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99 - Our Daily Challenge - "In the mirror":

 

I started this as a little joke, but it got me thinking. Let's face it...we spend too much time worrying about the things we perceive as imperfections. In reality, those are what make us unique. Psalm 139:14 says; "I will praise you, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made." Good words to remember. My friend has a modern variation of that on a sign in her kitchen. It says "God does not make junk!" We are God's masterpiece, so it's time to believe it and embrace who we are.

 

Nikon D5000, 50mm

 

I'm not overly happy with this, but I just need to be done. My other ideas didn't work out. Sigh....I took some shots of highly reflective windows in an office complex that were pretty ho-hum. I was amused tho' when the security guard shadowed me for a while. Guess I looked pretty threatening with my camera! lol

West 42nd Street | View from room 2408 26/04/2015 20h23

Our hotel room view from the 24th floor of the Hilton Garden Inn Times Square Central. Despite of being this high it still felt that we are very low because the skyscrapers around us were much higher than our hotel with a floor count of 36. The fourth high skyscraper was just next door (not visible on this photo), the in 2009 built Bank of America Tower with a total height of 365 meters (including spire, roof at 288 meters) and in total 102 floors.

 

Photo taken through a window.

 

Hilton Garden Inn Times Square Central

Hilton Garden Inn New York/Times Square Central is a brand new contemporary hotel which debuted on famous 42nd Street in September 2014. This 36-story hotel is perfectly situated on 42nd St. between Broadway and 6th in the heart of Times Square, and is surrounded by Broadway theaters, restaurants, shopping and nightlife. The hotel is walking distance to Radio City Music Hall, Rockefeller Center, Madison Square Garden, Madame Tussaud’s, Restaurant Row, Port Authority Bus Terminal, Penn Station and Grand Central Station.

Hilton Garden Inn New York/Times Square Central offers 282 brand new guest rooms with modern décor plus spacious workstations with adjustable lighting, ergonomic desk chairs, in-room security safes, 50-inch Panasonic flat-screen HDTVs, refrigerators, microwaves, coffeemakers, alarm clocks with MP3 connectivity and complimentary WiFi with secure remote printing to the hotel’s business center using PrinterOn:registered:. A comfortable Serta bed with plush bedding, upscale linens and refreshing bath products are also featured.

 

HILTON GARDEN INN TIMES SQUARE CENTRAL

136 West 42nd Street, New York, New York,

10036, USA

TEL: +1-212-840-9600

Hilton Garden Inn Times Square Central

  

Umm, here's an idea. Moto crawled up on my back and dug in. Mrs.Thomas saved me and got him down. Then I though it would make good a picture, so I whipped out my camera and tripod.

I think it turned out pretty cool.

Really annoyed about tonight's photo shoot. The Paramount does classic movie night on Friday for $5. I've been before, it's a great night of entertainment for cheap. I went again to shoot the theater while I was there. They let me buy my ticket then searched my bag and only when it came time to scan my ticket did they tell me that I couldn't have my bag. Tickets sales are final, of course so I couldn't have my money back either. Between a combination of annoyance and not wanting to trust my camera bag to being checked I decided to just bail on it and go shoot the exterior. At least that put me outside during a brief window of really awesome light just after the sun went down. What really annoys me is that while there are signs at the box office that say no backpacks or large bags they didn't tell me that I couldn't take my bag in and were only happy to take my money. I also noticed several people bringing purses and other bags that were of equivilant size into the theater without getting hassled. I guess it depends on what capricious and arbitrary decision security is going to make that determines whether you can bring a bag in. If their concern is people bringing in food or drink, the bag check I was subjected to should have taken care of that. I'm just trying to decide whether I even want to go back on one of their tour days to shoot. Their website links to a photographers page where he's got all kinds of images up of the interior - it's not photography that they are stopping here. It's bags that are "too big". Whatever.

 

Edit: Seen in Flickr Explore on September 25, 2009 #105

Day 262

I love spring and with it comes Lilacs, my favorite bloom. I'm also wearing a vintage dress from the 1930's, another favorite. I've missed dress weather..

 

I'm quite happy with this image considering I had to do it quickly. It was taken near an office building and a security guard spotted me. I had to quickly pack up my gear and leave.

 

Best viewed by pressing "L"

The night started out like every other Monday. Lela left work at 3pm. Following Zumba class at her neighbourhood gym, she went straight to the market and bought her dinner. Her boots crunched in the snow, as she climbed up the stairs to her third floor walkup.

 

Lela was exhausted from another day of boredom. She desperately wanted to leave her job at the government admin office but the pay was too good. Financial security was something she craved and a future without it was too scary. After a long day, she was looking forward to opening the front door, kissing her boyfriend hello, preparing dinner and having a long hot shower.

 

Lela turned the key and unlocked the front door. The apartment was dark. She called out for Patrick but he wasn't there. Lela walked to the kitchen, dropping the grocery bags on the floor. She checked their bedroom. She popped her head into the bathroom. He was nowhere. Her phone didn't have any missed calls. Lela tried to ring him at work and then on his mobile. Nothing. She didn't know what to think or do. Where was he? Lela stood in the dark hallway, still wearing her winter coat and boots.

 

Suddenly her phone lit up and pinged with a text message. It was Patrick. Lela tapped on the screen and read the words.

 

"I just can't do it. I can't pretend to love you anymore."

 

She couldn't breathe. She was in complete and utter shock. Lela grabbed her keys and slammed the front door closed. She ran down the stairs and along the sidewalk. The cold night air stung her eyes as she fought back tears. Lela headed for the subway. She didn't know where she was going, just that she couldn't be in the apartment alone.

 

Lela found a seat on the empty platform and waited for the next train. She took out her phone and read Patrick's text over and over again until the words blurred together. The groan of the subway grew louder and Lela slipped her phone back into her coat pocket. She stood up and felt her hair dance around her face as the train arrived in the station. This time, Lela let her tears come quick and fierce. She stepped into the empty subway car and sat down by the window. The doors closed behind her and the train disappeared into the dark underground tunnel.

 

This was definitely no ordinary Monday night.

  

Tumblr | Instagram | Twitter

 

I have done various portraits, engagement shoots and wedding event photography. For those interested in working with me, please contact kathlyn.gatti@gmail.com for booking and pricing.

