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Stuff is getting a bit out of the caring hand of the country which does think it always knows best for it's citizens (like censoring flickr for example).

Another boogeyman the government concocted to scare the citizenry into accepting violations of their rights is on the menu: child porn. And yes, it's hard to argue with protection agains child porn. Of course everybody in his right mind want to protect children from those sick bastards out there but censorship is the wrong approach. it isn't really an effective response to the proliferation of child porn. anyone remotely serious about finding child porn is going to be able to get around this using some encrypted proxy or whatever. so a plan like this is really just a colossal waste of time, energy and resources. it is a non-solution. if a moron like me knows that, one would think the politicians would know that themself as you would expect them to get information about the matter at hand before passing a law, right? that makes me think it's just about getting the foot into the door. apparently the politicans have already build up a wish list as Thomas Strobl MdB (CDU) proposed to ban websites which advertise 'killer games'. of course another point joe doe can hardly argue with. who in his right mind (apart from myself) likes games like 'gears of war', 'call of duty' or GTA4? We need to protect our children, right? Instead I believe this is a populistic approach to changing the internet laws. music industry rejoice! your time to enforce outdated copyright laws seems to be coming. You could be tempted drawing parallels with Anti Terror laws in the UK. They were brought in under the premise that "the big baddies were about to blow us up, we promise not to misuse this power" and now you continually hear of people being questioned under "Anti Terror Legislation" when all they were doing was taking a few holiday snaps.

 

the road to hell is paved with good intentions

 

----------------------------------------------------

 

"Germany is on the verge of censoring its Internet: The government – a grand coalition between the German social democrats and conservative party – seems united in its decision: On Thursday the parliament is to vote on the erection of an internet censorship architecture.

 

The Minister for Family Affairs Ursula von der Leyen kicked off and lead the discussions within the German Federal Government to block Internet sites in order to fight child pornography. The general idea is to build a censorship architecture enabling the government to block content containing child pornography. The Federal Office of Criminal Investigation (BKA) is to administer the lists of sites to be blocked and the internet providers obliged to erect the secret censorship architecture for the government.

 

A strong and still growing network opposing these ideas quickly formed within the German internet community. The protest has not been limited to hackers and digital activist but rather a mainstreamed effort widely supported by bloggers and twitter-users. The HashTag used by the protesters is #zensursula – a German mesh up of the Ministers name and the word censorship equivalent to #censursula.

 

As part of the public’s protest an official e-Petition directed at the German parliament was launched. Within three days 50,000 persons signed the petition - – the number required for the petition titled „No indexing and blocking of Internet sites“ to be heard by the parliament. The running time of an e-Petition in Germany is 6 weeks – within this time over 130,000 people signed making this e-Petition the most signed and most successful ever.

 

During the past weeks, protests became more and more creative – countless blogs and twitter-users followed and commented the discussions within governments and opposing arguments. Many mainstream media picked up on this and reported about the protest taking place on-line. A working group on censorship was founded and the protest coordinated with a wiki, mailing lists, chats and of course employing twitter and blogs. One website „Zeichnemit.de“ created a landing page explaining the complicated petitioning system and making signing the petition easier and more accessible for non net-experts.

 

Over 500 people attended the governments official press conference on the planed internet censorship – a number of whom used this occasion to demonstrate and voice their concerns. In fact, demonstrators began attending some of the Minister von der Leyens public appearances, carrying banners and signs to raise attention to the stifling of information freedom in Germany.

 

The net community did not only oppose the governments plans, but also made constructive suggestions how to deal with the problem of child pornography without introducing a censorship architecture and circumcising constitutional freedoms. The working group on censorship demonstrated the alternatives for instance by actually removing over 60 websites containing child pornographic content in 12 hours, simply by emailing the international providers who then removed this content from the net. The sites were identified through the black lists of other countries documented on Wikileaks. This demonstration underlines the protesters main arguments: instead of effectively investing time and efforts to have illegal content removed from the internet, the German government is choosing censorship and blocking – an easy and dangerous way out. The greatest fear of the protesters is that once in place, the infrastructure will be used to censor other forms of unwanted content, not only child pornography. German politicians already seem to be lining up with their wish-list of content to be censored in future – the suggestions ranging form gambling sites, islamist web pages, first person shooters, and the music industry cheering up with the thought of finally banning pirate bay and p2p."

 

Source: netzpolitik.org

 

-------------------------------------------------------

 

can you spare an hour? watch 'Us Now"

TEX : Original Source

Original Artist : Jerry Grandenetti

 

JERRY GRANDENETTI

Jerry Grandenetti (April 15, 1925 or 1927 (sources differ), Bronxville, New York) is an American comic book artist and advertising art director, best known for his work with writer-artist Will Eisner on the celebrated comics feature "The Spirit", and for his decade- and-a-half run on many DC Comics war series.

 

because im addicted: Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

becauseimaddicted.net/2007/10/deconstructing-lichtenstein...

Thursday, October 25, 2007

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

I came across this David Barsalou's Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein page and apparently Barsalou has spent the last 25 years of his life going through over 30,000 comic books studying every illustration determined to find the original sources of Roy Lichtenstein's pieces.

 

Check out David Barsalou's flickr account: DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN's

Photo Cred: davidbarsalou.homestead.com/LICHTENSTEINPROJECT.html

 

Roy Lichtenstein

Sent: Thu 4/19/07 11:54 AM

To: barsaloud@hotmail.com

 

From: Hillary Bray Register (hregist1@my.westga.edu)

 

Mr. Barsalou,

I am currently working on my senior thesis paper in art history concerning Roy Lichtenstein's representation of women in the 60s and 90s. While searching for images, I found your website. Needless to say, your images have been invaluable to my research. I cannot find many of them in any other text. As I will be giving an oral presentation on my research, I will need to use these images to compare the originals with Lichtenstein's appropriations. However, the images are not presentation quality. If at all possible, I would greatly appreciate it if you could email me higher resolution images. If this is not possible or desirable, I understand. Nonetheless, I would like to thank you for devoting such a great deal of time and effort to procure the original images.

 

Sincerely,

Hillary Register

University of West Georgia

 

Art das kunstmagazin

www.art-magazin.de

 

art Magazin D.P.V.

P.O. Box 101602

20010 Hamburg

Germany

 

U.S.A. newsstand distribution is by GLP International, 153 South Dean

Street, Englewood NJ 07631. Phone: 1-201-871-10 10, Fax 1-201-871-0870,

www.glpnews.com

 

Dear David Barsalou,

 

In our next issue we are about to publish an article on your work

Deconstruction of Roy Lichtenstein.

Therefore it would be great you could provide us a selection of 5-8 images showing your artwork.

If so, please send them in a high resolution (15x20cm, 300dpi), with

detailed captions via email to me, please. You can also use our FTP Server,

which access informations you can find below.

 

Looking forward to hear from you soon! Thank you in advance!

 

Best regards from Hamburg

 

Verena Andreas

Verena Andreas (ass.photo@art-magazin.de)

 

Spitting Image

October 23, 2006

DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN

www.spitting-image.net/archives/005964.html

Artist David Barsalou presents a comparative analysis of Pop Artist Roy Lichtenstein's paintings with the original source images he copied from 1960's comic books. The pictures on display are from Barsalou's forthcoming book, also titled DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN.The exhibit and book are the result of over 15 years of extensive research.Barsalou examined over 25,000 comic books to find the pictures Lichtenstein used in his work. This is the first time that Roy Lichtenstein's original source images have ever been exhibited together. Barsalou states, " DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN may influence how critics, and writers view Lichtenstein's work in the future.This exhibit will be of significant historical importance". press release | See Gallery 9/5/2000

 

flickr photos from DRL: www.flickr.com/photos/deconstructing-roy-lichtenstein/

 

thanks Conscientious

 

~Artist as archivist. (Personal note: for years I've been visiting cemeteries & graveyards within a days drive of my home; taking photos of stones and memorials. The thrill of finding something many people overlook keeps me at it.)

One might wonder if David Barsalou's 15 years of comic-book research along with his book and exhibits have had any affect upon the dollar value of Roy Lichtenstein paintings. Do the same art galleries represent both artists?

On the other hand Lichtenstein paintings are (still?) sold for tens of millions of dollars, so Barsalou's work is truly a labor of love and Lichtenstein's body of work is worthy of his scrutiny?

Posted by Stubbornson at October 23, 2006 12:47 PM

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

drawn.ca/2005/04/page/3/

Posted at 5:13 pm by Ward | 21 Comments

John McFaul »

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

 

roy lichtenstein

 

Whether or not you fully appreciate the work of the late Pop Artist, Roy Lichtenstein, you can at least take a gander at the comic book sources that he used for his pieces . Deconstructing Lichtenstein is the pet project of David Barsalou, an avid Lichtenstein fan, who went through thousands of old comics to find the original source images to Roy’s paintings. It’s interesting to see the creative process behind the legendary painter’s work as you get to see how much (or how little) he changed the subject matter. Be patient as it takes a while for all the images to load.

 

This entry was posted on Friday, April 8th, 2005 at 5:13 pm by Ward and is filed under Art, Comics. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

21 Comments

 

1. Steve says:

April 8th, 2005 at 7:21 pm

 

I’ve been doing some research on old comics lately, as part of my regimen for gearing up to publish a few graphic novels. So I’ve developed a new fondness for old comic art styles.

 

What really struck me about this Lichtenstein page was how poorly his versions fared against the originals. These unheralded comics artists, laboring under work-for-hire conditions for little pay, had better line control and anatomical control than our artiste Roy. His versions look downright amateurish.

 

It’s a little hard to appreciate his contribution in this light, other than the fact that he recontextualized these comic artist’s work by copying it badly and hanging it in an art gallery. How is this significant? Because it made it acceptable for artsy-fartsy collectors to admit they liked comics?

2. Ward says:

April 8th, 2005 at 8:31 pm

 

True, Roy’s work seems downright crude, but remember you’ve got to think that line quality and perfect interpretations of humans and animals dipicted were not his motivation. You can’t equate his paintings with the skills of those comic artists. (And, his paintings are painted on very large canvases, instead of on smaller illustration board.) Plus, you’ve got to think about from where he was coming from. He was a Pop Artist. The Pop Artists were guys who were frustrated with the art world at the time and felt that art was in the mundane everyday thing. They were putting a mirror up to ordinary objects and forcing us to look at it in a new way — through a different context. In fact, some of those guys were poking fun at what art collectors would call “art” and were amazed at the amount of money the collectors would put down on a piece. Like I said, not everybody is down with Lichtenstein, but at that time, he made people look at art and at comic books in a new light.

3. niff says:

April 8th, 2005 at 10:00 pm

 

Two great points ! It IS funny to see how crude Roy’s work looks next to the original, but then you have to think how HUGE Roy worked. I think you both made great points, and It is pretty cool how he made people re-examine comics as fine art. awesome link! thanks.

4. saamvisual says:

April 9th, 2005 at 5:56 am

 

Is a link on your site a poisoned chalice? The site is down due to bandwidth issues…. wow to be THAT popular. BTW, I really like this site - please keep it going.

5. Surfer says:

April 9th, 2005 at 7:12 am

 

Bandwidth limit exceeded!

6. jmorrison says:

April 9th, 2005 at 8:43 am

 

hey, i have to agree with steve on this one. i posted a tid bit about this a while back and did a little bit of further “deconstruction.”

 

thenonist.com/index.php/weblog/permalink/deconstructing_l...

 

check out the thumbnail…

i couldn’t help myself ;)

7. Bob Loblaws says:

April 9th, 2005 at 9:55 am

 

Lichtenstein was a crap artist who just stole work from other artist. You can try to intellectualize it any way you want. A con man in my books. How these people consistantly con the Intelligencia of the art world in is beyond me.

8. Ward says:

April 9th, 2005 at 2:32 pm

 

Bob Loblaws,

You’re entitled to your own opinion, and I can see where you’re coming from, but I think you’re being brash and closed-minded on Lichtenstein and his work. So, what you’re telling me is that because he took work from other artists and reconfigured them and painted them in his own way that he’s a con man, right? Well, then I guess you can just lock up every single artist that is out there, from gallery to the comic-stand, because everybody is copying from everyone else. If you look on the “About” page for Drawn!, you’ll see the quote by Einstein: “The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources,” Lichtenstein just chose not to hide them. In fact, he blatantly made the viewer see his sources — even more so, exploited it. Thus, he became famous for it. Any other artist would’ve done the same thing, he just did it on a much larger scale than anyone else. Those comic artists could’ve done the same thing, but they didn’t. They probably didn’t seem to see the interest in it, but I wouldn’t know, so I’m not going to speak for them.

 

Artists “steal” from other artists. It’s a fact of life. I know that others have stolen from me, but all I have to do is just suck it up and just keep doing my thang. I could confront the situation, but why would I, as I do the same? Classic case of pot calling the kettle black.

 

Now, we’re splitting hairs here, as there is a distinct line between “stealing” and “being influenced by.” I understand that Lichtenstein blatantly grabbed these images from old comics, but again, he took something old and made something new. Was he sued for his work? What did the comic artists say about what he did? Was there any legal action?

 

What about all the artists now who call for Creative Commons licenses when at the same time try and copyright their own material so others don’t rip it off? When is it a right? When is it wrong?

9. andrea says:

April 9th, 2005 at 2:58 pm

 

I do not understand this. seriously, what is the DEAL? what is the matter with taking something (in this case, comic book art) and forcing the viewer to look at it in an entirely different way (which is what lichtenstein did)? isn’t that what art is all about? if anything, it further legitimized the work of comic book artists. case in point: I am not a comic book fan/reader, but lichtenstein’s work allowed me to see it with new eyes. I am completely puzzled by these narrow-minded views represented in the earlier posts.

10. MrBlank says:

April 9th, 2005 at 6:06 pm

 

A lot of times art isn’t about style, technique or format. Sometimes it’s all about one simple idea. In today’s context, Liechtenstein’s work does seem cliché and old-hat, but that shows just how influential his work has been. We’ve gotten used to it. Every single creative medium is using Liechtenstein’s idea and running with it.

 

Fashion: Did you see ‘Project Runway’ on Bravo? One challenge was to Take clothing from a vintage clothing store, deconstruct it and create fashion for the future. Even the show’s winning designer, Jay, had a line of cloths that mixed elements from the rural past, like quilts and knitted shawls and put them in a modern, urban context.

 

Illustration\Design: Look at recent posts on Drawn! and you see it. Remember the one on Phil Noto? “Noto’s work, again, falls into the category of retro meets now, with some varied influences. His work reminds me of a cross between Bob Peak, straight up early Bond, 60’s mod, with some manga mixed in (maybe).”

 

Movies: Kill Bill — This was a motion picture’s equivalent to a photo collage. Tarantino took scenes, angles, dialog, music and many, many other things from a huge history of filmmakers’ work and created a visual mash-up of the medium. Brilliant.

 

Music: The Grey Album — DJ Dangermose’s marrage of Jay-Z’s Black Album and the Beatle’s White Album. It was labeled as the best album of 2004 by Entertainment Weekly even though it was never published. It was released on P2P networks finding its way to iPods all over the world. Due to copyright laws, it still remains illegal.

 

Popular culture would not be the same without Liechtenstein’s influence. You don’t have to be Clement Greenberg to see the significance of that. Like science and technology, you take what has been done before and add to it, move it forward, make it new. Everything is built on the past, everything.

 

Sidenote:

It’s also interesting to see this trend stirring up a lot of legal issues. If all of our copyright laws had been focused on in the 60’s, would Lichtenstein have been able to show is work? Is art being limited because of these laws? It seems so: www.illegal-art.org/

11. Cash Nexus says:

April 10th, 2005 at 9:03 pm

 

For further research, there’s a great examination of art, sources, and influences, including Pop Art in general and this same discussion on Roy Lichtenstein in particular, in “High & Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture” (www.moesbooks.com/cgi-bin/moe/39669.html). I highly recommend this thorough and detailed book.

12. Paul says:

April 10th, 2005 at 10:40 pm

 

I’m gonna get to the heart of this: if a crap artist finds himself making a ton o’ dough by copying another artist, then at least the the guy who’s pockets are now flowing with cash could’ve looked up the poor schmo who did the original work and offered him half. But no, this Ward cat will find a way to justify not sharing the bux as well as he protected his thievery above…I’ve used exact replicas of Escher and Michelangelo in my work, and I ALWAYS sign their names, even if it’s obvious who did the original.

Since I never earned a dollar for any of the works in which I paid homage to my heroes, I have nothing to share, but damn if I don’t have the address of the Escher foundation in case I do. Crap is crap. Lichenstein was crap.

13. Sam says:

April 10th, 2005 at 10:48 pm

 

This Paul guy must be right - looks like he’s an expert on crap.

14. Ward says:

April 11th, 2005 at 7:41 am

 

I was not going to respond anymore to this thread as I feel that I’ve already stated my opinon on the topic, but after being called a “thief,” I feel like I should defend myself to a certain degree. When I mentioned in my last post about how other artists “steal” (notice quotes) from others, including myself, my train of thought was about how we all take elements from other artists who have influenced us and incorporate these elements into our own work. Some people might take notice, like when you say, “Oh I definitely see a Kirby influence there, etc.” Everybody does this, and it’s not thievery in my opinon.

 

But I then thought. after reading your response, Paul, that when you say you used replicas of other’s work — in a collage effect, I’m assuming — that yes, I have used various clips of magazines, pictures, and newspapers in my work. (If you’re curious, click here. And for the record, I’ve never made any money off of these pieces.) A good amount of artists have used collage, and have made loads of money from doing so. Thievery, or not? Who’s to say?

 

And Paul, with your portrait of John Lennon — do you know that you did EXACTLY what Lichtenstein did? You both used images from a different source and made the viewer look at it in a different way. (Plus, you did not credit the photographers.)

 

Like I mentioned earlier, it’s a classic case of the pot calling the kettle black.

