to replace those lost in the Great Fire. More than fifty City churches are attributable to Wren. Concurrent with designing St Paul's, Wren was engaged in the production of his five Tracts on Architecture.[16]

 

Wren had begun advising on the repair of the Old St Paul's in 1661, five years before the Great Fire of London in 1666.[17] The proposed work included renovations to both interior and exterior that would complement the Classical facade designed by Inigo Jones in 1630.[18] Wren planned to replace the dilapidated tower with a dome, using the existent structure as a scaffold. He produced a drawing of the proposed dome, showing that it was at this stage at which he conceived the idea that it should span both nave and aisles at the crossing.[19] After the fire, It was at first thought possible to retain a substantial part of the old cathedral, but ultimately the entire structure was demolished in the early 1670s to start afresh.

 

In July 1668 Dean William Sancroft wrote to Christopher Wren that he was charged by the Archbishop of Canterbury, in agreement with the Bishops of London and Oxford, to design a new cathedral that was "handsome and noble to all the ends of it and to the reputation of the City and the nation".[20] The design process took several years, but a design was finally settled and attached to a royal warrant, with the proviso that Wren was permitted to make any further changes that he deemed necessary. The result was the present St Paul's Cathedral, still the second largest church in Britain and with a dome proclaimed as the finest in the world.[21] The building was financed by a tax on coal, and was completed within its architect's lifetime, and with many of the major contractors employed for the duration.

 

The "topping out" of the cathedral (when the final stone was placed on the lantern) took place on 26 October 1708, performed by Wren's son Christopher Jr and the son of one of the masons.[22] The cathedral was declared officially complete by Parliament on 25 December 1711 (Christmas Day).[23] In fact, construction was to continue for several years after that, with the statues on the roof only being added in the 1720s. In 1716 the total costs amounted to £1,095,556[24] (£143 million in 2015).

 

In the designing of St Paul's, Christopher Wren had to meet many challenges. He had to create a fitting cathedral to replace Old St Paul's, both as a place of worship and as a landmark within the City of London. He had to satisfy both the requirements of the church and the tastes of a royal patron. As well as respecting the essentially Medieval tradition of English church building that had grown and developed to accommodate the liturgy, Wren was familiar with contemporary Renaissance and Baroque trends in Italian architecture, and had visited France, where he studied the work of François Mansart.

 

St Paul's went through five general stages of design. The first survives only as a single drawing and part of a model. The scheme (usually called the First Model Design) appears to have consisted of a circular domed vestibule (possibly based on the Pantheon in Rome) and a rectangular church of basilica form. The plan may have been influenced by the Temple Church. It was rejected because it was not thought "stately enough"[50] Wren's second design was a Greek cross, which was thought by the clerics not to fulfil the requirements of Anglican liturgy.[51]

 

Wren's third design is embodied in the "Great Model" of 1673. The model, made of oak and plaster, cost over £500 (approximately £32,000 today) and is over 13 feet (4 m) tall and 21 feet (6 m) long.[52] This design retained the form of the Greek Cross design but extended it with a nave. His critics, members of a committee commissioned to rebuild the church and members of the clergy, decried the design as being too dissimilar from other English churches to suggest any continuity within the Church of England. Another problem was that the entire design would have to be completed all at once because of the eight central piers that supported the dome, instead of being completed in stages and opened for use before construction finished, as was customary. Wren considered the Great Model his favourite design, and thought it a reflection of Renaissance beauty.[16] After the Great Model, Wren resolved to make no more models or publicly expose his drawings, which he found to do nothing but "lose time, and subject his business many times, to incompetent judges".[51] The Great Model survives and is housed within the Cathedral itself.

 

Wren's fourth design is known as the Warrant design because it was affixed a Royal warrant for the rebuilding. In this design Wren sought to reconcile Gothic, the predominant style of English churches, to a "better manner of architecture." It has the longitudinal Latin Cross plan of a medieval cathedral. It is of one and a half storeys and has classical porticos at the west and transept ends, influenced by Inigo Jones’s addition to Old St Paul's.[51] It is roofed at the crossing by a wide shallow dome supporting a drum with a second cupola from which rises a spire of seven diminishing stages. Vaughan Hart has suggested that influence may have been drawn from the oriental pagoda in the design of the spire. Although not used at St Paul's, the concept was applied in the spire of St Bride's, Fleet Street.[16] This plan was rotated slightly on its site so that it aligned not with true east, but with sunrise on Easter of the year construction began. This small change in configuration was informed by Wren's knowledge of astronomy.

 

The final design as built differs substantially from the official Warrant design.[53] Wren received permission from the king to make "ornamental changes" to the submitted design, and Wren took great advantage of this. Many of these changes were made over the course of the thirty years as the church was constructed, and the most significant was to the dome: "He raised another structure over the first cupola, a cone of brick, so as to support a stone lantern of an elegant figure... And he covered and hid out of sight the brick cone with another cupola of timber and lead; and between this and the cone are easy stairs that ascend to the lantern" (Christopher Wren, son of Sir Christopher Wren). The final design was strongly rooted in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The saucer domes over the nave were inspired by François Mansart's Church of the Val-de-Grâce, which Wren had seen during a trip to Paris in 1665.[16]

 

The date of the laying of the first stone of the cathedral is disputed. One contemporary account says it was on 21 June 1675, another on 25 June and a third on 28 June. There is, however, general agreement that it was laid in June 1675. Edward Strong later claimed it was laid by his elder brother, Thomas Strong, one of the two master stonemasons appointed by Wren at the beginning of the work.

 

Wren's challenge was to construct a large cathedral on the relatively weak clay soil of London. St Paul's is unusual among cathedrals in that there is a crypt, the largest in Europe, under the entire building rather than just under the eastern end.[55] The crypt serves a structural purpose. Although it is extensive, half the space of the crypt is taken up by massive piers which spread the weight of the much slimmer piers of the church above. While the towers and domes of most cathedrals are supported on four piers, Wren designed the dome of St Paul's to be supported on eight, achieving a broader distribution of weight at the level of the foundations.[56] The foundations settled as the building progressed, and Wren made structural changes in response.[57]

 

One of the design problems that confronted Wren was to create a landmark dome, tall enough to visually replace the lost tower of St Paul's, while at the same time appearing visually satisfying when viewed from inside the building. Wren planned a double-shelled dome, as at St Peter's Basilica.[58] His solution to the visual problem was to separate the heights of the inner and outer dome to a much greater extent than had been done by Michelangelo at St Peter's, drafting both as catenary curves, rather than as hemispheres. Between the inner and outer domes, Wren inserted a brick cone which supports both the timbers of the outer, lead covered dome and the weight of the ornate stone lantern that rises above it. Both the cone and the inner dome are 18 inches thick and are supported by wrought iron chains at intervals in the brick cone and around the cornice of the peristyle of the inner dome to prevent spreading and cracking.[56][59]

 

The Warrant Design showed external buttresses on the ground floor level. These were not a classical feature and were one of the first elements Wren changed. Instead he made the walls of the cathedral particularly thick to avoid the need for external buttresses altogether. The clerestorey and vault are reinforced with flying buttresses, which were added at a relatively late stage in the design to give extra strength.[60] These are concealed behind the screen wall of the upper storey which was added to keep the building's classical style intact, to add sufficient visual mass to balance the appearance of the dome and which, by its weight, counters the thrust of the buttresses on the lower walls.

 

St Paul's Cathedral is built in a restrained Baroque style which represents Wren's rationalisation of the traditions of English Medieval cathedrals with the inspiration of Palladio, the Classical style of Inigo Jones, the Baroque style of 17th-century Rome, and the buildings by Mansart and others that he had seen in France.[2] It is particularly in its plan that St Paul's reveals Medieval influences.[56] Like the great Medieval cathedrals of York and Winchester, St Paul's is comparatively long for its width, and has strongly projecting transepts. It has much emphasis on its facade, which has been designed to define rather than conceal the form of the building behind it. In plan, the towers jut beyond the width of the aisles as they do at Wells Cathedral. Wren's brother was the Bishop of Ely, and Wren was familiar with the unique octagonal lantern tower over the crossing of Ely Cathedral which spans the aisles as well as the central nave, unlike the central towers and domes of most churches. Wren adapted this characteristic in designing the dome of St Paul's.[56] In section St Paul's also maintains a medieval form, having the aisles much lower than the nave, and a defined clerestory.

 

From the exterior, the most visible and most notable feature is the dome, which rises 365 feet (111 m) to the cross at its summit,[67] and still dominates views of the City. The height of 365 feet was deliberate as Wren had a considerable interest in astronomy. St Paul's was until the late 20th century, the tallest building on the city skyline, designed to be seen surrounded by the delicate spires of Wren's other city churches. The dome is described by Banister Fletcher as "probably the finest in Europe", by Helen Gardner as "majestic", by Nikolaus Pevsner as "one of the most perfect in the world" and in a statement by John Summerson that Englishmen and "even some foreigners" consider it to be without equal.

 

Wren drew inspiration from Michelangelo's dome of St Peter's Basilica, and that of Mansart's Church of the Val-de-Grâce which he had visited.[71] Unlike those of St Peter's and Val-de-Grâce, the dome of St Paul's rises in two clearly defined storeys of masonry, which, together with a lower unadorned footing, equal a height of about 95 feet. From the time of the Greek Cross Design it is clear that Wren favoured a continuous colonnade (peristyle) around the drum of the dome, rather than the arrangement of alternating windows and projecting columns that Michelangelo had used and which had also been employed by Mansart.[70] Summerson suggests that he was influence by Bramante's "Tempietto" in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio.[72] In the finished structure, Wren creates a diversity and appearance of strength by placing niches between the columns in every fourth opening.[72] The peristyle serves to buttress both the inner dome and the brick cone which rises internally to support the lantern.

 

Above the peristyle rises the second stage surrounded by a balustraded balcony called the "Stone Gallery". This attic stage is ornamented with alternating pilasters and rectangular windows which are set just below the cornice, creating a sense of lightness. Above this attic rises the dome, covered with lead, and ribbed in accordance with the spacing of the pilasters. It is pierced by eight light wells just below the lantern, but these are barely visible. They allow light to penetrate through openings in the brick cone, which illuminates the interior apex of this shell, partly visible from within the cathedral through the ocular opening of the lower dome.[56]

 

The lantern, like the visible masonry of the dome, rises in stages. The most unusual characteristic of this structure is that it is of square plan, rather than circular or octagonal. The tallest stage takes the form of a tempietto with four columned porticos facing the cardinal points. Its lowest level is surrounded by the "Golden Gallery" and its upper level supports a small dome from which rises a cross on a golden ball. The total weight of the lantern is about 850 tons.

 

For the Renaissance architect designing the west front of a large church or cathedral, the universal problem was how to use a facade to unite the high central nave with the lower aisles in a visually harmonious whole. Since Alberti's additions to Santa Maria Novella in Florence, this was usually achieved by the simple expedient of linking the sides to the centre with large brackets. This is the solution that Wren saw employed by Mansart at Val-de-Grâce. Another feature employed by Mansart was a boldly projecting Classical portico with paired columns. Wren faced the additional challenge of incorporating towers into the design, as had been planned at St Peter's Basilica. At St Peter's, Carlo Maderno had solved this problem by constructing a narthex and stretching a huge screen facade across it, differentiated at the centre by a pediment. The towers at St Peter's were not built above the parapet.

 

Wren's solution was to employ a Classical portico, as at Val-de-Grâce, but rising through two storeys, and supported on paired columns. The remarkable feature here is that the lower storey of this portico extends to the full width of the aisles, while the upper section defines the nave that lies behind it. The gaps between the upper stage of the portico and the towers on either side are bridged by a narrow section of wall with an arch-topped window.

 

The towers stand outside the width of the aisles, but screen two chapels located immediately behind them. The lower parts of the towers continue the theme of the outer walls, but are differentiated from them in order to create an appearance of strength. The windows of the lower storey are smaller than those of the side walls and are deeply recessed, a visual indication of the thickness of the wall. The paired pilasters at each corner project boldly.

 

Above the main cornice, which unites the towers with the portico and the outer walls, the details are boldly scaled, in order to read well from the street below and from a distance. The towers rise above the cornice from a square block plinth which is plain apart from large oculi, that on the south being filled by the clock, while that on the north is void. The towers are composed of two complementary elements, a central cylinder rising through the tiers in a series of stacked drums, and paired Corinthian columns at the corners, with buttresses above them, which serve to unify the drum shape with the square plinth on which it stands. The entablature above the columns breaks forward over them to express both elements, tying them together in a single horizontal band. The cap, like a bell-shaped miniature dome, supports a gilded finial, a pineapple supported on four scrolling angled brackets, the topmost expression of the consistent theme.

 

The transepts each have a semi-circular entrance portico. Wren was inspired in the design by studying engravings of Pietro da Cortona's Baroque facade of Santa Maria della Pace in Rome.[73] These projecting arcs echo the shape of the apse at the eastern end of the building.

 

The building is of two storeys of ashlar masonry, above a basement, and surrounded by a balustrade above the upper cornice. The balustrade was added, against Wren's wishes, in 1718.[73] The internal bays are marked externally by paired pilasters with Corinthian capitals at the lower level and Composite at the upper level. Where the building behind is of only one storey (at the aisles of both nave and choir) the upper storey of the exterior wall is sham.[68] It serves a dual purpose of supporting the buttresses of the vault, and providing a satisfying appearance when viewed rising above buildings of the height of the 17th century city. This appearance may still be seen from across the River Thames.

 

Between the pilasters on both levels are windows. Those of the lower storey have semi-circular heads and are surrounded by continuous mouldings of a Roman style, rising to decorative keystones. Beneath each window is a floral swag by Grinling Gibbons, constituting the finest stone carving on the building and some of the greatest architectural sculpture in England. A frieze with similar swags runs in a band below the cornice, tying the arches of the windows and the capitals. The upper windows are of a restrained Classical form, with pediments set on columns, but are blind and contain niches. Beneath these niches, and in the basement level, are small windows with segmental tops, the glazing of which catches the light and visually links them to the large windows of the aisles. The height from ground level to the top of the parapet is approximately 110 feet.

 

Internally, St Paul's has a nave and choir each of three bays. The entrance from the west portico is through a square domed narthex, flanked on either side by chapels: the Chapel of St Dunstan to the north and the Chapel of the Order of St Michael and St George to the south side.[56] The nave is 91 feet (28 m) in height and is separated from the aisles by an arcade of piers with attached Corinthian pilasters rising to an entablature. The bays, and therefore the vault compartments, are rectangular, but Wren has ingeniously roofed these spaces with saucer-shaped domes and surrounded the clerestorey windows with lunettes.[56] The vaults of the choir have been lavishly decorated with mosaics by Sir William Blake Richmond.[56] The dome and the apse of the choir are all approached through wide arches with coffered vaults which contrast with the smooth surface of the domes and punctuate the division between the main spaces. The transept extend to the north and south of the dome and are called (in this instance) the North Choir and the South Choir.

 

The choir holds the stalls for the clergy and the choir, and the organ. These wooden fittings, including the pulpit and Bishop's throne, were designed in Wren's office and built by joiners. The carvings are the work of Grinling Gibbons who Summerson describes as having "astonishing facility" and suggests that Gibbons aim was to reproduce popular Dutch flower painting in wood.[48] Jean Tijou, a French metalworker, provided various wrought iron and gilt grills, gates and balustrades of elaborate design, of which many pieces have now been combined into the gates near the sanctuary.[48]

 

The cathedral is some 574 feet (175 m) in length (including the portico of the Great West Door), of which 223 feet (68 m) is the nave and 167 feet (51 m) is the choir. The width of the nave is 121 feet (37 m) and across the transepts is 246 feet (75 m).[74] The cathedral is thus slightly shorter but somewhat wider than Old St Paul's.

 

The main internal space of the cathedral is that under the central dome which extends the full width of the nave and aisles. The dome is supported on pendentives rising between eight arches spanning the nave, choir, transepts, and aisles. The eight piers that carry them are not evenly spaced. Wren has maintained an appearance of eight equal spans by inserting segmental arches to carry galleries across the ends of the aisles, and has extended the mouldings of the upper arch to appear equal to the wider arches.[58]

 

Above the keystones of the arches, at 99 feet (30 m) above the floor and 112 feet (34 m) wide, runs a cornice which supports the Whispering Gallery so called because of its acoustic properties: a whisper or low murmur against its wall at any point is audible to a listener with an ear held to the wall at any other point around the gallery. It is reached by 259 steps from ground level.

 

The dome is raised on a tall drum surrounded by pilasters and pierced with windows in groups of three, separated by eight gilded niches containing statues, and repeating the pattern of the peristyle on the exterior. the dome rises above a gilded cornice at 173 feet (53 m) to a height of 214 feet (65 m). Its painted decoration by Sir James Thornhill shows eight scenes from the life of St Paul set in illusionistic architecture which continues the forms of the eight niches of the drum.[63] At the apex of the dome is an oculus inspired by that of the Pantheon in Rome. Through this hole can be seen the decorated inner surface of the cone which supports the lantern. This upper space is lit by the light wells in the outer dome and openings in the brick cone. Engravings of Thornhill's paintings were published in 1720.

 

he eastern apse extends the width of the choir and is the full height of the main arches across choir and nave. It is decorated with mosaics, in keeping with the choir vaults. The original reredos and high altar were destroyed by bombing in 1940. The present high altar and baldacchino are the work of by Godfrey Allen and Stephen Dykes Bower.[55] The apse was dedicated in 1958 as the American Memorial Chapel.[76] It was paid for entirely by donations from British people.[77] The Roll of Honour contains the names of more than 28,000 Americans who gave their lives while on their way to, or stationed in, the United Kingdom during the Second World War.[78] It is in front of the chapel's altar. The three windows of the apse date from 1960 and depict themes of service and sacrifice, while the insignia around the edges represent the American states and the US armed forces. The limewood panelling incorporates a rocket – a tribute to America's achievements in space.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral

14-02-10 Happy Valentines day! I saw my wife for 5 mins this morning, she gave me a tube of smarties. I love her! Another "Stuck in the office" shot today unfortunately. This is a roll of corrugated cardboard. Edited with silver efex pro, I also gave it a lot of contrast using lightrooms curves. I hope all your Valentines day's are going a lot better then mine.

 

Manual Page Read: Lets just skip this for today. I'll get back into it on Monday when I am actually at home.

 

Images Viewed: I have added a live search for #project365 on Tweetdeck so I get live updates of all the 365ers on twitter! If I see anything awesome I'll give it a re-tweet and maybe post it here.

Other Inspiration: I thought I had got rid of my gear lust. Turns out I have not. I think I'm gonna sell my 18-250mm lens and buy a 10-20mm one instead. I like what I am seeing from the super wide lenses and want in on the action. The 18-250mm is agreat lens but I am finding that it just doesn't suit my style of photography. I already own a 55-200mm and have a Minolta Beercan 70-210mm on loan from Andy Wardlaw. So I may throw it up on ebay and see what I get for it. Also, I just got a £700 bursary from uni! So my tuition fees can be paid! What gear are you guys lusting after?

On Twitter.