New hope in 2009

有段話我覺得不要翻成英文比較好,老美看了大概會不爽,這張圖我弄好後覺的很像黑人牙膏的mark說....TT我應該把它作成貼紙印出來的!以下就轉貼他的生平:

"Barack" and "Obama" redirect here. For other uses, see Barack (disambiguation) and Obama (disambiguation).

Barack Obama

   

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

44th President of the United States

Incumbent

Assumed office

January 20, 2009

Vice President Joe Biden

Preceded by George W. Bush

 

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United States Senator

from Illinois

In office

January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008

Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald

Succeeded by Roland Burris

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Member of the Illinois Senate

from the 13th district

In office

January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004

Preceded by Alice Palmer

Succeeded by Kwame Raoul

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Born August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04) (age 47)[1]

Honolulu, Hawaii, United States[2]

Birth name Barack Hussein Obama II[2]

Nationality American

Political party Democratic

Spouse Michelle Obama (m. 1992)

Children Malia Ann (b. 1998)

Natasha (a.k.a. Sasha) (b. 2001)

Residence Chicago, Illinois (private)

White House, Washington, D.C. (official)

Alma mater Occidental College

Columbia University (B.A.)

Harvard Law School (J.D.)

Profession Community organizer

Attorney

Author

Professor

Politician

Religion Protestant Christian[3]

Signature

Website WhiteHouse.gov

This article is part of a series about

Barack Obama

Background · Illinois Senate · U.S. Senate

Political positions · Public image · Family

2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign

Transition · Inauguration · US Presidency

 

Barack Hussein Obama II (pronounced /bəˈrɑːk hʊˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from 2005 until he resigned following his 2008 election to the presidency. He was inaugurated as President on January 20, 2009.

 

Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American president of the Harvard Law Review. He worked as a community organizer, and practiced as a civil rights attorney in Chicago before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. He also taught Constitutional Law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, Obama was elected to the Senate in November 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004.

 

As a member of the Democratic minority in the 109th Congress, Obama helped create legislation to control conventional weapons and to promote greater public accountability in the use of federal funds. He also made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. During the 110th Congress, he helped create legislation regarding lobbying and electoral fraud, climate change, nuclear terrorism, and care for U.S. military personnel returning from combat assignments in Iraq and Afghanistan

Early life and career

Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama

Barack Obama was born at the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women & Children in Honolulu, Hawaii,[4][5] to Stanley Ann Dunham,[6] a White American from Wichita, Kansas,[7][8][9] and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[10][11] The couple married on February 2, 1961.[12] Obama's parents separated when Obama was two years old, and they divorced in 1964.[11] Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[13]

 

After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Soeharto, a military leader in Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all students studying abroad were recalled and the family moved to Indonesia.[14] There Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, such as Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School, until he was ten years old.

 

He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, while attending Punahou School from the fifth grade in 1971 until his graduation from high school in 1979.[15] Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 for five years, and then in 1977 went back to Indonesia, where she worked as an anthropological field worker. She stayed there most of the rest of her life, returning to Hawaii in 1994. She died of ovarian cancer in 1995.[16]

  

Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro-Ng, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s).Of his early childhood, Obama has recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me — that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk — barely registered in my mind."[17] In his 1995 memoir, he described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[18] He wrote that he used alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."[19] At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama identified his high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure."[20]

 

Some of his fellow students at Punahou School later told the Honolulu Star-Bulletin that Obama was mature for his age, and that he sometimes attended college parties and other events in order to associate with African American students and military service people. Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered — to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect — became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[21]

 

Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles, where he studied at Occidental College for two years.[22] He then transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations.[23] Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation[24][25] and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[26][27]

 

After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side. He worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988.[26][28] During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[29] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[30] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[31]

 

Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[32] and president of the journal in his second year.[33] During his summers, he returned to Chicago where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[34] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[35][36] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[32]

 

Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[33] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations.[37] In an effort to recruit him to their faculty, the University of Chicago Law School provided Obama with a fellowship and an office to work on his book.[37] He originally planned to finish the book in one year, but it took much longer as the book evolved into a personal memoir. In order to work without interruptions, Obama and his wife, Michelle, traveled to Bali where he wrote for several months. The manuscript was finally published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[37]

 

From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and seven hundred volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[38][39]

 

For twelve years, Obama served as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School teaching Constitutional Law. He was first classified as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996 and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[40] He also joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[26][41][42]

 

Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[26][43] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Joyce Foundation.[26] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[26] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[26]

  

Political career

 

State legislator: 1997–2004

Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which then spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[44] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[45] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[46] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[47]

 

Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the General Election, and reelected again in 2002.[48] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[49][50]

 

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[51] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[46][52] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[53] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[54]

  

2004 U.S. Senate campaign

See also: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004

In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate; he enlisted political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[55] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[56] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[57] He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.[58]

 

In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[59] After describing his maternal grandfather's experiences as a World War II veteran and a beneficiary of the New Deal's FHA and G.I. Bill programs, Obama spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social priorities. He questioned the Bush administration's management of the Iraq War and highlighted America's obligations to its soldiers. Drawing examples from U.S. history, he criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity in diversity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America."[60] Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news networks, a combined 9.1 million viewers watching on PBS, CNN, MSNBC, Fox News and C-SPAN saw Obama's speech, which was a highlight of the convention and confirmed his status as the Democratic Party's brightest new star.[61]

 

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[62] Two months later and less than three months before Election Day, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[63] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[64] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[65]

  

U.S. Senator: 2005–2008

Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[66] Obama was the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected.[67] He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[68] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[69][70] In 2008, Congress.org ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator.[71] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[72][73] This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of Congress had faced since Warren Harding.[74]

  

Legislation

See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate

 

Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act.[75]Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[76] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[77] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[78] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.[79] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[80]

 

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[81] Obama is not hostile to Tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[82]

 

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[83] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[84] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[85] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[86] neither of which have been signed into law.

  

Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility in August 2005.[87]Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[88] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[89] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[90][91] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[92]

  

Committees

Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[93] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[94] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[95] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[96][97][98][99]

  

2008 Presidential campaign

Main articles: Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008

Wikinews has related news: Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[100][101] The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[102] Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and providing universal health care.[103]

  

Obama stands on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, Feb. 10, 2007.During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[104][105][106] On June 19, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[107]

 

A large number of candidates initially entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. After a few initial contests, the field narrowed to a contest between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton, with each winning some states and the race remaining close throughout the primary process.[108][109][110][111] On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the disputed Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead.[112] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the threshold to become the presumptive nominee.[113][114] On that day, he gave a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[115] From that point on, he campaigned for the general election race against Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee.