15. niff says:

April 11th, 2005 at 11:51 am

 

Ward: you said it all. bravo!

16. Steve says:

April 11th, 2005 at 12:43 pm

 

Yeah! I opened up a hornet’s nest here! (puts on beekeeper’s netting)

 

It is interesting to hear why Lichtenstein’s work is considered important. I saw the Pop Artist exhibit when it came through Atlanta, and the pieces still challenged some of my ideas about art, even though their impact had been absorbed into the art world decades ago. I believe there were a few Lichtenstein pieces…something with a jet plane…bah, can’t remember.

 

As a musician who can both play instruments and samples them, as well as an experienced “photoshop jockey,” I can’t deny that the groundwork laid by these people has influenced me. In fact, what they did as “rebellion” has become part of the standard tools of the trade now.

 

Perhaps my sensibility lies somewhere in the middle of this debate. I appreciate the effect Lichtenstein’s recontextualization has had on the comics medium and the art world; yet in looking at his work, I hope for more immediate aesthetic gratification. In other words, I want a picture that is both subversive AND pretty.

 

Also, artwork created with a focus on subversive impact always strikes me as a “shave and a haircut” approach. I get the joke, I move on. It’s the art world’s version of a soundbyte. Nothing wrong with that, but I crave more substantial experiences with art. I guess I’m naive in that.

17. jo3 says:

April 11th, 2005 at 10:47 pm

 

ah, can we get a mirror up in here?

18. eck@rt says:

April 12th, 2005 at 6:01 am

 

Who can tell me more about Tony Abruzzo? Abruzzo drew romance comics in the 60s and 70s, some of which were models for Lichtenstein.

 

eck@rt

19. Elias Hiebert says:

April 12th, 2005 at 11:57 am

 

Yeah, all artists steal, whatever . But the thing that bugs me about Lichtenstein is that he appears to have no respect for the artists he stole from. It’s as if he thought all this commercial art he was surrounded by just appeared by magic. And he got filthy, filthy rich. And the artists he stole from did not. So that rub my sense of justice the wrong way. And I LIKE Lichtenstein! (Sorry I’m beginning every sentence with the word And.) Those big canvasses really HIT ya! Lichtenstein was really good. Was he good enough to do what the artists he stole from did day in and day out? I doubt it.

20. Jen says:

April 13th, 2005 at 3:29 pm

 

Steve: what you said, man. In spades. Bravo.

 

Ward, ditto(even if I am more of a mind with Steve, I love the way you express yourself).

 

Good discussion, all of it.

21. Joy says:

April 20th, 2005 at 11:11 pm

 

So does anyone know if the original page is down for good?

 

American Madness

Intelligent Criticism in the Service of a Better Nation

 

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

David Barsalou has taken the time to go back and track down the original comics of over 60 of Roy Lichtenstein’s works, he then compiled them next to the Lichtenstein prints and posted them online.

 

You get to see a comprehensive overview of Lichtenstein’s source materials and see how closely he interpreted/copied the originals. Some controversy has arisen over these early works as he never credited the original artists whose work he was copying. According to Wikipedia: Jack Cowart, executive director of the Lichtenstein Foundation contests the notion that Lichtenstein was a copyist, saying “Roy’s work was a wonderment of the graphic formula and the codification of sentiment that had been worked out by others. The panels were changed in scale, color, treatment, and in their implications. There is no exact copy.”

On the flipside:

Artist Dave Gibbons said of Lichtenstein’s works: “Roy Lichtenstein’s copies of the work of Irv Novick and Russ Heath are flat, uncomprehending tracings of quite sophisticated images.” Lichtenstein’s obituary in The Economist noted these artists “did not think much of his paintings. In enlarging them, some claimed, they became static. Some threatened to sue him.”

This anger from the original artists could also stem from the lack of recognition they received for their work in its original form, devalued as just another piece of pop/trash culture, while Roy Lichtenstein was elevated to celebrity and received various awards and recognition for his work.

Now you can see his works next to the original panels and determine for yourself whether you think Lichtenstein was a genius or copyist.

1.

Or a genius copyist.

 

americanmadness.com/2007/10/25/deconstructing-roy-lichten...

 

The GAB

Shaun Venish - Graphic Art Blog

www.venish.com/blog/files/4add87f3e3ef7fb9660ade0cc00c005...

 

Roy Lichtenstein

18/March/2008 | Illustraton

I've been a fan of Roy Lichtenstein's comic book pop art for years. I always wondered how many of his paintings were taken from comic books and did he copy the comic panels directly or make changes to them to improve the composition? Well now there are some answers, thanks to David Barsalou and his Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein project. Originally an exibit at the Springfield Massachusetts Gallery, he now has a flickr site that contains a ton of the source material. It's an interesting deconstruction of the wonderful work Lichtenstein created.

 

A really interesting read is the Great Bazooka Bubble Gum Wrapper Myth of 1961, A look into the controversy over whether Lichtenstein stole Andy Warhol's idea. Neat.

 

"... So, I went home and called Andy - no, I think, I went right over to Andy's house... and so, I said, 'Prepare yourself for a shock.' And he said, 'What?' I said, 'Castelli has a closet full of comic paintings.' And he said, 'You're kidding?!' And he said, 'Who did them?' And I said, 'Somebody by the name of Lichtenstein.' Well, Andy turned white. He said, 'Roy Lichtenstein.' He said, 'Roy Lichtenstein used to... ' - as I remember, he used to be a sign painter for Bonwit Teller, and here's where I'm a little bit confused because Andy... couldn't get anybody to show his early cartoon paintings, so he went to Gene Moore and Gene Moore said, 'Well I can put the paintings in the windows...' He put them in the 57th Street window... As I remember, the implication was: Andy felt that Lichtenstein had seen the paintings in the window and gave him the idea to do his paintings..."

www.venish.com/blog/files/4add87f3e3ef7fb9660ade0cc00c005...

 

Artist or Artiface?

October 25, 2007

 

Bibi's box: July 2005 Archives

www.bibi.org/box/archives/2005_07.php?offset=160

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein - The original Comic Book source images of Pop Artist Roy Lichtenstein, by David Barsalou. (via neurastenia)

 

JeremyS « Amnesia Blog

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

amnesiablog.wordpress.com/author/muchablogaboutnothing/

David Barsalou has a lot of time on his hands… So much time infact that he has spent the last 25 years of his life closely examining every single illustration in over 30,000 comic books with the sole purpose of uncovering the original source material for the work of 1960s Pop Art icon Roy Lichtenstein. So far he has sourced about 140 specific illustrations that Lichtenstein has blown up and sold for mega bucks.

Posted by JeremyS

 

scamp: an irish illustration blog » Comics

www.scamp.ie/category/comics/page/2/

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

Friday, October 26th, 2007

Thanks to Mario for pointing this one out

For the last 25 years David Barsalou has examined over 30,000 comic books (a kind of obsession) to find the cartoon images Lichtenstein used in his work.

The Lichtenstein Project compares over 60 of Roy Lichtenstein’s paintings.

Though in art/history books I always read that Lichtenstein best-known artworks are relatively close, but not exact, copies of comic-book panels (a subject he largely abandoned in 1965) after Barsalou’s deconstruction I find quite amazing the level of similarities!!!

by Mario Sughi

 

The Art Law Blog

Wednesday, October 18, 2006

Lichtenstein and Copyright

Alex Beam has an interesting piece in the Boston Globe on copyright issues surrounding Roy Lichtenstein's use of images from comics. An art teacher named David Barsalou has been tracking down and cataloging specific comics that were the inspiration for Lichtenstein's paintings; so far he's found about 140. "Color me naive," writes Beam, "but I never thought Lichtenstein's work was a direct copy of scenes from comic books. I assumed that he stylized certain scenes suggested by the comic vernacular of the 1950s and 1960s." He also correctly points out that Lichtenstein could have faced serious copyright problems (Beam doesn't mention it, but just think of Rogers v. Koons); he says the interesting question is why he never did. The question is in any case now moot: there's a three-year statute of limitations for copyright claims.

theartlawblog.blogspot.com/2006_10_01_archive.html

You can see samples of Barsalou's research at his website, Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein.

 

posted by Donn Zaretsky at 6:44 PM

 

Du bist nicht angemeldet

www.supertopic.de/forum/9/zeig-mir-irgendwas-947-414.html

 

DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN

www.notcot.com/archives/2007/10/d...g.php#more

flickr.com/photos/deconstructing-...htenstein/

Apparently David Barsalou has spent the last 25 years of his life going through every illustration in over 30,000 comic books.... in order to find the original sources of Roy Lichtenstein's pieces! Knoth

Veteran

25.10.07

14:25 Uhr

 

www.planetcrap.com/topics/1126/844/

#868 by G-Man

2006-10-12 02:48:11

[davidbarsalou.homestead.com/LICHTENSTEINPROJECT.html]Lichtenstein swipes[/url] as seen on Boing Boing a year ago,and who reposted it themselves today. Thoughts?

 

#870 by Jibble

2006-10-12 03:01:18

  

#871 by Hugin

2006-10-12 03:21:22

 

Thoughts?

 

Could you be a bit more specific, or give some context?

#872 by Hugin

2006-10-12 03:23:56

What I mean is, all I've got right now is:

 

"Yup, that's totally a bunch of mostly early-to-mid Lichtenstein comic stuff, side by side with the source material."

 

Is there a point you want to debate or something?

#873 by yotsuya

2006-10-12 03:26:02

I think G-Man wants to know if you all think Lichtenstien loved his cats.

#876 by G-Man

2006-10-12 05:57:31

Hugin: I dunno. I was going for a vague troll rather than a Joker-style specific rant troll. But here are some starter arguments: OMG plagiarism. No it is fair use. No it is art. That's not art. Art sucks. We need to redefine art! Wait, if it is art then the original artist should get credit, right? No, the art is in the selection and framing. So can I steal Px's art too? Ow, why did you ounch me in the face? Etc.

#880 by schnee

2006-10-12 07:42:18

 

But here are some starter arguments: OMG plagiarism. No it is fair use. No it is art. That's not art. Art sucks. We need to redefine art! Wait, if it is art then the original artist should get credit, right? No, the art is in the selection and framing. So can I steal Px's art too? Ow, why did you ounch me in the face? Etc.

 

Lichtenstein was a whore, in the same way modern blog 'artists' take photos of the Brooklyn bridge cabling at an odd angle, drop on some type and a twirly 3-d rendered glass thingy, and call it design. The thing they think is so cool that 'only they saw' was, get this, intended that way by the original artist. Recognizing that is not art to me at all, unless you see something that is so goddamn striking and novel that it becomes something else entirely, which I'm not sure his stuff is.

 

Lichtenstein came about because that era had to have someone who was doing that, because that was the zeitgeist. Fuck it all, try something 'new' which is new precisely because it's not, blah blah. Not to mention the fact that the original artwork was better in almost all cases.

 

So, yeah, he has a place in history, but that's not always saying much.

 

I'm not condemning him, though. If I could pull off that trope - i.e. do something asinine and silly and get famous for it - I'd probably run with it, because hey, it's novel, and I have enough mediocre workmanlike stuff in my portfolio already that I'm pretty secure in a career.

#881 by Marsh Davies

2006-10-12 11:16:13

Schnee's pretty much said everything there is to say, but, you know, I would lose precious Pretentiousness Points if I didn't stick my oar in.

 

To react in shock and alarm that Lichtenstein copied his artwork is to miss the point, just as it would be to miss the point about Andy Warhol's many prints not actually being by Andy Warhol.

 

The idea of unoriginality, reproduction and elevating supposedly base media like comics to the level of art was the kernel of Lichtenstein's work. It's conceptual, not material art - all though this is belied its popular perception as iconic.

 

That said, my personal feeling is that such introspective ideas about the nature of art need only be made once. In fact, as with most conceptual art, the point would be more effectively made if you just described it, and didn't bother making the art. This stuff makes good essays and boring art, in my opinion. And Lichtenstein's continual ploughing of this furrow makes him a hack, albeit one of some importance to post-modernity. Same with Warhol. That's the shittiness of the art world for you. And there are still conceptual artists making the same point over and over again. But I guess whilst the Daily Mail reading masses and so on are still outraged by it, then it still has some use.

#882 by CheesyPoof

2006-10-12 14:37:07

Is it showing my ignorance something terrible to say I never heard of Lichtenstein before?

#885 by Jibble

2006-10-12 14:55:06

It's not any worse than Duchamp's Readymades. That's really all I have to say on the subject.

#887 by Jibble

2006-10-12 15:33:29

Don't you see? It merely asks a little something of the viewer. It asks, it begs, am I art? Can I hang in your galleries?

 

#888 by Hugin

2006-10-12 15:39:27

Litchenstein, among others in the pop art movement, helped to change our society's perception of it's own cultural infrastructure, in fact, it helped our society recognize it had a cultural infrastructure at all. Societies are generally horrible at deconstructing themselves, and pop art, approached intelligently, can help with that.

 

Plus, it performed some degree of service merely by partially collapsing or vertically integrating "high" and "low" culture. People who bemoan that the pendulum has swung too far in the other direction generally overstate the case, or have a fairly ahistorical view of art and craft in cultures, especially in modern western society.

#892 by Penguinx

2006-10-12 15:45:16

While I understand the value of the conceptual fibble-fabble, the thing I come away with is that the original comic artists had way better brush control.

#893 by bago

2006-10-12 15:49:10

manga_Rando@hotmail.com Wow, I wound up being in the center of this one.

  

#894 by Hugin

2006-10-12 15:53:50

 

#881 by Marsh Davies

  

That said, my personal feeling is that such introspective ideas about the nature of art need only be made once.

  

I disagree. Cultures have such an overwhelming weight of inertia, and people are so difficult to introduce new ideas to, especially ideas that conflict with their internal worldview, a little (or a lot) of repetition doesn't hurt.

 

In fact, as with most conceptual art, the point would be more effectively made if you just described it, and didn't bother making the art. This stuff makes good essays and boring art, in my opinion.

 

Again I disagree. I think it's a lot harder for essays to speak to people at the instinctive level than good art can. It's such a cliche, but a piscture (or sculpture or whatever) is worth a thousand words when it comes to shifting people's perceptions, if done well. Of course, some, probably most pop art is either redundant or crap, but most of everything is redundant or crap. No attack on pop art related to unorigonality or volume or redundancy can't be leveled with equal severity at other major/popular art movements. I mean, Impressionism? Surrealism? Folk/Outsider? How much wank and dross comprises those piles?

And Lichtenstein's continual ploughing of this furrow makes him a hack, albeit one of some importance to post-modernity. Same with Warhol. That's the shittiness of the art world for you.

 

Enh, as I said above, nearly every great artist (and this is true of people like scientists and mathematicians as well) have a couple great ideas in them, and probably some level of compulsion tying them to the pursuit of those ideas. A lifetime of churn will produce a handful of essential pieces (books, theorems, patents etc), everything else will be a commentary on/repudiation of those pieces, practice/foundation for those pieces, or crap.

 

And there are still conceptual artists making the same point over and over again. But I guess whilst the Daily Mail reading masses and so on are still outraged by it, then it still has some use.

 

News and Articles on Derivative Work

news.surfwax.com/general-news/files/derivative_work.html

 

Lichtenstein: creator or copycat? Oct 18, 2006

Barsalou correctly points that musicians who ``sample" other artists' music have to pay them royalties. Does the Lichtenstein estate owe compensation to the creators of the original work?After visiting a Lichtenstein exhibition in Chicago, attorney Mark Weissburg wrote an article titled ``Roy Lichtenstein, Copyright Thief?" ``I was struck by the fact that Lichtenstein was never sued for copyright infringement," Weissburg wrote. ``Under copyright law if you copy a protected work without... (Boston Globe)

  

www.comicsreporter.com/index.php/deconstructing_and_debat...

April 12, 2005

 

Deconstructing, Debating Lichtenstein

Through the great Canadian illustrators' group blog Drawn! comes not only a link to an enlightening work comparing the comics-inspired paintings of pop artist Roy Lichtenstein to their comic-book sources, but a by-the-numbers debate in the comments thread about the merits of Lichtenstein's work.

posted 7:36 am PST | Permalink

 

209.85.141.104/search?q=cache:TGeApfL35HsJ:www.thecomicfo...

 

June 14 2008, 12:34 PM

Post #8

Copyright Infringement on Art

In case anyone is interested, this is the Boston Globe article I mentioned in the 'cast:

 

"Lichtenstein: creator or copycat?" by Alex Beam

 

And this is the web site it (and I) talks about:

 

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

 

TV Tokyo Inquire

From: Kyoko Matsuda (matsuda@nexent.tv)

Sent: Wed 7/23/08 2:11 PM To: barsaloud@hotmail.com

Cc: yuko matsuda (yumatsuda@earthlink.net)

 

Dear Mr. Barsalou:

 

I am writing this on behalf of TV Tokyo, a Japanese TV network.

We produce weekend evening, 30 minutes-long art program titled "The Great Masters of Art" for TV Tokyo.

www.tv-tokyo.co.jp/kyojin/

This program reaches about 5 million Japanese population.

 

In each episode, one artist and one masterpiece by the featured artist will be picked. The program will explore the stories behind the production of the masterpiece and the life of the artist as well. Also the program will demonstrate/ explain the specific artistic technique that was used to create the featured art work.

 

We are planning to produce a program on Mr. Roy Lichtenstein and feature his "Girl with Hair Ribbon" for upcoming "The Great Masters" on TV Tokyo.

 

Since you have been working on the "Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein" site since 1979. I would like to ask a question about the cartoon which Mr. Lichtenstein transformed to his art work.

 

The director in Tokyo is interested in filming the original cartoon by Mr. John Romita Sr. and we are looking for its location. We already have contacted the Lichtenstein Foundation but they said they don't own it.

 

Please let me know if you know the information.