 

My 365 blog - greg365.mcmull.in

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysler_Building

  

The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan in the Turtle Bay area at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. Standing at 319 metres (1,047 ft),[4][5] it was the world's tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. After the destruction of the World Trade Center, it was again the second-tallest building in New York City until December 2007, when the spire was raised on the 365.8-metre (1,200 ft) Bank of America Tower, pushing the Chrysler Building into third position. In addition, The New York Times Building which opened in 2007, is exactly level with the Chrysler Building in height.[6]

 

The Chrysler Building is a classic example of Art Deco architecture and considered by many contemporary architects to be one of the finest buildings in New York City. In 2007, it was ranked ninth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.[7] It was the headquarters of the Chrysler Corporation from 1930 until the mid 1950's, but although the building was built and designed specifically for the car manufacturer, the corporation didn't pay for the construction of it and never owned it, as Walter P. Chrysler decided to pay for it himself, so that his children could inherit it.[8]

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Design beginnings

1.2 Construction

1.3 Completion

1.4 Property

2 Architecture

2.1 Crown ornamentation

2.2 Crown usage

2.3 Lighting

2.4 Recognition and appeal

3 Cultural depictions

4 Quotations

5 Gallery

6 See also

7 References

8 Notes

9 External links

  

[edit] History

 

The Chrysler Building in 1932

View from Empire State Building, 2005

Chrysler Building and eastern Midtown ManhattanThe Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen for a project of Walter P. Chrysler.[8] When the ground breaking occurred on September 19, 1928, there was an intense competition in New York City to build the world's tallest skyscraper.[9][10] Despite a frantic pace (the building was built at an average rate of four floors per week), no workers died during the construction of this skyscraper.[11]

 

[edit] Design beginnings

Van Alen's original design for the skyscraper called for a decorative jewel-like glass crown. It also featured a base in which the showroom windows were tripled in height and topped by twelve stories with glass-wrapped corners, creating an impression that the tower appeared physically and visually light as if floating on mid-air.[8] The height of the skyscraper was also originally designed to be 246 metres (807 ft).[11] However, the design proved to be too advanced and costly for building contractor William H. Reynolds, who disapproved of Van Alen's original plan.[12] The design and lease were then sold to Walter P. Chrysler, who worked with Van Alen and redesigned the skyscraper for additional stories; it was eventually revised to be 282 metres (925 ft) tall.[11] As Walter Chrysler was the chairman of the Chrysler Corporation and intended to make the building into Chrysler's headquarters,[11] various architectural details and especially the building's gargoyles were modeled after Chrysler automobile products like the hood ornaments of the Plymouth; they exemplify the machine age in the 1920s (see below).[13][14]

 

[edit] Construction

Construction commenced on September 19, 1928.[11] In total, almost 400,000 rivets were used[11] and approximately 3,826,000 bricks were manually laid, to create the non-loadbearing walls of the skyscraper.[15] Contractors, builders and engineers were joined by other building-services experts to coordinate construction.

 

Prior to its completion, the building stood about even with a rival project at 40 Wall Street, designed by H. Craig Severance. Severance increased the height of his project and then publicly claimed the title of the world's tallest building[16] (this distinction excluded structures that were not fully habitable, such as the Eiffel Tower[17]). In response, Van Alen obtained permission for a 56.3-metre (185 ft) long spire[18] and had it secretly constructed inside the frame of the building. The spire was delivered to the site in 4 different sections.[19] On October 23, 1929, the bottom section of the spire was hoisted onto the top of the building's dome and lowered into the 66th floor of the building. The other remaining sections of the spire were hoisted and riveted to the first one in sequential order in just 90 minutes.[20]

 

[edit] Completion

Upon completion, May 20, 1930,[11] the added height of the spire allowed the Chrysler Building to surpass 40 Wall Street as the tallest building in the world and the Eiffel Tower as the tallest structure. It was the first man-made structure to stand taller than 1,000 feet (305 m). Van Alen's satisfaction in these accomplishments was likely muted by Walter Chrysler's later refusal to pay the balance of his architectural fee.[8] Less than a year after it opened to the public on May 27, 1931, the Chrysler Building was surpassed in height by the Empire State Building, but the Chrysler Building is still the world's tallest steel-supported brick building.[21][22] (The world's tallest brick building without steel is St. Martin's Church in Landshut begun in 1389.)[citation needed]

  

Height comparison of buildings in New York City[edit] Property

The east building wall of the base out of which the tower rises runs at a slant to the Manhattan street grid, following a property line that predated the Commissioners' Plan of 1811.[23] The land on which the Chrysler Building stands was donated to The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art,[24] a private college that offers every admitted student a full tuition scholarship, in 1902. The land was originally leased to William H. Reynolds, but when he was unable to raise money for the project, the building and the rights to the land were acquired by Walter P. Chrysler in 1928.[24][25] Contrary to popular belief, the Chrysler Corporation was never involved in the construction or ownership of the Chrysler Building, although it was built and designed for the corporation and served as its headquarters until the mid 1950s. It was a project of Walter P. Chrysler for his children.[8]

 

The ownership of the building has changed several times. The Chrysler family sold the building in 1947, and in 1957 it was purchased by real-estate moguls Sol Goldman and Alex DiLorenzo, and owned by Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company. The lobby was refurbished and the facade renovated in 1978–1979.[26] The building was owned by Jack Kent Cooke, a Washington, D.C. investor, in 1979. The spire underwent a restoration that was completed in 1995. In 1998, Tishman Speyer Properties and the Travelers Insurance Group bought the Chrysler Building, at 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue, and the adjoining Kent Building in 1997 for about $220 million from a consortium of banks and the estate of Jack Kent Cooke. Tishman Speyer Properties had negotiated a 150 year lease on the land from Cooper Union, which had held the lease before 1997, and continues to hold the land lease.[27]

 

In 2001, a 75% stake in the building was sold, for US$ 300 million, to TMW, the German arm of an Atlanta-based investment fund.[28] On June 11, 2008 it was reported that the Abu Dhabi Investment Council was in negotiations to buy TMW's 75% economic interest, and a 15% interest from Tishman Speyer Properties in the building, and a share of the Trylons retail structure next door for US$ 800 million.[29] On July 9, 2008 it was announced that the transaction had been completed, and that the Abu Dhabi Investment Council was now the 90% owner of the building.[27][30]

 

[edit] Architecture

 

Detail of the Art Deco ornamentation at the crownThe Chrysler Building is considered a masterpiece of Art Deco architecture. The distinctive ornamentation of the building based on features that were then being used on Chrysler automobiles. The corners of the 61st floor are graced with eagles, replicas of the 1929 Chrysler hood ornaments;[31] on the 31st floor, the corner ornamentation are replicas of the 1929 Chrysler radiator caps.[32] The building is constructed of masonry, with a steel frame, and metal cladding. In total, the building currently contains 3,862 windows on its facade and 4 banks of 8 elevators designed by the Otis Elevator Corporation.[11] The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976.[3][33]

 

[edit] Crown ornamentation

The Chrysler Building is also well renowned and recognized for its terraced crown. Composed of seven radiating terraced arches, Van Alen's design of the crown is a cruciform groin vault constructed into seven concentric members with transitioning setbacks, mounted up one behind each other.[34] The stainless-steel cladding is ribbed and riveted in a radiating sunburst pattern with many triangular vaulted windows, transitioning into smaller segments of the seven narrow setbacks of the facade of the terraced crown. The entire crown is clad with silvery "Enduro KA-2" metal, an austenitic stainless steel developed in Germany by Krupp and marketed under the trade name "Nirosta" (a German acronym for nichtrostender Stahl, meaning "non-rusting steel").[8][35]

 

[edit] Crown usage

When the building first opened, it contained a public viewing gallery on the 71st floor, which was closed to the public in 1945. This floor is now the highest-occupied floor, most recently occupied by an office space management firm.[36] The private Cloud Club occupied a three-floor high space from the 66th–68th floors, but closed in the late 1970s. Above the 71st floor, the stories of the building are designed mostly for exterior appearance, functioning mainly as landings for the stairway to the spire. Very narrow with low, sloped ceilings, these top stories are useful only for holding radio-broadcasting and other mechanical and electrical equipment.[11] Television station WCBS-TV (Channel 2) originally transmitted from the top of the Chrysler in the 1940s and early 1950s, before moving to the Empire State Building.[11] For many years, WPAT-FM and WTFM (now WKTU) also used the Chrysler Building as a transmission site, but they also moved to the Empire by the 1970s. There are currently no commercial broadcast stations located at the Chrysler Building.

 

[edit] Lighting

There are two sets of lighting in the top spires and decoration. The first are the V-shaped lighting inserts in the steel of the building itself. Added later were groups of floodlights which are on mast arms directed back at the building. This allows the top of the building to be lit in many colors for special occasions. This lighting was installed by electrician Charles Londner and crew during construction.[11]

 

[edit] Recognition and appeal

In more recent years, the Chrysler Building has continued to be a favorite among New Yorkers. In the summer of 2005, New York's own Skyscraper Museum asked one hundred architects, builders, critics, engineers, historians, and scholars, among others, to choose their 10 favorites among 25 New York towers. The Chrysler Building came in first place as 90% of them placed the building in their top-10 favorite buildings.[37]

 

The Chrysler Building's distinctive profile has inspired similar skyscrapers worldwide, including One Liberty Place in Philadelphia.[38][39]

 

[edit] Cultural depictions

The Chrysler Building has been featured in several television programs, movies, and other media. Below are examples.

 

In an early episode of Saturday Night Live the Coneheads launch the building as a rocketship to return to their home planet. In the 1982 Larry Cohen film Q a winged serpent terrorizing New York is nesting inside the building's crown; the film's poster depicts the monster perched atop the building holding an attractive blonde victim in its claws. (The poster's monster is enormously out of scale to its size in the movie.) The Chrysler Building was also a short scene in the movie Predator 2 where the predator is holding a trophy raising it up on the building. The artwork was done by Michael Whelan.[40] In Deep Impact (1998) a wall of water surrounds the skyscraper and people can be seen on the 61st-floor observation deck fleeing to the other side of the building.[41] The tower was also prominently featured and being destroyed in the 1998 film, Godzilla,[41] and in Armageddon, which featured the tower being struck by a meteor, causing its spire to come crashing to the ground.[41] In another film, Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, while Johnny Storm chases the Silver Surfer through Manhattan, the Silver Surfer flies straight through the Chrysler Building.[42][43] Towards the end of Steven Spielberg's A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, the Chrysler Building is seen totally underwater as the mechas guide their spacecraft through the submerged ruins of Manhattan.[41]> In the film Spider-Man, Spider-Man perches on top of one of the building's gargoyles, mourning his Uncle Ben's murder.[41] Matthew Barney's art film Cremaster 3 (2002) narrates a fantastical version of the building's construction.

 

In the music scene, Meat Loaf's 1993 album Bat Out of Hell II: Back Into Hell's cover art depicts a demonic bat clinging to the top floors of the Chrysler Building. The Chrysler Building has also appeared in numerous video games such as Parasite Eve and Grand Theft Auto IV, being replicated as the "Zirconium Building".[44][45]

 

[edit] Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Chrysler Building

"Art Deco in France found its American equivalent in the design of the New York skyscrapers of the 1920s. The Chrysler Building ... was one of the most accomplished essays in the style."

–John Julius Norwich, in The World Atlas of Architecture

"The design, originally drawn up for building contractor William H. Reynolds, was finally sold to Walter P. Chrysler, who wanted a provocative building which would not merely scrape the sky but positively pierce it. Its 77 floors briefly making it the highest building in the world—at least until the Empire State Building was completed—it became the star of the New York skyline, thanks above all to its crowning peak. In a deliberate strategy of myth generation, Van Alen planned a dramatic moment of revelation: the entire seven-storey pinnacle, complete with special-steel facing, was first assembled inside the building, and then hoisted into position through the roof opening and anchored on top in just one and a half hours. All of a sudden it was there—a sensational fait accompli."

–Peter Gossel and Gabriele Leuthauser, in Architecture in the Twentieth Century

"One of the first uses of stainless steel over a large exposed building surface. The decorative treatment of the masonry walls below changes with every set-back and includes story-high basket-weave designs, radiator-cap gargoyles, and a band of abstract automobiles. The lobby is a modernistic composition of African marble and chrome steel."

–Elliot Willensky and Norval White, in AIA Guide to New York

 

As I walked down St Clements Lane to the church yesterday, the nursery rhyme came into my head, Oranges and Lemons. How many of the churches, I wondered, have I visited now?

 

The City in the working week is a very different beast, very different. Pavements overflowing with people, all rushing to be somewhere, shouting into mobile phones, sucking on a cigarette, or sipping at coffee from a paper cup.

 

Diving into the church, it was an oasis of calm, even if half of it is now offices for a charity, it is uncluttered, and the beauty of Wren's design can be seen clearly.

 

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Oranges and lemons,

Say the bells of St. Clement's.

 

You owe me five farthings,

Say the bells of St. Martin's.

 

When will you pay me?

Say the bells of Old Bailey.

 

When I grow rich,

Say the bells of Shoreditch.

 

When will that be?

Say the bells of Stepney.

 

I do not know,

Says the great bell of Bow.

 

Here comes a candle to light you to bed,

And here comes a chopper to chop off your head!

Chip chop Chip chop the last man is dead

 

----------------------------------------------------

 

I guess Old Bailey is St Sepelcre now?

 

------------------------------------------------

 

St Clement Eastcheap is a Church of England parish church in Candlewick Ward of the City of London. It is located on Clement's Lane, off King William Street and close to London Bridge and the River Thames.[1]

 

Clement was a disciple of St Peter the Apostle and was ordained as Bishop of Rome in the year 93 AD. By legend, Clement was martyred by being tied to an anchor and thrown into the Black Sea, which led to his adoption as a patron saint of sailors. The dedication to St Clement is unusual in London, with only one other ancient church there dedicated to this saint, namely St Clement Danes, Westminster. It is also located a little north of the Thames, but further west from Eastcheap and outside the old City boundary, just beyond the Temple Bar on the Strand.

 

Eastcheap was one of the main streets of medieval London. The name 'Eastcheap' derives from the Saxon word 'cheap', meaning a market, and Eastcheap was so called to distinguish it from Westcheap, later to become Cheapside. The southern end of Clement's Lane opened onto Eastcheap until the 1880s when the construction of King William Street separated Clement's Lane from Eastcheap, which still remains nearby as a street.

  

The parish of St. Clement Eastcheap, London, and its surrounding area as shown in Johann Homann's 'Ad Norman prototypi Londinensis edita curis Homannianorum Heredum C.P.S.C.M', Homann Heirs: London (1736)

The church's dedication to a Roman patron saint of sailors, the martyr Bishop Clement, coupled with its location near to what were historically the bustling wharves of Roman London, hints at a much earlier Roman origin. Indeed Roman remains were once found in Clement's Lane, comprising walls 3 feet thick and made of flints at a depth of 12–15 feet together with tessellated pavements.[2]

 

A charter of 1067 given by William I (1028–87) to Westminster Abbey mentions a church of St. Clement, which is possibly St. Clement Eastcheap, but the earliest definite reference to the church is found in a deed written in the reign of Henry III (1207–72), which mentions 'St Clement Candlewickstrate'. Other early documents refer to the church as "St Clement in Candlewystrate", 'St Clement the Little by Estchepe' and 'St Clement in Lumbard Street'. Until the dissolution of the monasteries - during the reign of Henry VIII - the parish was in the 'gift' of the Abbot of Westminster, then patronage of the parish passed to the Bishop of London. Now the patronage alternates with the appointment of each successive new parish priest (Rector), between the Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's.

 

According to the London historian John Strype (1643–1737) St. Clement's church was repaired and beautified in 1630 and 1633

 

In 1666 the church was destroyed by the Great Fire of London, and then rebuilt in the 1680s. According to Strype the rebuilt church was designed by Sir Christopher Wren and this would seem to be confirmed by the fact that in the parish account for 1685 there is the following item: To one third of a hogshead of wine, given to Sir Christopher Wren, £4 2s.[4]

 

In 1670, during the rebuilding of London that followed the fire, the parish was combined with that of St Martin Orgar, which lay on the south side of Eastcheap. At the same time the City planners sought to appropriate a strip of land from the west of St Clement's property to widen Clement's Lane. This led to a dispute with the parish authorities, who claimed that the proposed plan left too little room to accommodate the families of the newly combined parishes. The matter was resolved by permitting the addition of a 14 ft. building plot, formerly occupied by the churchyard, to the east of the church. It was not until 1683, however, that building of the church began, and was completed in 1687 at a total cost of £4,365.[5]

 

Although nearby St Martin Orgar had been left in ruins by the Great Fire, the tower survived and, following the unification of the parish with St Clement's, the St Martin's site was used by French Huguenots who restored the tower and worshiped there until 1820. Later in the decade the ruins of the body of St Martin's church were removed to make way for the widening of Cannon Street, but the tower remained until 1851 when it was taken down, and – curiously – replaced with a new tower. The new tower served as a rectory for St. Clement Eastcheap until it was sold and converted into offices in the 1970s; it still survives on the present-day St. Martin's Lane.

 

In May 1840 Edward John Carlos wrote in the The Gentleman's Magazine, protesting about the proposed demolition of St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange and St. Benet Fink, following a fire in 1838 that had razed the Royal Exchange and damaged those two churches. In his article, Carlos referred to earlier plans to reduce the number of City churches, from which we learn that in the 1830s St Clement's had been under threat of demolition.

 

The sweeping design of destroying a number of City churches was mediated in … 1834, and for the time arrested by the resolute opposition to the measure in the instance of the first church marked out for sacrifice, St. Clement Eastcheap, it may be feared is at length coming into full operation, not, indeed in the open manner in which it was displayed at that period, but in an insidious and more secure mode of procedure.[6]

 

While St Clement's was spared, the 19th century saw many other City churches being destroyed, particularly following the Union of Benefices Act (1860), which sought to speed-up the reduction in the number of City parishes as a response to rapidly declining congregations; the result of the resident population moving in ever larger numbers from cramped City conditions to the more spacious suburbs.

 

In 1872 William Butterfield, a prominent architect of the gothic-revival, substantially renovated St. Clement's to conform with the contemporary Anglican 'High Church' taste.[7] The renovation involved removing the galleries; replacing the 17th-century plain windows with stained glass; dividing the reredos into three pieces and placing the two wings on the side walls; dismantling the woodwork to build new pews; laying down polychrome tiles on the floor and moving the organ into the aisle.

 

In 1933 the architect Sir Ninian Comper revised Butterfield's layout, moving the organ to its original position on the west wall and reassembling the reredos behind the altar, although before he did so, he had the reredos painted with figures in blue and gold.

 

St. Clement's suffered minor damage from bombing by German aircraft during the London Blitz in 1940 during the Second World War. The damage was repaired in 1949-50, and in 1968 the church was again redecorated.

 

Today St Clement's holds weekly services and, from 1998 to 2011, it was the base of The Players of St Peter, an amateur theatre company devoted to performing medieval mystery plays in the church, around early December each year.[8] The Players are now based at the church of St George in the East.