 

On August 23, 2008, Obama announced that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[116]

  

Obama delivers his presidential election victory speech.At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Obama's former rival Hillary Clinton gave a speech in support of Obama's candidacy and later called for Obama to be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic presidential candidate.[117][118] On August 28, Obama delivered a speech to 84,000 supporters in Denver. During the speech, which was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide, he accepted his party's nomination and presented his policy goals.[119][120]

 

After McCain was nominated as the Republican presidential candidate, there were three presidential debates between Obama and McCain in September and October 2008.[121][122] In November, Obama won the presidency with 53% of the popular vote and a wide electoral college margin. His election sparked street celebrations in numerous cities in the United States[123] and abroad.

  

Election victory

Main article: Presidential transition of Barack Obama

 

President-elect Obama meets with President George W. Bush in the Oval Office, November 10, 2008.On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama defeated John McCain in the general election with 365 electoral votes to McCain's 173[124] and became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.[125][126][127][128] In his victory speech, delivered before a crowd of hundreds of thousands of his supporters in Chicago's Grant Park, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America".[129]

 

On January 8, 2009, the joint session of the U.S. Congress met to certify the votes of the Electoral College for the 2008 presidential election. Based on the results of the electoral vote count, Barack Obama was declared to have been elected President of the United States and Joseph Biden was declared to have been elected Vice President of the United States.[130]

  

Presidency

Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. The theme of the inauguration was "A New Birth of Freedom," commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.[131]

 

In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda reversing President Bush's ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions (known as the Global Gag Rule),[132] and changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act,[133] directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,[134] and reducing the secrecy given to presidential records,[135] and closing Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010, and "Immediate Review of All Guantánamo Detentions".

  

Political positions

Main article: Political positions of Barack Obama

A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[136] Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the ACU,[137] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the ADA.[138]

  

Obama campaigning in Abington, Pennsylvania, October 2008.Obama was an early opponent of the Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[139] On October 2, 2002, the day President George W. Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[140] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally in Federal Plaza,[141] speaking out against the war.[142][143] On March 16, 2003, the day Bush issued his 48-hour ultimatum to Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq before the U.S. invasion of Iraq,[144] Obama addressed the largest Chicago anti-Iraq War rally to date in Daley Plaza and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[145] Although Obama had previously said he wanted all the U.S. troops out of Iraq within 16 months of becoming President, after he won the primary, he said he might "refine" that promise.[146]

 

Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not "weaponize" space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems," and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.[147]

 

In November 2006, Obama called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[148] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.[149] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without preconditions.[150][151][152] Detailing his strategy for fighting global terrorism in August 2007, Obama said "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[153]

 

In a December 2005, Washington Post opinion column, and at the Save Darfur rally in April 2006, Obama called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[154] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[155] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying that "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."[156]

  

Obama speaking at a rally at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri.In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[157] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[158] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports universal health care in the United States.[159] Obama proposes to reward teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[160]

 

In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[161] His plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, repeal income tax cuts for those making over $250,000 as well as the capital gains and dividends tax cut,[162] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[163] Announcing his presidential campaign's energy plan in October 2007, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[164] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[165]

 

Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other religious groups.[166] In December 2006, he joined Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) at the "Global Summit on AIDS and the Church" organized by church leaders Kay and Rick Warren.[167] Together with Warren and Brownback, Obama took an HIV test, as he had done in Kenya less than four months earlier.[168] He encouraged "others in public life to do the same" and not be ashamed of it.[169] Addressing over 8,000 United Church of Christ members in June 2007, Obama challenged "so-called leaders of the Christian Right" for being "all too eager to exploit what divides us."[170]

  

Family and personal life

Main articles: Early life and career of Barack Obama and Family of Barack Obama

 

Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama.In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson, who later became his wife, when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[171] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.[172] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[173] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[174] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[175] Because of Michelle Obama's employment with the University of Chicago, the Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School.[176]

 

Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[177]

 

Applying the proceeds of a book deal, in 2005 the family moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood.[178] The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's indictment and subsequent conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[179][180]

 

In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[181] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[182]

  

Obama playing basketball with U.S. military at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti in 2006.[183]In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family. "Michelle will tell you that when we get together for Christmas or Thanksgiving, it's like a little mini-United Nations." he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[184] Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[185] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham[186] until her death on November 2, 2008, just before the presidential election.[187] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.[188] Obama's maternal and paternal grandfathers fought in World War II. Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,[189] the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops.[190]

 

Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[191] He is an avid sports fan. Obama follows the Chicago Bears, Chicago White Sox, Chicago Bulls and West Ham United F.C.[192][193][194][195] While he has never been a heavy smoker, Obama has tried to quit smoking several times, including a well-publicized and ongoing effort which he began before launching his presidential campaign.[196] Obama has said he will not smoke in the White House.[197]

 

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views have evolved in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[198][199] He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades.[200][201]

 

Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), at least on a colloquial level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.[202] After the APEC summit in November 2008, Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono related a telephone conversation with Obama in Indonesian to Indonesian media. Obama had told Yudhoyono that he missed Indonesian food like Nasi Goreng, Bakso or Rambutan.[203]

  

Cultural and political image

Main article: Public image of Barack Obama

With his black Kenyan father and white American mother, his upbringing in Honolulu and Jakarta, and his Ivy League education, Obama's early life experiences differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[204] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that the debate is not about his physical appearance or his record on issues of concern to black voters. Obama said that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[205]

 

Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[206] A popular catch phrase distilled the concept: "Rosa sat so Martin could walk; Martin walked so Obama could run; Obama is running so our children can fly."[207]

  

From left: Presidents George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter meet in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009.Obama has been praised as a master of oratory on par with other renowned speakers in the past such as Martin Luther King, Jr.[208][209] His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music in a video produced by Will.i.am, was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,[210] and received an Emmy Award.[211] University of Virginia professor Jonathan Haidt researched the effectiveness of Obama's public speaking and concluded that part of his excellence is because the politician is adept at inspiring the emotion of elevation, the desire to act morally and do good for others.[212] Obama used these communication skills in a series of weekly internet video addresses during his pre-inauguration transition period;[213] he has suggested he will make a series of broadcast and internet addresses similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's famous fireside chats throughout his term as president to explain his policies and actions.[214]

 

Many commentators mentioned Obama's international appeal as a defining factor for his public image.[215] Not only did several polls show strong support for him in other countries,[216] but Obama also established close relationships with prominent foreign politicians and elected officials even before his presidential candidacy, notably with then incumbent British Prime Minister Tony Blair, whom he met in London in 2005,[217] with Italy's Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni, who visited Obama's Senate office in 2005,[218] and with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who also visited him in Washington in 2006.[219]

 

Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of both of his books; for Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[220]

 

In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments."[221]

  

Notes

^ "President Barack Obama". www.whitehouse.gov.