Thank you very much for your attention.

 

Cordially,

Kyoko Matsuda

BK Nexent, Inc.

545 8th Avenue 9th Floor North

New York, NY 10018, U.S.A.

Tel: (212)697-7401

Fax:(212)697-9542

E-mail: matsuda@nexent.tv

www.nexent.tv

www.nystream.net

 

I want to thank David for such an in depth article about one of the most important drummers of yesterday by some of the most important drummers today. David has inspired me to re focus Not So Modern Drummer's by adding "legendary drummers" to our mission statement. Thanks, David.

- George Lawrence

 

BATHROOM: Original Source

 

ARTICULATE

Brad darling, this painting is a masterpiece!

www.abc.net.au/news/arts/articulate/200610/s1769879.htm

By Sean Rubinsztein-Dunlop. Posted: Saturday, October 21 2006 .

Could it all be a lie? ...

 

American artist David Barsalou is on a mission to knock 60s pop artist Roy Lichtenstein off his throne.

 

Barsalou's idea of fun is finding and cataloging the comic book panels that made Lichtenstein a big name. Of the 140 he's found, many of the artist's works seem to be near copies.

"He tried to make it seem as though he was making major compositional changes in his work, but he wasn't," he said. "The critics are of one mind that he made major changes but if you look at the work, he copied them almost verbatim. Only a few were original."

Though news to me, apparently this is well known among artists. The general consensus seems to be that while Lichtenstein may have been a copyright thief, his co-option of pop culture fits the pop art conventions. It seems fair to say that the implications of the comics change when they're blown up to massive proportions and displayed on a wall. After all, if a soup can has the potential to become art, so does a comic strip. But it all becomes a bit comical (excuse the pun) when you consider one of Lichtenstein's works can go for $US1.6 million.

 

Check out the comparisons and tell us what you think. Is Lichtenstein a copycat or is he merely borrowing, like all great artists do?

 

And while you're pondering the prospect of plagiarism, why not rip the man off yourself and learn how to make your own Lichtenstein?

 

Spitting Image

October 23, 2006

DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN

www.spitting-image.net/archives/005964.html

Artist David Barsalou presents a comparative analysis of Pop Artist Roy Lichtenstein's paintings with the original source images he copied from 1960's comic books. The pictures on display are from Barsalou's forthcoming book, also titled DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN.The exhibit and book are the result of over 15 years of extensive research.Barsalou examined over 25,000 comic books to find the pictures Lichtenstein used in his work. This is the first time that Roy Lichtenstein's original source images have ever been exhibited together. Barsalou states, " DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN may influence how critics, and writers view Lichtenstein's work in the future.This exhibit will be of significant historical importance". press release | See Gallery 9/5/2000

 

roy lichtenstein

 

Whether or not you fully appreciate the work of the late Pop Artist, Roy Lichtenstein, you can at least take a gander at the comic book sources that he used for his pieces . Deconstructing Lichtenstein is the pet project of David Barsalou, an avid Lichtenstein fan, who went through thousands of old comics to find the original source images to Roy’s paintings. It’s interesting to see the creative process behind the legendary painter’s work as you get to see how much (or how little) he changed the subject matter. Be patient as it takes a while for all the images to load.

 

This entry was posted on Friday, April 8th, 2005 at 5:13 pm by Ward and is filed under Art, Comics. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

21 Comments

 

1. Steve says:

April 8th, 2005 at 7:21 pm

 

I’ve been doing some research on old comics lately, as part of my regimen for gearing up to publish a few graphic novels. So I’ve developed a new fondness for old comic art styles.

 

What really struck me about this Lichtenstein page was how poorly his versions fared against the originals. These unheralded comics artists, laboring under work-for-hire conditions for little pay, had better line control and anatomical control than our artiste Roy. His versions look downright amateurish.

 

It’s a little hard to appreciate his contribution in this light, other than the fact that he recontextualized these comic artist’s work by copying it badly and hanging it in an art gallery. How is this significant? Because it made it acceptable for artsy-fartsy collectors to admit they liked comics?

2. Ward says:

April 8th, 2005 at 8:31 pm

 

True, Roy’s work seems downright crude, but remember you’ve got to think that line quality and perfect interpretations of humans and animals dipicted were not his motivation. You can’t equate his paintings with the skills of those comic artists. (And, his paintings are painted on very large canvases, instead of on smaller illustration board.) Plus, you’ve got to think about from where he was coming from. He was a Pop Artist. The Pop Artists were guys who were frustrated with the art world at the time and felt that art was in the mundane everyday thing. They were putting a mirror up to ordinary objects and forcing us to look at it in a new way — through a different context. In fact, some of those guys were poking fun at what art collectors would call “art” and were amazed at the amount of money the collectors would put down on a piece. Like I said, not everybody is down with Lichtenstein, but at that time, he made people look at art and at comic books in a new light.

3. niff says:

April 8th, 2005 at 10:00 pm

 

Two great points ! It IS funny to see how crude Roy’s work looks next to the original, but then you have to think how HUGE Roy worked. I think you both made great points, and It is pretty cool how he made people re-examine comics as fine art. awesome link! thanks.

4. saamvisual says:

April 9th, 2005 at 5:56 am

 

Is a link on your site a poisoned chalice? The site is down due to bandwidth issues…. wow to be THAT popular. BTW, I really like this site - please keep it going.

5. Surfer says:

April 9th, 2005 at 7:12 am

 

Bandwidth limit exceeded!

6. jmorrison says:

April 9th, 2005 at 8:43 am

 

hey, i have to agree with steve on this one. i posted a tid bit about this a while back and did a little bit of further “deconstruction.”

 

thenonist.com/index.php/weblog/permalink/deconstructing_l...

 

check out the thumbnail…

i couldn’t help myself ;)

7. Bob Loblaws says:

April 9th, 2005 at 9:55 am

 

Lichtenstein was a crap artist who just stole work from other artist. You can try to intellectualize it any way you want. A con man in my books. How these people consistantly con the Intelligencia of the art world in is beyond me.

8. Ward says:

April 9th, 2005 at 2:32 pm

 

Bob Loblaws,

You’re entitled to your own opinion, and I can see where you’re coming from, but I think you’re being brash and closed-minded on Lichtenstein and his work. So, what you’re telling me is that because he took work from other artists and reconfigured them and painted them in his own way that he’s a con man, right? Well, then I guess you can just lock up every single artist that is out there, from gallery to the comic-stand, because everybody is copying from everyone else. If you look on the “About” page for Drawn!, you’ll see the quote by Einstein: “The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources,” Lichtenstein just chose not to hide them. In fact, he blatantly made the viewer see his sources — even more so, exploited it. Thus, he became famous for it. Any other artist would’ve done the same thing, he just did it on a much larger scale than anyone else. Those comic artists could’ve done the same thing, but they didn’t. They probably didn’t seem to see the interest in it, but I wouldn’t know, so I’m not going to speak for them.

 

Artists “steal” from other artists. It’s a fact of life. I know that others have stolen from me, but all I have to do is just suck it up and just keep doing my thang. I could confront the situation, but why would I, as I do the same? Classic case of pot calling the kettle black.

 

Now, we’re splitting hairs here, as there is a distinct line between “stealing” and “being influenced by.” I understand that Lichtenstein blatantly grabbed these images from old comics, but again, he took something old and made something new. Was he sued for his work? What did the comic artists say about what he did? Was there any legal action?

 

What about all the artists now who call for Creative Commons licenses when at the same time try and copyright their own material so others don’t rip it off? When is it a right? When is it wrong?

9. andrea says:

April 9th, 2005 at 2:58 pm

 

I do not understand this. seriously, what is the DEAL? what is the matter with taking something (in this case, comic book art) and forcing the viewer to look at it in an entirely different way (which is what lichtenstein did)? isn’t that what art is all about? if anything, it further legitimized the work of comic book artists. case in point: I am not a comic book fan/reader, but lichtenstein’s work allowed me to see it with new eyes. I am completely puzzled by these narrow-minded views represented in the earlier posts.

10. MrBlank says:

April 9th, 2005 at 6:06 pm

 

A lot of times art isn’t about style, technique or format. Sometimes it’s all about one simple idea. In today’s context, Liechtenstein’s work does seem cliché and old-hat, but that shows just how influential his work has been. We’ve gotten used to it. Every single creative medium is using Liechtenstein’s idea and running with it.

 

Fashion: Did you see ‘Project Runway’ on Bravo? One challenge was to Take clothing from a vintage clothing store, deconstruct it and create fashion for the future. Even the show’s winning designer, Jay, had a line of cloths that mixed elements from the rural past, like quilts and knitted shawls and put them in a modern, urban context.

 

Illustration\Design: Look at recent posts on Drawn! and you see it. Remember the one on Phil Noto? “Noto’s work, again, falls into the category of retro meets now, with some varied influences. His work reminds me of a cross between Bob Peak, straight up early Bond, 60’s mod, with some manga mixed in (maybe).”

 

Movies: Kill Bill — This was a motion picture’s equivalent to a photo collage. Tarantino took scenes, angles, dialog, music and many, many other things from a huge history of filmmakers’ work and created a visual mash-up of the medium. Brilliant.

 

Music: The Grey Album — DJ Dangermose’s marrage of Jay-Z’s Black Album and the Beatle’s White Album. It was labeled as the best album of 2004 by Entertainment Weekly even though it was never published. It was released on P2P networks finding its way to iPods all over the world. Due to copyright laws, it still remains illegal.

 

Popular culture would not be the same without Liechtenstein’s influence. You don’t have to be Clement Greenberg to see the significance of that. Like science and technology, you take what has been done before and add to it, move it forward, make it new. Everything is built on the past, everything.

 

Sidenote:

It’s also interesting to see this trend stirring up a lot of legal issues. If all of our copyright laws had been focused on in the 60’s, would Lichtenstein have been able to show is work? Is art being limited because of these laws? It seems so: www.illegal-art.org/

11. Cash Nexus says:

April 10th, 2005 at 9:03 pm

 

For further research, there’s a great examination of art, sources, and influences, including Pop Art in general and this same discussion on Roy Lichtenstein in particular, in “High & Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture” (www.moesbooks.com/cgi-bin/moe/39669.html). I highly recommend this thorough and detailed book.

12. Paul says:

April 10th, 2005 at 10:40 pm

 

I’m gonna get to the heart of this: if a crap artist finds himself making a ton o’ dough by copying another artist, then at least the the guy who’s pockets are now flowing with cash could’ve looked up the poor schmo who did the original work and offered him half. But no, this Ward cat will find a way to justify not sharing the bux as well as he protected his thievery above…I’ve used exact replicas of Escher and Michelangelo in my work, and I ALWAYS sign their names, even if it’s obvious who did the original.

Since I never earned a dollar for any of the works in which I paid homage to my heroes, I have nothing to share, but damn if I don’t have the address of the Escher foundation in case I do. Crap is crap. Lichenstein was crap.

13. Sam says:

April 10th, 2005 at 10:48 pm

 

This Paul guy must be right - looks like he’s an expert on crap.

14. Ward says:

April 11th, 2005 at 7:41 am

 

I was not going to respond anymore to this thread as I feel that I’ve already stated my opinon on the topic, but after being called a “thief,” I feel like I should defend myself to a certain degree. When I mentioned in my last post about how other artists “steal” (notice quotes) from others, including myself, my train of thought was about how we all take elements from other artists who have influenced us and incorporate these elements into our own work. Some people might take notice, like when you say, “Oh I definitely see a Kirby influence there, etc.” Everybody does this, and it’s not thievery in my opinon.

 

But I then thought. after reading your response, Paul, that when you say you used replicas of other’s work — in a collage effect, I’m assuming — that yes, I have used various clips of magazines, pictures, and newspapers in my work. (If you’re curious, click here. And for the record, I’ve never made any money off of these pieces.) A good amount of artists have used collage, and have made loads of money from doing so. Thievery, or not? Who’s to say?

 

And Paul, with your portrait of John Lennon — do you know that you did EXACTLY what Lichtenstein did? You both used images from a different source and made the viewer look at it in a different way. (Plus, you did not credit the photographers.)

 

Like I mentioned earlier, it’s a classic case of the pot calling the kettle black.

15. niff says:

April 11th, 2005 at 11:51 am

 

Ward: you said it all. bravo!

16. Steve says:

April 11th, 2005 at 12:43 pm

 

Yeah! I opened up a hornet’s nest here! (puts on beekeeper’s netting)

 

It is interesting to hear why Lichtenstein’s work is considered important. I saw the Pop Artist exhibit when it came through Atlanta, and the pieces still challenged some of my ideas about art, even though their impact had been absorbed into the art world decades ago. I believe there were a few Lichtenstein pieces…something with a jet plane…bah, can’t remember.

 

As a musician who can both play instruments and samples them, as well as an experienced “photoshop jockey,” I can’t deny that the groundwork laid by these people has influenced me. In fact, what they did as “rebellion” has become part of the standard tools of the trade now.

 

Perhaps my sensibility lies somewhere in the middle of this debate. I appreciate the effect Lichtenstein’s recontextualization has had on the comics medium and the art world; yet in looking at his work, I hope for more immediate aesthetic gratification. In other words, I want a picture that is both subversive AND pretty.

 

Also, artwork created with a focus on subversive impact always strikes me as a “shave and a haircut” approach. I get the joke, I move on. It’s the art world’s version of a soundbyte. Nothing wrong with that, but I crave more substantial experiences with art. I guess I’m naive in that.

17. jo3 says:

April 11th, 2005 at 10:47 pm

 

ah, can we get a mirror up in here?

18. eck@rt says:

April 12th, 2005 at 6:01 am

 

Who can tell me more about Tony Abruzzo? Abruzzo drew romance comics in the 60s and 70s, some of which were models for Lichtenstein.

 

eck@rt

19. Elias Hiebert says:

April 12th, 2005 at 11:57 am

 

Yeah, all artists steal, whatever . But the thing that bugs me about Lichtenstein is that he appears to have no respect for the artists he stole from. It’s as if he thought all this commercial art he was surrounded by just appeared by magic. And he got filthy, filthy rich. And the artists he stole from did not. So that rub my sense of justice the wrong way. And I LIKE Lichtenstein! (Sorry I’m beginning every sentence with the word And.) Those big canvasses really HIT ya! Lichtenstein was really good. Was he good enough to do what the artists he stole from did day in and day out? I doubt it.

20. Jen says:

April 13th, 2005 at 3:29 pm

 

Steve: what you said, man. In spades. Bravo.

 

Ward, ditto(even if I am more of a mind with Steve, I love the way you express yourself).

 

Good discussion, all of it.

21. Joy says:

April 20th, 2005 at 11:11 pm

 

So does anyone know if the original page is down for good?

     

American Madness

Intelligent Criticism in the Service of a Better Nation

 

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

David Barsalou has taken the time to go back and track down the original comics of over 60 of Roy Lichtenstein’s works, he then compiled them next to the Lichtenstein prints and posted them online.

 

You get to see a comprehensive overview of Lichtenstein’s source materials and see how closely he interpreted/copied the originals. Some controversy has arisen over these early works as he never credited the original artists whose work he was copying. According to Wikipedia: Jack Cowart, executive director of the Lichtenstein Foundation contests the notion that Lichtenstein was a copyist, saying “Roy’s work was a wonderment of the graphic formula and the codification of sentiment that had been worked out by others. The panels were changed in scale, color, treatment, and in their implications. There is no exact copy.”

On the flipside:

Artist Dave Gibbons said of Lichtenstein’s works: “Roy Lichtenstein’s copies of the work of Irv Novick and Russ Heath are flat, uncomprehending tracings of quite sophisticated images.” Lichtenstein’s obituary in The Economist noted these artists “did not think much of his paintings. In enlarging them, some claimed, they became static. Some threatened to sue him.”

This anger from the original artists could also stem from the lack of recognition they received for their work in its original form, devalued as just another piece of pop/trash culture, while Roy Lichtenstein was elevated to celebrity and received various awards and recognition for his work.

Now you can see his works next to the original panels and determine for yourself whether you think Lichtenstein was a genius or copyist.

1.

Or a genius copyist.

 

americanmadness.com/2007/10/25/deconstructing-roy-lichten...

  

The GAB

Shaun Venish - Graphic Art Blog

www.venish.com/blog/files/4add87f3e3ef7fb9660ade0cc00c005...

 

Roy Lichtenstein

18/March/2008 | Illustraton

I've been a fan of Roy Lichtenstein's comic book pop art for years. I always wondered how many of his paintings were taken from comic books and did he copy the comic panels directly or make changes to them to improve the composition? Well now there are some answers, thanks to David Barsalou and his Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein project. Originally an exibit at the Springfield Massachusetts Gallery, he now has a flickr site that contains a ton of the source material. It's an interesting deconstruction of the wonderful work Lichtenstein created.

 

A really interesting read is the Great Bazooka Bubble Gum Wrapper Myth of 1961, A look into the controversy over whether Lichtenstein stole Andy Warhol's idea. Neat.

 

"... So, I went home and called Andy - no, I think, I went right over to Andy's house... and so, I said, 'Prepare yourself for a shock.' And he said, 'What?' I said, 'Castelli has a closet full of comic paintings.' And he said, 'You're kidding?!' And he said, 'Who did them?' And I said, 'Somebody by the name of Lichtenstein.' Well, Andy turned white. He said, 'Roy Lichtenstein.' He said, 'Roy Lichtenstein used to... ' - as I remember, he used to be a sign painter for Bonwit Teller, and here's where I'm a little bit confused because Andy... couldn't get anybody to show his early cartoon paintings, so he went to Gene Moore and Gene Moore said, 'Well I can put the paintings in the windows...' He put them in the 57th Street window... As I remember, the implication was: Andy felt that Lichtenstein had seen the paintings in the window and gave him the idea to do his paintings..."

www.venish.com/blog/files/4add87f3e3ef7fb9660ade0cc00c005...