  

Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise in 'The Fall of Man' from the so-called N-Town plays, performed by the Players of St Peter in St Clement's, 2004

A number of charities have their administrative offices at St Clement's including the Cure Parkinson's Trust.

 

St Clement Eastcheap considers itself to be the church referred to in the nursery rhyme that begins "Oranges and lemons / Say the bells of St Clement's". So too does St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, whose bells ring out the traditional tune of the nursery rhyme three times a day.

 

There is a canard that the earliest mention of the rhyme occurs in Wynkyn de Worde's "The demaundes joyous" printed in 1511.[9] This small volume consists entirely of riddles and makes no allusion to bells, St. Clement or any other church.

 

According to Iona and Peter Opie,[10] the earliest record of the rhyme only dates to c.1744, although there is a square dance (without words) called 'Oranges and Limons' in the 3rd edition of John Playford's The English Dancing Master, published in 1665.

 

St Clement Eastcheap's claim is based on the assertion that it was close to the wharf where citrus fruit was unloaded. Yet, a perusal of a map of London shows that there were many churches, even after the Fire, that were closer to the Thames than St. Clement's (St. George Botolph Lane, St Magnus the Martyr, St. Michael, Crooked Lane, St Martin Orgar, St Mary-at-Hill, All Hallows the Great. All these would have been passed by a load of oranges and lemons making its way to Leadenhall Market, the nearest market where citrus fruit was sold, passing several more churches on the way. Thus, it would appear that the name of St. Clements was selected by the rhymer simply for its consonance with the word ‘lemons’, and it now seems more likely that the melody called ‘Oranges and Limons’ predates the rhyme itself.

 

St. Clement Eastcheap has an irregular plan. The nave is approximately rectangular, but the south aisle is severely tapered. The ceiling is divided into panels, the centre one being a large oval band of fruit and flowers. The main façade is on the west, on Clement's Lane, and comprises four bays. The main bay has a blocked pedimented round-headed window over the door. This is flanked by matching bays with two levels of windows. The tower to the south west forms the fourth bay. This is a simple square tower, with a parapet, but no spire. Each bay has stone quoins and is stuccoed, except for the upper levels of the tower where the brick is exposed.

 

A small churchyard remains to the east of St. Clement's hemmed-in by the backs of office buildings and contains tombstones whose inscriptions have, over time, become illegible. The churchyard is approached by a narrow alley along the church's north wall, at the entrance of which is a memorial plaque to Dositej Obradović, a Serbian scholar who lived next to the church.[11]

 

In July 1645, so it is said, the poet John Milton was reconciled with his estranged wife Mary Powell, in the house of a Mrs Weber, a widow, in St Clement's churchyard where Mary was then lodging. Milton's description in Paradise Lost of the reconciliation of Adam and Eve draws, apparently, on the real life reconciliation between Milton and his wife.[12]

 

She, not repulsed, with tears that ceased not flowing

And tresses all disordered, at his feet

Fell humble, and, embracing them, besought

His peace.

[...]

Soon his heart relented

Towards her, his life so late, and sole delight,

Now to his feet submissive in distress.

 

The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.

 

The present organ's oak case is the same one made to enclose the organ that was built for St Clement's in 1696, probably by Renatus Harris who maintained the instrument until 1704.[14] While the case has remained largely intact, the organ itself has been variously rebuilt and restored; in 1704 by Christian Smith, and in 1711 by Abraham Jordan (c.1666–1716)—who it is thought added the swell organ to the two manual instrument. From 1838 the organ was in the care of Messrs Gray and Davison, who in 1872—as part of the renovation of the building—moved the organ from the west gallery to the south aisle. Care of the organ was transferred to Henry Wedlake that same year. In 1889 he rebuilt the instrument. Further work was undertaken in 1926 by Messrs J. W. Walker, and in 1936 by Messrs Hill, Norman and Beard, whew the instrument was moved back to an approximation of its original west-end location. The same company overhauled the organ in 1946, and in 1971 made 'neo-baroque' tonal revisions, which remain to this day. The instrument was last cleaned and repaired in 2004 by Colin Jilks of Sittingbourne, Kent.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Clement%27s,_Eastcheap

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysler_Building

  

The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan in the Turtle Bay area at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. Standing at 319 metres (1,047 ft),[4][5] it was the world's tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. After the destruction of the World Trade Center, it was again the second-tallest building in New York City until December 2007, when the spire was raised on the 365.8-metre (1,200 ft) Bank of America Tower, pushing the Chrysler Building into third position. In addition, The New York Times Building which opened in 2007, is exactly level with the Chrysler Building in height.[6]

 

The Chrysler Building is a classic example of Art Deco architecture and considered by many contemporary architects to be one of the finest buildings in New York City. In 2007, it was ranked ninth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.[7] It was the headquarters of the Chrysler Corporation from 1930 until the mid 1950's, but although the building was built and designed specifically for the car manufacturer, the corporation didn't pay for the construction of it and never owned it, as Walter P. Chrysler decided to pay for it himself, so that his children could inherit it.[8]

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Design beginnings

1.2 Construction

1.3 Completion

1.4 Property

2 Architecture

2.1 Crown ornamentation

2.2 Crown usage

2.3 Lighting

2.4 Recognition and appeal

3 Cultural depictions

4 Quotations

5 Gallery

6 See also

7 References

8 Notes

9 External links

  

[edit] History

 

The Chrysler Building in 1932

View from Empire State Building, 2005

Chrysler Building and eastern Midtown ManhattanThe Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen for a project of Walter P. Chrysler.[8] When the ground breaking occurred on September 19, 1928, there was an intense competition in New York City to build the world's tallest skyscraper.[9][10] Despite a frantic pace (the building was built at an average rate of four floors per week), no workers died during the construction of this skyscraper.[11]

 

[edit] Design beginnings

Van Alen's original design for the skyscraper called for a decorative jewel-like glass crown. It also featured a base in which the showroom windows were tripled in height and topped by twelve stories with glass-wrapped corners, creating an impression that the tower appeared physically and visually light as if floating on mid-air.[8] The height of the skyscraper was also originally designed to be 246 metres (807 ft).[11] However, the design proved to be too advanced and costly for building contractor William H. Reynolds, who disapproved of Van Alen's original plan.[12] The design and lease were then sold to Walter P. Chrysler, who worked with Van Alen and redesigned the skyscraper for additional stories; it was eventually revised to be 282 metres (925 ft) tall.[11] As Walter Chrysler was the chairman of the Chrysler Corporation and intended to make the building into Chrysler's headquarters,[11] various architectural details and especially the building's gargoyles were modeled after Chrysler automobile products like the hood ornaments of the Plymouth; they exemplify the machine age in the 1920s (see below).[13][14]

 

[edit] Construction

Construction commenced on September 19, 1928.[11] In total, almost 400,000 rivets were used[11] and approximately 3,826,000 bricks were manually laid, to create the non-loadbearing walls of the skyscraper.[15] Contractors, builders and engineers were joined by other building-services experts to coordinate construction.

 

Prior to its completion, the building stood about even with a rival project at 40 Wall Street, designed by H. Craig Severance. Severance increased the height of his project and then publicly claimed the title of the world's tallest building[16] (this distinction excluded structures that were not fully habitable, such as the Eiffel Tower[17]). In response, Van Alen obtained permission for a 56.3-metre (185 ft) long spire[18] and had it secretly constructed inside the frame of the building. The spire was delivered to the site in 4 different sections.[19] On October 23, 1929, the bottom section of the spire was hoisted onto the top of the building's dome and lowered into the 66th floor of the building. The other remaining sections of the spire were hoisted and riveted to the first one in sequential order in just 90 minutes.[20]

 

[edit] Completion

Upon completion, May 20, 1930,[11] the added height of the spire allowed the Chrysler Building to surpass 40 Wall Street as the tallest building in the world and the Eiffel Tower as the tallest structure. It was the first man-made structure to stand taller than 1,000 feet (305 m). Van Alen's satisfaction in these accomplishments was likely muted by Walter Chrysler's later refusal to pay the balance of his architectural fee.[8] Less than a year after it opened to the public on May 27, 1931, the Chrysler Building was surpassed in height by the Empire State Building, but the Chrysler Building is still the world's tallest steel-supported brick building.[21][22] (The world's tallest brick building without steel is St. Martin's Church in Landshut begun in 1389.)[citation needed]

  

Height comparison of buildings in New York City[edit] Property

The east building wall of the base out of which the tower rises runs at a slant to the Manhattan street grid, following a property line that predated the Commissioners' Plan of 1811.[23] The land on which the Chrysler Building stands was donated to The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art,[24] a private college that offers every admitted student a full tuition scholarship, in 1902. The land was originally leased to William H. Reynolds, but when he was unable to raise money for the project, the building and the rights to the land were acquired by Walter P. Chrysler in 1928.[24][25] Contrary to popular belief, the Chrysler Corporation was never involved in the construction or ownership of the Chrysler Building, although it was built and designed for the corporation and served as its headquarters until the mid 1950s. It was a project of Walter P. Chrysler for his children.[8]

 

The ownership of the building has changed several times. The Chrysler family sold the building in 1947, and in 1957 it was purchased by real-estate moguls Sol Goldman and Alex DiLorenzo, and owned by Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company. The lobby was refurbished and the facade renovated in 1978–1979.[26] The building was owned by Jack Kent Cooke, a Washington, D.C. investor, in 1979. The spire underwent a restoration that was completed in 1995. In 1998, Tishman Speyer Properties and the Travelers Insurance Group bought the Chrysler Building, at 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue, and the adjoining Kent Building in 1997 for about $220 million from a consortium of banks and the estate of Jack Kent Cooke. Tishman Speyer Properties had negotiated a 150 year lease on the land from Cooper Union, which had held the lease before 1997, and continues to hold the land lease.[27]

 

In 2001, a 75% stake in the building was sold, for US$ 300 million, to TMW, the German arm of an Atlanta-based investment fund.[28] On June 11, 2008 it was reported that the Abu Dhabi Investment Council was in negotiations to buy TMW's 75% economic interest, and a 15% interest from Tishman Speyer Properties in the building, and a share of the Trylons retail structure next door for US$ 800 million.[29] On July 9, 2008 it was announced that the transaction had been completed, and that the Abu Dhabi Investment Council was now the 90% owner of the building.[27][30]

 

[edit] Architecture

 

Detail of the Art Deco ornamentation at the crownThe Chrysler Building is considered a masterpiece of Art Deco architecture. The distinctive ornamentation of the building based on features that were then being used on Chrysler automobiles. The corners of the 61st floor are graced with eagles, replicas of the 1929 Chrysler hood ornaments;[31] on the 31st floor, the corner ornamentation are replicas of the 1929 Chrysler radiator caps.[32] The building is constructed of masonry, with a steel frame, and metal cladding. In total, the building currently contains 3,862 windows on its facade and 4 banks of 8 elevators designed by the Otis Elevator Corporation.[11] The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976.[3][33]

 

[edit] Crown ornamentation

The Chrysler Building is also well renowned and recognized for its terraced crown. Composed of seven radiating terraced arches, Van Alen's design of the crown is a cruciform groin vault constructed into seven concentric members with transitioning setbacks, mounted up one behind each other.[34] The stainless-steel cladding is ribbed and riveted in a radiating sunburst pattern with many triangular vaulted windows, transitioning into smaller segments of the seven narrow setbacks of the facade of the terraced crown. The entire crown is clad with silvery "Enduro KA-2" metal, an austenitic stainless steel developed in Germany by Krupp and marketed under the trade name "Nirosta" (a German acronym for nichtrostender Stahl, meaning "non-rusting steel").[8][35]

 

[edit] Crown usage

When the building first opened, it contained a public viewing gallery on the 71st floor, which was closed to the public in 1945. This floor is now the highest-occupied floor, most recently occupied by an office space management firm.[36] The private Cloud Club occupied a three-floor high space from the 66th–68th floors, but closed in the late 1970s. Above the 71st floor, the stories of the building are designed mostly for exterior appearance, functioning mainly as landings for the stairway to the spire. Very narrow with low, sloped ceilings, these top stories are useful only for holding radio-broadcasting and other mechanical and electrical equipment.[11] Television station WCBS-TV (Channel 2) originally transmitted from the top of the Chrysler in the 1940s and early 1950s, before moving to the Empire State Building.[11] For many years, WPAT-FM and WTFM (now WKTU) also used the Chrysler Building as a transmission site, but they also moved to the Empire by the 1970s. There are currently no commercial broadcast stations located at the Chrysler Building.

 

[edit] Lighting

There are two sets of lighting in the top spires and decoration. The first are the V-shaped lighting inserts in the steel of the building itself. Added later were groups of floodlights which are on mast arms directed back at the building. This allows the top of the building to be lit in many colors for special occasions. This lighting was installed by electrician Charles Londner and crew during construction.[11]

 

[edit] Recognition and appeal

In more recent years, the Chrysler Building has continued to be a favorite among New Yorkers. In the summer of 2005, New York's own Skyscraper Museum asked one hundred architects, builders, critics, engineers, historians, and scholars, among others, to choose their 10 favorites among 25 New York towers. The Chrysler Building came in first place as 90% of them placed the building in their top-10 favorite buildings.[37]

 

The Chrysler Building's distinctive profile has inspired similar skyscrapers worldwide, including One Liberty Place in Philadelphia.[38][39]

 

[edit] Cultural depictions

The Chrysler Building has been featured in several television programs, movies, and other media. Below are examples.

 

In an early episode of Saturday Night Live the Coneheads launch the building as a rocketship to return to their home planet. In the 1982 Larry Cohen film Q a winged serpent terrorizing New York is nesting inside the building's crown; the film's poster depicts the monster perched atop the building holding an attractive blonde victim in its claws. (The poster's monster is enormously out of scale to its size in the movie.) The Chrysler Building was also a short scene in the movie Predator 2 where the predator is holding a trophy raising it up on the building. The artwork was done by Michael Whelan.[40] In Deep Impact (1998) a wall of water surrounds the skyscraper and people can be seen on the 61st-floor observation deck fleeing to the other side of the building.[41] The tower was also prominently featured and being destroyed in the 1998 film, Godzilla,[41] and in Armageddon, which featured the tower being struck by a meteor, causing its spire to come crashing to the ground.[41] In another film, Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, while Johnny Storm chases the Silver Surfer through Manhattan, the Silver Surfer flies straight through the Chrysler Building.[42][43] Towards the end of Steven Spielberg's A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, the Chrysler Building is seen totally underwater as the mechas guide their spacecraft through the submerged ruins of Manhattan.[41]> In the film Spider-Man, Spider-Man perches on top of one of the building's gargoyles, mourning his Uncle Ben's murder.[41] Matthew Barney's art film Cremaster 3 (2002) narrates a fantastical version of the building's construction.

 

In the music scene, Meat Loaf's 1993 album Bat Out of Hell II: Back Into Hell's cover art depicts a demonic bat clinging to the top floors of the Chrysler Building. The Chrysler Building has also appeared in numerous video games such as Parasite Eve and Grand Theft Auto IV, being replicated as the "Zirconium Building".[44][45]

 

[edit] Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Chrysler Building

"Art Deco in France found its American equivalent in the design of the New York skyscrapers of the 1920s. The Chrysler Building ... was one of the most accomplished essays in the style."

–John Julius Norwich, in The World Atlas of Architecture

"The design, originally drawn up for building contractor William H. Reynolds, was finally sold to Walter P. Chrysler, who wanted a provocative building which would not merely scrape the sky but positively pierce it. Its 77 floors briefly making it the highest building in the world—at least until the Empire State Building was completed—it became the star of the New York skyline, thanks above all to its crowning peak. In a deliberate strategy of myth generation, Van Alen planned a dramatic moment of revelation: the entire seven-storey pinnacle, complete with special-steel facing, was first assembled inside the building, and then hoisted into position through the roof opening and anchored on top in just one and a half hours. All of a sudden it was there—a sensational fait accompli."

–Peter Gossel and Gabriele Leuthauser, in Architecture in the Twentieth Century

"One of the first uses of stainless steel over a large exposed building surface. The decorative treatment of the masonry walls below changes with every set-back and includes story-high basket-weave designs, radiator-cap gargoyles, and a band of abstract automobiles. The lobby is a modernistic composition of African marble and chrome steel."

–Elliot Willensky and Norval White, in AIA Guide to New York

 

As I walked down St Clements Lane to the church yesterday, the nursery rhyme came into my head, Oranges and Lemons. How many of the churches, I wondered, have I visited now?

 

The City in the working week is a very different beast, very different. Pavements overflowing with people, all rushing to be somewhere, shouting into mobile phones, sucking on a cigarette, or sipping at coffee from a paper cup.

 

Diving into the church, it was an oasis of calm, even if half of it is now offices for a charity, it is uncluttered, and the beauty of Wren's design can be seen clearly.

 

--------------------------------------------------------

 

Oranges and lemons,

Say the bells of St. Clement's.

 

You owe me five farthings,

Say the bells of St. Martin's.

 

When will you pay me?

Say the bells of Old Bailey.

 

When I grow rich,

Say the bells of Shoreditch.

 

When will that be?

Say the bells of Stepney.

 

I do not know,

Says the great bell of Bow.

 

Here comes a candle to light you to bed,

And here comes a chopper to chop off your head!

Chip chop Chip chop the last man is dead

 

----------------------------------------------------

 

I guess Old Bailey is St Sepelcre now?

 

------------------------------------------------

 

St Clement Eastcheap is a Church of England parish church in Candlewick Ward of the City of London. It is located on Clement's Lane, off King William Street and close to London Bridge and the River Thames.[1]

 

Clement was a disciple of St Peter the Apostle and was ordained as Bishop of Rome in the year 93 AD. By legend, Clement was martyred by being tied to an anchor and thrown into the Black Sea, which led to his adoption as a patron saint of sailors. The dedication to St Clement is unusual in London, with only one other ancient church there dedicated to this saint, namely St Clement Danes, Westminster. It is also located a little north of the Thames, but further west from Eastcheap and outside the old City boundary, just beyond the Temple Bar on the Strand.

 

Eastcheap was one of the main streets of medieval London. The name 'Eastcheap' derives from the Saxon word 'cheap', meaning a market, and Eastcheap was so called to distinguish it from Westcheap, later to become Cheapside. The southern end of Clement's Lane opened onto Eastcheap until the 1880s when the construction of King William Street separated Clement's Lane from Eastcheap, which still remains nearby as a street.

  

The parish of St. Clement Eastcheap, London, and its surrounding area as shown in Johann Homann's 'Ad Norman prototypi Londinensis edita curis Homannianorum Heredum C.P.S.C.M', Homann Heirs: London (1736)

The church's dedication to a Roman patron saint of sailors, the martyr Bishop Clement, coupled with its location near to what were historically the bustling wharves of Roman London, hints at a much earlier Roman origin. Indeed Roman remains were once found in Clement's Lane, comprising walls 3 feet thick and made of flints at a depth of 12–15 feet together with tessellated pavements.[2]

 

A charter of 1067 given by William I (1028–87) to Westminster Abbey mentions a church of St. Clement, which is possibly St. Clement Eastcheap, but the earliest definite reference to the church is found in a deed written in the reign of Henry III (1207–72), which mentions 'St Clement Candlewickstrate'. Other early documents refer to the church as "St Clement in Candlewystrate", 'St Clement the Little by Estchepe' and 'St Clement in Lumbard Street'. Until the dissolution of the monasteries - during the reign of Henry VIII - the parish was in the 'gift' of the Abbot of Westminster, then patronage of the parish passed to the Bishop of London. Now the patronage alternates with the appointment of each successive new parish priest (Rector), between the Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's.