^ a b "Birth Certificate of Barack Obama". Department of Health, Hawaii. PolitiFact.com (August 8, 1961). Retrieved on 2008-12-12.

^ "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. msnbc.com (November 17, 2008). Retrieved on 2009-1-20.

^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible", Politics, Washington Post. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics" (Article), Special to the Star-Bulletin, Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on November 30 2008.

^ For Stanley Ann's first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19

^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck (August 21, 2008). Retrieved on October 24, 2008.

^ Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish", Politics, The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 23 November 2008.

^ "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own - washingtonpost.com". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2008-11-08.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see "Barack Obama: Creation of Tales", East African (2004-11-01). Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.

^ a b Jones, Tim (2007-03-27). "Obama's mom: Not just a girl from Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a future senator", Chicago Tribune, reprinted in The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 9 April 2007.

^ Merida, Kevin (2007-12-14). "The Ghost of a Father", Washington Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Ochieng, Philip (2004-11-01). "From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found", East African. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. In August 2006, Obama flew his wife and two daughters from Chicago to join him in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya. Gnecchi, Nico (2006-02-27). "Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya", Voice of America. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45.

^ Serafin, Peter (2004-03-21). "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. See also: Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Suryakusuma, Julia (2006-11-29). "Obama for President... of Indonesia", Jakarta Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995), pp. 9–10.

^ Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5. See also: Serrano, Richard A (March 11, 2007). "Obama's Peers Didn't See His Angst" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

^ "Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students", Associated Press, Boston Globe (November 21, 2007). Retrieved on 4 January 2008. In Dreams from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it." Obama (1995), pp. 93–94. For analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled."), see: Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen", Washington Post. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q (October 24, 2006). "Obama Offers More Variations From the Norm", New York Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

^ Hornick, Ed (August 17, 2008). "Obama, McCain talk issues at pastor's forum", CNN.com. Retrieved on 4 January 2009.

^ Reyes, B. J (February 8, 2007). "Punahou Left Lasting Impression on Obama", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. "As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks."

^ "Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama '83". Occidental College (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.

^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83", Columbia College Today. Retrieved on 9 June 2008.

^ "Curriculum Vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on 2001-05-09. Retrieved on 2008-11-03.

^ Issenberg, Sasha (2008-08-06). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance: Tied markets to social aid", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ a b c d e f g Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468. ISBN 9780837970110. www.marquiswhoswho.com/products/WAprodinfo.asp. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Scott, Janny (2007-10-30). "Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say", The New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.

^ Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (2007-03-30). "Portrait of a pragmatist", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Lizza, Ryan (2007-03-19). "The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education" (alternate link), New Republic. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295; Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.

^ Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.

^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues 14 (8–9): 40–42. reprinted in: Knoepfle, Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0962087335. Tayler, Letta; Herbert, Keith (2008-03-02). "Obama forged path as Chicago community organizer", Newsday, p. A06. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.

^ a b Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (2007-01-28). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kantor, Jodi (2007-01-28). "In law school, Obama found political voice", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kodama, Marie C (2007-01-19). "Obama left mark on HLS", The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mundy, Liza (2007-08-12). "A series of fortunate events", The Washington Post, p. W10. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Heilemann, John (2007-10-22). "When they were young". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. www.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&titl.... Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.

^ a b Butterfield, Fox (1990-02-06). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review", The New York Times, p. A20. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Ybarra, Michael J (1990-02-07). "Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 3. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Drummond, Tammerlin (1990-03-12). "Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times, p. E1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Evans, Gaynelle (1990-03-15). "Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama", Black Issues in Higher Education, p. 5. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) (1990-04-18). "Law Review's first black president aims to help poor" (paid archive), The Miami Herald, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008.

^ Aguilar, Louis (1990-07-11). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Barack Obama, a summer associate at Hopkins & Sutter in Chicago"

^ Adams, Richard (2007-05-09). "Barack Obama", The Guardian. Retrieved on 26 October 2008.

^ Mendell, David. "Barack Obama (American politician)". Retrieved on 2008-10-26.

^ a b c Scott, Janny (2008-05-18). "The story of Obama, written by Obama", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii.

^ White, Jesse (ed.) (2000). Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed.. Springfield, IL: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 83. OCLC 43923973. www.sos.state.il.us/bb/toc.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Jarrett, Vernon (1992-08-11). "'Project Vote' brings power to the people" (paid archive), Chicago Sun-Times, p. 23. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Reynolds, Gretchen (January 1993). "Vote of Confidence". Chicago 42 (1): 53–54. www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/January-1993/Vote-of-.... Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Anderson, Veronica (September 27–October 3 1993). "40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote". Crain's Chicago Business 16 (39): 43.

^ University of Chicago Law School (2008-03-27). "Statement regarding Barack Obama". University of Chicago Law School. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Miller, Joe (2008-03-28). "Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor?". FactCheck.org. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Holan, Angie Drobnic (2008-03-07). "Obama's 20 years of experience". PolitiFact.com. Retrieved on 2008-06-10.<

^ Robinson, Mike (Associated Press) (2007-02-10). "Obama got start in civil rights practice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Pallasch, Abdon M (2007-12-17). "As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking", Chicago Sun-Times, p. 4. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "People" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune (1993-06-27), p. 9 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Business appointments" (paid archive), Chicago-Sun-Times (1993-07-05), p. 40. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Miner, Barnhill & Galland (2008). "About Us". Miner, Barnhill & Galland – Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 438–439, Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106.

^ "ARDC Individual Attorney Record of Public Registration and Public Disciplinary and Disability Information as of October 17, 2008 at 12:52:13 PM". Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission of the Supreme Court of Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.

^ Public Allies (2008). "Fact Sheet on Public Allies' History with Senator Barack and Michelle Obama". Public Allies. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Jackson, David; Ray Long (2007-04-03). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 14 January 2008. [dead link] White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment". Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 65. State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.