 

web.archive.org/web/20030310054018/www.newmassmedia.com/a...

 

www.boston.com/news/globe/living/articles/2006/10/18/lich...

 

www.cbgxtra.com/

www.cbldf.org/

www.wizarduniverse.com/

 

Artist or Artiface?

October 25, 2007

 

Bibi's box: July 2005 Archives

www.bibi.org/box/archives/2005_07.php?offset=160

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein - The original Comic Book source images of Pop Artist Roy Lichtenstein, by David Barsalou. (via neurastenia)

 

JeremyS « Amnesia Blog

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

amnesiablog.wordpress.com/author/muchablogaboutnothing/

David Barsalou has a lot of time on his hands… So much time infact that he has spent the last 25 years of his life closely examining every single illustration in over 30,000 comic books with the sole purpose of uncovering the original source material for the work of 1960s Pop Art icon Roy Lichtenstein. So far he has sourced about 140 specific illustrations that Lichtenstein has blown up and sold for mega bucks.

Posted by JeremyS

 

scamp: an irish illustration blog » Comics

www.scamp.ie/category/comics/page/2/

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

Friday, October 26th, 2007

Thanks to Mario for pointing this one out

For the last 25 years David Barsalou has examined over 30,000 comic books (a kind of obsession) to find the cartoon images Lichtenstein used in his work.

The Lichtenstein Project compares over 60 of Roy Lichtenstein’s paintings.

Though in art/history books I always read that Lichtenstein best-known artworks are relatively close, but not exact, copies of comic-book panels (a subject he largely abandoned in 1965) after Barsalou’s deconstruction I find quite amazing the level of similarities!!!

by Mario Sughi

  

The Art Law Blog

Wednesday, October 18, 2006

Lichtenstein and Copyright

Alex Beam has an interesting piece in the Boston Globe on copyright issues surrounding Roy Lichtenstein's use of images from comics. An art teacher named David Barsalou has been tracking down and cataloging specific comics that were the inspiration for Lichtenstein's paintings; so far he's found about 140. "Color me naive," writes Beam, "but I never thought Lichtenstein's work was a direct copy of scenes from comic books. I assumed that he stylized certain scenes suggested by the comic vernacular of the 1950s and 1960s." He also correctly points out that Lichtenstein could have faced serious copyright problems (Beam doesn't mention it, but just think of Rogers v. Koons); he says the interesting question is why he never did. The question is in any case now moot: there's a three-year statute of limitations for copyright claims.

theartlawblog.blogspot.com/2006_10_01_archive.html

You can see samples of Barsalou's research at his website, Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein.

 

posted by Donn Zaretsky at 6:44 PM

  

Golden Age Artist Needs Your Help!

We have just been informed that Gene Colon, artist extraordinaire has been diagnosed with liver failure. Medicare covers the majority of his bills, but since his family does not have any insurance whatsoever, his prescriptions have been running hundreds of dollars. I am taking it upon myself to ask for your help in sending a donation large or small to help defray these expenses. It is up to us, the collectors and fans of today to help those stalwarts who made our industry what it is today.

 

Please send it to: Gene Colan, 2 Sea Cliff, Sea Cliff, NY 11579. You’ll be glad you did.

JERRY GRANDENETTI (b. 1925), started out as an assistant to Will Eisner on THE SPIRIT. In the 1950s, he did the drawing on 'Crimebuster' and various western and war comics for DC Comics. During the 1960s, Grandenetti worked for Warren, and later retired from comics to enter the advertising field.

 

RUSS HEATH (b. 1926) is one of the most respected and revered comic artists in history. Noted for his intensely realistic style and incredible attention to detail, he has worked in many genres, but really came into his own doing a series of war books for DC, including lengthy runs on The Haunted Tank and Sgt. Rock. He assisted Harvey Kurtzman on the "Little Annie Fannie" stories for Playboy, did a fondly-remembered Lone Ranger comic strip, and even worked in the animation field for a time. He has continued to lend his expert pencil & pen to comics well into the new millennium.

 

JOE KUBERT (b. 1926) began his comic book career at the ripe old age of 12, doing inks for MLJ Publications. He was extremely prolific during the Golden Age, and in the '50s he became the managing editor of St. John Comics, where he created Tor, Mighty Mouse, and others. He is perhaps best known for his work in the '60s and '70s on DC's war titles, as well as the re-launched TARZAN comic, where he developed a distinctive, expressive inking style. In 1976, he founded the Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphics in New Jersey, where he still teaches today.

 

CARMINE INFANTINO (b. 1925) began his comics career working on JACK FROST for Timely in 1942. He worked on many classic Golden Age characters such as the Flash, Green Lantern, and Black Canary. Prior to being appointed Editorial Director (and later Publisher) of DC Comics, his most notable work was an eleven-year run on the Silver Age revival of the Flash.

 

Dear jerryweist,

 

Jerry... Please check out my website project

Deconstructing Roy

Lichtenstein. I think you will

find it quite informative.

Regards,

David

Barsalou

 

www.flickr.com/photos/deconstructing-roy-lichtenstein/

 

davidbarsalou.homestead.com/LICHTENSTEINPROJECT.html

 

-stezko

www.paulgravett.com/articles/112_cult_fiction/112_cult_fi...

    

ImageTexT

ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies is a web journal dedicated to furthering comics scholarship in a variety of disciplines and theoretical perspectives. Access to ImageTexT is provided free of charge by the Department of English at the University of Florida. From the site:

The objective of ImageTexT is to advance the academic study of comic books, comic strips, and animated cartoons. Under the guidance of an editorial board of scholars from a variety of disciplines, ImageTexT publishes solicited and peer-reviewed papers that investigate the material, historical, theoretical, and cultural implications of visual textuality. ImageTexT welcomes essays emphasizing (but not limited to) the aesthetics, cognition, production, reception, distribution and dissemination of comics and other media as they relate to comics, along with translations of previously existing research on comics as dimensions of visual culture. Exploring all periods and all countries, and deploying a wide range of disciplinary approaches, ImageTexT is designed to foster innovative discussions of the political and social implications of comics, to generate original formal aesthetic analyses of comics, and to broaden theoretical discussions of genre, period, narrative, and complex image/text relationships in comics and related media. ImageTexT will include reviews of current scholarship in the field, announcements regarding relevant conferences and upcoming publications, and links to other theoretical projects of interest to readers. ImageTexT will also provide currently unavailable English-language translations of seminal essays of comics theory.

Whew! There is some pretty interesting stuff to be read here, including the history of Zippy the Pinhead (seen above in his earliest incarnation as a drawing of the famous Schlitzie from Tod Browning’s Freaks) in an article by Bill Griffith himself, entitled Still Asking, “Are We Having Fun Yet?”

  

to Product Overview

Editorial Reviews

From Publishers Weekly

As a teenager, future television and comics writer Evanier became an assistant to Jack Kirby, one of the foremost artists in the history of American comics. Kirby played a major role in shaping the superhero genre, not only through his innovative, dynamic artwork but through collaborating with Stan Lee to create classic Marvel characters like the Fantastic Four, the Hulk and the X-Men. Evanier has now written this magnificently illustrated biography of his mentor. Rather than employing the academic prose that one might expect from an art book, Evanier, a talented raconteur, tells Kirby's life story in an informal, entertaining manner. Although Evanier does not delve into psychological analysis, he brings Kirby's personality vividly alive: a child of the Great Depression, a creative visionary who struggled most of his life to support his family. The book recounts how Kirby was insufficiently appreciated by clueless corporate executives and close-minded comics professionals. But the stunning artwork in this book, taken from private collections, makes the case for Kirby's genius. A landmark work, this is essential reading for comics fans and those who want to better understand the history of the comics medium—or those who just want to enjoy Kirby's incredible artwork. (Mar.)

Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 

Product Description

Jack Kirby created or co-created some of comic books’ most popular characters including Captain America, The X-Men, The Hulk, The Fantastic Four, The Mighty Thor, Darkseid, and The New Gods. More significantly, he created much of the visual language for fantasy and adventure comics. There were comics before Kirby, but for the most part their page layout, graphics, and visual dynamic aped what was being done in syndicated newspaper strips. Almost everything that was different about comic books began in the forties on the drawing table of Jack Kirby. This is his story by one who knew him well—the authorized celebration of the one and only “King of Comics” and his groundbreaking work.

 

“I don’t think it’s any accident that . . . the entire Marvel universe and the entire DC universe are all pinned or rooted on Kirby’s concepts.” —Michael Chabon

  

About the Author

Mark Evanier met Jack Kirby in 1969, worked as his assistant, and later became his official biographer. A writer and historian, Evanier has written more than 500 comics for Gold Key, DC Comics, and Marvel Comics, several hundred hours of television (including Garfield) and is the author of several books including Mad Art (2002). He has three Emmy Award nominations, and received the Lifetime Achievement Award for animation from the Writers Guild of America.

  

2014 SPYKER C8 AILERON

 

Engine: 4.2 Litre V8 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

Transmission: 6 speed automatic gearbox with manual override

Top Speed: 187 MPH

Acceleration: 0-60 MPH in 4.5 seconds

 

COLORS:

Exterior: Choice of 16 colors

Interior: Choice of 14 colors

 

OPTIONS:

Chronoswiss dials and switches

Louis Vuitton luggage set

Front lift system

Red, orange and yellow brake calipers and air intake

Quilted Leather Package

Turned aluminium Package

Parking sensors

19" Rotorblade wheels in several finishes

Spiker logo in headrests

 

PRICE:

MSRP from $214,990

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2009 SPYKER C8 LAVIOLETTE

 

Engine:

4.2 Litre V8 - 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

All aluminium Audi V8 engine (type S8) with 90-degree block angle. Natural aspiration through eight injection throttle bodies. Four overhead camshafts and five valves per cylinder. Stainless steel 4-into-1 high performance exhausts on either side of the engine.

Capacity : 4172 cc

Power : 298 kW (400 hp) (Stage II)

Torque : 480 Nm (354 lbs ft)

Maximum revolutions : 7500 rpm

 

Performance

Top speed 300 km/hr (187 mph)

Acceleration 0-100 km/hr in 4.5 sec (0-60 mph in 4.5 sec)

 

Transmission:

Manual 6 Speed Gearbox without electronic intervention. Rear wheel drive, with optional limited slip differential. Switchable ASR (traction control) and ABS.

 

Chassis and suspension:

Aluminium space frame clad with aluminium panels carries fully adjustable F1-style independent suspension, with Koni in board shock absorbers. Uprights CNC machined from solid billets of aluminium.

 

Electrical system:

Decentralised wiring system.

 

Brake system:

Twin-circuit brake system with adjustable brake balance. 6-piston aluminium brake calipers at the front, 4-piston aluminium brake calipers at the rear with ventilated brake discs. Brake disc diameter, front and rear, 356/330 mm.

 

Wheels and tires:

Forged ATS alloy rims with central lock-nuts

Front tires, 225/40ZR 18 (Dunlop Sport)

Rear tires, 255/35ZR 18 (Dunlop Sport)

Magnesium Spyker 19”Aeroblade:tm: wheels are optional

 

Sizes and weights:

Kerb weight 1275 kg (2805 lbs)

Wheelbase 2575 mm (101")

Front track 1400 mm (55")

Rear track 1580 mm (62")

Length 4185 mm (165")

Width (ex mirrors) 1880 mm (74")

Height 1245 mm (49")

Fuel tank capacity 80 liters (17,5 gallons)

 

MPG: 13 city / 18 hwy

 

Colors

Exterior: Burnt Almond Orange

Interior: Black

 

Options

19" Aeroblade wheels

Turned aluminium package

Quilted leather package

Spyker logo's in headrests

 

Price:

MSRP from $209,990

  

__________________________________________________________________

 

thank you for your visit and comments ...

dziekuje za wizyte i komentarz... (Polish)

gracias por su visita y comentarios ... (Spanish)

obrigado por sua visita e comentários... (Portugese)

la ringrazio per la vostra visita e commenti ... (Italian)

je vous remercie de votre visite et commentaires ...(French)

ich danke Ihnen für Ihren Besuch und Kommentare ...(German)

поблагодарить Вас за Ваш визит и комментарии ... (Russian)

訪問とコメントをお寄せいただきありがとうございます... (Japanese)

여러분의 방문이나 의견 주셔서 감사합니다 ... (Korean)

谢谢您的访问和评论... (Chinese)

شكرا لك على الزيارة والتعليقات... (Arabic)

__________________________________________________________________

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

 

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2014 SPYKER C8 AILERON

 

Engine: 4.2 Litre V8 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

Transmission: 6 speed automatic gearbox with manual override

Top Speed: 187 MPH

Acceleration: 0-60 MPH in 4.5 seconds

 

COLORS:

Exterior: Choice of 16 colors

Interior: Choice of 14 colors

 

OPTIONS:

Chronoswiss dials and switches

Louis Vuitton luggage set

Front lift system

Red, orange and yellow brake calipers and air intake

Quilted Leather Package

Turned aluminium Package

Parking sensors

19" Rotorblade wheels in several finishes

Spiker logo in headrests

 

PRICE:

MSRP from $214,990

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

(Study) For Whamm! Panel 1 : Original Source

Original Artist : Jerry Grandenetti

 

JERRY GRANDENETTI

Jerry Grandenetti (April 15, 1925 or 1927 (sources differ), Bronxville, New York) is an American comic book artist and advertising art director, best known for his work with writer-artist Will Eisner on the celebrated comics feature "The Spirit", and for his decade- and-a-half run on many DC Comics war series.

 

because im addicted: Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

becauseimaddicted.net/2007/10/deconstructing-lichtenstein...

Thursday, October 25, 2007

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

I came across this David Barsalou's Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein page and apparently Barsalou has spent the last 25 years of his life going through over 30,000 comic books studying every illustration determined to find the original sources of Roy Lichtenstein's pieces.

 

Check out David Barsalou's flickr account: DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN's

Photo Cred: davidbarsalou.homestead.com/LICHTENSTEINPROJECT.html

 

Roy Lichtenstein

Sent: Thu 4/19/07 11:54 AM

To: barsaloud@hotmail.com

 

From: Hillary Bray Register (hregist1@my.westga.edu)

 

Mr. Barsalou,

I am currently working on my senior thesis paper in art history concerning Roy Lichtenstein's representation of women in the 60s and 90s. While searching for images, I found your website. Needless to say, your images have been invaluable to my research. I cannot find many of them in any other text. As I will be giving an oral presentation on my research, I will need to use these images to compare the originals with Lichtenstein's appropriations. However, the images are not presentation quality. If at all possible, I would greatly appreciate it if you could email me higher resolution images. If this is not possible or desirable, I understand. Nonetheless, I would like to thank you for devoting such a great deal of time and effort to procure the original images.

 

Sincerely,

Hillary Register

University of West Georgia

 

Art das kunstmagazin

www.art-magazin.de

 

art Magazin D.P.V.

P.O. Box 101602

20010 Hamburg

Germany

 

U.S.A. newsstand distribution is by GLP International, 153 South Dean

Street, Englewood NJ 07631. Phone: 1-201-871-10 10, Fax 1-201-871-0870,

www.glpnews.com

 

Dear David Barsalou,

 

In our next issue we are about to publish an article on your work

Deconstruction of Roy Lichtenstein.

Therefore it would be great you could provide us a selection of 5-8 images showing your artwork.

If so, please send them in a high resolution (15x20cm, 300dpi), with

detailed captions via email to me, please. You can also use our FTP Server,

which access informations you can find below.

 

Looking forward to hear from you soon! Thank you in advance!

 

Best regards from Hamburg

 

Verena Andreas

Verena Andreas (ass.photo@art-magazin.de)

 

Spitting Image

October 23, 2006

DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN

www.spitting-image.net/archives/005964.html

Artist David Barsalou presents a comparative analysis of Pop Artist Roy Lichtenstein's paintings with the original source images he copied from 1960's comic books. The pictures on display are from Barsalou's forthcoming book, also titled DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN.The exhibit and book are the result of over 15 years of extensive research.Barsalou examined over 25,000 comic books to find the pictures Lichtenstein used in his work. This is the first time that Roy Lichtenstein's original source images have ever been exhibited together. Barsalou states, " DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN may influence how critics, and writers view Lichtenstein's work in the future.This exhibit will be of significant historical importance". press release | See Gallery 9/5/2000

 

flickr photos from DRL: www.flickr.com/photos/deconstructing-roy-lichtenstein/

 

thanks Conscientious

 

~Artist as archivist. (Personal note: for years I've been visiting cemeteries & graveyards within a days drive of my home; taking photos of stones and memorials. The thrill of finding something many people overlook keeps me at it.)

One might wonder if David Barsalou's 15 years of comic-book research along with his book and exhibits have had any affect upon the dollar value of Roy Lichtenstein paintings. Do the same art galleries represent both artists?

On the other hand Lichtenstein paintings are (still?) sold for tens of millions of dollars, so Barsalou's work is truly a labor of love and Lichtenstein's body of work is worthy of his scrutiny?

Posted by Stubbornson at October 23, 2006 12:47 PM

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

drawn.ca/2005/04/page/3/

Posted at 5:13 pm by Ward | 21 Comments

John McFaul »

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

 

roy lichtenstein

 

Whether or not you fully appreciate the work of the late Pop Artist, Roy Lichtenstein, you can at least take a gander at the comic book sources that he used for his pieces . Deconstructing Lichtenstein is the pet project of David Barsalou, an avid Lichtenstein fan, who went through thousands of old comics to find the original source images to Roy’s paintings. It’s interesting to see the creative process behind the legendary painter’s work as you get to see how much (or how little) he changed the subject matter. Be patient as it takes a while for all the images to load.

 

This entry was posted on Friday, April 8th, 2005 at 5:13 pm by Ward and is filed under Art, Comics. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

21 Comments

 

1. Steve says:

April 8th, 2005 at 7:21 pm

 

I’ve been doing some research on old comics lately, as part of my regimen for gearing up to publish a few graphic novels. So I’ve developed a new fondness for old comic art styles.