 

According to the London historian John Strype (1643–1737) St. Clement's church was repaired and beautified in 1630 and 1633

 

In 1666 the church was destroyed by the Great Fire of London, and then rebuilt in the 1680s. According to Strype the rebuilt church was designed by Sir Christopher Wren and this would seem to be confirmed by the fact that in the parish account for 1685 there is the following item: To one third of a hogshead of wine, given to Sir Christopher Wren, £4 2s.[4]

 

In 1670, during the rebuilding of London that followed the fire, the parish was combined with that of St Martin Orgar, which lay on the south side of Eastcheap. At the same time the City planners sought to appropriate a strip of land from the west of St Clement's property to widen Clement's Lane. This led to a dispute with the parish authorities, who claimed that the proposed plan left too little room to accommodate the families of the newly combined parishes. The matter was resolved by permitting the addition of a 14 ft. building plot, formerly occupied by the churchyard, to the east of the church. It was not until 1683, however, that building of the church began, and was completed in 1687 at a total cost of £4,365.[5]

 

Although nearby St Martin Orgar had been left in ruins by the Great Fire, the tower survived and, following the unification of the parish with St Clement's, the St Martin's site was used by French Huguenots who restored the tower and worshiped there until 1820. Later in the decade the ruins of the body of St Martin's church were removed to make way for the widening of Cannon Street, but the tower remained until 1851 when it was taken down, and – curiously – replaced with a new tower. The new tower served as a rectory for St. Clement Eastcheap until it was sold and converted into offices in the 1970s; it still survives on the present-day St. Martin's Lane.

 

In May 1840 Edward John Carlos wrote in the The Gentleman's Magazine, protesting about the proposed demolition of St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange and St. Benet Fink, following a fire in 1838 that had razed the Royal Exchange and damaged those two churches. In his article, Carlos referred to earlier plans to reduce the number of City churches, from which we learn that in the 1830s St Clement's had been under threat of demolition.

 

The sweeping design of destroying a number of City churches was mediated in … 1834, and for the time arrested by the resolute opposition to the measure in the instance of the first church marked out for sacrifice, St. Clement Eastcheap, it may be feared is at length coming into full operation, not, indeed in the open manner in which it was displayed at that period, but in an insidious and more secure mode of procedure.[6]

 

While St Clement's was spared, the 19th century saw many other City churches being destroyed, particularly following the Union of Benefices Act (1860), which sought to speed-up the reduction in the number of City parishes as a response to rapidly declining congregations; the result of the resident population moving in ever larger numbers from cramped City conditions to the more spacious suburbs.

 

In 1872 William Butterfield, a prominent architect of the gothic-revival, substantially renovated St. Clement's to conform with the contemporary Anglican 'High Church' taste.[7] The renovation involved removing the galleries; replacing the 17th-century plain windows with stained glass; dividing the reredos into three pieces and placing the two wings on the side walls; dismantling the woodwork to build new pews; laying down polychrome tiles on the floor and moving the organ into the aisle.

 

In 1933 the architect Sir Ninian Comper revised Butterfield's layout, moving the organ to its original position on the west wall and reassembling the reredos behind the altar, although before he did so, he had the reredos painted with figures in blue and gold.

 

St. Clement's suffered minor damage from bombing by German aircraft during the London Blitz in 1940 during the Second World War. The damage was repaired in 1949-50, and in 1968 the church was again redecorated.

 

Today St Clement's holds weekly services and, from 1998 to 2011, it was the base of The Players of St Peter, an amateur theatre company devoted to performing medieval mystery plays in the church, around early December each year.[8] The Players are now based at the church of St George in the East.

  

Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise in 'The Fall of Man' from the so-called N-Town plays, performed by the Players of St Peter in St Clement's, 2004

A number of charities have their administrative offices at St Clement's including the Cure Parkinson's Trust.

 

St Clement Eastcheap considers itself to be the church referred to in the nursery rhyme that begins "Oranges and lemons / Say the bells of St Clement's". So too does St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, whose bells ring out the traditional tune of the nursery rhyme three times a day.

 

There is a canard that the earliest mention of the rhyme occurs in Wynkyn de Worde's "The demaundes joyous" printed in 1511.[9] This small volume consists entirely of riddles and makes no allusion to bells, St. Clement or any other church.

 

According to Iona and Peter Opie,[10] the earliest record of the rhyme only dates to c.1744, although there is a square dance (without words) called 'Oranges and Limons' in the 3rd edition of John Playford's The English Dancing Master, published in 1665.

 

St Clement Eastcheap's claim is based on the assertion that it was close to the wharf where citrus fruit was unloaded. Yet, a perusal of a map of London shows that there were many churches, even after the Fire, that were closer to the Thames than St. Clement's (St. George Botolph Lane, St Magnus the Martyr, St. Michael, Crooked Lane, St Martin Orgar, St Mary-at-Hill, All Hallows the Great. All these would have been passed by a load of oranges and lemons making its way to Leadenhall Market, the nearest market where citrus fruit was sold, passing several more churches on the way. Thus, it would appear that the name of St. Clements was selected by the rhymer simply for its consonance with the word ‘lemons’, and it now seems more likely that the melody called ‘Oranges and Limons’ predates the rhyme itself.

 

St. Clement Eastcheap has an irregular plan. The nave is approximately rectangular, but the south aisle is severely tapered. The ceiling is divided into panels, the centre one being a large oval band of fruit and flowers. The main façade is on the west, on Clement's Lane, and comprises four bays. The main bay has a blocked pedimented round-headed window over the door. This is flanked by matching bays with two levels of windows. The tower to the south west forms the fourth bay. This is a simple square tower, with a parapet, but no spire. Each bay has stone quoins and is stuccoed, except for the upper levels of the tower where the brick is exposed.

 

A small churchyard remains to the east of St. Clement's hemmed-in by the backs of office buildings and contains tombstones whose inscriptions have, over time, become illegible. The churchyard is approached by a narrow alley along the church's north wall, at the entrance of which is a memorial plaque to Dositej Obradović, a Serbian scholar who lived next to the church.[11]

 

In July 1645, so it is said, the poet John Milton was reconciled with his estranged wife Mary Powell, in the house of a Mrs Weber, a widow, in St Clement's churchyard where Mary was then lodging. Milton's description in Paradise Lost of the reconciliation of Adam and Eve draws, apparently, on the real life reconciliation between Milton and his wife.[12]

 

She, not repulsed, with tears that ceased not flowing

And tresses all disordered, at his feet

Fell humble, and, embracing them, besought

His peace.

[...]

Soon his heart relented

Towards her, his life so late, and sole delight,

Now to his feet submissive in distress.

 

The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.

 

The present organ's oak case is the same one made to enclose the organ that was built for St Clement's in 1696, probably by Renatus Harris who maintained the instrument until 1704.[14] While the case has remained largely intact, the organ itself has been variously rebuilt and restored; in 1704 by Christian Smith, and in 1711 by Abraham Jordan (c.1666–1716)—who it is thought added the swell organ to the two manual instrument. From 1838 the organ was in the care of Messrs Gray and Davison, who in 1872—as part of the renovation of the building—moved the organ from the west gallery to the south aisle. Care of the organ was transferred to Henry Wedlake that same year. In 1889 he rebuilt the instrument. Further work was undertaken in 1926 by Messrs J. W. Walker, and in 1936 by Messrs Hill, Norman and Beard, whew the instrument was moved back to an approximation of its original west-end location. The same company overhauled the organ in 1946, and in 1971 made 'neo-baroque' tonal revisions, which remain to this day. The instrument was last cleaned and repaired in 2004 by Colin Jilks of Sittingbourne, Kent.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Clement%27s,_Eastcheap

As I walked down St Clements Lane to the church yesterday, the nursery rhyme came into my head, Oranges and Lemons. How many of the churches, I wondered, have I visited now?

 

The City in the working week is a very different beast, very different. Pavements overflowing with people, all rushing to be somewhere, shouting into mobile phones, sucking on a cigarette, or sipping at coffee from a paper cup.

 

Diving into the church, it was an oasis of calm, even if half of it is now offices for a charity, it is uncluttered, and the beauty of Wren's design can be seen clearly.

 

--------------------------------------------------------

 

Oranges and lemons,

Say the bells of St. Clement's.

 

You owe me five farthings,

Say the bells of St. Martin's.

 

When will you pay me?

Say the bells of Old Bailey.

 

When I grow rich,

Say the bells of Shoreditch.

 

When will that be?

Say the bells of Stepney.

 

I do not know,

Says the great bell of Bow.

 

Here comes a candle to light you to bed,

And here comes a chopper to chop off your head!

Chip chop Chip chop the last man is dead

 

----------------------------------------------------

 

I guess Old Bailey is St Sepelcre now?

 

------------------------------------------------

 

St Clement Eastcheap is a Church of England parish church in Candlewick Ward of the City of London. It is located on Clement's Lane, off King William Street and close to London Bridge and the River Thames.[1]

 

Clement was a disciple of St Peter the Apostle and was ordained as Bishop of Rome in the year 93 AD. By legend, Clement was martyred by being tied to an anchor and thrown into the Black Sea, which led to his adoption as a patron saint of sailors. The dedication to St Clement is unusual in London, with only one other ancient church there dedicated to this saint, namely St Clement Danes, Westminster. It is also located a little north of the Thames, but further west from Eastcheap and outside the old City boundary, just beyond the Temple Bar on the Strand.

 

Eastcheap was one of the main streets of medieval London. The name 'Eastcheap' derives from the Saxon word 'cheap', meaning a market, and Eastcheap was so called to distinguish it from Westcheap, later to become Cheapside. The southern end of Clement's Lane opened onto Eastcheap until the 1880s when the construction of King William Street separated Clement's Lane from Eastcheap, which still remains nearby as a street.

  

The parish of St. Clement Eastcheap, London, and its surrounding area as shown in Johann Homann's 'Ad Norman prototypi Londinensis edita curis Homannianorum Heredum C.P.S.C.M', Homann Heirs: London (1736)

The church's dedication to a Roman patron saint of sailors, the martyr Bishop Clement, coupled with its location near to what were historically the bustling wharves of Roman London, hints at a much earlier Roman origin. Indeed Roman remains were once found in Clement's Lane, comprising walls 3 feet thick and made of flints at a depth of 12–15 feet together with tessellated pavements.[2]

 

A charter of 1067 given by William I (1028–87) to Westminster Abbey mentions a church of St. Clement, which is possibly St. Clement Eastcheap, but the earliest definite reference to the church is found in a deed written in the reign of Henry III (1207–72), which mentions 'St Clement Candlewickstrate'. Other early documents refer to the church as "St Clement in Candlewystrate", 'St Clement the Little by Estchepe' and 'St Clement in Lumbard Street'. Until the dissolution of the monasteries - during the reign of Henry VIII - the parish was in the 'gift' of the Abbot of Westminster, then patronage of the parish passed to the Bishop of London. Now the patronage alternates with the appointment of each successive new parish priest (Rector), between the Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's.

 

According to the London historian John Strype (1643–1737) St. Clement's church was repaired and beautified in 1630 and 1633

 

In 1666 the church was destroyed by the Great Fire of London, and then rebuilt in the 1680s. According to Strype the rebuilt church was designed by Sir Christopher Wren and this would seem to be confirmed by the fact that in the parish account for 1685 there is the following item: To one third of a hogshead of wine, given to Sir Christopher Wren, £4 2s.[4]

 

In 1670, during the rebuilding of London that followed the fire, the parish was combined with that of St Martin Orgar, which lay on the south side of Eastcheap. At the same time the City planners sought to appropriate a strip of land from the west of St Clement's property to widen Clement's Lane. This led to a dispute with the parish authorities, who claimed that the proposed plan left too little room to accommodate the families of the newly combined parishes. The matter was resolved by permitting the addition of a 14 ft. building plot, formerly occupied by the churchyard, to the east of the church. It was not until 1683, however, that building of the church began, and was completed in 1687 at a total cost of £4,365.[5]

 

Although nearby St Martin Orgar had been left in ruins by the Great Fire, the tower survived and, following the unification of the parish with St Clement's, the St Martin's site was used by French Huguenots who restored the tower and worshiped there until 1820. Later in the decade the ruins of the body of St Martin's church were removed to make way for the widening of Cannon Street, but the tower remained until 1851 when it was taken down, and – curiously – replaced with a new tower. The new tower served as a rectory for St. Clement Eastcheap until it was sold and converted into offices in the 1970s; it still survives on the present-day St. Martin's Lane.

 

In May 1840 Edward John Carlos wrote in the The Gentleman's Magazine, protesting about the proposed demolition of St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange and St. Benet Fink, following a fire in 1838 that had razed the Royal Exchange and damaged those two churches. In his article, Carlos referred to earlier plans to reduce the number of City churches, from which we learn that in the 1830s St Clement's had been under threat of demolition.

 

The sweeping design of destroying a number of City churches was mediated in … 1834, and for the time arrested by the resolute opposition to the measure in the instance of the first church marked out for sacrifice, St. Clement Eastcheap, it may be feared is at length coming into full operation, not, indeed in the open manner in which it was displayed at that period, but in an insidious and more secure mode of procedure.[6]

 

While St Clement's was spared, the 19th century saw many other City churches being destroyed, particularly following the Union of Benefices Act (1860), which sought to speed-up the reduction in the number of City parishes as a response to rapidly declining congregations; the result of the resident population moving in ever larger numbers from cramped City conditions to the more spacious suburbs.

 

In 1872 William Butterfield, a prominent architect of the gothic-revival, substantially renovated St. Clement's to conform with the contemporary Anglican 'High Church' taste.[7] The renovation involved removing the galleries; replacing the 17th-century plain windows with stained glass; dividing the reredos into three pieces and placing the two wings on the side walls; dismantling the woodwork to build new pews; laying down polychrome tiles on the floor and moving the organ into the aisle.

 

In 1933 the architect Sir Ninian Comper revised Butterfield's layout, moving the organ to its original position on the west wall and reassembling the reredos behind the altar, although before he did so, he had the reredos painted with figures in blue and gold.

 

St. Clement's suffered minor damage from bombing by German aircraft during the London Blitz in 1940 during the Second World War. The damage was repaired in 1949-50, and in 1968 the church was again redecorated.

 

Today St Clement's holds weekly services and, from 1998 to 2011, it was the base of The Players of St Peter, an amateur theatre company devoted to performing medieval mystery plays in the church, around early December each year.[8] The Players are now based at the church of St George in the East.

  

Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise in 'The Fall of Man' from the so-called N-Town plays, performed by the Players of St Peter in St Clement's, 2004

A number of charities have their administrative offices at St Clement's including the Cure Parkinson's Trust.

 

St Clement Eastcheap considers itself to be the church referred to in the nursery rhyme that begins "Oranges and lemons / Say the bells of St Clement's". So too does St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, whose bells ring out the traditional tune of the nursery rhyme three times a day.

 

There is a canard that the earliest mention of the rhyme occurs in Wynkyn de Worde's "The demaundes joyous" printed in 1511.[9] This small volume consists entirely of riddles and makes no allusion to bells, St. Clement or any other church.

 

According to Iona and Peter Opie,[10] the earliest record of the rhyme only dates to c.1744, although there is a square dance (without words) called 'Oranges and Limons' in the 3rd edition of John Playford's The English Dancing Master, published in 1665.

 

St Clement Eastcheap's claim is based on the assertion that it was close to the wharf where citrus fruit was unloaded. Yet, a perusal of a map of London shows that there were many churches, even after the Fire, that were closer to the Thames than St. Clement's (St. George Botolph Lane, St Magnus the Martyr, St. Michael, Crooked Lane, St Martin Orgar, St Mary-at-Hill, All Hallows the Great. All these would have been passed by a load of oranges and lemons making its way to Leadenhall Market, the nearest market where citrus fruit was sold, passing several more churches on the way. Thus, it would appear that the name of St. Clements was selected by the rhymer simply for its consonance with the word ‘lemons’, and it now seems more likely that the melody called ‘Oranges and Limons’ predates the rhyme itself.

 

St. Clement Eastcheap has an irregular plan. The nave is approximately rectangular, but the south aisle is severely tapered. The ceiling is divided into panels, the centre one being a large oval band of fruit and flowers. The main façade is on the west, on Clement's Lane, and comprises four bays. The main bay has a blocked pedimented round-headed window over the door. This is flanked by matching bays with two levels of windows. The tower to the south west forms the fourth bay. This is a simple square tower, with a parapet, but no spire. Each bay has stone quoins and is stuccoed, except for the upper levels of the tower where the brick is exposed.

 

A small churchyard remains to the east of St. Clement's hemmed-in by the backs of office buildings and contains tombstones whose inscriptions have, over time, become illegible. The churchyard is approached by a narrow alley along the church's north wall, at the entrance of which is a memorial plaque to Dositej Obradović, a Serbian scholar who lived next to the church.[11]

 

In July 1645, so it is said, the poet John Milton was reconciled with his estranged wife Mary Powell, in the house of a Mrs Weber, a widow, in St Clement's churchyard where Mary was then lodging. Milton's description in Paradise Lost of the reconciliation of Adam and Eve draws, apparently, on the real life reconciliation between Milton and his wife.[12]

 

She, not repulsed, with tears that ceased not flowing

And tresses all disordered, at his feet

Fell humble, and, embracing them, besought

His peace.

[...]

Soon his heart relented

Towards her, his life so late, and sole delight,

Now to his feet submissive in distress.

 

The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.

 

The present organ's oak case is the same one made to enclose the organ that was built for St Clement's in 1696, probably by Renatus Harris who maintained the instrument until 1704.[14] While the case has remained largely intact, the organ itself has been variously rebuilt and restored; in 1704 by Christian Smith, and in 1711 by Abraham Jordan (c.1666–1716)—who it is thought added the swell organ to the two manual instrument. From 1838 the organ was in the care of Messrs Gray and Davison, who in 1872—as part of the renovation of the building—moved the organ from the west gallery to the south aisle. Care of the organ was transferred to Henry Wedlake that same year. In 1889 he rebuilt the instrument. Further work was undertaken in 1926 by Messrs J. W. Walker, and in 1936 by Messrs Hill, Norman and Beard, whew the instrument was moved back to an approximation of its original west-end location. The same company overhauled the organ in 1946, and in 1971 made 'neo-baroque' tonal revisions, which remain to this day. The instrument was last cleaned and repaired in 2004 by Colin Jilks of Sittingbourne, Kent.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Clement%27s,_Eastcheap

Photo caption:

From left – Mark Lankester, Group CEO of Tune Hotels; Hon. Dr Denis Napthine, Premier of Victoria; Tan Sri Tony Fernandes, Co-Founder of Tune Group; Stuart Myerscough, Commercial Manager Australia of AirAsia X unveiling the opening price of Tune Hotel Melbourne.