^ Slevin, Peter (2007-02-09). "Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol", Washington Post. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-09-23). "In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics", Associated Press, CBS News (2007-01-17). Retrieved on 20 April 2008. "In-Depth Look at Obama's Political Career" (video), CLTV, Chicago Tribune (2007-02-09). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ a b Scott, Janny (2007-07-30). "In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Pearson, Rick; Ray Long (2007-05-03). "Careful Steps, Looking Ahead", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.

^ Allison, Melissa (2000-12-15). "State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Long, Ray; Allison, Melissa (2001-04-18). "Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures.", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 1 June 2008.

^ "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2000-08-24). Archived from the original on 2000-04-12. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2004-10-09). Archived from the original on 2004-08-02. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.

^ "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results - Illinois". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.. See also: "Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid". and Scott, Janny (2007-09-09). "A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ McClelland, Edward (2007-02-12). "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural", Salon. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Wolffe, Richard; Daren Briscoe (2007-07-16). "Across the Divide", Newsweek, MSNBC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. and Wills, Christopher (2007-10-24). "Obama learned from failed Congress run", USA Today. Retrieved on 20 September 2008.

^ Calmes, Jackie (2007-02-23). "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama", Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Tavella, Anne Marie (2003-04-14). "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate", Daily Herald, p. 17. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Haynes, V. Dion (2003-06-29). "Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review", Chicago Tribune, p. 8. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Pearson, Rick (2003-07-17). "Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved on 1 June 2008.

^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (2007-03-14). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals", The Hill. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms", Associated Press, International Herald Tribune (2007-11-12). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Coffee, Melanie (2004-11-06). "Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat", Associated Press, HPKCC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Davey, Monica (2004-03-07). "Closely Watched Illinois Senate Race Attracts 7 Candidates in Millionaire Range", The New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Wallace-Wells, Ben (2007-04-01). "Obama's Narrator", The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Davey, Monica (2004-03-17). "From Crowded Field, Democrats Choose State Legislator to Seek Senate Seat", New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. See also: Jackson, John S (August 2006). "The Making of a Senator: Barack Obama and the 2004 Illinois Senate Race" (PDF), Occasional Paper of the Paul Simon Public Policy Institute, Southern Illinois University. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Bernstein, David (June 2007). "The Speech", Chicago Magazine. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Obama, Barack (2004-07-27). "Keynote Address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention" (text or video). BarackObama.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.

^ . (2004-08-02). "Star Power. Showtime: Some are on the rise; others have long been fixtures in the firmament. A galaxy of bright Democratic lights", Newsweek, pp. 48–51. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Samuel, Terence (2004-08-02). "A shining star named Obama. How a most unlikely politician became a darling of the Democrats", U.S. News & World Report, p. 25. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Lizza, Ryan. "The Natural. Why is Barack Obama generating more excitement among Democrats than John Kerry?", The Atlantic Monthly, pp. 30, 33. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Davey, Monica (2004-07-26). "A surprise Senate contender reaches his biggest stage yet", The New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Leibovich, Mark (2004-07-27). "The other man of the hour", The Washington Post, p. C1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Milligan, Susan (2004-07-27). "In Obama, Democrats see their future", The Boston Globe, p. B8. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q. (2004-07-28). "Senate nominee speaks of encompassing unity", The New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Broder, David S. (2004-07-28). "Democrats focus on healing divisions; Addressing convention, newcomers set themes", The Washington Post, p. A1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Bing, Jonathan; McClintock, Pamela (2004-07-29). "Auds resist charms of Dem stars", Daily Variety, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 272–285.

^ "Ryan Drops Out of Senate Race in Illinois", CNN (2004-06-25). Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Lannan, Maura Kelly (2004-08-09). "Alan Keyes Enters U.S. Senate Race in Illinois Against Rising Democratic Star", Associated Press, Union-Tribune (San Diego). Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Liam, Ford; David Mendell (2004-08-13). "Keyes Sets Up House in Cal City", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois", CNN. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Slevin, Peter (2007-11-13). "For Obama, a Handsome Payoff in Political Gambles", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

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^ "Member Info". Congressional Black Caucus. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. See also: Zeleny, Jeff (2005-06-26). "When It Comes to Race, Obama Makes His Point—With Subtlety", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 25 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.

^ Nather, David (2008-01-14). "The Space Between Clinton and Obama", CQ Weekly. Retrieved on 25 June 2008. See also: Curry, Tom (2008-02-21). "What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal", MSNBC. Retrieved on 25 June 2008.

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^ Sidoti, Liz (2008-11-13). "Obama to Resign Senate Seat on Sunday". Time. Time Inc.. Retrieved on 2008-11-22.

^ Baker, Peter (2008-11-14). "ON THE WHITE HOUSE; If the Senate Reconvenes, Two Seats May Be Empty". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved on 2008-11-21.

^ "President Bush Signs Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act.". White House (2006-09-26).

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^ S. 3077: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008 Govtrack.us, 2007-2008 (110th Congress)

^ McIntire, Mike (2008-02-03). "Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate", The New York Times. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Daniel Fisher (August 11, 2008). "November Election A Lawyer's Delight". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved on 2009-01-11.

^ "Democratic Republic of the Congo". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (April 2006). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. "The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo". International Rescue Committee (2007-01-05). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.

^ Weixel, Nathaniel (2007-11-15). "Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel", The Hill. Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Weixel, Nathaniel (2007-12-05). "Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation", The Hill. Retrieved on 27 April 2008. See also: "Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007", Federal Election Commission (2007-09-24). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Stern, Seth (2007-01-31). "Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation", CQPolitics.com, The New York Times. Retrieved on 27 April 2008. U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (2007-01-31). "S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007". Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. See also: "Honesty in Elections" (editorial), The New York Times (2007-01-31). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Krystin, E. Kasak (2007-02-07). "Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home", Medill News Service, The Times (Munster, Indiana). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. "Latest Major Action: 1/30/2007 Referred to Senate committee." U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (2007-01-30). "S. 433, Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007". Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.

^ "Nunn–Lugar Report" (PDF). Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office (August 2005). Retrieved on 2008-04-30.

^ "Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action". Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office (2007-10-01). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. See also: Dine, Philip (2007-12-23). "Bond Calls for Review of Military Discharges", St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ "Obama, Bond Applaud Senate Passage of Amendment to Expedite the Review of Personality Disorder Discharge Cases".