 

What really struck me about this Lichtenstein page was how poorly his versions fared against the originals. These unheralded comics artists, laboring under work-for-hire conditions for little pay, had better line control and anatomical control than our artiste Roy. His versions look downright amateurish.

 

It’s a little hard to appreciate his contribution in this light, other than the fact that he recontextualized these comic artist’s work by copying it badly and hanging it in an art gallery. How is this significant? Because it made it acceptable for artsy-fartsy collectors to admit they liked comics?

2. Ward says:

April 8th, 2005 at 8:31 pm

 

True, Roy’s work seems downright crude, but remember you’ve got to think that line quality and perfect interpretations of humans and animals dipicted were not his motivation. You can’t equate his paintings with the skills of those comic artists. (And, his paintings are painted on very large canvases, instead of on smaller illustration board.) Plus, you’ve got to think about from where he was coming from. He was a Pop Artist. The Pop Artists were guys who were frustrated with the art world at the time and felt that art was in the mundane everyday thing. They were putting a mirror up to ordinary objects and forcing us to look at it in a new way — through a different context. In fact, some of those guys were poking fun at what art collectors would call “art” and were amazed at the amount of money the collectors would put down on a piece. Like I said, not everybody is down with Lichtenstein, but at that time, he made people look at art and at comic books in a new light.

3. niff says:

April 8th, 2005 at 10:00 pm

 

Two great points ! It IS funny to see how crude Roy’s work looks next to the original, but then you have to think how HUGE Roy worked. I think you both made great points, and It is pretty cool how he made people re-examine comics as fine art. awesome link! thanks.

4. saamvisual says:

April 9th, 2005 at 5:56 am

 

Is a link on your site a poisoned chalice? The site is down due to bandwidth issues…. wow to be THAT popular. BTW, I really like this site - please keep it going.

5. Surfer says:

April 9th, 2005 at 7:12 am

 

Bandwidth limit exceeded!

6. jmorrison says:

April 9th, 2005 at 8:43 am

 

hey, i have to agree with steve on this one. i posted a tid bit about this a while back and did a little bit of further “deconstruction.”

 

thenonist.com/index.php/weblog/permalink/deconstructing_l...

 

check out the thumbnail…

i couldn’t help myself ;)

7. Bob Loblaws says:

April 9th, 2005 at 9:55 am

 

Lichtenstein was a crap artist who just stole work from other artist. You can try to intellectualize it any way you want. A con man in my books. How these people consistantly con the Intelligencia of the art world in is beyond me.

8. Ward says:

April 9th, 2005 at 2:32 pm

 

Bob Loblaws,

You’re entitled to your own opinion, and I can see where you’re coming from, but I think you’re being brash and closed-minded on Lichtenstein and his work. So, what you’re telling me is that because he took work from other artists and reconfigured them and painted them in his own way that he’s a con man, right? Well, then I guess you can just lock up every single artist that is out there, from gallery to the comic-stand, because everybody is copying from everyone else. If you look on the “About” page for Drawn!, you’ll see the quote by Einstein: “The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources,” Lichtenstein just chose not to hide them. In fact, he blatantly made the viewer see his sources — even more so, exploited it. Thus, he became famous for it. Any other artist would’ve done the same thing, he just did it on a much larger scale than anyone else. Those comic artists could’ve done the same thing, but they didn’t. They probably didn’t seem to see the interest in it, but I wouldn’t know, so I’m not going to speak for them.

 

Artists “steal” from other artists. It’s a fact of life. I know that others have stolen from me, but all I have to do is just suck it up and just keep doing my thang. I could confront the situation, but why would I, as I do the same? Classic case of pot calling the kettle black.

 

Now, we’re splitting hairs here, as there is a distinct line between “stealing” and “being influenced by.” I understand that Lichtenstein blatantly grabbed these images from old comics, but again, he took something old and made something new. Was he sued for his work? What did the comic artists say about what he did? Was there any legal action?

 

What about all the artists now who call for Creative Commons licenses when at the same time try and copyright their own material so others don’t rip it off? When is it a right? When is it wrong?

9. andrea says:

April 9th, 2005 at 2:58 pm

 

I do not understand this. seriously, what is the DEAL? what is the matter with taking something (in this case, comic book art) and forcing the viewer to look at it in an entirely different way (which is what lichtenstein did)? isn’t that what art is all about? if anything, it further legitimized the work of comic book artists. case in point: I am not a comic book fan/reader, but lichtenstein’s work allowed me to see it with new eyes. I am completely puzzled by these narrow-minded views represented in the earlier posts.

10. MrBlank says:

April 9th, 2005 at 6:06 pm

 

A lot of times art isn’t about style, technique or format. Sometimes it’s all about one simple idea. In today’s context, Liechtenstein’s work does seem cliché and old-hat, but that shows just how influential his work has been. We’ve gotten used to it. Every single creative medium is using Liechtenstein’s idea and running with it.

 

Fashion: Did you see ‘Project Runway’ on Bravo? One challenge was to Take clothing from a vintage clothing store, deconstruct it and create fashion for the future. Even the show’s winning designer, Jay, had a line of cloths that mixed elements from the rural past, like quilts and knitted shawls and put them in a modern, urban context.

 

Illustration\Design: Look at recent posts on Drawn! and you see it. Remember the one on Phil Noto? “Noto’s work, again, falls into the category of retro meets now, with some varied influences. His work reminds me of a cross between Bob Peak, straight up early Bond, 60’s mod, with some manga mixed in (maybe).”

 

Movies: Kill Bill — This was a motion picture’s equivalent to a photo collage. Tarantino took scenes, angles, dialog, music and many, many other things from a huge history of filmmakers’ work and created a visual mash-up of the medium. Brilliant.

 

Music: The Grey Album — DJ Dangermose’s marrage of Jay-Z’s Black Album and the Beatle’s White Album. It was labeled as the best album of 2004 by Entertainment Weekly even though it was never published. It was released on P2P networks finding its way to iPods all over the world. Due to copyright laws, it still remains illegal.

 

Popular culture would not be the same without Liechtenstein’s influence. You don’t have to be Clement Greenberg to see the significance of that. Like science and technology, you take what has been done before and add to it, move it forward, make it new. Everything is built on the past, everything.

 

Sidenote:

It’s also interesting to see this trend stirring up a lot of legal issues. If all of our copyright laws had been focused on in the 60’s, would Lichtenstein have been able to show is work? Is art being limited because of these laws? It seems so: www.illegal-art.org/

11. Cash Nexus says:

April 10th, 2005 at 9:03 pm

 

For further research, there’s a great examination of art, sources, and influences, including Pop Art in general and this same discussion on Roy Lichtenstein in particular, in “High & Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture” (www.moesbooks.com/cgi-bin/moe/39669.html). I highly recommend this thorough and detailed book.

12. Paul says:

April 10th, 2005 at 10:40 pm

 

I’m gonna get to the heart of this: if a crap artist finds himself making a ton o’ dough by copying another artist, then at least the the guy who’s pockets are now flowing with cash could’ve looked up the poor schmo who did the original work and offered him half. But no, this Ward cat will find a way to justify not sharing the bux as well as he protected his thievery above…I’ve used exact replicas of Escher and Michelangelo in my work, and I ALWAYS sign their names, even if it’s obvious who did the original.

Since I never earned a dollar for any of the works in which I paid homage to my heroes, I have nothing to share, but damn if I don’t have the address of the Escher foundation in case I do. Crap is crap. Lichenstein was crap.

13. Sam says:

April 10th, 2005 at 10:48 pm

 

This Paul guy must be right - looks like he’s an expert on crap.

14. Ward says:

April 11th, 2005 at 7:41 am

 

I was not going to respond anymore to this thread as I feel that I’ve already stated my opinon on the topic, but after being called a “thief,” I feel like I should defend myself to a certain degree. When I mentioned in my last post about how other artists “steal” (notice quotes) from others, including myself, my train of thought was about how we all take elements from other artists who have influenced us and incorporate these elements into our own work. Some people might take notice, like when you say, “Oh I definitely see a Kirby influence there, etc.” Everybody does this, and it’s not thievery in my opinon.

 

But I then thought. after reading your response, Paul, that when you say you used replicas of other’s work — in a collage effect, I’m assuming — that yes, I have used various clips of magazines, pictures, and newspapers in my work. (If you’re curious, click here. And for the record, I’ve never made any money off of these pieces.) A good amount of artists have used collage, and have made loads of money from doing so. Thievery, or not? Who’s to say?

 

And Paul, with your portrait of John Lennon — do you know that you did EXACTLY what Lichtenstein did? You both used images from a different source and made the viewer look at it in a different way. (Plus, you did not credit the photographers.)

 

Like I mentioned earlier, it’s a classic case of the pot calling the kettle black.

15. niff says:

April 11th, 2005 at 11:51 am

 

Ward: you said it all. bravo!

16. Steve says:

April 11th, 2005 at 12:43 pm

 

Yeah! I opened up a hornet’s nest here! (puts on beekeeper’s netting)

 

It is interesting to hear why Lichtenstein’s work is considered important. I saw the Pop Artist exhibit when it came through Atlanta, and the pieces still challenged some of my ideas about art, even though their impact had been absorbed into the art world decades ago. I believe there were a few Lichtenstein pieces…something with a jet plane…bah, can’t remember.

 

As a musician who can both play instruments and samples them, as well as an experienced “photoshop jockey,” I can’t deny that the groundwork laid by these people has influenced me. In fact, what they did as “rebellion” has become part of the standard tools of the trade now.

 

Perhaps my sensibility lies somewhere in the middle of this debate. I appreciate the effect Lichtenstein’s recontextualization has had on the comics medium and the art world; yet in looking at his work, I hope for more immediate aesthetic gratification. In other words, I want a picture that is both subversive AND pretty.

 

Also, artwork created with a focus on subversive impact always strikes me as a “shave and a haircut” approach. I get the joke, I move on. It’s the art world’s version of a soundbyte. Nothing wrong with that, but I crave more substantial experiences with art. I guess I’m naive in that.

17. jo3 says:

April 11th, 2005 at 10:47 pm

 

ah, can we get a mirror up in here?

18. eck@rt says:

April 12th, 2005 at 6:01 am

 

Who can tell me more about Tony Abruzzo? Abruzzo drew romance comics in the 60s and 70s, some of which were models for Lichtenstein.

 

eck@rt

19. Elias Hiebert says:

April 12th, 2005 at 11:57 am

 

Yeah, all artists steal, whatever . But the thing that bugs me about Lichtenstein is that he appears to have no respect for the artists he stole from. It’s as if he thought all this commercial art he was surrounded by just appeared by magic. And he got filthy, filthy rich. And the artists he stole from did not. So that rub my sense of justice the wrong way. And I LIKE Lichtenstein! (Sorry I’m beginning every sentence with the word And.) Those big canvasses really HIT ya! Lichtenstein was really good. Was he good enough to do what the artists he stole from did day in and day out? I doubt it.

20. Jen says:

April 13th, 2005 at 3:29 pm

 

Steve: what you said, man. In spades. Bravo.

 

Ward, ditto(even if I am more of a mind with Steve, I love the way you express yourself).

 

Good discussion, all of it.

21. Joy says:

April 20th, 2005 at 11:11 pm

 

So does anyone know if the original page is down for good?

 

American Madness

Intelligent Criticism in the Service of a Better Nation

 

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

David Barsalou has taken the time to go back and track down the original comics of over 60 of Roy Lichtenstein’s works, he then compiled them next to the Lichtenstein prints and posted them online.

 

You get to see a comprehensive overview of Lichtenstein’s source materials and see how closely he interpreted/copied the originals. Some controversy has arisen over these early works as he never credited the original artists whose work he was copying. According to Wikipedia: Jack Cowart, executive director of the Lichtenstein Foundation contests the notion that Lichtenstein was a copyist, saying “Roy’s work was a wonderment of the graphic formula and the codification of sentiment that had been worked out by others. The panels were changed in scale, color, treatment, and in their implications. There is no exact copy.”

On the flipside:

Artist Dave Gibbons said of Lichtenstein’s works: “Roy Lichtenstein’s copies of the work of Irv Novick and Russ Heath are flat, uncomprehending tracings of quite sophisticated images.” Lichtenstein’s obituary in The Economist noted these artists “did not think much of his paintings. In enlarging them, some claimed, they became static. Some threatened to sue him.”

This anger from the original artists could also stem from the lack of recognition they received for their work in its original form, devalued as just another piece of pop/trash culture, while Roy Lichtenstein was elevated to celebrity and received various awards and recognition for his work.

Now you can see his works next to the original panels and determine for yourself whether you think Lichtenstein was a genius or copyist.

1.

Or a genius copyist.

 

americanmadness.com/2007/10/25/deconstructing-roy-lichten...

 

The GAB

Shaun Venish - Graphic Art Blog

www.venish.com/blog/files/4add87f3e3ef7fb9660ade0cc00c005...

 

Roy Lichtenstein

18/March/2008 | Illustraton

I've been a fan of Roy Lichtenstein's comic book pop art for years. I always wondered how many of his paintings were taken from comic books and did he copy the comic panels directly or make changes to them to improve the composition? Well now there are some answers, thanks to David Barsalou and his Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein project. Originally an exibit at the Springfield Massachusetts Gallery, he now has a flickr site that contains a ton of the source material. It's an interesting deconstruction of the wonderful work Lichtenstein created.

 

A really interesting read is the Great Bazooka Bubble Gum Wrapper Myth of 1961, A look into the controversy over whether Lichtenstein stole Andy Warhol's idea. Neat.

 

"... So, I went home and called Andy - no, I think, I went right over to Andy's house... and so, I said, 'Prepare yourself for a shock.' And he said, 'What?' I said, 'Castelli has a closet full of comic paintings.' And he said, 'You're kidding?!' And he said, 'Who did them?' And I said, 'Somebody by the name of Lichtenstein.' Well, Andy turned white. He said, 'Roy Lichtenstein.' He said, 'Roy Lichtenstein used to... ' - as I remember, he used to be a sign painter for Bonwit Teller, and here's where I'm a little bit confused because Andy... couldn't get anybody to show his early cartoon paintings, so he went to Gene Moore and Gene Moore said, 'Well I can put the paintings in the windows...' He put them in the 57th Street window... As I remember, the implication was: Andy felt that Lichtenstein had seen the paintings in the window and gave him the idea to do his paintings..."

www.venish.com/blog/files/4add87f3e3ef7fb9660ade0cc00c005...

 

Artist or Artiface?

October 25, 2007

 

Bibi's box: July 2005 Archives

www.bibi.org/box/archives/2005_07.php?offset=160

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein - The original Comic Book source images of Pop Artist Roy Lichtenstein, by David Barsalou. (via neurastenia)

 

JeremyS « Amnesia Blog

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

amnesiablog.wordpress.com/author/muchablogaboutnothing/

David Barsalou has a lot of time on his hands… So much time infact that he has spent the last 25 years of his life closely examining every single illustration in over 30,000 comic books with the sole purpose of uncovering the original source material for the work of 1960s Pop Art icon Roy Lichtenstein. So far he has sourced about 140 specific illustrations that Lichtenstein has blown up and sold for mega bucks.

Posted by JeremyS

 

scamp: an irish illustration blog » Comics

www.scamp.ie/category/comics/page/2/

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

Friday, October 26th, 2007

Thanks to Mario for pointing this one out

For the last 25 years David Barsalou has examined over 30,000 comic books (a kind of obsession) to find the cartoon images Lichtenstein used in his work.

The Lichtenstein Project compares over 60 of Roy Lichtenstein’s paintings.

Though in art/history books I always read that Lichtenstein best-known artworks are relatively close, but not exact, copies of comic-book panels (a subject he largely abandoned in 1965) after Barsalou’s deconstruction I find quite amazing the level of similarities!!!

by Mario Sughi

 

The Art Law Blog

Wednesday, October 18, 2006

Lichtenstein and Copyright

Alex Beam has an interesting piece in the Boston Globe on copyright issues surrounding Roy Lichtenstein's use of images from comics. An art teacher named David Barsalou has been tracking down and cataloging specific comics that were the inspiration for Lichtenstein's paintings; so far he's found about 140. "Color me naive," writes Beam, "but I never thought Lichtenstein's work was a direct copy of scenes from comic books. I assumed that he stylized certain scenes suggested by the comic vernacular of the 1950s and 1960s." He also correctly points out that Lichtenstein could have faced serious copyright problems (Beam doesn't mention it, but just think of Rogers v. Koons); he says the interesting question is why he never did. The question is in any case now moot: there's a three-year statute of limitations for copyright claims.

theartlawblog.blogspot.com/2006_10_01_archive.html

You can see samples of Barsalou's research at his website, Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein.

 

posted by Donn Zaretsky at 6:44 PM

 

Du bist nicht angemeldet

www.supertopic.de/forum/9/zeig-mir-irgendwas-947-414.html

 

DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN

www.notcot.com/archives/2007/10/d...g.php#more

flickr.com/photos/deconstructing-...htenstein/

Apparently David Barsalou has spent the last 25 years of his life going through every illustration in over 30,000 comic books.... in order to find the original sources of Roy Lichtenstein's pieces! Knoth

Veteran

25.10.07

14:25 Uhr

 

www.planetcrap.com/topics/1126/844/

#868 by G-Man

2006-10-12 02:48:11

[davidbarsalou.homestead.com/LICHTENSTEINPROJECT.html]Lichtenstein swipes[/url] as seen on Boing Boing a year ago,and who reposted it themselves today. Thoughts?

 

#870 by Jibble

2006-10-12 03:01:18

  

#871 by Hugin

2006-10-12 03:21:22

 

Thoughts?

 

Could you be a bit more specific, or give some context?