  

NEWS RELEASE

 

MELBOURNE – THE WORLD’S MOST LIVEABLE CITY MAY HAVE JUST GOT BETTER!

Tune Hotel Melbourne opening November with A$49* launch rate

 

KUALA LUMPUR, 17 June 2013 - International hotel group Tune Hotels today announced the pre-opening sale of its first Australian property in Melbourne and that the city will serve as its operational headquarters for the Australia and New Zealand region.

 

The announcement was made here today by Mark Lankester, the Group CEO of Tune Hotels in the presence of the visiting Premier of Victoria, Honourable Dr Denis Napthine. Also present was Co-Founder of Tune Group, who is also Group CEO of AirAsia, Tan Sri Tony Fernandes.

 

Tune Hotel Melbourne at 609 Swanston Street, Carlton is conveniently located next to the University of Melbourne, just two streets away from popular Lygon Street and minutes to Melbourne’s Central Business District (CBD). The 225-room property will open for customers on 1 November 2013.

 

To celebrate its arrival, Tune Hotel Melbourne is offering an attractive room rate from just A$49* (US$46 / RM157) per night. The promotion is offered exclusively online at www.tunehotels.com and guests have the option to choose and pay only for amenities that they require.

 

Bookings can be made from 18 June until 28 June 2013 for stays between 1 November 2013 and 31 March 2014, subject to availability of rooms. A total of 1,000 rooms will be made available at that price.

 

Dr Napthine said: “Melbourne’s new Tune Hotel would open its doors in Melbourne’s CBD in November to coincide with Victoria’s world-famous Spring Racing Carnival.”

 

Dr Napthine also welcomed the decision by Tune Hotels to set up its Australia and New Zealand Operational Headquarters in Melbourne. “Together, the investment is expected to create up to 100 jobs.”

 

The Premier is currently leading around 300 Victorian businesses and 450 delegates on a Super Trade Mission to South East Asia. Kuala Lumpur is the mission’s first stop before moving on to other key Asean cities – Singapore, Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Hanoi, among others.

 

In a recent ranking of the world's "most liveable" cities, Melbourne took the number one spot for the second year running. The city was awarded perfect marks for education, healthcare, and infrastructure by the Economist Intelligence Unit.

 

As Australia’s events capital, Melbourne boasts a rich calendar of theatre, sporting and cultural events. Blockbuster annual events include the Australian Open Tennis Championship, Formula One Grand Prix, Spring Racing Carnival, Melbourne Food & Wine Festival, and more.

 

Melbourne is a romantic, stylish, cosmopolitan city with a European feel and hidden city laneways and arcades for visitors to discover hidden treasures, cafes, boutiques, bars and restaurants. The city is also the gourmet capital of Australia with award-winning chefs and a diverse cuisine with unique settings, provincial specialties and world class wine regions within easy access of the city.

 

A range of diverse travel experiences are available within easy reach of Melbourne in regional Victoria. Whether it’s skiing the Victorian Alps, reclining on picture postcard beaches, sampling award-winning wines or unwinding in luxurious day spas, regional Victoria is replete with immersive experiences year-round.

 

To add to the celebration, long-haul low cost airline AirAsia X is also running a joint promotion where a one-way flight seat from Kuala Lumpur to Melbourne is going from as low as RM329**. Guests have until 23 June 2013 to make a booking for travel between 15 November 2013 and 31 March 2014, subject to the availability of seats. Also on offer are Fly Thru services from Jakarta-Melbourne (from IDR 1,459,000** one-way) and Bangkok-Melbourne (from THB 5,890** one-way), allowing guests to seamlessly connect via Kuala Lumpur.

 

Guests who would like to travel with extra comfort may also fly on AirAsia X’s Premium Flatbed seats from as low as RM2, 299** from Kuala Lumpur to Melbourne. AirAsia X was the first long-haul, low fare carrier to introduce Premium Flatbed seats, which have standard business class specifications of 20” width, 60” pitch and stretch out to 77” in full recline position. Premium seat guests also enjoy premium complimentary products and services including Pick A Seat, Priority Check-in, Priority Boarding, Priority Baggage, 25kg Baggage Allowance, Complimentary Meal and Pillow & Duvet. For more information and flight bookings, please visit airasia.com.

 

Tan Sri Tony Fernandes said: “AirAsia X had been serving the Melbourne route for more than four years now and it is one of our best-selling. I am very pleased that Tune Hotels will now have its presence in Melbourne to give visitors to this wonderful city a truly compelling accommodation alternative. We are sure the Australian market will welcome and embrace Tune Hotels just as they did AirAsia X.”

 

Commenting on Melbourne as Tune Hotels’ Operational HQ for Australia and New Zealand, Group CEO Mark Lankester said: “We are very excited about Tune Hotel Melbourne as it marks our growing brand’s entry into Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne will be the location for our HQ overseeing Australia and New Zealand operations, working in conjunction with the corporate office in Kuala Lumpur. Given our long term plans for the region, the Australia and New Zealand HQ will be staffed relevantly to oversee and provide central support to Tune Hotels’ properties in Australia and New Zealand.”

 

“And to celebrate in true Tune Hotels style, we’re offering travellers one of the lowest room rates seen in central Melbourne for years. Tune Hotels is all about offering a great night’s sleep at a great price. Tune Hotel Melbourne will serve domestic business and leisure travellers and visitors from abroad who are looking for great comfort just minutes from Melbourne’s CBD without paying the usual exorbitant rates,” added Lankester.

 

The basic room rate at Tune Hotel Melbourne is already inclusive of air-conditioning and and/or heating. For an additional A$10, guests will get a pair of towels and toiletry kits and enjoy high-speed wireless broadband and Foxtel TV entertainment.

 

Tune Hotel Melbourne features an indoor courtyard, a recreational lounge, a restaurant, café/ convenience store, luggage storage, self-service launderette and computer kiosks. It is also equipped with a basement car park, something unusual for city centre hotels in Australia.

 

The hotel is just two streets away from Lygon Street, more famously known as Little Italy. The central business district, Melbourne Central Train Station and QV Melbourne; one of Melbourne's finest retail, dining and entertainment precincts, is only two tram stops away.

 

Tune Hotels provides international-class high-quality accommodation which focuses on key essentials but minus the generally underused facilities found in other hotels such as swimming pools, business centres and gymnasiums. By doing away with these costly and high-maintenance facilities, Tune Hotels is able to pass on savings to its guests in the form of super low room rates. Its pay-as-you-use concept lets travellers choose and pay only for amenities that they require to keep costs down, reduce waste and save energy.

 

All Tune hotels feature space-efficient, streamlined rooms focusing on high-quality basics: 5-star beds and powerful hot showers. The strategically located hotels provide housekeeping services, electronic keycard access into rooms, extensive CCTV systems, and no access into the main lobby without a keycard past midnight for extra security.

 

The group has received almost five million guests since the opening of its first hotel in Downtown Kuala Lumpur in 2007. Tune Hotels has one hotel in India, 11 in Malaysia, five in the UK, and four each in the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia. The company is set to open another property in Japan this year while future projects are planned in the Middle East, Europe and Africa.

 

Tune Hotels is part of Tune Group, a lifestyle business conglomerate co-founded by Tony Fernandes and Kamarudin Meranun, who are the Group CEO and Deputy Group CEO respectively of Asia’s largest low cost carrier AirAsia.

 

For real-time updates and promotion alerts, guests can stay connected with Tune Hotels via Facebook at www.facebook.com/tunehotelsAUS and on Twitter via www.twitter.com/tunehotels.

 

For booking and further information, visit www.tunehotels.com.

  

* Rooms at promotional rates are limited and subject to availability. Promotional rates are limited to double rooms, exclude peak periods, available only on specific dates and only for bookings made via www.tunehotels.com. Advertised rate includes GST and is for room only (excludes comfort package (WiFi, Towel & toiletries and TV) and all optional add-ons). Bookings that are made at the promotional price are strictly non-refundable or changeable. Booking period is 18 June 2013 - 28 June 2013, or until promotional rooms are sold out. Stay period is 1 Nov 2013 to 31 March 2014. No additional charges for booking payments made using PayPal. Additional charges may apply for online bookings paid using credit and debit cards. All amounts are in Australian dollars unless stated otherwise. Refer to www.tunehotels.com for other applicable terms and conditions.

 

** Promo fares include airport taxes and fees (all-in fares). Flights and fares are subject to availability and are for one-way travel only.

  

-ENDS-

About Tune Hotels & Tune Group

Tune Hotels is part of the lifestyle business conglomerate Tune Group that was founded by Tan Sri Tony Fernandes and Dato’ Kamarudin Meranun. Tune Hotels seeks to innovate and revolutionise the way services are made available and has employed efficient web-based technologies to reach and engage its customers, presenting a unique lifestyle opportunity. All Tune Hotels’ properties feature space-efficient, streamlined rooms focusing on high-quality basics: a five-star bed, powerful hot showers and energy-conserving ceiling fans along with housekeeping services, electronic keycard access into rooms, CCTV surveillance, and 24-hour security. The Tune Group of companies are Tune Air (a substantial shareholder of AirAsia), Tune Hotels, Tune Money (holding company of Tune Insurance), Tune Talk, Tune Box, Tune Studios, Tune Tones, Caterham F1 Team, Queens Park Rangers Football Club (QPR) and Educ8 Group (owner of Epsom College in Malaysia).

  

About AirAsia X Berhad

AirAsia X is the low-cost, long-haul affiliate carrier of the AirAsia Group that currently flies to destinations in China, Australia, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Nepal and the Middle East. The airline currently serves 14 destinations across Asia (Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei, Beijing, Hangzhou, Chengdu, Shanghai and Kathmandu), Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Perth and Gold Coast) and the Middle East (Jeddah) with flights to an additional destination, namely Busan, commencing in July 2013. AirAsia X operates a fleet of 10 Airbus A330-300s, each with a seat configuration of 12 Premium Flatbeds and 365 Economy seats. The airline has carried over 9 million guests since it commenced long-haul in 2007. Our vision is to further solidify our position as the global leader in low-cost, long-haul aviation and create the first global multi-hub low-cost carrier network along with other carriers of the AirAsia Group.

 

More photos can be downloaded from www.flickr.com/tunehotels.

  

Media enquiries:

 

MALAYSIA & INTERNATIONAL

Cymantha Sothiar

Mobile: +6012 3153638

Email: cymantha@tunehotels.com

 

AUSTRALIA

Brenton Gibbs

Tel: +61 (0)419 828 440

Email: brenton@crookgroup.com.au

 

Theme: Travel

Location: Puerto Quijarro, Bolivia border town with Brasil

 

We woke at 7am to take a bus to the Bolivian border. We had heard that to get a ticket on the famous Death Train - so called as the route used to transport victims of yellow fever across the country - we had to be in a queue at the train station in Peurto Quijarro (on the Bolivian side) at 7am. This wasn't possible so we decided to go as early as we could and see what happened.

 

The one daily train was to leave at 11am so when we saw a queue of hundreds of people waiting at the immigration office we didn't fancy our chances. After 2 hours we were finally let in to the stuffy and crowded room and got our passports stamped for entry into Bolivia.

 

Crossing the border the clocks went back one hour which left us at 10:45 and 15 minutes to cover the 2km to the station, get a ticket and find the train. A man quickly came up to us and offered us a taxi - its generally a terrible idea to take up these offers, as you end up paying over the odds and they are often unlicensed and not as safe as the regulated radio taxis- However, we had no time so jumped in. The guy accepted Brazilian Reais and dropped us, unkidnapped, outside the station.

 

A crazy looking man and women approach us, the man offering train tickets and the women offering cambio (change). I'm pretty used to walking straight past these types outside the stations now so we headed straight to the official ticket office. We quickly learned that the tickets, as we had been told, sell out early in the morning and that we may have to spend a night in the random Bolivian border town.

 

When we head back to the front of the station the crazy man is still asking if we need tickets, so we decide to see what he is offering. He leads us up the stairs and on to the platform. We then have to cross a checkpoint with a man in army uniform, he demands to take our passports and tells us we can get on the last carriage of the train. Not sure if its sensible to give your passport away on the advice of a crazy man you met outside a station we were very apprehensive but decided to go a long with it.

 

The crazy guy pushed us on to the train and found us some seats in what was the 3rd class carriage. Seeing we were having some trouble an English speaking Brazilian guy, who was in the next carriage, came to help us out and translate for us. It turned out the crazy guy wasn't selling tickets but just guiding us on to the train where we could still buy the 3rd class ticket from the army man who we had our passports.

 

The man asked for a tip and we gave him some of our remaining Brazilian Reais before realising we had no Bolivianos to pay the train ticket. Once the Brazilian guy translates this back to the man he runs off the train to get the crazy change women from outside. We leave our bags and get off the train to somehow negotiate a price - which turned out to be fair upon later calculations! The women pulls out a huge wedge of Bolivianos of her bag and we make the swap. As we do the train starts to move and we just have time to hop through the door before it pulls away.

 

We collapsed to our seats relieved to have somehow made it. With the rush of the morning we hadn't had time to buy even a bottle of water for the 20 hour journey in the stifling hot carriage, which led to breaking a few rules about what to eat in Bolivia - but i'll save that for tomorrow (day 15)

 

As I walked down St Clements Lane to the church yesterday, the nursery rhyme came into my head, Oranges and Lemons. How many of the churches, I wondered, have I visited now?

 

The City in the working week is a very different beast, very different. Pavements overflowing with people, all rushing to be somewhere, shouting into mobile phones, sucking on a cigarette, or sipping at coffee from a paper cup.

 

Diving into the church, it was an oasis of calm, even if half of it is now offices for a charity, it is uncluttered, and the beauty of Wren's design can be seen clearly.

 

--------------------------------------------------------

 

Oranges and lemons,

Say the bells of St. Clement's.

 

You owe me five farthings,

Say the bells of St. Martin's.

 

When will you pay me?

Say the bells of Old Bailey.

 

When I grow rich,

Say the bells of Shoreditch.

 

When will that be?

Say the bells of Stepney.

 

I do not know,

Says the great bell of Bow.

 

Here comes a candle to light you to bed,

And here comes a chopper to chop off your head!

Chip chop Chip chop the last man is dead

 

----------------------------------------------------

 

I guess Old Bailey is St Sepelcre now?

 

------------------------------------------------

 

St Clement Eastcheap is a Church of England parish church in Candlewick Ward of the City of London. It is located on Clement's Lane, off King William Street and close to London Bridge and the River Thames.[1]

 

Clement was a disciple of St Peter the Apostle and was ordained as Bishop of Rome in the year 93 AD. By legend, Clement was martyred by being tied to an anchor and thrown into the Black Sea, which led to his adoption as a patron saint of sailors. The dedication to St Clement is unusual in London, with only one other ancient church there dedicated to this saint, namely St Clement Danes, Westminster. It is also located a little north of the Thames, but further west from Eastcheap and outside the old City boundary, just beyond the Temple Bar on the Strand.

 

Eastcheap was one of the main streets of medieval London. The name 'Eastcheap' derives from the Saxon word 'cheap', meaning a market, and Eastcheap was so called to distinguish it from Westcheap, later to become Cheapside. The southern end of Clement's Lane opened onto Eastcheap until the 1880s when the construction of King William Street separated Clement's Lane from Eastcheap, which still remains nearby as a street.

  

The parish of St. Clement Eastcheap, London, and its surrounding area as shown in Johann Homann's 'Ad Norman prototypi Londinensis edita curis Homannianorum Heredum C.P.S.C.M', Homann Heirs: London (1736)

The church's dedication to a Roman patron saint of sailors, the martyr Bishop Clement, coupled with its location near to what were historically the bustling wharves of Roman London, hints at a much earlier Roman origin. Indeed Roman remains were once found in Clement's Lane, comprising walls 3 feet thick and made of flints at a depth of 12–15 feet together with tessellated pavements.[2]

 

A charter of 1067 given by William I (1028–87) to Westminster Abbey mentions a church of St. Clement, which is possibly St. Clement Eastcheap, but the earliest definite reference to the church is found in a deed written in the reign of Henry III (1207–72), which mentions 'St Clement Candlewickstrate'. Other early documents refer to the church as "St Clement in Candlewystrate", 'St Clement the Little by Estchepe' and 'St Clement in Lumbard Street'. Until the dissolution of the monasteries - during the reign of Henry VIII - the parish was in the 'gift' of the Abbot of Westminster, then patronage of the parish passed to the Bishop of London. Now the patronage alternates with the appointment of each successive new parish priest (Rector), between the Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's.

 

According to the London historian John Strype (1643–1737) St. Clement's church was repaired and beautified in 1630 and 1633

 

In 1666 the church was destroyed by the Great Fire of London, and then rebuilt in the 1680s. According to Strype the rebuilt church was designed by Sir Christopher Wren and this would seem to be confirmed by the fact that in the parish account for 1685 there is the following item: To one third of a hogshead of wine, given to Sir Christopher Wren, £4 2s.[4]

 

In 1670, during the rebuilding of London that followed the fire, the parish was combined with that of St Martin Orgar, which lay on the south side of Eastcheap. At the same time the City planners sought to appropriate a strip of land from the west of St Clement's property to widen Clement's Lane. This led to a dispute with the parish authorities, who claimed that the proposed plan left too little room to accommodate the families of the newly combined parishes. The matter was resolved by permitting the addition of a 14 ft. building plot, formerly occupied by the churchyard, to the east of the church. It was not until 1683, however, that building of the church began, and was completed in 1687 at a total cost of £4,365.[5]

 

Although nearby St Martin Orgar had been left in ruins by the Great Fire, the tower survived and, following the unification of the parish with St Clement's, the St Martin's site was used by French Huguenots who restored the tower and worshiped there until 1820. Later in the decade the ruins of the body of St Martin's church were removed to make way for the widening of Cannon Street, but the tower remained until 1851 when it was taken down, and – curiously – replaced with a new tower. The new tower served as a rectory for St. Clement Eastcheap until it was sold and converted into offices in the 1970s; it still survives on the present-day St. Martin's Lane.

 

In May 1840 Edward John Carlos wrote in the The Gentleman's Magazine, protesting about the proposed demolition of St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange and St. Benet Fink, following a fire in 1838 that had razed the Royal Exchange and damaged those two churches. In his article, Carlos referred to earlier plans to reduce the number of City churches, from which we learn that in the 1830s St Clement's had been under threat of demolition.

 

The sweeping design of destroying a number of City churches was mediated in … 1834, and for the time arrested by the resolute opposition to the measure in the instance of the first church marked out for sacrifice, St. Clement Eastcheap, it may be feared is at length coming into full operation, not, indeed in the open manner in which it was displayed at that period, but in an insidious and more secure mode of procedure.[6]

 

While St Clement's was spared, the 19th century saw many other City churches being destroyed, particularly following the Union of Benefices Act (1860), which sought to speed-up the reduction in the number of City parishes as a response to rapidly declining congregations; the result of the resident population moving in ever larger numbers from cramped City conditions to the more spacious suburbs.