^ Graham-Silverman, Adam (2007-09-12). "Despite Flurry of Action in House, Congress Unlikely to Act Against Iran", CQ Today. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ "Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2007-12-20). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.

^ "Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2007-08-02). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.

^ "Committee Assignments" (archive). Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2006-12-09). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.

^ "Obama Gets New Committee Assignments", Associated Press, Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2006-11-15). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Baldwin, Tom (2007-12-21). "Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience", Sunday Times (UK). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP", Washington Monthly. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Goudie, Chuck (2006-01-12). "Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor", WLS-TV. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud", News24.com (2006-08-28). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Wamalwa, Chris (2006-09-02). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (2006-09-04). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007.

^ Pearson, Rick; Long, Ray (February 10, 2007). "Obama: I'm running for president", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 20 September 2008.

^ "Obama Launches Presidential Bid", BBC News (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 14 January 2008.

^ "Presidential Campaign Announcement" (video), Obama for America, Brightcove.TV (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 14 January 2008.

^ "Barack Obama on the Issues: What Would Be Your Top Three Overall Priorities If Elected?", Washington Post. Retrieved on 14 April 2008. See also: Falcone, Michael (2007-12-21). "Obama's 'One Thing'", The New York Times. Retrieved on 14 April 2008.

^ Malone, Jim (July 2, 2007). "Obama Fundraising Suggests Close Race for Party Nomination", Voice of America. Retrieved on 14 January 2008.

^ Cummings, Jeanne (September 26, 2007). "Small Donors Rewri

238/365. I'll be backmeet the Governator in high-def

 

This is Arnold @Schwarzenegger. This shot was taken right darn near 3m 20s in this video during his tour of the Twoffice. The photographer you see in the video is the "official governors photographer" whom asked me to take an official head shot of him (the photographer) before the event started. He was very cool and just getting into strobist kinda photography. We worked well together and avoided getting in each others photos.

 

At exactly 1m 38s during the video you'll see me snapping a few holding up an SB in one hand and a D3 in the other.

 

I posted a few others on the Twitter office flickr account for anyone interested in checking those out.

 

The other thing I wanted to mention about this shot is the irony of catching Arnold behind his security guard with those terminator eyes... I mean really, who would mess with him?

 

Other than that, I apologize for the 2nd day in a row without having a strobist shot... but you just can't pass up having the Governator himself being part of the 365.

 

Hasta la vista mañana.

On eid we did Makra trek in 3 days (Mon-wed). This was our route

 

Shogran-sari-paye-Makra-Dhari/Kholian/Sanghar wali galli-tehthri-Ziarat-Danna peak-Makri-jhamara-ghena-rajpian-pind-batal-bishash-ghori

 

To be exact we wanted to go to bheri but our guide mistakenly took here. We did trek to point called pind. Jeep are available on point Jhamara but due to eid none was running, So we had to trek for 3 hours to reach to rajpian, a jeep was standing there but was asking two way fare (rs2000) so we trek further to point pind; luckily one jeep came and we boarded on it (@rs 75 per head).

if someone want to attempt it from muzaffarabad then one can easily reach to Rajpian through bus from muzaffarabad at 80 rs only or through jeep from ghouri at around 100rs (its actually less than 100rs) per head. One can take jeep to Jhamara from rajpian and then its trek possibly with one camp to top of Makra. Water is present at places called makri & tethri Its very steep trek from jhamara onward to Makra but as we were descended so it was comfortable enough.

 

Only danger is a good 1 hour piece of trek just near makra top. It’s a narrow ridge with over 100m fall on each side, covered with boulders, locals called it as dhari.

 

Long Version (Its incomplete and has lot grammatical erros, I dont plan to complete it in near future)

 

In this longer version I will try to make you feel as you would be travelling with us

 

Thursday 16th August

Ali called our mutual friend and they will be going to Kalam valley on Eid holidays, Ali will be getting booking done.

 

Friday 17th August 2:55 pm

I received a message from my brother Ali that he has discussed with our mutual friend and they have cancelled their plan to kalam and now if Eid will be on Sunday then they will be going to Makra otherwise to Bairan Galli.

 

Friday 17th August Evening

Ali asked me to join them I refused as I already had my leaves approved for neelum valley and was not in mood to destroy my Eid holidays.

 

Saturday 18th August Evening

Moon was not sighted, Eid will be on Monday.

So as per Ali message he will be going to Bheeran Galli to where I was least interested to go so Ali decides to go to Makra. I said I can only join it if you end up in Kashmir side as I have already attempted it twice and has failed both the time to reach summit of Makra so if I go there then I want to finish the whole trek. So I requested our family to let us sacrifice our eid. The immediate answer we got was that people spent lot of money to reach home on eid and you are asking to leave on eid. Then the politician in me aroused and I replied that for guy’s eid remain till the eid prayer after it what else we have to do other then to sleep, sleep & sleep and if we are going that far atleast we should spend proper time otherwise its like race not enjoyment. Any ways our parent agreed to let us go on Chand raat. We immediately messaged to our mutual friend about plan but due to some reason he pulled out. Now the issue was serious as I never had planned a trek outside Lahore of my own. So being the more experienced in trekking as of my brother the responsibility of all the planning came on me. We immediately called Niazi, Rahber, Abdullah travels for booking to manshera but none of them picked our phone. Ali was in favor that we would go to Naizi adda on chand raat and we will find some thing.

 

After few tries we got connected with skyways and we got our booking done for 11 pm Sunday night but we need to reach till 10 pm to get booking confirmed. Booking with skyways was a blessing in disguise; why so? I will explain it shortly.

 

After getting booking done I called my friend Nadir Khan in Manshera. I first met Nadir in April 2011 when we joined together to the Paya trek in full snow and later we did Musa ka Musalla.

 

Nadir these days run a tour operating company (Travel Green Guide & Tours) specializes in trekking. If any body is interested in managing tour to any where in north then he can be reached at www.facebook.com/TGGTours

 

Any ways my contact with Nadir was as my friend not the owner of Travel Green Guide & Tours. We asked him about the availability of transport & porters on Eid day. And from his contacts he quickly arranged it.

 

Sunday 19th August, 2012 - 30th Ramdan

I called few of my friends for joining us but all of them refused.