#872 by Hugin

2006-10-12 03:23:56

What I mean is, all I've got right now is:

 

"Yup, that's totally a bunch of mostly early-to-mid Lichtenstein comic stuff, side by side with the source material."

 

Is there a point you want to debate or something?

#873 by yotsuya

2006-10-12 03:26:02

I think G-Man wants to know if you all think Lichtenstien loved his cats.

#876 by G-Man

2006-10-12 05:57:31

Hugin: I dunno. I was going for a vague troll rather than a Joker-style specific rant troll. But here are some starter arguments: OMG plagiarism. No it is fair use. No it is art. That's not art. Art sucks. We need to redefine art! Wait, if it is art then the original artist should get credit, right? No, the art is in the selection and framing. So can I steal Px's art too? Ow, why did you ounch me in the face? Etc.

#880 by schnee

2006-10-12 07:42:18

 

But here are some starter arguments: OMG plagiarism. No it is fair use. No it is art. That's not art. Art sucks. We need to redefine art! Wait, if it is art then the original artist should get credit, right? No, the art is in the selection and framing. So can I steal Px's art too? Ow, why did you ounch me in the face? Etc.

 

Lichtenstein was a whore, in the same way modern blog 'artists' take photos of the Brooklyn bridge cabling at an odd angle, drop on some type and a twirly 3-d rendered glass thingy, and call it design. The thing they think is so cool that 'only they saw' was, get this, intended that way by the original artist. Recognizing that is not art to me at all, unless you see something that is so goddamn striking and novel that it becomes something else entirely, which I'm not sure his stuff is.

 

Lichtenstein came about because that era had to have someone who was doing that, because that was the zeitgeist. Fuck it all, try something 'new' which is new precisely because it's not, blah blah. Not to mention the fact that the original artwork was better in almost all cases.

 

So, yeah, he has a place in history, but that's not always saying much.

 

I'm not condemning him, though. If I could pull off that trope - i.e. do something asinine and silly and get famous for it - I'd probably run with it, because hey, it's novel, and I have enough mediocre workmanlike stuff in my portfolio already that I'm pretty secure in a career.

#881 by Marsh Davies

2006-10-12 11:16:13

Schnee's pretty much said everything there is to say, but, you know, I would lose precious Pretentiousness Points if I didn't stick my oar in.

 

To react in shock and alarm that Lichtenstein copied his artwork is to miss the point, just as it would be to miss the point about Andy Warhol's many prints not actually being by Andy Warhol.

 

The idea of unoriginality, reproduction and elevating supposedly base media like comics to the level of art was the kernel of Lichtenstein's work. It's conceptual, not material art - all though this is belied its popular perception as iconic.

 

That said, my personal feeling is that such introspective ideas about the nature of art need only be made once. In fact, as with most conceptual art, the point would be more effectively made if you just described it, and didn't bother making the art. This stuff makes good essays and boring art, in my opinion. And Lichtenstein's continual ploughing of this furrow makes him a hack, albeit one of some importance to post-modernity. Same with Warhol. That's the shittiness of the art world for you. And there are still conceptual artists making the same point over and over again. But I guess whilst the Daily Mail reading masses and so on are still outraged by it, then it still has some use.

#882 by CheesyPoof

2006-10-12 14:37:07

Is it showing my ignorance something terrible to say I never heard of Lichtenstein before?

#885 by Jibble

2006-10-12 14:55:06

It's not any worse than Duchamp's Readymades. That's really all I have to say on the subject.

#887 by Jibble

2006-10-12 15:33:29

Don't you see? It merely asks a little something of the viewer. It asks, it begs, am I art? Can I hang in your galleries?

 

#888 by Hugin

2006-10-12 15:39:27

Litchenstein, among others in the pop art movement, helped to change our society's perception of it's own cultural infrastructure, in fact, it helped our society recognize it had a cultural infrastructure at all. Societies are generally horrible at deconstructing themselves, and pop art, approached intelligently, can help with that.

 

Plus, it performed some degree of service merely by partially collapsing or vertically integrating "high" and "low" culture. People who bemoan that the pendulum has swung too far in the other direction generally overstate the case, or have a fairly ahistorical view of art and craft in cultures, especially in modern western society.

#892 by Penguinx

2006-10-12 15:45:16

While I understand the value of the conceptual fibble-fabble, the thing I come away with is that the original comic artists had way better brush control.

#893 by bago

2006-10-12 15:49:10

manga_Rando@hotmail.com Wow, I wound up being in the center of this one.

  

#894 by Hugin

2006-10-12 15:53:50

 

#881 by Marsh Davies

  

That said, my personal feeling is that such introspective ideas about the nature of art need only be made once.

  

I disagree. Cultures have such an overwhelming weight of inertia, and people are so difficult to introduce new ideas to, especially ideas that conflict with their internal worldview, a little (or a lot) of repetition doesn't hurt.

 

In fact, as with most conceptual art, the point would be more effectively made if you just described it, and didn't bother making the art. This stuff makes good essays and boring art, in my opinion.

  

Again I disagree. I think it's a lot harder for essays to speak to people at the instinctive level than good art can. It's such a cliche, but a piscture (or sculpture or whatever) is worth a thousand words when it comes to shifting people's perceptions, if done well. Of course, some, probably most pop art is either redundant or crap, but most of everything is redundant or crap. No attack on pop art related to unorigonality or volume or redundancy can't be leveled with equal severity at other major/popular art movements. I mean, Impressionism? Surrealism? Folk/Outsider? How much wank and dross comprises those piles?

And Lichtenstein's continual ploughing of this furrow makes him a hack, albeit one of some importance to post-modernity. Same with Warhol. That's the shittiness of the art world for you.

  

Enh, as I said above, nearly every great artist (and this is true of people like scientists and mathematicians as well) have a couple great ideas in them, and probably some level of compulsion tying them to the pursuit of those ideas. A lifetime of churn will produce a handful of essential pieces (books, theorems, patents etc), everything else will be a commentary on/repudiation of those pieces, practice/foundation for those pieces, or crap.

 

And there are still conceptual artists making the same point over and over again. But I guess whilst the Daily Mail reading masses and so on are still outraged by it, then it still has some use.

 

News and Articles on Derivative Work

news.surfwax.com/general-news/files/derivative_work.html

 

Lichtenstein: creator or copycat? Oct 18, 2006

Barsalou correctly points that musicians who ``sample" other artists' music have to pay them royalties. Does the Lichtenstein estate owe compensation to the creators of the original work?After visiting a Lichtenstein exhibition in Chicago, attorney Mark Weissburg wrote an article titled ``Roy Lichtenstein, Copyright Thief?" ``I was struck by the fact that Lichtenstein was never sued for copyright infringement," Weissburg wrote. ``Under copyright law if you copy a protected work without... (Boston Globe)

  

www.comicsreporter.com/index.php/deconstructing_and_debat...

April 12, 2005

  

Deconstructing, Debating Lichtenstein

Through the great Canadian illustrators' group blog Drawn! comes not only a link to an enlightening work comparing the comics-inspired paintings of pop artist Roy Lichtenstein to their comic-book sources, but a by-the-numbers debate in the comments thread about the merits of Lichtenstein's work.

posted 7:36 am PST | Permalink

  

209.85.141.104/search?q=cache:TGeApfL35HsJ:www.thecomicfo...

 

June 14 2008, 12:34 PM

Post #8

Copyright Infringement on Art

In case anyone is interested, this is the Boston Globe article I mentioned in the 'cast:

 

"Lichtenstein: creator or copycat?" by Alex Beam

 

And this is the web site it (and I) talks about:

 

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

 

TV Tokyo Inquire

From: Kyoko Matsuda (matsuda@nexent.tv)

Sent: Wed 7/23/08 2:11 PM To: barsaloud@hotmail.com

Cc: yuko matsuda (yumatsuda@earthlink.net)

 

Dear Mr. Barsalou:

 

I am writing this on behalf of TV Tokyo, a Japanese TV network.

We produce weekend evening, 30 minutes-long art program titled "The Great Masters of Art" for TV Tokyo.

www.tv-tokyo.co.jp/kyojin/

This program reaches about 5 million Japanese population.

 

In each episode, one artist and one masterpiece by the featured artist will be picked. The program will explore the stories behind the production of the masterpiece and the life of the artist as well. Also the program will demonstrate/ explain the specific artistic technique that was used to create the featured art work.

 

We are planning to produce a program on Mr. Roy Lichtenstein and feature his "Girl with Hair Ribbon" for upcoming "The Great Masters" on TV Tokyo.

 

Since you have been working on the "Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein" site since 1979. I would like to ask a question about the cartoon which Mr. Lichtenstein transformed to his art work.

 

The director in Tokyo is interested in filming the original cartoon by Mr. John Romita Sr. and we are looking for its location. We already have contacted the Lichtenstein Foundation but they said they don't own it.

 

Please let me know if you know the information.

Thank you very much for your attention.

  

Cordially,

Kyoko Matsuda

BK Nexent, Inc.

545 8th Avenue 9th Floor North

New York, NY 10018, U.S.A.

Tel: (212)697-7401

Fax:(212)697-9542

E-mail: matsuda@nexent.tv

www.nexent.tv

www.nystream.net

 

astrofella.wordpress.com

 

(Soon after publishing this post, I received a comment from David Barsalou linking to the flickrstream – Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein - which he’s created comparing some 140 Lichtenstein artworks with the comic strip source images, along with fascinating biographies of the comicbook artists who created them.)

 

September 28, 1963

You may appreciate pop art, but did you know that Whaam!, a 1963 pop art piece painted by Roy Lichtenstein, is one of the best-known works of the art form? The painting was first exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New Your City on this day in 1963. It was purchased by the Tate Gallery in London three years later and has been on permanent display at Tate Modern since 2006.

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In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

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In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

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Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

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On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

 

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

ICE CREAM CONE : Original Source

 

All The Code You Never Gave Me

deconstructing art

Thursday, February 8, 2007, 01:50 PM - Copyfight

www.selectparks.net/~marta/index.php?entry=entry070214-00...

Boston News published a comment on the looping issue of Lichtenstein's use of foreign artwork, mostly comic artwork from DC Comics. It is called Lichtenstein, creator or copycat?:

Art teacher David Barsalou has an interesting avocation. He has found and catalog ed almost every comic book panel later blown up and sold for megabucks by 1960s POP Art icon Roy Lichtenstein. So far, Barsalou has about 140. You will see a sample on this page, or go to his website, Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein.

 

Color me naive, but I never thought Lichtenstein's work was a direct copy of scenes from comic books. I assumed that he stylized certain scenes suggested by the comic vernacular of the 1950s and 1960s. ``He tried to make it seem as though he was making major compositional changes in his work, but he wasn't," says Barsalou, who teaches at the High School of Commerce in Springfield. ``The critics are of one mind that he made major changes, but if you look at the work , he copied them almost verbatim. Only a few were original."

"Barsalou is boring to us," comments Jack Cowart, executive director of the Lichtenstein Foundation. He contests the notion that Lichtenstein was a mere copyist: "Roy's work was a wonderment of the graphic formulae and the codification of sentiment that had been worked out by others. Barsalou's thesis notwithstanding, the panels were changed in scale, color, treatment, and in their implications. There is no exact copy."

There is no exact copy. Eddie Campbell also writes a handsome post where he expains, among other things, the value of the actual process in the art production:

Showing them side by side like this is useful for an understanding of the iconographic connections, but it does miss the essence of the exercise, that is that Lichtenstein took a tiny picture, smaller than the palm of the hand, printed in four color inks on newsprint and blew it up to the conventional size at which 'art' is made and exhibited and finished it in paint on canvas. In theory it was like painting a view of a building, or a vase. He worked through a long series of the same kind of thing before applying the particular treatments he had devised, such as the mechanical dots, to other kinds of images, ultimately including abstract images as in the brushstroke series. I find his whole project quite astonishing and invigorating. It was good for art. Hell, it was even good for the comic book medium, setting a precedent for it to be taken seriously. Cambell's post is stuffed with interesting sideviews, including a suggestion from his comment system, Historically, copying the Masters was considered to be a part of the painter’s training, not the final product . . .

 

ARTICULATE

Brad darling, this painting is a masterpiece!

www.abc.net.au/news/arts/articulate/200610/s1769879.htm

By Sean Rubinsztein-Dunlop. Posted: Saturday, October 21 2006 .

Could it all be a lie? ...

 

American artist David Barsalou is on a mission to knock 60s pop artist Roy Lichtenstein off his throne.

 

Barsalou's idea of fun is finding and cataloging the comic book panels that made Lichtenstein a big name. Of the 140 he's found, many of the artist's works seem to be near copies.

"He tried to make it seem as though he was making major compositional changes in his work, but he wasn't," he said. "The critics are of one mind that he made major changes but if you look at the work, he copied them almost verbatim. Only a few were original."

 

Though news to me, apparently this is well known among artists. The general consensus seems to be that while Lichtenstein may have been a copyright thief, his co-option of pop culture fits the pop art conventions. It seems fair to say that the implications of the comics change when they're blown up to massive proportions and displayed on a wall. After all, if a soup can has the potential to become art, so does a comic strip. But it all becomes a bit comical (excuse the pun) when you consider one of Lichtenstein's works can go for $US1.6 million.

 

Check out the comparisons and tell us what you think. Is Lichtenstein a copycat or is he merely borrowing, like all great artists do?

 

And while you're pondering the prospect of plagiarism, why not rip the man off yourself and learn how to make your own Lichtenstein?

 

KANARDO™ // BLOG

kanardo.wordpress.com/2007/10/22/deconstructing-roy-licht...

 

.DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN.

 

22 October, 2007 in art

For the last 25 years David Barsalou has examined over 30,000 comic books to find the cartoon images Lichtenstein used in his work.

LINK: davidbarsalou.homestead.com/LICHTENSTEINPROJECT.html

 

FurdLog » Art? Or Copying?

msl1.mit.edu/furdlog/?p=5355

 

Lichtenstein: creator or copycat?

Color me naive, but I never thought Lichtenstein’s work was a direct copy of scenes from comic books. I assumed that he stylized certain scenes suggested by the comic vernacular of the 1950s and 1960s. “He tried to make it seem as though he was making major compositional changes in his work, but he wasn’t,” says Barsalou, who teaches at the High School of Commerce in Springfield. “The critics are of one mind that he made major changes, but if you look at the work , he copied them almost verbatim. Only a few were original.”

 

[…] Lichtenstein’s fans, and the collectors who now pay millions of dollars for individual canvases, will continue to revere his work. But what are the implications for copyright law? Barsalou correctly points that musicians who “sample” other artists’ music have to pay them royalties. Does the Lichtenstein estate owe compensation to the creators of the original work?

 

After visiting a Lichtenstein exhibition in Chicago, attorney Mark Weissburg wrote an article titled “Roy Lichtenstein, Copyright Thief?” [pdf] […]

   

Because Im Addicted: Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

becauseimaddicted.net/2007/10/deconstructing-lichtenstein...

Thursday, October 25, 2007

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

I came across this David Barsalou's Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein page and apparently Barsalou has spent the last 25 years of his life going through over 30,000 comic books studying every illustration determined to find the original sources of Roy Lichtenstein's pieces.

 

Check out David Barsalou's flickr account: DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN's

Photo Cred: davidbarsalou.homestead.com/LICHTENSTEINPROJECT.html

 

Spitting Image

October 23, 2006

DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN

www.spitting-image.net/archives/005964.html

Artist David Barsalou presents a comparative analysis of Pop Artist Roy Lichtenstein's paintings with the original source images he copied from 1960's comic books. The pictures on display are from Barsalou's forthcoming book, also titled DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN.The exhibit and book are the result of over 15 years of extensive research.Barsalou examined over 25,000 comic books to find the pictures Lichtenstein used in his work. This is the first time that Roy Lichtenstein's original source images have ever been exhibited together. Barsalou states, " DECONSTRUCTING ROY LICHTENSTEIN may influence how critics, and writers view Lichtenstein's work in the future.This exhibit will be of significant historical importance". press release | See Gallery 9/5/2000

 

flickr photos from DRL: www.flickr.com/photos/deconstructing-roy-lichtenstein/

 

thanks Conscientious

 

~Artist as archivist. (Personal note: for years I've been visiting cemeteries & graveyards within a days drive of my home; taking photos of stones and memorials. The thrill of finding something many people overlook keeps me at it.)

One might wonder if David Barsalou's 15 years of comic-book research along with his book and exhibits have had any affect upon the dollar value of Roy Lichtenstein paintings. Do the same art galleries represent both artists?

On the other hand Lichtenstein paintings are (still?) sold for tens of millions of dollars, so Barsalou's work is truly a labor of love and Lichtenstein's body of work is worthy of his scrutiny?

Posted by Stubbornson at October 23, 2006 12:47 PM

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

drawn.ca/2005/04/page/3/

Posted at 5:13 pm by Ward | 21 Comments

John McFaul »

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

 

roy lichtenstein

 

Whether or not you fully appreciate the work of the late Pop Artist, Roy Lichtenstein, you can at least take a gander at the comic book sources that he used for his pieces . Deconstructing Lichtenstein is the pet project of David Barsalou, an avid Lichtenstein fan, who went through thousands of old comics to find the original source images to Roy’s paintings. It’s interesting to see the creative process behind the legendary painter’s work as you get to see how much (or how little) he changed the subject matter. Be patient as it takes a while for all the images to load.

 

This entry was posted on Friday, April 8th, 2005 at 5:13 pm by Ward and is filed under Art, Comics. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

21 Comments

 

1. Steve says:

April 8th, 2005 at 7:21 pm

 

I’ve been doing some research on old comics lately, as part of my regimen for gearing up to publish a few graphic novels. So I’ve developed a new fondness for old comic art styles.

 

What really struck me about this Lichtenstein page was how poorly his versions fared against the originals. These unheralded comics artists, laboring under work-for-hire conditions for little pay, had better line control and anatomical control than our artiste Roy. His versions look downright amateurish.