 

In 1872 William Butterfield, a prominent architect of the gothic-revival, substantially renovated St. Clement's to conform with the contemporary Anglican 'High Church' taste.[7] The renovation involved removing the galleries; replacing the 17th-century plain windows with stained glass; dividing the reredos into three pieces and placing the two wings on the side walls; dismantling the woodwork to build new pews; laying down polychrome tiles on the floor and moving the organ into the aisle.

 

In 1933 the architect Sir Ninian Comper revised Butterfield's layout, moving the organ to its original position on the west wall and reassembling the reredos behind the altar, although before he did so, he had the reredos painted with figures in blue and gold.

 

St. Clement's suffered minor damage from bombing by German aircraft during the London Blitz in 1940 during the Second World War. The damage was repaired in 1949-50, and in 1968 the church was again redecorated.

 

Today St Clement's holds weekly services and, from 1998 to 2011, it was the base of The Players of St Peter, an amateur theatre company devoted to performing medieval mystery plays in the church, around early December each year.[8] The Players are now based at the church of St George in the East.

  

Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise in 'The Fall of Man' from the so-called N-Town plays, performed by the Players of St Peter in St Clement's, 2004

A number of charities have their administrative offices at St Clement's including the Cure Parkinson's Trust.

 

St Clement Eastcheap considers itself to be the church referred to in the nursery rhyme that begins "Oranges and lemons / Say the bells of St Clement's". So too does St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, whose bells ring out the traditional tune of the nursery rhyme three times a day.

 

There is a canard that the earliest mention of the rhyme occurs in Wynkyn de Worde's "The demaundes joyous" printed in 1511.[9] This small volume consists entirely of riddles and makes no allusion to bells, St. Clement or any other church.

 

According to Iona and Peter Opie,[10] the earliest record of the rhyme only dates to c.1744, although there is a square dance (without words) called 'Oranges and Limons' in the 3rd edition of John Playford's The English Dancing Master, published in 1665.

 

St Clement Eastcheap's claim is based on the assertion that it was close to the wharf where citrus fruit was unloaded. Yet, a perusal of a map of London shows that there were many churches, even after the Fire, that were closer to the Thames than St. Clement's (St. George Botolph Lane, St Magnus the Martyr, St. Michael, Crooked Lane, St Martin Orgar, St Mary-at-Hill, All Hallows the Great. All these would have been passed by a load of oranges and lemons making its way to Leadenhall Market, the nearest market where citrus fruit was sold, passing several more churches on the way. Thus, it would appear that the name of St. Clements was selected by the rhymer simply for its consonance with the word ‘lemons’, and it now seems more likely that the melody called ‘Oranges and Limons’ predates the rhyme itself.

 

St. Clement Eastcheap has an irregular plan. The nave is approximately rectangular, but the south aisle is severely tapered. The ceiling is divided into panels, the centre one being a large oval band of fruit and flowers. The main façade is on the west, on Clement's Lane, and comprises four bays. The main bay has a blocked pedimented round-headed window over the door. This is flanked by matching bays with two levels of windows. The tower to the south west forms the fourth bay. This is a simple square tower, with a parapet, but no spire. Each bay has stone quoins and is stuccoed, except for the upper levels of the tower where the brick is exposed.

 

A small churchyard remains to the east of St. Clement's hemmed-in by the backs of office buildings and contains tombstones whose inscriptions have, over time, become illegible. The churchyard is approached by a narrow alley along the church's north wall, at the entrance of which is a memorial plaque to Dositej Obradović, a Serbian scholar who lived next to the church.[11]

 

In July 1645, so it is said, the poet John Milton was reconciled with his estranged wife Mary Powell, in the house of a Mrs Weber, a widow, in St Clement's churchyard where Mary was then lodging. Milton's description in Paradise Lost of the reconciliation of Adam and Eve draws, apparently, on the real life reconciliation between Milton and his wife.[12]

 

She, not repulsed, with tears that ceased not flowing

And tresses all disordered, at his feet

Fell humble, and, embracing them, besought

His peace.

[...]

Soon his heart relented

Towards her, his life so late, and sole delight,

Now to his feet submissive in distress.

 

The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.

 

The present organ's oak case is the same one made to enclose the organ that was built for St Clement's in 1696, probably by Renatus Harris who maintained the instrument until 1704.[14] While the case has remained largely intact, the organ itself has been variously rebuilt and restored; in 1704 by Christian Smith, and in 1711 by Abraham Jordan (c.1666–1716)—who it is thought added the swell organ to the two manual instrument. From 1838 the organ was in the care of Messrs Gray and Davison, who in 1872—as part of the renovation of the building—moved the organ from the west gallery to the south aisle. Care of the organ was transferred to Henry Wedlake that same year. In 1889 he rebuilt the instrument. Further work was undertaken in 1926 by Messrs J. W. Walker, and in 1936 by Messrs Hill, Norman and Beard, whew the instrument was moved back to an approximation of its original west-end location. The same company overhauled the organ in 1946, and in 1971 made 'neo-baroque' tonal revisions, which remain to this day. The instrument was last cleaned and repaired in 2004 by Colin Jilks of Sittingbourne, Kent.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Clement%27s,_Eastcheap

I did a double-take last night driving home through the edges of Knutsford. I had to reverse and double-check I hadn't accidently driven through a wrinkle in time. Maybe these were the 'Real Conservatives' or the 'Continuity Tories', I had to check. Even the logo is the traditional one , maybe NH is back and making a comeback?

 

Wikipedia details the history....

 

(Mostyn) Neil Hamilton is the former Tatton (Knutsford) Tory MP. Since losing his seat under embarasing circumstances in 1997 he had to leave politics, he and his wife Christine have become media celebrities.

 

as the parliamentary record shows, Hamilton while in Tory office had limited regard for the 'little people'. Edwina Currie, the former health minister, described how Hamilton had been unmoved, in May 1988, by a set of photographs showing cancers that could be caused to young people by a product he was promoting. Hamilton apparently said that they were not relevant. In the end, the Thatcher government banned the sale of Skoal bandit products in the UK in late 1989. Both Hamilton and Michael Brown received a £6,000 fee and hospitality from Skoal bandits. The seeds of downfall were maybe set.

 

On 20th October 1994, The Guardian newspaper published an article claiming that Hamilton, and another minister, Tim Smith, had received money, paid in the form of cash in brown envelopes, from Harrods' owner Mohamed Al-Fayed. They had asked questions on Mo's behalf in the House of Commons. The subsequent furore became known as the "Cash-for-questions affair". Hamilton resigned his position as Corporate Affairs Minister five days later.

 

Discredited, during the 1997 General Election, Hamilton was determined to hold on to his parliamentary seat in what was then the fourth safest Conservative seat in the country. It still is one of teh safest seats in the UK for the Tory's due to relative affluence of the area. Hamilton's majority at the 1992 General Election was almost 16,000. Conservative Central Office said that selection of candidates was purely a matter for the local party and refused to intervene. On 8 April 1997, he won a candidacy selection vote by 182 to 35, although 100 members of the local party abstained. Hamilton said that if the Downey (Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards) report found against him, he would resign as an MP. Unfortunately, the man in the white suit, the BBCs Martin Bell decided to stand as an independent candidate in Tatton. With other parties standing down, Bell triumphed by over 11,000 votes. Hamilton vowed to return, but up to now has failed to. This might be his re-emergence.

 

Neil and Christine Hamilton are said to have sold their house in Tatton in September 2003 after 20 years of living there. They bought a house in Hullavington, Wiltshire, in October 2004.

 

Ironically his failings were a drop in the ocean of recent parliamentary expenses scandles. Duck houses, flipping second homes, the John Lewis list etc. Even his successor, shadow chancellor George Osbourne has not been immune. In June 2009 the London Times suggested that he had flipped his 2nd home to claim for a £450,000 loan www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article6474725.ece

 

It should be remembered that politicians of all shades were embroiled in these scandles, lets hope it improves for all our sakes...

  

Checkout more of green and pleasant Cheshire from my photostream www.flickr.com/search/?q=cheshire&w=33062170@N08&...

 

Keep in touch, add me as a contact www.flickr.com/relationship.gne?id=33062170@N08

 

(c) Hotpix / HotpixUK Tony Smith - Hotpix.freeserve.co.uk WDCC 07092182899

# www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7Q8UbNM_3Q

  

Angela Eagle claimed just £155 a month mortgage interest on her second home for a period and even underclaimed for council tax

 

Maria Eagle claimed thousands of pounds on refurbishing a bathroom at one of her flats just months before switching her designated second home to a property with a higher mortgage

 

Clive Efford could claim the second home allowance as he is an outer London MP, but instead chooses to receive the lower London supplement, receiving £2,812 in 2007-08

 

Louise Ellman claims £838 a month in mortgage interest, plus £2,300 annual service charges on flat in Westminster. Also claimed £594 for six “leather effect” dining chairs from John Lewis

 

Tobias Ellwood has £3,880 claim for loft conversion on flat in Battersea rejected. Changes second home to Bournemouth where he claims £2,134 a month mortgage interest

 

Natascha Engel went on a shopping spree within months of being elected, spending thousands of pounds of taxpayers’ cash. She charged the taxpayer for copies of a DVD of her maiden speech to Parliament and a copy of a novel by an acclaimed German writer

 

Jeff Ennis claims under £300 a month in mortgage interest on flat near Elephant and Castle. Claims £85 plumbing, saying: “My bath has been condemned”

 

Bill Etherington last year claimed £2,600 for blinds, £775 for central heating and £305 to repair his roof following a problem with rodents. In 2004, claimed £5,250 for doors and windows

 

Nigel Evans claims up to £1,750 a month mortgage interest on his London flat, and very little else. Occasionally claims £1,500 service charges and for television and council tax

 

David Evennett is an outer London MP who chose to take the smaller “London supplement”. Has claimed the maximum amount for past two years

 

Michael Fabricant claims £700-£900 a month mortgage interest on Westminster flat. Splits maximum allowance between food and bills. Regularly claimed £240 in repairs when receipts only needed at £250

 

Michael Fallon, a senior Conservative MP, claimed £8,300 too much in expenses for the mortgage on his second home

 

Paul Farrelly claims £1,330 mortgage interest on house in north London and regular maximum £400 monthly claim for food. Also claims £130-£200 a month for cleaning, and for parking permits

 

Tim Farron claims £1,400 a month rent for flat near Westminster, plus utilities and council tax bills. In 2005, claimed £2,000 for furniture and appliances, and £300 for a Dyson vacuum

 

Lynne Featherstone did not claim on her second homes allowance in between 2004 and 2008

 

Frank Field claimed just £44,338 on his second home allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Mark Field: as the MP for Westminster itself, is only entitled to the “London supplement”. Claimed the maximum available in this for the past eight years

 

Mark Fisher claimed only £200 a month in interest on the mortgage of a London flat, before buying another in 2007 and claiming the £1,500 a month interest on the mortgage there

 

Jim Fitzpatrick: as an MP in the capital, claims the “London supplement” rather than the additional costs allowance for second homes. Has claimed the maximum for past eight years

Caroline Flint claimed £14,000 for fees for new flat

 

Robert Flello takes over rent of London flat from predecessor as MP, George Stevenson, and pays him £750 for some contents after being elected in 2005, . Moves from here to other rented properties and hotels

 

Paul Flynn claimed £7,052 for new kitchen, £1,153 carpets and £1,200 decoration for his London property in 2005, before selling it and moving to a new £275,000 flat. Claims £9,629 in stamp duty and fees

 

Barbara Follett used £25,000 of taxpayers' money to pay for private security patrols at her home

 

Don Foster claims £800 a month mortgage interest on south-west London flat. In 2005, claimed £3,450 for refurbishing his bathroom. In 2006, claimed £1,000 for bed and mattress

 

Michael J Foster claims £630 a month interest on the mortgage of his south-east London flat, along with £250 a month for food, annual council tax bills, service charges and utilities bills

 

Michael Foster claimed £700 a month in mortgage interest on London flat before moving to a more expensive property in 2005. Claimed more than £13,000 in stamp duty and legal fees

 

Liam Fox claims £1,200-£1,450 for the mortgage interest at his south London flat. Also claims for occasional maintenance charges and ground rent

 

Hywel Francis designated his second home in London. Claims have included £3,000 contribution towards stamp duty and £549 for a chair. He also claimed £325 for a bookcase

 

Mark Francois claimed for a wide variety of on-the-go snacks through his expenses

 

Christopher Fraser claimed more than £1,800 to buy 215 trees and fencing to mark out the boundary of his house.

 

Roger Gale claimed £624.98 for a television and stand and £250.30 for a TV aerial. Also claimed £1,700 for redecoration, plumbing and electrical works at his second home in London

 

George Galloway rented a flat in Glasgow as second home when an MP there. As an inner London MP from 2005 does not claim for additional costs allowance. He also tried to charge the taxpayer for the cost of Christmas cards sent from his constituency office

 

Mike Gapes claimed £1,600 per month to rent a second home in London. His few other claims include £30.98 for photograph frames and £17.97 for a tea caddy

 

Barry Gardiner made £198,500 profit from a flat funded and refurbished at taxpayers' expense

 

Edward Garnier QC claims for rent on constituency home, also claimed £211 for lawn mowing and £1,920 for a year’s gardening. Claimed for heating oil on office expenses, as he has home office

 

David Gauke claimed £10,248.32 in stamp duty and fees involved in the purchase of his second home in London

 

Andrew George used parliamentary expenses for a London flat used by his student daughter. He also claimed hundreds of pounds for hotel stays with his wife. He has said he will repay £20 for a hotel breakfast

 

Bruce George claimed £3,136 for central heating and pipework, and £760 on carpets at his second home in London. Also claimed £3,738. 85 for decorating

 

Neil Gerrard made no claims against the second home allowance

 

Nick Gibb spent £8,227 on redecoration and repairs at house in constituency, as well as £296 on hedge trimming in one month, before moving to a cottage nearby. Claimed almost £2,000 in fees associated with the purchase and now claims £1,800 a month in mortgage interest payments.

 

Ian Gibson claimed almost £80,000 in four years for mortgage interest and bills on a London flat which was the main home of his daughter

 

Sandra Gidley claimed more than £1,500 a month for renting a flat in London as her second home and has made few other claims

 

Michelle Gildernew and four other Sinn Fein MPs claimed more than £500,000 over five years even though the Sinn Fein MPs refuse to attend Parliament

 

Cheryl Gillan bought dog food using her allowance but agreed to pay it back after being contacted by the Telegraph

 

Linda Gilroy said that she was paying back £1,891. Her designated second home is a flat in Dolphin Square, London, where she claims £1,450 a month in rent. Claims £15 most months for cleaning and utilities. In 2005-6 had to repay £468 after being allowed to spend too much.

 

Roger Godsiff claimed for bath mats, gardening equipment and more than £7,000 of property repairs on his office expenses. He also claimed more than £2,300 per month in mortgage interest payments on his second home in London but does not claim for any other items

 

Paul Goggins, the Northern Ireland Minister, claimed almost £45,000 for a "second home", while a friend lived there rent-free

 

Julia Goldsworthy spent thousands of pounds on expensive furniture just days before the deadline for using up parliamentary allowances. She has promised to pay back £1,005 for a leather rocking chair

 

Helen Goodman claimed for a week's stay in a cottage in her constituency over a bank holiday

 

Paul Goodman claimed modest mortgage interest payments on a second home in High Wycombe. Underclaimed by £1,384 in 2006 and was reimbursed by fees office

 

Robert Goodwill claimed £9,731.76 stamp duty and legal costs for buying his second home in London. Other claims included £695 on a sofa bed

 

Michael Gove spent thousands on his London home before "flipping" his Commons allowance to another address. He has agreed to repay £7,000. He also claimed for office expenses including a mug from the Tate Modern

 

Chris Grayling claimed for a London flat even though his constituency home is only 17 miles from the House of Commons. He has agreed to stop doing so

 

James Gray successfully claimed £2,000 for the future redecoration of his “second home” on the day that he moved out

 

Damian Green's constituency is a 45-minute commute from Westminster but claimed for a designated second home in Acton, west London, from which it takes at least 40 minutes to get to the Commons. Regularly claimed up to the maximum of £400 for food. Also charged for mortgage interest, council tax and phone.

 

Justine Greening made no claims under the second homes allowance. Claimed the London Supplement which amounted to £2,812 in 2007/08

 

John Greenway spent £500 of taxpayers’ money on pot plants and bushes for his garden at his south London home before selling up for a £280,000 profit

 

Dominic Grieve claimed monthly mortgage interest of £1,535 on a second home near Marlow in Bucks. Claimed four months gardening costs at £70.50 a month at the end of 2007 and start of 2008

 

Nia Griffith bought flat near Westminster soon after being elected, and claimed £9,533 in fees and stamp duty. Claimed £2,270 for “complete redecoration” and £2,997 in furnishings. Claims current mortgage interest of £904 a month

 

Nigel Griffiths tried to defend his £3,600 claim for electronic equipment in his second home in London by insisting he had to listen to “Scottish radio” and watch “Scottish TV”.

 

John Grogan designates a flat in Bayswater, west London, as second home and claims £1,560 a month in rent. Also claimed £1,840 on food in 2007-08 and £495 on cleaning services but does not claim for furniture or goods

 

John Gummer's gardening, including the removal of moles from his lawn, cost the taxpayer £9,000

 

Andrew Gwynne made monthly mortgage interest payments of £779 in 2006 and 2007, which rose to £1,248 in 2008. Submitted receipt for £27.97 clock radio from Tesco

 

William Hague claimed mortgage interest payments of up to £1,200 per month on second home in London. Made few other claims apart from council tax

 

Peter Hain asked if he could claim on two mortgages for homes in his constituency

 

Mike Hall claimed thousands of pounds in expenses for the cost of cleaners, cleaning products and laundry bills for his London home

Patrick Hall's second home costs were a modest half of the total allowance

 

David Hamilton claimed £1,710 for decorating at second home in London. Other claims included £199 for lighting, £165 for mirrors, £200 for bedding and £180 on kitchen utensils

 

Fabian Hamilton declared his mother’s London house as his main residence while over-charging the taxpayer by thousands of pounds for a mortgage on his family home in Leeds

 

Philip Hammond claimed mortage interest on his second home in London, which was sometimes more than £2,000 per month, but did not claim anything else

 

Stephen Hammond made no claims under the second homes allowance. Claimed the London Supplement which amounted to £2,812 in 2007/08

 

Mike Hancock was ranked 548 out of 645 MPs, claiming only £10, 859 of his second home allowance in 2007-08

 

Greg Hands represents an inner London constituency so cannot claim the second home allowance. However, he does receive the London supplement, totalling £2,812 in 2007-08

 

David Hanson: fees office refused £429 for wife’s name to be added to mortgage in November 2006. Submitted £15 receipt for potpourri candles

 

Harriet Harman hired Scarlett MccGwire for “consultancy” services on the public purse. Claimed for party political propaganda and bought expensive gadgets.

 

Mark Harper charged for London hotel on his second home allowance before buying London flat in 2006 with monthly mortgage interest of £1,146. Claimed £5.14 for a fungus spray

 

Dr Evan Harris spent thousands doing up and adding value to his taxpayer-funded second home before selling it to his parents.