7:30 PM we planned to wear our Eid clothes but they were not ready yet. Some how we got them till 8 pm and left home at sharp 8:30 PM

On way to skyways terminal we stopped at adventure shop to buy a pair of gaiters. Here I called Nadir that we have left home for Manshera and that was the last call on that date as almost all mobile networks were shutdown over some security issues.

 

We reached Skyways terminal at 9:40 pm. The booking clerk surprising asked for ID card. It was new thing for us that all buses leaving on Motor way must list down the ID cards of each & every passenger as that sheet need to be handed over to motorway police at movie point. If you are travelling in a group then listing the ID card of atleast one member was mandatory.

 

In waiting room we met a guy from Karachi who works in finance department of PSO. He left Karachi a day before at 10 pm. He told us that with great difficulty and by changing 3-4 vehicles he reached Lahore. His booking was in Rahber but they cancelled their “flight” due to shortage of passengers and then he bought ticket of Niazi and they also cancelled their “flight” due to shortage of passengers and now he has ticket of skyways and passengers seems to be on low on it too. He must want to reach to Abbott abad to celebrate eid with his in-laws. Readers of this blog must be wondering that why I am mentioning about this person. Actually this was the first time I met a person who was injured in a terrorist attack. I do have met person who have lost their dear ones in attacks but this was the first time I met a person who narrowly escaped death with few injuries. He was in the rally of Benazir Bhutto in Karachi on October 18, 2007 when some bomb exploded and 150+ people lost their lives. He mentioned that his arm was injured in that attack. And he could even feel the voice of that blast even after two years. He mentioned that attack and the behavior of the victims have made him fearless. He now a days travel to Quetta for job related activities without any fear. He mentioned of a guy who lost his leg in the blast but he stood on one leg and tried to help the victims in whatever way he could.

 

Every body was leaving for their home to celebrate eid and it felt me really bad to miss the very first eid not with family.

 

10:30 pm we asked skyways authorities to load our luggage but they refused and said it will be only done 15 minutes before the departure time.

 

10:45 pm our ruck sack was loaded.

11:00 pm we boarded on bus ad bus was suppose to leave Lahore at 11:00 pm

11:30 pm still no sign of bus being moving. Bus was around 80 % filled at 11:00 pm and I thought might be they are waiting for it to be get 100 % filled but even when it was 100 % filled it was not leaving. Our Karachi mate was worried the most as he must want to reach to abbotabad. Few passengers went to booking office and told us shocking thing that driver is not available. He went to his home in Lahore but as mobile phones have stopped working so he can’t be contacted.

 

Booking office told us that two guys have gone to his home on taxi to wake him up and bring him to bus stand. But after few minutes they arrived with empty hands.

 

They send another guy to his home. Who also came back empty handed. The story which they told us that his room is at third floor the guy climbed up to his room but was not able to wake him up.

 

Monday 20th august 12:10 am

I was simply intolerable to me. I asked for location of complaint office to lodge my protest and it resulted only in a laugh from co passengers.

I went to the booking office that cancel our ticket and refund our money we will celebrate Eid with our family as it’s no way that you are letting us wait for more than hour and there is no sign that whether driver will come or not. They initially ensured me that driver has arrived and sitting in waiting room that simply fuelled me up and broke that news among passengers which also fuelled them up and most of them moved me to booking office to treat them harshly. They referred me to contact their manager. I simply asked him to cancel our ticket and refund our money as this is high un professional way for such a big name. Manger mentioned that driver is still not here. Here the manager told me a secret that skyways have agreement with individual owners of busses. The bus owners hare name of skyways and share profit with skyways. And that bus whose number was probably 5411 was also having its driver as its owner who according to the manager is a very responsible person but he was unable to explain why he is not coming. He said he don’t have any spare driver and he is trying every thing that you could celebrate Eid with your families. I was already feeling a little guilty of not celebrating Eid at home and his statement added more to it. Any ways I asked him that we cant wait here all the night to wait for the driver to come back and you must define a cut off time after which you will take the tickets back. He said a third team has gone to wake him up so give him 15 minutes. In the meantime few passengers went to other bus stands but no bus was leaving for manshera. Only option was to leave for Islamabad. Some passengers went further to book a private van but I was not interested in that and had already started to think that how happy our family will be to know that we have returned back to celebrate Eid with them.

 

The Karachi guy said to us that we say bad about MQM but if any bus would have done that in Karachi then they would have surely have burned the bus to ashes till now. According to him they are extremely good in that. I avoid any sort of political discussion on travel so I ignored his statement with a smile & nod of head in agreeing to him.

 

12:35 am Driver arrived and bus started.

 

We were about to enter to motorway when a guy in police uniform asked to board on but driver assistant refuse to board him saying that we don’t take passengers who drop on way. Just after 20meters we were stopped by police at check post, who were apparently angry for not giving lift to police man. They asked to open the bus they will check each and every thing. Driver assistant simply refused to do so and said bus is already checked at bus stand and he will not open the bus to be checked again. On it police got fuelled up and closed check post and said ok then they won’t let us go and forced to stand the bus on side of the road.

 

Driver assistant was forced to stop the bus and open it for checking. If police would have tried to check it thoroughly it could easily have taken an hour. Police gave an argument that on bus pass it was written that departure time is 11 pm then why the bus is leaving at 12:45 am.

 

All the passengers who were already quite angry got down from bus and a clash was expected between police & the passengers. On seeing passengers getting down, police cleared the bus with in 2 minutes. And we crossed check post.

 

Before we could enter the motor way the driver stopped the bus to fill diesel. Complete 123 liters was filled in the bus and we entered motorway at around 1 am.

 

At movie point we again stopped for movie and to handover sheet of id card number of passengers. Now a day it’s extremely important for all of us to carry their NIC on travelling outside Lahore. As some passenger didn’t showed their ID card at time of booking so it took further 10 minutes to fill the list.

 

Journey finally started. The limit on motorway for bus is 110kph but our driver was driving at 135 kph to cover up the time. And considering that he was forced to wake up from sleep it could have turned to be fatal but Alhamdulillah no damage done.

 

Just after few minutes we left movie point the passengers started shouting “ooye TV la ooye”. I uttered lightly for God sake let us sleep but naqar khanay main 'totti' ki awaz kaun sunay ga.