 

It’s a little hard to appreciate his contribution in this light, other than the fact that he recontextualized these comic artist’s work by copying it badly and hanging it in an art gallery. How is this significant? Because it made it acceptable for artsy-fartsy collectors to admit they liked comics?

2. Ward says:

April 8th, 2005 at 8:31 pm

 

True, Roy’s work seems downright crude, but remember you’ve got to think that line quality and perfect interpretations of humans and animals dipicted were not his motivation. You can’t equate his paintings with the skills of those comic artists. (And, his paintings are painted on very large canvases, instead of on smaller illustration board.) Plus, you’ve got to think about from where he was coming from. He was a Pop Artist. The Pop Artists were guys who were frustrated with the art world at the time and felt that art was in the mundane everyday thing. They were putting a mirror up to ordinary objects and forcing us to look at it in a new way — through a different context. In fact, some of those guys were poking fun at what art collectors would call “art” and were amazed at the amount of money the collectors would put down on a piece. Like I said, not everybody is down with Lichtenstein, but at that time, he made people look at art and at comic books in a new light.

3. niff says:

April 8th, 2005 at 10:00 pm

 

Two great points ! It IS funny to see how crude Roy’s work looks next to the original, but then you have to think how HUGE Roy worked. I think you both made great points, and It is pretty cool how he made people re-examine comics as fine art. awesome link! thanks.

4. saamvisual says:

April 9th, 2005 at 5:56 am

 

Is a link on your site a poisoned chalice? The site is down due to bandwidth issues…. wow to be THAT popular. BTW, I really like this site - please keep it going.

5. Surfer says:

April 9th, 2005 at 7:12 am

 

Bandwidth limit exceeded!

6. jmorrison says:

April 9th, 2005 at 8:43 am

 

hey, i have to agree with steve on this one. i posted a tid bit about this a while back and did a little bit of further “deconstruction.”

 

thenonist.com/index.php/weblog/permalink/deconstructing_l...

 

check out the thumbnail…

i couldn’t help myself ;)

7. Bob Loblaws says:

April 9th, 2005 at 9:55 am

 

Lichtenstein was a crap artist who just stole work from other artist. You can try to intellectualize it any way you want. A con man in my books. How these people consistantly con the Intelligencia of the art world in is beyond me.

8. Ward says:

April 9th, 2005 at 2:32 pm

 

Bob Loblaws,

You’re entitled to your own opinion, and I can see where you’re coming from, but I think you’re being brash and closed-minded on Lichtenstein and his work. So, what you’re telling me is that because he took work from other artists and reconfigured them and painted them in his own way that he’s a con man, right? Well, then I guess you can just lock up every single artist that is out there, from gallery to the comic-stand, because everybody is copying from everyone else. If you look on the “About” page for Drawn!, you’ll see the quote by Einstein: “The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources,” Lichtenstein just chose not to hide them. In fact, he blatantly made the viewer see his sources — even more so, exploited it. Thus, he became famous for it. Any other artist would’ve done the same thing, he just did it on a much larger scale than anyone else. Those comic artists could’ve done the same thing, but they didn’t. They probably didn’t seem to see the interest in it, but I wouldn’t know, so I’m not going to speak for them.

 

Artists “steal” from other artists. It’s a fact of life. I know that others have stolen from me, but all I have to do is just suck it up and just keep doing my thang. I could confront the situation, but why would I, as I do the same? Classic case of pot calling the kettle black.

 

Now, we’re splitting hairs here, as there is a distinct line between “stealing” and “being influenced by.” I understand that Lichtenstein blatantly grabbed these images from old comics, but again, he took something old and made something new. Was he sued for his work? What did the comic artists say about what he did? Was there any legal action?

 

What about all the artists now who call for Creative Commons licenses when at the same time try and copyright their own material so others don’t rip it off? When is it a right? When is it wrong?

9. andrea says:

April 9th, 2005 at 2:58 pm

 

I do not understand this. seriously, what is the DEAL? what is the matter with taking something (in this case, comic book art) and forcing the viewer to look at it in an entirely different way (which is what lichtenstein did)? isn’t that what art is all about? if anything, it further legitimized the work of comic book artists. case in point: I am not a comic book fan/reader, but lichtenstein’s work allowed me to see it with new eyes. I am completely puzzled by these narrow-minded views represented in the earlier posts.

10. MrBlank says:

April 9th, 2005 at 6:06 pm

 

A lot of times art isn’t about style, technique or format. Sometimes it’s all about one simple idea. In today’s context, Liechtenstein’s work does seem cliché and old-hat, but that shows just how influential his work has been. We’ve gotten used to it. Every single creative medium is using Liechtenstein’s idea and running with it.

 

Fashion: Did you see ‘Project Runway’ on Bravo? One challenge was to Take clothing from a vintage clothing store, deconstruct it and create fashion for the future. Even the show’s winning designer, Jay, had a line of cloths that mixed elements from the rural past, like quilts and knitted shawls and put them in a modern, urban context.

 

Illustration\Design: Look at recent posts on Drawn! and you see it. Remember the one on Phil Noto? “Noto’s work, again, falls into the category of retro meets now, with some varied influences. His work reminds me of a cross between Bob Peak, straight up early Bond, 60’s mod, with some manga mixed in (maybe).”

 

Movies: Kill Bill — This was a motion picture’s equivalent to a photo collage. Tarantino took scenes, angles, dialog, music and many, many other things from a huge history of filmmakers’ work and created a visual mash-up of the medium. Brilliant.

 

Music: The Grey Album — DJ Dangermose’s marrage of Jay-Z’s Black Album and the Beatle’s White Album. It was labeled as the best album of 2004 by Entertainment Weekly even though it was never published. It was released on P2P networks finding its way to iPods all over the world. Due to copyright laws, it still remains illegal.

 

Popular culture would not be the same without Liechtenstein’s influence. You don’t have to be Clement Greenberg to see the significance of that. Like science and technology, you take what has been done before and add to it, move it forward, make it new. Everything is built on the past, everything.

 

Sidenote:

It’s also interesting to see this trend stirring up a lot of legal issues. If all of our copyright laws had been focused on in the 60’s, would Lichtenstein have been able to show is work? Is art being limited because of these laws? It seems so: www.illegal-art.org/

11. Cash Nexus says:

April 10th, 2005 at 9:03 pm

 

For further research, there’s a great examination of art, sources, and influences, including Pop Art in general and this same discussion on Roy Lichtenstein in particular, in “High & Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture” (www.moesbooks.com/cgi-bin/moe/39669.html). I highly recommend this thorough and detailed book.

12. Paul says:

April 10th, 2005 at 10:40 pm

 

I’m gonna get to the heart of this: if a crap artist finds himself making a ton o’ dough by copying another artist, then at least the the guy who’s pockets are now flowing with cash could’ve looked up the poor schmo who did the original work and offered him half. But no, this Ward cat will find a way to justify not sharing the bux as well as he protected his thievery above…I’ve used exact replicas of Escher and Michelangelo in my work, and I ALWAYS sign their names, even if it’s obvious who did the original.

Since I never earned a dollar for any of the works in which I paid homage to my heroes, I have nothing to share, but damn if I don’t have the address of the Escher foundation in case I do. Crap is crap. Lichenstein was crap.

13. Sam says:

April 10th, 2005 at 10:48 pm

 

This Paul guy must be right - looks like he’s an expert on crap.

14. Ward says:

April 11th, 2005 at 7:41 am

 

I was not going to respond anymore to this thread as I feel that I’ve already stated my opinon on the topic, but after being called a “thief,” I feel like I should defend myself to a certain degree. When I mentioned in my last post about how other artists “steal” (notice quotes) from others, including myself, my train of thought was about how we all take elements from other artists who have influenced us and incorporate these elements into our own work. Some people might take notice, like when you say, “Oh I definitely see a Kirby influence there, etc.” Everybody does this, and it’s not thievery in my opinon.

 

But I then thought. after reading your response, Paul, that when you say you used replicas of other’s work — in a collage effect, I’m assuming — that yes, I have used various clips of magazines, pictures, and newspapers in my work. (If you’re curious, click here. And for the record, I’ve never made any money off of these pieces.) A good amount of artists have used collage, and have made loads of money from doing so. Thievery, or not? Who’s to say?

 

And Paul, with your portrait of John Lennon — do you know that you did EXACTLY what Lichtenstein did? You both used images from a different source and made the viewer look at it in a different way. (Plus, you did not credit the photographers.)

 

Like I mentioned earlier, it’s a classic case of the pot calling the kettle black.

15. niff says:

April 11th, 2005 at 11:51 am

 

Ward: you said it all. bravo!

16. Steve says:

April 11th, 2005 at 12:43 pm

 

Yeah! I opened up a hornet’s nest here! (puts on beekeeper’s netting)

 

It is interesting to hear why Lichtenstein’s work is considered important. I saw the Pop Artist exhibit when it came through Atlanta, and the pieces still challenged some of my ideas about art, even though their impact had been absorbed into the art world decades ago. I believe there were a few Lichtenstein pieces…something with a jet plane…bah, can’t remember.

 

As a musician who can both play instruments and samples them, as well as an experienced “photoshop jockey,” I can’t deny that the groundwork laid by these people has influenced me. In fact, what they did as “rebellion” has become part of the standard tools of the trade now.

 

Perhaps my sensibility lies somewhere in the middle of this debate. I appreciate the effect Lichtenstein’s recontextualization has had on the comics medium and the art world; yet in looking at his work, I hope for more immediate aesthetic gratification. In other words, I want a picture that is both subversive AND pretty.

 

Also, artwork created with a focus on subversive impact always strikes me as a “shave and a haircut” approach. I get the joke, I move on. It’s the art world’s version of a soundbyte. Nothing wrong with that, but I crave more substantial experiences with art. I guess I’m naive in that.

17. jo3 says:

April 11th, 2005 at 10:47 pm

 

ah, can we get a mirror up in here?

18. eck@rt says:

April 12th, 2005 at 6:01 am

 

Who can tell me more about Tony Abruzzo? Abruzzo drew romance comics in the 60s and 70s, some of which were models for Lichtenstein.

 

eck@rt

19. Elias Hiebert says:

April 12th, 2005 at 11:57 am

 

Yeah, all artists steal, whatever . But the thing that bugs me about Lichtenstein is that he appears to have no respect for the artists he stole from. It’s as if he thought all this commercial art he was surrounded by just appeared by magic. And he got filthy, filthy rich. And the artists he stole from did not. So that rub my sense of justice the wrong way. And I LIKE Lichtenstein! (Sorry I’m beginning every sentence with the word And.) Those big canvasses really HIT ya! Lichtenstein was really good. Was he good enough to do what the artists he stole from did day in and day out? I doubt it.

20. Jen says:

April 13th, 2005 at 3:29 pm

 

Steve: what you said, man. In spades. Bravo.

 

Ward, ditto(even if I am more of a mind with Steve, I love the way you express yourself).

 

Good discussion, all of it.

21. Joy says:

April 20th, 2005 at 11:11 pm

 

So does anyone know if the original page is down for good?

     

American Madness

Intelligent Criticism in the Service of a Better Nation

 

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

David Barsalou has taken the time to go back and track down the original comics of over 60 of Roy Lichtenstein’s works, he then compiled them next to the Lichtenstein prints and posted them online.

 

You get to see a comprehensive overview of Lichtenstein’s source materials and see how closely he interpreted/copied the originals. Some controversy has arisen over these early works as he never credited the original artists whose work he was copying. According to Wikipedia: Jack Cowart, executive director of the Lichtenstein Foundation contests the notion that Lichtenstein was a copyist, saying “Roy’s work was a wonderment of the graphic formula and the codification of sentiment that had been worked out by others. The panels were changed in scale, color, treatment, and in their implications. There is no exact copy.”

On the flipside:

Artist Dave Gibbons said of Lichtenstein’s works: “Roy Lichtenstein’s copies of the work of Irv Novick and Russ Heath are flat, uncomprehending tracings of quite sophisticated images.” Lichtenstein’s obituary in The Economist noted these artists “did not think much of his paintings. In enlarging them, some claimed, they became static. Some threatened to sue him.”

This anger from the original artists could also stem from the lack of recognition they received for their work in its original form, devalued as just another piece of pop/trash culture, while Roy Lichtenstein was elevated to celebrity and received various awards and recognition for his work.

Now you can see his works next to the original panels and determine for yourself whether you think Lichtenstein was a genius or copyist.

1.

Or a genius copyist.

 

americanmadness.com/2007/10/25/deconstructing-roy-lichten...

  

The GAB

Shaun Venish - Graphic Art Blog

www.venish.com/blog/files/4add87f3e3ef7fb9660ade0cc00c005...

 

Roy Lichtenstein

18/March/2008 | Illustraton

I've been a fan of Roy Lichtenstein's comic book pop art for years. I always wondered how many of his paintings were taken from comic books and did he copy the comic panels directly or make changes to them to improve the composition? Well now there are some answers, thanks to David Barsalou and his Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein project. Originally an exibit at the Springfield Massachusetts Gallery, he now has a flickr site that contains a ton of the source material. It's an interesting deconstruction of the wonderful work Lichtenstein created.

 

A really interesting read is the Great Bazooka Bubble Gum Wrapper Myth of 1961, A look into the controversy over whether Lichtenstein stole Andy Warhol's idea. Neat.

 

"... So, I went home and called Andy - no, I think, I went right over to Andy's house... and so, I said, 'Prepare yourself for a shock.' And he said, 'What?' I said, 'Castelli has a closet full of comic paintings.' And he said, 'You're kidding?!' And he said, 'Who did them?' And I said, 'Somebody by the name of Lichtenstein.' Well, Andy turned white. He said, 'Roy Lichtenstein.' He said, 'Roy Lichtenstein used to... ' - as I remember, he used to be a sign painter for Bonwit Teller, and here's where I'm a little bit confused because Andy... couldn't get anybody to show his early cartoon paintings, so he went to Gene Moore and Gene Moore said, 'Well I can put the paintings in the windows...' He put them in the 57th Street window... As I remember, the implication was: Andy felt that Lichtenstein had seen the paintings in the window and gave him the idea to do his paintings..."

www.venish.com/blog/files/4add87f3e3ef7fb9660ade0cc00c005...

  

www.boston.com/news/globe/living/articles/2006/10/18/lich...

 

www.cbgxtra.com/

www.cbldf.org/

www.wizarduniverse.com/

 

Artist or Artiface?

October 25, 2007

 

Bibi's box: July 2005 Archives

www.bibi.org/box/archives/2005_07.php?offset=160

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein - The original Comic Book source images of Pop Artist Roy Lichtenstein, by David Barsalou. (via neurastenia)

 

JeremyS « Amnesia Blog

Deconstructing Lichtenstein

amnesiablog.wordpress.com/author/muchablogaboutnothing/

David Barsalou has a lot of time on his hands… So much time infact that he has spent the last 25 years of his life closely examining every single illustration in over 30,000 comic books with the sole purpose of uncovering the original source material for the work of 1960s Pop Art icon Roy Lichtenstein. So far he has sourced about 140 specific illustrations that Lichtenstein has blown up and sold for mega bucks.

Posted by JeremyS

 

scamp: an irish illustration blog » Comics

www.scamp.ie/category/comics/page/2/

Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein

Friday, October 26th, 2007

Thanks to Mario for pointing this one out

For the last 25 years David Barsalou has examined over 30,000 comic books (a kind of obsession) to find the cartoon images Lichtenstein used in his work.

The Lichtenstein Project compares over 60 of Roy Lichtenstein’s paintings.

Though in art/history books I always read that Lichtenstein best-known artworks are relatively close, but not exact, copies of comic-book panels (a subject he largely abandoned in 1965) after Barsalou’s deconstruction I find quite amazing the level of similarities!!!

by Mario Sughi

  

The Art Law Blog

Wednesday, October 18, 2006

Lichtenstein and Copyright

Alex Beam has an interesting piece in the Boston Globe on copyright issues surrounding Roy Lichtenstein's use of images from comics. An art teacher named David Barsalou has been tracking down and cataloging specific comics that were the inspiration for Lichtenstein's paintings; so far he's found about 140. "Color me naive," writes Beam, "but I never thought Lichtenstein's work was a direct copy of scenes from comic books. I assumed that he stylized certain scenes suggested by the comic vernacular of the 1950s and 1960s." He also correctly points out that Lichtenstein could have faced serious copyright problems (Beam doesn't mention it, but just think of Rogers v. Koons); he says the interesting question is why he never did. The question is in any case now moot: there's a three-year statute of limitations for copyright claims.

theartlawblog.blogspot.com/2006_10_01_archive.html

You can see samples of Barsalou's research at his website, Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein.