 

Tom Harris became embroiled in a row with the Commons fees office when his claims for a baby cot and bottle steriliser were rejected.

 

Nick Harvey had to be reminded twice by parliamentary officials to submit receipts with his expenses claims

 

Alan Haselhurst charged the taxpayer almost £12,000 for gardening bills at his farmhouse in Essex, his expenses claims show. He was involved in an angry exchange with Parliamentary staff over his habit of submitting expense claims supported by estimates of his costs rather than by bills showing the actual amount he had spent

 

Dai Havard put through £1,165 of Argos receipts showing address in Wales, but told fees office goods went to London and that he had “asked” for this so he would remember to take invoices to constituency office

 

John Hayes charged for overnight stays in the Carlton Club then bought a flat near Westminster in 2004, also charging £305 for removals and storage. Now claims around £1,900 a month in mortgage interest

 

Sylvia Heal tried to claim her £882 accountancy bill in 2006-07 but was refused. Now claims less than £20 a month on her mortgage interest payments on her constituency home

 

John Healey designates flat in Lambeth as his second home. Has claimed £1,172 for a new front door. Has spent £6,194 renovating his kitchen

 

Oliver Heald's second home is a flat in south London. Has spent £5,258 on refurbishing his bathroom as well as £2,891 on new windows. Bought three lavatory brushes in as many years

 

David Heath rents a flat near the Barbican in London, which he declares as his second home. Claimed £1,785 a month in rent in 2007-08, along with £1,170 in council tax and £550 on utilities but nothing else

 

David Heathcoat-Amory’s gardener used hundreds of sacks of horse manure and the MP submitted the receipts to Parliament

 

John Hemming designates a flat in Covent Garden as his second home. Charged £80 for a hotel “when locked out of flat (lost keys)”. A £1,499 television claim was reduced to £750 and has spent £681 on bedding

 

Doug Henderson has claimed hundreds of pounds for telephone calls made from his family home which is more than four hours drive away from his constituency. He has a second home in Primrose Hill. In 2007-08 he submitted many claims, without receipts, of £200 a month for council tax, £150 for cleaning, £400 for food and £100 for “service/maintenance”

 

Mark Hendrick admitted “estimating” the amount of mortgage interest he paid on his second home when claiming. He secretly paid back nearly £7,000 to the taxpayer claiming wrongly for two mortgages

 

Charles Hendry claimed more than £7,300 in taxpayer-funded expenses to pay for domestic staff at his second home

 

Stephen Hepburn has a second home is a flat in Lambeth, south London. In 2007-08 claimed the same amount, £1,923, every month. This included £690 mortgage interest, £380 on food, £200 on council tax and £190 on cleaning, all without receipts

 

John Heppell claimed the maximum second home allowance in each of the past four years. Owns a flat near Westminster and in 2007-8 claimed £2,019 a month in mortgage interest as well as £576 in service charges

 

Nick Herbert charged taxpayers more than £10,000 for stamp duty and fees when he and his partner bought a home together in his constituency

 

Sylvia Hermon rents a flat near Westminster. Had claims for travel rejected. In one month she appears to have had two attempts at adding up the total claim and wrote on the form: “Mental arithmetic hopeless!”

 

Stephen Hesford has a second home is a flat in Kennington, south London. In 2005-6 he put through a £5,599 bill for a new bathroom and challenged the fees office when told the most he would be allowed was £3,500

 

Patricia Hewitt claimed £920 in legal fees when she moved out of a flat in her constituency. Stayed in hotels then rented another flat in Leicester. Claimed for furniture including £194 blinds delivered to her London home

 

David Heyes rents a flat in the Barbican. Claimed £240 for cleaning services most months. In 2006 he put through receipts for £9.38 worth of “moth killer” along with black shoe shine, carpet cleaner and descaler

 

Keith Hill: as an inner London MP not eligible to claim for a second home allowance, but he took maximum London supplement of £2,812 last year. “It had never occurred to me that an MP would not pay for his meals out of his own pocket”

 

Meg Hillier: as an inner London MP Miss Hillier is not eligible to claim for a second home allowance, but she claimed the maximum London supplement of £2,812 last year

 

Mark Hoban claimed £35 on a toilet roll holder, £100 for a chrome shower rack and £79 for four silk cushion covers on his second home allowance

 

Margaret Hodge claimed thousands of pounds to pay for public relations services from a former government press officer

Sharon Hodgson moved second home from London to Gateshead in 2006 with monthly mortgage interest of £1,178. Claim for a £999 TV queried. Fees office said it was “luxurious” item

 

Kate Hoey is not eligible to claim for a second home allowance as an inner London MP, but claimed maximum London supplement of £2,812 last year. “I’m shocked by the abuses of the expenses system,” she said

 

Douglas Hogg included with his expenses claims the cost of having the moat cleared, piano tuned and stable lights fixed at his country manor house. He has agreed to repay £2,200 for the moat clearing

 

Adam Holloway had £2,219 worth of goods delivered to address in Gravesend which was cancelled by fees office. Insisted it was for second home in London and “re-claimed”. It was allowed

 

Philip Hollobone claimed monthly mortgage interest of £1,829 on designated second home in London in 2007-08. He mainly used his bank statements as proof of purchase for gas, water and utility bills

 

Paul Holmes regularly claimed between £300 and £400 for food in 2004-05. Tried to charge £250 for use of accountant but rejected by the fees office in February 2006. Claimed £290 for bedside cabinets

 

Jimmy Hood used his second homes allowance to claim up to £1,000 per month without providing receipts. Claimed the maximum £400 a month for food and £728 on monthly mortgage interest for his London second home. Submitted £110 receipt for new locks and £699 for a Samsung TV.

 

Geoff Hoon established a property empire worth £1.7 million after claiming taxpayer-funded expenses for at least two properties. He also did not pay capital gains tax on the sale of his London home in 2006. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets, including digital cameras and camcorders

 

Phil Hope spent more than £10,000 in one year refurbishing a small London flat. He has promised to pay back £41,000 to the taxpayer

 

Kelvin Hopkins claims just a fraction of the available second-home allowance by taking the train to Westminster from his home town

 

John Horam claimed just £190 monthly for mortgage interest on his Orpington second home in 2004-05, and £223 in 2006-07. Claimed little else apart from utilities, cleaning, TV licence and replacement boiler

 

Martin Horwood claimed large rent bills of around £1,500 and the rare bill for food. In 2008 submitted an £11.03 receipt for washing up liquid, £2.39 plasters and £1.79 for a tube of Savlon

 

Stewart Hosie made thousands of pounds of expense claims for furnishings, including £160 for scatter cushions

 

Michael Howard charged the taxpayer thousands of pounds for "gardening services" at his designated second home in Kent. He also used his office expenses to pay more than £44,000 to the Tory party over the past four years.

 

David Howarth has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Gerald Howarth claimed nearly £2,000 for the services of a gardener at his second home in Farnborough in 2004 and charged £40 for a strimmer. Claimed mortgage interest twice in April 2007 and repaid

 

Alan Howarth designated a £1.45 million London house on which he now claims House of Lords expenses as his second home

 

George Howarth has a second home in London. Claimed £1,000 for a chest of drawers which was reduced by the fees office to £500, and £20 for a colander. MP said he had bought the drawers as “they were the only ones that matched” his furniture

 

Kim Howells claimed £948.99 for a television at his second home which he designated in his constituency

 

Lindsay Hoyle claimed £700 per month from second home allowance for mortgage interest payments on his second home in London. Other claims included £505 on a table

 

Beverley Hughes rented a second home in London where she claimed £801.60 for reupholstering furniture, £718 on a chair and £435 on curtains and for bedding

 

Simon Hughes is not eligible for the second homes allowance as an inner London MP. He claimed the smaller London Supplement which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

Chris Huhne regularly submits receipts for bus tickets and groceries including pints of milk, fluffy dusters, lavatory rolls and chocolate HobNobs. He has promised to pay back £119 for a trouser press

 

Joan Humble claimed up to £1,900 per month to rent a second home in London. She also put in a claim for £1,195 for decorating and charged a further £663.92 for curtains

 

Jeremy Hunt claimed £600 per month mortgage interest payments on second home in Surrey. Also made claims for council tax, utilities and cleaning

 

Andrew Hunter claimed second home expenses for staying away from his main residence even though neither property was in London or his constituency

 

Mark Hunter rented a second home in London for £1,365 per month. He also claimed for food, utilities, council tax and a television licence but has made no other claims on his second home allowance

 

Nick Hurd was elected in 2005 to his outer London constituency. He does not claim the second homes allowance and instead claims the smaller London Supplement, which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

John Hutton faces questions over party funding after it emerged that he was paid rent to the Labour Party. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff. Claims £1,340 a month in interest on the mortgage of his house in west London. Until August 2005, claimed £900 a month for interest on mortgage of his constituency home in Aldingham, Cumbria, before switching to London.

 

Brian Iddon rented a flat in London as his second home. The rental is just over £1,000 per month and he also claimed for food, utilities, council tax and parking charges at the London address

 

Eric Illsley claimed mortgage interest payments of £180 per month. Claimed for food, utilities, council tax and cleaning but made few other claims on his second home in London

 

Adam Ingram rented a flat in London as his second home. His claims have included £1,856 for redecoration of the flat and £150 on dishes. He submitted a claim of £17.99 for a hairdryer which was rejected

 

Huw Irranca-Davies claimed £4,500 for kitchen repairs and replacement at second home in London. Also claimed £700 for garden clearance and disposal of waste

 

Glenda Jackson has repaid more than £8,000 in expenses she wrongly claimed towards publication of an annual report. She did not claim on her second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Michael Jack designated a second home in London. Claims included £1,250 for sanding and varnishing a kitchen floor, £1,200 for a replacement fridge freezer, £1,295 for redecoration, £1,410 on kitchen cupboards

 

Stewart Jackson claimed more than £66,000 for his family home, including hundreds of pounds on refurbishing his swimming pool. He has agreed to repay the costs associated with his pool

 

Sian James claimed £1,200 rent on her second home in London, where other claims included £476.24 for furniture, another £265 on furniture, £100 on bedside cabinets and £25 on a stepladder

 

Bernard Jenkin rents his sister-in-law's farmhouse as a second home and charged £50,000 to his expenses

 

Brian Jenkins claims little or no mortgage interest for his property in London

 

Alan Johnson claimed just £43,596 for his second home in 2004-8

 

Boris Johnson claimed £16.50 for a Remembrance Sunday wreath on his expenses during his time as an MP

 

Diana Johnson claimed nearly £1,000 to cover the cost of hiring an architect for a decorating project at her second home

 

David Jones: along with £3,155 for stamp duty and legal fees, he claimed £112 for a Dyson vacuum cleaner in his London home and £119 for a trouser press. Ivory curtains from Heal’s were £356, while furniture from the shop was £387

 

Helen Jones claimed £87,647 in second home allowances for her London flat between 2004 and 2008. Claimed £5,699 for estate agent fees for selling her flat in London. Her mortgage rose from £89,000 to £223,000 when she moved to a new flat. Blinds were £154, curtains were £25 and glasses were £57.44

 

Kevan Jones claimed £9,670 for fees and stamp duty on his £315,000 central London flat in May 2004. The flat is now believed to be worth about £350,000. Carpeting in “Berwick Sand” cost a further £1,913

 

Lynne Jones used upmarket Farrow & Ball wallpaper for a redecoration programme at her second home in London

 

Martyn Jones rents a flat and a car space (for £165 a month) near Parliament. Usually claimed £400 a month for food and a sofa bed cost £764. A new microwave was £129

 

Tessa Jowell is not eligible to claim for the second home allowance as an inner London MP, but receives the London Supplement, which was £2,812 last year

 

Eric Joyce claimed on a house in Croydon which he sold in 2007 for £383,000. He did not pay capital gains tax on the profit when he sold the house. He claimed £3500 for a new kitchen in 2005. Now stays in hotels in the capital

 

Sadiq Khan is ineligible for the second home allowance as an inner London MP. He claims the smaller “London supplement”. Claimed more than £4,500 through his office expenses for “consultancy” provided by Scarlett MccGwire, a media trainer. Also submits monthly bills for three mobile phones.

 

Gerald Kaufman charged the taxpayer £1,851 for a rug he imported from a New York antiques centre and tried to claim £8,865 for a television

 

Daniel Kawczynski rented a flat in London with Stephen Crabb until last year, when he told the fees office he was giving it up “in order to save taxpayers money”. Also bought a chest of drawers for £70, an armchair for £109 and a table for £142

 

Sally Keeble claimed £4,112 for windows at her Northampton house under the second home allowance, £3,072 for a new boiler and £950 for “essential maintenance” on the bathroom

 

Barbara Keeley claimed £13,000 for stamp duty when she bought a new flat in Westminster for £470,000 after living in rented accommodation

 

Alan and Ann Keen claimed almost £40,000 a year on a central London flat although their family home was less than 10 miles away

 

Ruth Kelly has claimed more than £31,000 to redecorate and furnish her designated second home in the past five years. She claimed thousands of pounds in expenses to pay for damage caused to her home by flooding, although at the time she had a building insurance policy

 

Fraser Kemp made repeat purchases of household items over the space of several weeks

 

www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/mps-expenses/5297606/...

As I walked down St Clements Lane to the church yesterday, the nursery rhyme came into my head, Oranges and Lemons. How many of the churches, I wondered, have I visited now?

 

The City in the working week is a very different beast, very different. Pavements overflowing with people, all rushing to be somewhere, shouting into mobile phones, sucking on a cigarette, or sipping at coffee from a paper cup.

 

Diving into the church, it was an oasis of calm, even if half of it is now offices for a charity, it is uncluttered, and the beauty of Wren's design can be seen clearly.

 

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Oranges and lemons,

Say the bells of St. Clement's.

 

You owe me five farthings,

Say the bells of St. Martin's.

 

When will you pay me?

Say the bells of Old Bailey.

 

When I grow rich,

Say the bells of Shoreditch.

 

When will that be?

Say the bells of Stepney.

 

I do not know,

Says the great bell of Bow.

 

Here comes a candle to light you to bed,

And here comes a chopper to chop off your head!

Chip chop Chip chop the last man is dead

 

----------------------------------------------------

 

I guess Old Bailey is St Sepelcre now?

 

------------------------------------------------

 

St Clement Eastcheap is a Church of England parish church in Candlewick Ward of the City of London. It is located on Clement's Lane, off King William Street and close to London Bridge and the River Thames.[1]

 

Clement was a disciple of St Peter the Apostle and was ordained as Bishop of Rome in the year 93 AD. By legend, Clement was martyred by being tied to an anchor and thrown into the Black Sea, which led to his adoption as a patron saint of sailors. The dedication to St Clement is unusual in London, with only one other ancient church there dedicated to this saint, namely St Clement Danes, Westminster. It is also located a little north of the Thames, but further west from Eastcheap and outside the old City boundary, just beyond the Temple Bar on the Strand.

 

Eastcheap was one of the main streets of medieval London. The name 'Eastcheap' derives from the Saxon word 'cheap', meaning a market, and Eastcheap was so called to distinguish it from Westcheap, later to become Cheapside. The southern end of Clement's Lane opened onto Eastcheap until the 1880s when the construction of King William Street separated Clement's Lane from Eastcheap, which still remains nearby as a street.

  

The parish of St. Clement Eastcheap, London, and its surrounding area as shown in Johann Homann's 'Ad Norman prototypi Londinensis edita curis Homannianorum Heredum C.P.S.C.M', Homann Heirs: London (1736)

The church's dedication to a Roman patron saint of sailors, the martyr Bishop Clement, coupled with its location near to what were historically the bustling wharves of Roman London, hints at a much earlier Roman origin. Indeed Roman remains were once found in Clement's Lane, comprising walls 3 feet thick and made of flints at a depth of 12–15 feet together with tessellated pavements.[2]

 

A charter of 1067 given by William I (1028–87) to Westminster Abbey mentions a church of St. Clement, which is possibly St. Clement Eastcheap, but the earliest definite reference to the church is found in a deed written in the reign of Henry III (1207–72), which mentions 'St Clement Candlewickstrate'. Other early documents refer to the church as "St Clement in Candlewystrate", 'St Clement the Little by Estchepe' and 'St Clement in Lumbard Street'. Until the dissolution of the monasteries - during the reign of Henry VIII - the parish was in the 'gift' of the Abbot of Westminster, then patronage of the parish passed to the Bishop of London. Now the patronage alternates with the appointment of each successive new parish priest (Rector), between the Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's.

 

According to the London historian John Strype (1643–1737) St. Clement's church was repaired and beautified in 1630 and 1633

 

In 1666 the church was destroyed by the Great Fire of London, and then rebuilt in the 1680s. According to Strype the rebuilt church was designed by Sir Christopher Wren and this would seem to be confirmed by the fact that in the parish account for 1685 there is the following item: To one third of a hogshead of wine, given to Sir Christopher Wren, £4 2s.[4]

 

In 1670, during the rebuilding of London that followed the fire, the parish was combined with that of St Martin Orgar, which lay on the south side of Eastcheap. At the same time the City planners sought to appropriate a strip of land from the west of St Clement's property to widen Clement's Lane. This led to a dispute with the parish authorities, who claimed that the proposed plan left too little room to accommodate the families of the newly combined parishes. The matter was resolved by permitting the addition of a 14 ft. building plot, formerly occupied by the churchyard, to the east of the church. It was not until 1683, however, that building of the church began, and was completed in 1687 at a total cost of £4,365.[5]

 

Although nearby St Martin Orgar had been left in ruins by the Great Fire, the tower survived and, following the unification of the parish with St Clement's, the St Martin's site was used by French Huguenots who restored the tower and worshiped there until 1820. Later in the decade the ruins of the body of St Martin's church were removed to make way for the widening of Cannon Street, but the tower remained until 1851 when it was taken down, and – curiously – replaced with a new tower. The new tower served as a rectory for St. Clement Eastcheap until it was sold and converted into offices in the 1970s; it still survives on the present-day St. Martin's Lane.

 

In May 1840 Edward John Carlos wrote in the The Gentleman's Magazine, protesting about the proposed demolition of St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange and St. Benet Fink, following a fire in 1838 that had razed the Royal Exchange and damaged those two churches. In his article, Carlos referred to earlier plans to reduce the number of City churches, from which we learn that in the 1830s St Clement's had been under threat of demolition.

 

The sweeping design of destroying a number of City churches was mediated in … 1834, and for the time arrested by the resolute opposition to the measure in the instance of the first church marked out for sacrifice, St. Clement Eastcheap, it may be feared is at length coming into full operation, not, indeed in the open manner in which it was displayed at that period, but in an insidious and more secure mode of procedure.[6]

 

While St Clement's was spared, the 19th century saw many other City churches being destroyed, particularly following the Union of Benefices Act (1860), which sought to speed-up the reduction in the number of City parishes as a response to rapidly declining congregations; the result of the resident population moving in ever larger numbers from cramped City conditions to the more spacious suburbs.

 

In 1872 William Butterfield, a prominent architect of the gothic-revival, substantially renovated St. Clement's to conform with the contemporary Anglican 'High Church' taste.[7] The renovation involved removing the galleries; replacing the 17th-century plain windows with stained glass; dividing the reredos into three pieces and placing the two wings on the side walls; dismantling the woodwork to build new pews; laying down polychrome tiles on the floor and moving the organ into the aisle.

 

In 1933 the architect Sir Ninian Comper revised Butterfield's layout, moving the organ to its original position on the west wall and reassembling the reredos behind the altar, although before he did so, he had the reredos painted with figures in blue and gold.

 

St. Clement's suffered minor damage from bombing by German aircraft during the London Blitz in 1940 during the Second World War. The damage was repaired in 1949-50, and in 1968 the church was again redecorated.

 

Today St Clement's holds weekly services and, from 1998 to 2011, it was the base of The Players of St Peter, an amateur theatre company devoted to performing medieval mystery plays in the church, around early December each year.[8] The Players are now based at the church of St George in the East.

  

Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise in 'The Fall of Man' from the so-called N-Town plays, performed by the Players of St Peter in St Clement's, 2004

A number of charities have their administrative offices at St Clement's including the Cure Parkinson's Trust.

 

St Clement Eastcheap considers itself to be the church referred to in the nursery rhyme that begins "Oranges and lemons / Say the bells of St Clement's". So too does St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, whose bells ring out the traditional tune of the nursery rhyme three times a day.

 

There is a canard that the earliest mention of the rhyme occurs in Wynkyn de Worde's "The demaundes joyous" printed in 1511.[9] This small volume consists entirely of riddles and makes no allusion to bells, St. Clement or any other church.

 

According to Iona and Peter Opie,[10] the earliest record of the rhyme only dates to c.1744, although there is a square dance (without words) called 'Oranges and Limons' in the 3rd edition of John Playford's The English Dancing Master, published in 1665.

 

St Clement Eastcheap's claim is based on the assertion that it was close to the wharf where citrus fruit was unloaded. Yet, a perusal of a map of London shows that there were many churches, even after the Fire, that were closer to the Thames than St. Clement's (St. George Botolph Lane, St Magnus the Martyr, St. Michael, Crooked Lane, St Martin Orgar, St Mary-at-Hill, All Hallows the Great. All these would have been passed by a load of oranges and lemons making its way to Leadenhall Market, the nearest market where citrus fruit was sold, passing several more churches on the way. Thus, it would appear that the name of St. Clements was selected by the rhymer simply for its consonance with the word ‘lemons’, and it now seems more likely that the melody called ‘Oranges and Limons’ predates the rhyme itself.

 

St. Clement Eastcheap has an irregular plan. The nave is approximately rectangular, but the south aisle is severely tapered. The ceiling is divided into panels, the centre one being a large oval band of fruit and flowers. The main façade is on the west, on Clement's Lane, and comprises four bays. The main bay has a blocked pedimented round-headed window over the door. This is flanked by matching bays with two levels of windows. The tower to the south west forms the fourth bay. This is a simple square tower, with a parapet, but no spire. Each bay has stone quoins and is stuccoed, except for the upper levels of the tower where the brick is exposed.

 

A small churchyard remains to the east of St. Clement's hemmed-in by the backs of office buildings and contains tombstones whose inscriptions have, over time, become illegible. The churchyard is approached by a narrow alley along the church's north wall, at the entrance of which is a memorial plaque to Dositej Obradović, a Serbian scholar who lived next to the church.[11]

 

In July 1645, so it is said, the poet John Milton was reconciled with his estranged wife Mary Powell, in the house of a Mrs Weber, a widow, in St Clement's churchyard where Mary was then lodging. Milton's description in Paradise Lost of the reconciliation of Adam and Eve draws, apparently, on the real life reconciliation between Milton and his wife.[12]

 

She, not repulsed, with tears that ceased not flowing

And tresses all disordered, at his feet

Fell humble, and, embracing them, besought

His peace.

[...]

Soon his heart relented

Towards her, his life so late, and sole delight,

Now to his feet submissive in distress.

 

The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.

 

The present organ's oak case is the same one made to enclose the organ that was built for St Clement's in 1696, probably by Renatus Harris who maintained the instrument until 1704.[14] While the case has remained largely intact, the organ itself has been variously rebuilt and restored; in 1704 by Christian Smith, and in 1711 by Abraham Jordan (c.1666–1716)—who it is thought added the swell organ to the two manual instrument. From 1838 the organ was in the care of Messrs Gray and Davison, who in 1872—as part of the renovation of the building—moved the organ from the west gallery to the south aisle. Care of the organ was transferred to Henry Wedlake that same year. In 1889 he rebuilt the instrument. Further work was undertaken in 1926 by Messrs J. W. Walker, and in 1936 by Messrs Hill, Norman and Beard, whew the instrument was moved back to an approximation of its original west-end location. The same company overhauled the organ in 1946, and in 1971 made 'neo-baroque' tonal revisions, which remain to this day. The instrument was last cleaned and repaired in 2004 by Colin Jilks of Sittingbourne, Kent.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Clement%27s,_Eastcheap

My history with the card game Magic: the Gathering is a long and winding one; I remember when my brother first learned when we were kids, and he was so keen for me to play with him, but I just found it such a struggle to focus or keep the rules in my head; I would play when I particularly wanted to be nice to him and make him feel happy! But I just couldn't come to grips with it.

 

Then when I was at university and became best friends with Simon, who also played, he and my brother Richard managed to ignite my interest in the game by telling me about the Invitational - a competition whose winner would get their face on a Magic card!! Of course this appealed to my vanity, and to my enjoyment of excessive ambition in the face of utter lack of ability. My brother pointed out to me that one of the most popular artists of the cards, John Avon, lived in the UK, and that if I really wanted to be on a card I'd be better off just making friends with him - information I filed away for future use...

 

I used to really enjoy the Magic pre-release events in London, but I never played that seriously outside the events. I was more a collector, enjoying the acquisition of novelty and rare cards, and I really enjoyed the social interaction of the game; playing cards with strangers is a great way to meet people without it feeling too pressured, and I made some lifelong friends at those pre-release events. I also once made friends with a Guardian editor at an event who subsequently took me around the Guardian offices, which was cool, though we later lost touch.

 

When I moved to Brighton, I hadn't played for a while, but ended up knowing lots of players here, including my now ex Joe. Inevitably I got absorbed back into the hobby, and ended up with a serious collecting habit, and attended weekly club events to play and trade cards - again, largely incentivised by the social element of it. Again I made great friends, one of whom is now my neighbour! But one of the friends I made, initially through buying his artwork prints and one original piece (Pyroclasm) was the artist John Avon - who it turns out lives not too far from me! The framed print in this shot is a print that John sent me for my birthday!

 

When Joe and I broke up, I gave most of my cards to him, and sold the rest to pay bills. Having given them up, I drifted away from the Brighton Magic community somewhat - for one thing, there was absolutely no time for anything like that on my SKE and PGCE course!

 

However, since Clare has been running Magic events at Waterstone's in Bath, and since I've had more time and spare money - and since the aforementioned friend Matthew has moved only a few doors down and is talking about running drafting events - I have been hankering to get back into it! There's something about being part of it that really makes me happy (even though I still, 15 years on, really suck at actually playing it!)

 

So today I made a sort of deal with myself; I would buy a couple of Core Set 2013 boosters (sealed packs of 15 cards each containing one 'rare' card) and if I drew a Planeswalker (specific type of card) as my rare, I would rejoin the hobby. I also bought a handful of other boosters from different sets to get a feel of how the game is in the current renditions.

 

I opened my first booster and drew Nicol Bolas (or Nicholas Bowl as I like to call him). Imagine! A Planeswalker on the first draw!

 

I then opened number two to reveal Garruk, Primal Hunter - another more valuable Planeswalker!

 

Well, that felt like destiny calling right there.

 

The rest of my packs revealed rares that retail for £5-£6 apiece, so I already made my money back - and I got a foil Mountain too! So I definitely still have my 'magic' touch with the boosters! I can already feel the thrill of it in my bones! Although I now need to teach Tom, and I don't have any of my old land cards (I had so many beautiful Zendikar foil lands and of course I immediately want them back - though thankfully I still have a fair few foil Unhinged lands!) Still, I've made that first step - I'm back in the game!

 

I also mailed John Avon to get back in touch. In an unusual turn of events, I actually ended up teaching his son on one of my school placements, and I haven't really spoken to him since then, so it was nice to have the reminder to get in touch.

As I walked down St Clements Lane to the church yesterday, the nursery rhyme came into my head, Oranges and Lemons. How many of the churches, I wondered, have I visited now?

 

The City in the working week is a very different beast, very different. Pavements overflowing with people, all rushing to be somewhere, shouting into mobile phones, sucking on a cigarette, or sipping at coffee from a paper cup.

 

Diving into the church, it was an oasis of calm, even if half of it is now offices for a charity, it is uncluttered, and the beauty of Wren's design can be seen clearly.

 

--------------------------------------------------------

 

Oranges and lemons,

Say the bells of St. Clement's.

 

You owe me five farthings,

Say the bells of St. Martin's.

 

When will you pay me?

Say the bells of Old Bailey.

 

When I grow rich,

Say the bells of Shoreditch.

 

When will that be?

Say the bells of Stepney.

 

I do not know,

Says the great bell of Bow.

 

Here comes a candle to light you to bed,

And here comes a chopper to chop off your head!

Chip chop Chip chop the last man is dead

 

----------------------------------------------------

 

I guess Old Bailey is St Sepelcre now?

 

------------------------------------------------

 

St Clement Eastcheap is a Church of England parish church in Candlewick Ward of the City of London. It is located on Clement's Lane, off King William Street and close to London Bridge and the River Thames.[1]

 

Clement was a disciple of St Peter the Apostle and was ordained as Bishop of Rome in the year 93 AD. By legend, Clement was martyred by being tied to an anchor and thrown into the Black Sea, which led to his adoption as a patron saint of sailors. The dedication to St Clement is unusual in London, with only one other ancient church there dedicated to this saint, namely St Clement Danes, Westminster. It is also located a little north of the Thames, but further west from Eastcheap and outside the old City boundary, just beyond the Temple Bar on the Strand.

 

Eastcheap was one of the main streets of medieval London. The name 'Eastcheap' derives from the Saxon word 'cheap', meaning a market, and Eastcheap was so called to distinguish it from Westcheap, later to become Cheapside. The southern end of Clement's Lane opened onto Eastcheap until the 1880s when the construction of King William Street separated Clement's Lane from Eastcheap, which still remains nearby as a street.

  

The parish of St. Clement Eastcheap, London, and its surrounding area as shown in Johann Homann's 'Ad Norman prototypi Londinensis edita curis Homannianorum Heredum C.P.S.C.M', Homann Heirs: London (1736)

The church's dedication to a Roman patron saint of sailors, the martyr Bishop Clement, coupled with its location near to what were historically the bustling wharves of Roman London, hints at a much earlier Roman origin. Indeed Roman remains were once found in Clement's Lane, comprising walls 3 feet thick and made of flints at a depth of 12–15 feet together with tessellated pavements.[2]

 

A charter of 1067 given by William I (1028–87) to Westminster Abbey mentions a church of St. Clement, which is possibly St. Clement Eastcheap, but the earliest definite reference to the church is found in a deed written in the reign of Henry III (1207–72), which mentions 'St Clement Candlewickstrate'. Other early documents refer to the church as "St Clement in Candlewystrate", 'St Clement the Little by Estchepe' and 'St Clement in Lumbard Street'. Until the dissolution of the monasteries - during the reign of Henry VIII - the parish was in the 'gift' of the Abbot of Westminster, then patronage of the parish passed to the Bishop of London. Now the patronage alternates with the appointment of each successive new parish priest (Rector), between the Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's.

 

According to the London historian John Strype (1643–1737) St. Clement's church was repaired and beautified in 1630 and 1633

 

In 1666 the church was destroyed by the Great Fire of London, and then rebuilt in the 1680s. According to Strype the rebuilt church was designed by Sir Christopher Wren and this would seem to be confirmed by the fact that in the parish account for 1685 there is the following item: To one third of a hogshead of wine, given to Sir Christopher Wren, £4 2s.[4]

 

In 1670, during the rebuilding of London that followed the fire, the parish was combined with that of St Martin Orgar, which lay on the south side of Eastcheap. At the same time the City planners sought to appropriate a strip of land from the west of St Clement's property to widen Clement's Lane. This led to a dispute with the parish authorities, who claimed that the proposed plan left too little room to accommodate the families of the newly combined parishes. The matter was resolved by permitting the addition of a 14 ft. building plot, formerly occupied by the churchyard, to the east of the church. It was not until 1683, however, that building of the church began, and was completed in 1687 at a total cost of £4,365.[5]

 

Although nearby St Martin Orgar had been left in ruins by the Great Fire, the tower survived and, following the unification of the parish with St Clement's, the St Martin's site was used by French Huguenots who restored the tower and worshiped there until 1820. Later in the decade the ruins of the body of St Martin's church were removed to make way for the widening of Cannon Street, but the tower remained until 1851 when it was taken down, and – curiously – replaced with a new tower. The new tower served as a rectory for St. Clement Eastcheap until it was sold and converted into offices in the 1970s; it still survives on the present-day St. Martin's Lane.

 

In May 1840 Edward John Carlos wrote in the The Gentleman's Magazine, protesting about the proposed demolition of St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange and St. Benet Fink, following a fire in 1838 that had razed the Royal Exchange and damaged those two churches. In his article, Carlos referred to earlier plans to reduce the number of City churches, from which we learn that in the 1830s St Clement's had been under threat of demolition.

 

The sweeping design of destroying a number of City churches was mediated in … 1834, and for the time arrested by the resolute opposition to the measure in the instance of the first church marked out for sacrifice, St. Clement Eastcheap, it may be feared is at length coming into full operation, not, indeed in the open manner in which it was displayed at that period, but in an insidious and more secure mode of procedure.[6]

 

While St Clement's was spared, the 19th century saw many other City churches being destroyed, particularly following the Union of Benefices Act (1860), which sought to speed-up the reduction in the number of City parishes as a response to rapidly declining congregations; the result of the resident population moving in ever larger numbers from cramped City conditions to the more spacious suburbs.

 

In 1872 William Butterfield, a prominent architect of the gothic-revival, substantially renovated St. Clement's to conform with the contemporary Anglican 'High Church' taste.[7] The renovation involved removing the galleries; replacing the 17th-century plain windows with stained glass; dividing the reredos into three pieces and placing the two wings on the side walls; dismantling the woodwork to build new pews; laying down polychrome tiles on the floor and moving the organ into the aisle.

 

In 1933 the architect Sir Ninian Comper revised Butterfield's layout, moving the organ to its original position on the west wall and reassembling the reredos behind the altar, although before he did so, he had the reredos painted with figures in blue and gold.

 

St. Clement's suffered minor damage from bombing by German aircraft during the London Blitz in 1940 during the Second World War. The damage was repaired in 1949-50, and in 1968 the church was again redecorated.

 

Today St Clement's holds weekly services and, from 1998 to 2011, it was the base of The Players of St Peter, an amateur theatre company devoted to performing medieval mystery plays in the church, around early December each year.[8] The Players are now based at the church of St George in the East.

  

Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise in 'The Fall of Man' from the so-called N-Town plays, performed by the Players of St Peter in St Clement's, 2004

A number of charities have their administrative offices at St Clement's including the Cure Parkinson's Trust.

 

St Clement Eastcheap considers itself to be the church referred to in the nursery rhyme that begins "Oranges and lemons / Say the bells of St Clement's". So too does St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, whose bells ring out the traditional tune of the nursery rhyme three times a day.

 

There is a canard that the earliest mention of the rhyme occurs in Wynkyn de Worde's "The demaundes joyous" printed in 1511.[9] This small volume consists entirely of riddles and makes no allusion to bells, St. Clement or any other church.

 

According to Iona and Peter Opie,[10] the earliest record of the rhyme only dates to c.1744, although there is a square dance (without words) called 'Oranges and Limons' in the 3rd edition of John Playford's The English Dancing Master, published in 1665.

 

St Clement Eastcheap's claim is based on the assertion that it was close to the wharf where citrus fruit was unloaded. Yet, a perusal of a map of London shows that there were many churches, even after the Fire, that were closer to the Thames than St. Clement's (St. George Botolph Lane, St Magnus the Martyr, St. Michael, Crooked Lane, St Martin Orgar, St Mary-at-Hill, All Hallows the Great. All these would have been passed by a load of oranges and lemons making its way to Leadenhall Market, the nearest market where citrus fruit was sold, passing several more churches on the way. Thus, it would appear that the name of St. Clements was selected by the rhymer simply for its consonance with the word ‘lemons’, and it now seems more likely that the melody called ‘Oranges and Limons’ predates the rhyme itself.

 

St. Clement Eastcheap has an irregular plan. The nave is approximately rectangular, but the south aisle is severely tapered. The ceiling is divided into panels, the centre one being a large oval band of fruit and flowers. The main façade is on the west, on Clement's Lane, and comprises four bays. The main bay has a blocked pedimented round-headed window over the door. This is flanked by matching bays with two levels of windows. The tower to the south west forms the fourth bay. This is a simple square tower, with a parapet, but no spire. Each bay has stone quoins and is stuccoed, except for the upper levels of the tower where the brick is exposed.

 

A small churchyard remains to the east of St. Clement's hemmed-in by the backs of office buildings and contains tombstones whose inscriptions have, over time, become illegible. The churchyard is approached by a narrow alley along the church's north wall, at the entrance of which is a memorial plaque to Dositej Obradović, a Serbian scholar who lived next to the church.[11]

 

In July 1645, so it is said, the poet John Milton was reconciled with his estranged wife Mary Powell, in the house of a Mrs Weber, a widow, in St Clement's churchyard where Mary was then lodging. Milton's description in Paradise Lost of the reconciliation of Adam and Eve draws, apparently, on the real life reconciliation between Milton and his wife.[12]

 

She, not repulsed, with tears that ceased not flowing

And tresses all disordered, at his feet

Fell humble, and, embracing them, besought

His peace.

[...]

Soon his heart relented

Towards her, his life so late, and sole delight,

Now to his feet submissive in distress.

 

The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.

 

The present organ's oak case is the same one made to enclose the organ that was built for St Clement's in 1696, probably by Renatus Harris who maintained the instrument until 1704.[14] While the case has remained largely intact, the organ itself has been variously rebuilt and restored; in 1704 by Christian Smith, and in 1711 by Abraham Jordan (c.1666–1716)—who it is thought added the swell organ to the two manual instrument. From 1838 the organ was in the care of Messrs Gray and Davison, who in 1872—as part of the renovation of the building—moved the organ from the west gallery to the south aisle. Care of the organ was transferred to Henry Wedlake that same year. In 1889 he rebuilt the instrument. Further work was undertaken in 1926 by Messrs J. W. Walker, and in 1936 by Messrs Hill, Norman and Beard, whew the instrument was moved back to an approximation of its original west-end location. The same company overhauled the organ in 1946, and in 1971 made 'neo-baroque' tonal revisions, which remain to this day. The instrument was last cleaned and repaired in 2004 by Colin Jilks of Sittingbourne, Kent.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Clement%27s,_Eastcheap