 

posted by Donn Zaretsky at 6:44 PM

 

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Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

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Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

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In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

 

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2014 SPYKER C8 AILERON

 

Engine: 4.2 Litre V8 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

Transmission: 6 speed automatic gearbox with manual override

Top Speed: 187 MPH

Acceleration: 0-60 MPH in 4.5 seconds

 

COLORS:

Exterior: Choice of 16 colors

Interior: Choice of 14 colors

 

OPTIONS:

Chronoswiss dials and switches

Louis Vuitton luggage set

Front lift system

Red, orange and yellow brake calipers and air intake

Quilted Leather Package

Turned aluminium Package

Parking sensors

19" Rotorblade wheels in several finishes

Spiker logo in headrests

 

PRICE:

MSRP from $214,990

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2009 SPYKER C8 AILERON (silver)

2009 SPYKER C8 LAVIOLETTE (orange)

 

First Drive: 2009 Spyker C8 Aileron by Motor Trend

youtu.be/DgrlmiExWbc

 

Engine: 4.2 Litre V8 - 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

Transmission: Manual 6 speed gearbox or optional 6 speed automatic gearbox with manual override

Top Speed: 187 MPH

Acceleration: 0-60 MPH in 4.5 seconds

 

COLORS:

Exterior: Champion Silver

Interior: Tropicana Orange

 

OPTIONS:

Quilted Leather Package

Silver finished turned aluminium package

Rotorblade wheels (directional) in mirror polish finish

Spyker logo in headrests

Orange calipers, Spyker branded

Whisper mode exhaust system

 

PRICE:

With manual gearbox from $209,990

With automatic gearbox from $219,990

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

 

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2014 SPYKER C8 AILERON

 

Engine: 4.2 Litre V8 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

Transmission: 6 speed automatic gearbox with manual override

Top Speed: 187 MPH

Acceleration: 0-60 MPH in 4.5 seconds

 

COLORS:

Exterior: Choice of 16 colors

Interior: Choice of 14 colors

 

OPTIONS:

Chronoswiss dials and switches

Louis Vuitton luggage set

Front lift system

Red, orange and yellow brake calipers and air intake

Quilted Leather Package

Turned aluminium Package

Parking sensors

19" Rotorblade wheels in several finishes

Spiker logo in headrests

 

PRICE:

MSRP from $214,990

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2009 SPYKER C8 LAVIOLETTE

 

Engine:

4.2 Litre V8 - 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

All aluminium Audi V8 engine (type S8) with 90-degree block angle. Natural aspiration through eight injection throttle bodies. Four overhead camshafts and five valves per cylinder. Stainless steel 4-into-1 high performance exhausts on either side of the engine.

Capacity : 4172 cc

Power : 298 kW (400 hp) (Stage II)

Torque : 480 Nm (354 lbs ft)

Maximum revolutions : 7500 rpm

 

Performance

Top speed 300 km/hr (187 mph)

Acceleration 0-100 km/hr in 4.5 sec (0-60 mph in 4.5 sec)

 

Transmission:

Manual 6 Speed Gearbox without electronic intervention. Rear wheel drive, with optional limited slip differential. Switchable ASR (traction control) and ABS.

 

Chassis and suspension:

Aluminium space frame clad with aluminium panels carries fully adjustable F1-style independent suspension, with Koni in board shock absorbers. Uprights CNC machined from solid billets of aluminium.

 

Electrical system:

Decentralised wiring system.

 

Brake system:

Twin-circuit brake system with adjustable brake balance. 6-piston aluminium brake calipers at the front, 4-piston aluminium brake calipers at the rear with ventilated brake discs. Brake disc diameter, front and rear, 356/330 mm.

 

Wheels and tires:

Forged ATS alloy rims with central lock-nuts

Front tires, 225/40ZR 18 (Dunlop Sport)

Rear tires, 255/35ZR 18 (Dunlop Sport)

Magnesium Spyker 19”Aeroblade:tm: wheels are optional

 

Sizes and weights:

Kerb weight 1275 kg (2805 lbs)

Wheelbase 2575 mm (101")

Front track 1400 mm (55")

Rear track 1580 mm (62")

Length 4185 mm (165")

Width (ex mirrors) 1880 mm (74")

Height 1245 mm (49")

Fuel tank capacity 80 liters (17,5 gallons)

 

MPG: 13 city / 18 hwy

 

Colors

Exterior: Burnt Almond Orange

Interior: Black

 

Options

19" Aeroblade wheels

Turned aluminium package

Quilted leather package

Spyker logo's in headrests

 

Price:

MSRP from $209,990

  

__________________________________________________________________

 

thank you for your visit and comments ...

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obrigado por sua visita e comentários... (Portugese)

la ringrazio per la vostra visita e commenti ... (Italian)

je vous remercie de votre visite et commentaires ...(French)

ich danke Ihnen für Ihren Besuch und Kommentare ...(German)

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شكرا لك على الزيارة والتعليقات... (Arabic)

__________________________________________________________________

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

 

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2009 SPYKER C8 AILERON (silver)

2009 SPYKER C8 LAVIOLETTE (orange)

 

First Drive: 2009 Spyker C8 Aileron by Motor Trend

youtu.be/DgrlmiExWbc

 

Engine: 4.2 Litre V8 - 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

Transmission: Manual 6 speed gearbox or optional 6 speed automatic gearbox with manual override

Top Speed: 187 MPH

Acceleration: 0-60 MPH in 4.5 seconds

 

COLORS:

Exterior: Champion Silver

Interior: Tropicana Orange

 

OPTIONS:

Quilted Leather Package

Silver finished turned aluminium package

Rotorblade wheels (directional) in mirror polish finish

Spyker logo in headrests

Orange calipers, Spyker branded

Whisper mode exhaust system

 

PRICE:

With manual gearbox from $209,990

With automatic gearbox from $219,990

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

 

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2014 SPYKER C8 AILERON

 

Engine: 4.2 Litre V8 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

Transmission: 6 speed automatic gearbox with manual override

Top Speed: 187 MPH

Acceleration: 0-60 MPH in 4.5 seconds

 

COLORS:

Exterior: Choice of 16 colors

Interior: Choice of 14 colors

 

OPTIONS:

Chronoswiss dials and switches

Louis Vuitton luggage set

Front lift system

Red, orange and yellow brake calipers and air intake

Quilted Leather Package

Turned aluminium Package

Parking sensors

19" Rotorblade wheels in several finishes

Spiker logo in headrests

 

PRICE:

MSRP from $214,990

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2014 SPYKER C8 AILERON

 

Engine: 4.2 Litre V8 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

Transmission: 6 speed automatic gearbox with manual override

Top Speed: 187 MPH

Acceleration: 0-60 MPH in 4.5 seconds

 

COLORS:

Exterior: Choice of 16 colors

Interior: Choice of 14 colors

 

OPTIONS:

Chronoswiss dials and switches

Louis Vuitton luggage set

Front lift system

Red, orange and yellow brake calipers and air intake

Quilted Leather Package

Turned aluminium Package

Parking sensors

19" Rotorblade wheels in several finishes

Spiker logo in headrests

 

PRICE:

MSRP from $214,990

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...

2009 SPYKER C8 AILERON

 

First Drive: 2009 Spyker C8 Aileron by Motor Trend

youtu.be/DgrlmiExWbc

 

Engine: 4.2 Litre V8 - 400BHP Torque 354 LBS FT

Transmission: Manual 6 speed gearbox or optional 6 speed automatic gearbox with manual override

Top Speed: 187 MPH

Acceleration: 0-60 MPH in 4.5 seconds

 

COLORS:

Exterior: Champion Silver

Interior: Tropicana Orange

 

OPTIONS:

Quilted Leather Package

Silver finished turned aluminium package

Rotorblade wheels (directional) in mirror polish finish

Spyker logo in headrests

Orange calipers, Spyker branded

Whisper mode exhaust system

 

PRICE:

With manual gearbox from $209,990

With automatic gearbox from $219,990

 

www.spykercars.com/models/C8-Aileron

 

Spyker N.V. (formerly known as Spyker Cars N.V. and Swedish Automobile) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. It is the holding company of the Spyker Cars marque.

 

In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile. However, it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.

 

HISTORY

 

SPYKER CARS is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the rotary engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft.

 

The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000, Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.

 

The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it was announced that the C8 was approved for sale on the United States market.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, Spyker built the C8 Double 12 S, which was available from the factory with 5 different levels of performance called Stage I (400 h.p.) through Stage V (620 h.p.), depending on the customer's need for performance.

 

Between 2003 and 2007, Spyker built the C8 Spyder T, with the Twin turbo being developed in conjunction with Cosworth from England. These engines were capable of 525 h.p. and acceleration times of 4.0 seconds.

 

In 2005, the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company, and founded Silvestris Aquamotive which builds aluminum space frame speed boats.

 

In 2006, Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration from 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.

 

In September 2006, Spyker bought out the Midland F1 team. The team competed in the final 3 races of the 2006 season as Spyker MF1. In the 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1 using engines supplied by Ferrari. Driver Adrian Sutil was paired with Christijan Albers until the European Grand Prix where the latter was replaced by reserve driver Markus Winkelhock; the team then signed Sakon Yamamoto to fill in the slot for the rest of the year. The team itself had minimal success, suffering from multiple retirements (including double retirements in Malaysia, Canada and Brazil) before Sutil scored the team's first and only point in Japan. At the end of the season, the team was sold to a consortium named "Orange India" led by Vijay Mallya and was subsequently renamed as Force India.

 

On May 27, 2004, Spyker Cars listed on the Euronext Amsterdam Stock Exchange at €15.50, falling to a low of €8.28 in April 2005. The stock rebounded sharply in early 2006 to over €22 per share. Early in 2007 the stock showed a sharp decline to levels beneath €13 because of financing issues. As a result, several stock issues were announced to big investors. Notably, all shares have been sold at higher prices than the market price at the moment of announcement. On November 13, 2005, Spyker Cars and Mubadala Development Company, a principal investment company wholly owned by the government of the United Arab Emirates, announced their strategic alliance, with Mubadala acquiring 17% of Spyker Mubadala has a strong relationship with sports cars, also controlling 5% of Ferrari. On September 16, 2013, Spyker Cars' parent Spyker N.V. lost its listing on Euronext Amsterdam after failing to undergo a restructuring agreement.

 

In 2007, Spyker, in collaboration with the Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based on the C12 La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, faster speeds, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.

 

In November 2009, Spyker announced that it would be moving production from Zeewolde to Whitley, Coventry, where assembly would be done in partnership with CPP Manufacturing. UK production began in February 2010.

 

Proposed sale of Spyker Cars

In February 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile, the Dutch owner of Saab Automobile, agreed to sell its sports-car unit to Vladimir Antonov. Antonov, a former Spyker chairman and shareholder, is expected to pay 15 million euros ($21 million) for the company.[38][39] However, in March 2011, the deal fell through, with Spyker's manufacturing partner CPP Manufacturing placing a bid, but this deal fell though later that month.

 

In September 2011, it was announced that Swedish Automobile would sell Spyker Cars, in an all-cash offer to an American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital, for €32 million ($41 million). However, according to a recent announcement, Swedish Automobile is again offering Spyker cars up for sale, it was revealed that this sale did not actually occur, with North Street Capital still attempting to close the deal.

 

ACQUISITION AND BANKRUPTCY OF SAAB AUTOMOBILE

 

Upon the failure of an expected deal by Koenigsegg Group AB to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors late in November 2009, Spyker Cars began talks with GM to take over Saab. However, with a stated deadline of the end of 2009 for completion of the sale, it was announced on December 18 that GM and Spyker, after carrying out an extensive due diligence effort, had determined that a satisfactory deal was not possible and GM would begin the process of a staged wind-down of Saab Automobile.

 

Spyker Cars shortly thereafter made another offer that is said to solve all the problems that GM pointed at. GM had until December 21 to respond, but the deadline was later extended to December 23 and then indefinitely. As negotiations continued with GM, another rival bidder for Saab Automobile emerged - Luxembourg-based investment firm Genii Capital backed by F1 mogul Bernie Ecclestone. However, following weeks of negotiations, it was announced by Genii on January 23, 2010, that Spyker was on the brink of coming to an agreement. This was also confirmed by Spyker CEO Victor Muller who said GM and Spyker were meeting in Stockholm to approve the deal.

 

Muller closed the deal against expectations to buy Swedish automaker Saab from General Motors on January 26, 2010, in a deal worth US$400 million. Following the deal the company Spyker Cars N.V. was later renamed to Swedish Automobile N.V.

 

The delays in the takeover were attributed to an investigation by the Swedish monetary agency Riksgälden and the Swedish security police Säpo, where the agencies found connections between the family of major shareholder Vladimir Antonov and organized crime, as well as involvement in money laundering. Säpo reported their findings to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and shortly thereafter GM dropped further talks about the deal, until a company controlled by Victor Muller called Tenaci purchased Antonov's share in the company. Antonov also announced that $US25 million has been given to Spyker as a loan to purchase Saab Automobile from General Motors. He confirmed that the loan will be provided by Convers Bank, a bank owned by the Antonovs, and that GM was fully aware of that. Antonov cannot invest in Spyker until 2016, when GM's preference share holding ends. Another way he could enter earlier would be permission by General Motors. Antonov stated, "I'm not involved in crime and I've initiated an investigation as to why GM thinks I am."

 

On 26 January, General Motors (GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. It comprises US$74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of US$320m.

 

On February 23, 2010, Spyker Cars closed the deal to buy Saab Automobile from General Motors. Spyker and Saab operate under the parent company Swedish Automobile, named Spyker Cars N.V.

 

On June 8, Saab Automobile said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurred only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. The supply of parts stopped because Saab did not pay its suppliers. Production was due to start again on August 9.

 

The company changed its name to Swedish Automobile N.V. on June 15, 2011 after receiving approval at its annual shareholder meeting.

 

On June 23, Saab announced that it was unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3,800 due to lack of funding. The trade union IF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company. On June 29, Saab employees were paid.

 

On October 28, 2011, it was reported that the Chinese car maker Youngman Ltd., and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. had agreed a joint €100-million (US$140 million) takeover of Saab Automobile, and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.

 

Saab's restructuring process was granted, and the plan was that in 2014 the company would have had a positive equity. The restructuring process would have removed 500 employees from Saab, saving about €100,000.00, according to the restructuring plan. General Motors rejected the deal with Youngman and Pang Da on November 7, 2011, although unsuccessful discussion to convince GM continued for a month.

 

On December 19, 2011, chairman Victor Muller was forced to file Saab Automobile for bankruptcy following the failed buyout by a Chinese consortium, which was blocked by former parent GM to prevent technology transfer.

 

On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at us$500m and the debt at US$2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of US$1,500m.

 

In August 2012, Spyker Cars announced that Youngman Ltd. acquired a 29.9% stake in its parent company Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million).

 

In August 2012, CEO Muller, Spyker cars, stated that Spyker Cars will sue General Motors over Saab bankruptcy. Muller, stated, "Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions".

 

In June 2013 the claim of Spyker Cars was heard in Detroit before a US federal judge. The judge dismissed the claim of 3 billion dollars by Spyker Cars. According to Judge Gershwin Drain "General Motors had a contractual right to approve or disapprove the proposed transaction," and "The court is going to grant the motion to dismiss the matter." and that Spyker had agreed in a deal with GM, when it bought Saab, to give GM the right to control a change of ownership.

 

Spyker Cars NV appealed the ruling. The appeal was heard at the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. The court said on Friday October 24, 2014 that GM did not intentionally interfered with the Dutch company's effort to sell Saab to Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile Co, leading to Saab's bankruptcy. Judge Eugene Siler said GM's actions were not malicious, and that it had "legitimate business concerns" about the sale, including who would benefit from Saab's use of its technology. Siler said that Spyker's claim was "fatally flawed".

 

AFTERMATH

 

On June 13, 2012, Saab was sold to National Electric Vehicle Sweden, which led Swedish Automobile, according to Spyker's website's copyright to change its name to Spyker N.V. Currently the SWAN website is inaccessible.

 

On November 5, 2014, the Dutch Court "Midden Nederland" ordered Spyker to leave, within seven days, the factory they rented and to pay 152.000 euro in overdue rent. The claim was made by Jacques Walch, the owner of the factory rented by Spyker. Despite this, CEO Victor Muller insisted the company would be able to pay its bills "in a matter of days."

 

On 2 December 2014 Spyker NV was granted a financial restructuring by the Dutch court "Midden Nederland". Spyker needs protection from creditors for its liquidity problems. Victor R. Muller, Spyker founder and chief executive, said “Over the past few years, Spyker has faced a number of serious difficulties and challenges resulting from, among others, the legacy of the F1 era and the acquisition of Saab Automobile AB,”.

 

Joint ventures with Youngman

In August 2012, Youngman agreed to acquire 29.9% of the Spyker N.V. for €10 million ($12.5 million), and the companies agreed to form two new joint ventures. The Spyker P2P B.V. will focus on the development of a new luxury sports utility vehicle, with ownership split 75:25 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively. The Spyker Phoenix B.V. will focus on the development of a range of premium cars based on Saab's PhoeniX platform, with ownership split 80:20 between Youngman and Spyker, respectively.

 

MOTORSPORT

 

Spyker F1

On September 9, 2006, Spyker bought Midland F1 Racing, a Formula One team from Canadian businessman Alex Shnaider. Spyker paid US$106.6 million for the team which was renamed Spyker MF1 Team for the last three races of the 2006 Formula One season. As part of the deal, the cars had a revised livery for the final three races of 2006.

 

On August 14, 2007, Spyker Cars announced that it would have to sell all or part of the team due to a potential split of the team from its parent company.

 

On September 3, 2007, Indian billionaire Dr Vijay Mallya (Chairman and CEO of Toyota sponsors Kingfisher Airlines) and Dutch entrepreneur Michiel Mol (Spyker’s Formula One Director), stated the Spyker board had accepted their offer and became the new owners of the Spyker Formula One team,[82] which was renamed as Force India Formula One Team for the 2008 season.

 

Spyker Squadron

The Spyker Squadron is the factory racing team, competing in events such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Le Mans Series, occasional entries in the FIA GT Championship, and the 12 hours of Sebring. Spyker also supplies a car to Swiss Spyker distributor, Speedy Garages, running under the name Speedy Racing Team.

 

THE FUTURE:

 

Muller remains upbeat. Part of his bankruptcy plan is to merge Spyker with a “U.S. based manufacturer of high-performance electric aircraft,” which would create a Dutch-Chinese-American alliance like never before. Experimental plug-in planes, a fledgling supercar company? Hell, with a little cocaine and some disgruntled Irish laborers, this could really take off.

 

blog.caranddriver.com/spyker-is-bankrupt-will-return-to-n...

  

REFERENCES

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyker_Cars

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2008-spyker-c8-aileron-ar534...

 

www.topspeed.com/cars/spyker/2011-spyker-c8-aileron-ar712...