 

So a movie was played. Movie name was Badal and cast included booby deol and rani mukher jee. The movie was made in 2000 and its print quality was also showing that it too old. Surprisingly that movie have has remarkable resemblance to our situation in Waziristan & Baluchistan, where people are killed either by government support or by government silence which has led a rebellion to arise among our own people whose family member were killed in drone attacks or kidnapped by unknown people. Any ways Allah Allah ker k movie ended at around 4:30 am. I do tried to sleep during the movie but as I mentioned that movie has very old print and was played on VCR so after certain time the irritating high volume voice start appearing from it. These voices were so annoying that it was impossible for any human to remain sleep. Bus stopped at hasan abdal for fajar prayer. Driver told us that he has covered a lot of time by moving fast.

As the bus started I smelled some one smoking. Thankfully driver assistant was vigilant and asked the passengers to throw away the cigarette but passenger simply refused by saying k “mainy yeh muft nahi liya”. It was probably not a normal cigarette. Any ways on protest of other passengers he throwed it away and I was finally able to take a nap. I awaked up after an hour when we have crossed abottabad. I quickly messaged nadir that we are near.

 

7:10 am we reached Manshera. Niazi has created a bus stand, skyways busses also stands there. We were supposed to offer Eid prayer with Nadir but we got late to reach manshera. I called nadir he was already in masjid for Eid. So we have to find some masjid on our own for Eid prayer but issue was that we were carrying ruck sacks, gas cylinders with us. With them we can’t offer a prayer or with them police would not have allowed us to enter any masjid. Skyways offered us that we could place our stuff in waiting room but we were not confident that it will be safe or not. In short it was getting obvious that we won’t be able to offer Eid prayer. I chalked out a plan that one of us should stay with the luggage and other person should offer Eid. In this way atleast one of us will get that opportunity of Eid prayer which has lot of blessings according various ahadees Sharifs.

 

The driver of our bus who belongs to Lahore changed his cloths to Eid dress which he carried all the way. He was going to offer Eid prayer. We requested him to please place our luggage in the bus and lock it, which he happily did and we moved with him for Eid prayer.

 

On ablution area a lot of Lotas were present. For a person living in Lahore that’s kindly a strange & uncomfortable way of doing ablution but every area has its own ways.

 

8:00 am Eid namaz was offered.

8:15 am Imam sb started post namaz dua and that was such a long dua that we literally started praying k ya allahi yeh dua khatam kerwa dey. Imam sb was repeating every dua with all past, present & future tense. Any ways after 17 minutes the longest dua of my life time ended and we were freed to greet Eid.

 

That greeting started in a strange fashion as in Lahore we use to hug three times and make the chest meet but in manshera they hug for only once and that hug only include touching of shoulders mainly. Now we were trying to take three hugs but people were going away with one. That was looking so much funny but we quickly understand their custom so started to ‘do at Rome as the Romans do’ but we were not enjoying much until we met the bus driver and then we hugged in lahori style to really feel like meeting Eid.

 

Nevertheless it was the most rememberable Eid for us, as we moved to masjid where no body knows us. To whom ever we met & greeted it was probably our first and last greetings with them and we may never be able meet them. It does help us realize the global nature of Islam.

 

8:45 am we reached back to bus stand and got connected with Nadir.

9:20 am Nadir arrived, It was good to know that his office is present in front of that stand. It was indeed very kind of him that he came to us on Eid day. He invited us for tea, breakfast at his home but we were already late. Heavy rain also arrived there.

 

Nadir arranged a taxi for us for rs 2000 till shogran. On normal days they take around 1500 rs but on Eid day that was the best we could bargain.

 

Our driver Haji nazeer took us to tire workshop he said his reserve tires are punctured. He took around 30 mins to get tired punctured. We took gourmet pizza with us. We started eating it but it was gone bad. So have to through it away.

 

Our driver haji nazeer

A man in his early forties, small beard, applied colored on beard to look black, lean face, height around 5 feet 7 inch, wheetish color, head covered with a cap, runs a green alto with bigger tires and I wish to never ever meet him again.

He talks & talks & talks as he was born only to talk & talk. To be exact he had a map of northern areas of Pakistan. And whether he know the way or not, it’s was like mandatory for him to tell us about it. We were not willing to stop on the way as were already late but he has to stop to force us to take pictures at exact same spot where we have taken pics on almost every trip. Secondly he was of “big heart” so he need to stop to help his fellow taxi driver whose cars were stopped in heavy rain regardless of considering that we were getting late.

He mentioned that it was all water on road due to heavy rain and a Suzuki cabin car went into river due hay rain and a person ahs lost his live. We do believe him on this as damage on road was quite obvious.

 

We wanted to take some items from the balakot but on reaching balakot not a single shop were open due to Eid. So we carried on. He was also a great fan of Lahore hotel in shogran and it was his utmost desire to let us stay there and he was not ready to listen that we are here for camping and trekking. In past I have seen Lahore hotel. It’s a small descent hotel with affordable price but we were not going there for hotelling. To our bad luck that our host Mustaq didn’t picked our phone and some mist also came over. It haji sb another point weather is very bad, you wont find you way, you will get yourself killed, I am elder, you must respect opinion of elder. So stay in Lahore hotel today, go for hike tomorrow. We refused and he was like Lahore hotel, Lahore hotel, and Lahore hotel. It was like he will get us a cheap room for good sake stay for one night at Lahore hotel.

We stopped at kawai. I asked a hotel to cook 15 roti for us which we would pack and carry with us for our camping ahead. Thankfully we got connected to Mustaq and he said porter is waiting for us at hotel Pine Park. Despite of telling all that to haji sb he was again on the same tune of Lahore hotel.

 

Those who know me know that very well that I use to remain quite most of the time but that man ahhhhhhh!

 

1:00 pm

As soon as we were dropped at shogran we gave him his 2000 rs and ran away.

 

Regardless of his talkative nature and his strong desire to force us to stay at Lahore hotel, I must admit that he was a super excellent driver who know about each and every pit on the road. And his car was better then many.

 

Safi

Our porter was safi ud din. Our first look was a very bad one as his one hand was broken and was heavily strapped so he could only use one hand. His hand was broken in some fight. As we have already have booked him in advance and were extremely late and he was waiting for us for atleast 1 hour so we were in no position to refuse him.

 

We quickly changed our clothes and decided to use hotel pine park washrooms but they were extremely dirty so we just went without using toilet or washrooms.

 

Richard

We met Richard at shogran, He hails from UK and had recently done the shimshal pass and was now willing to do darkhot pass but his flight to chitral was cancelled due to bad weather and as a plan b he came to shogran. Unfortunately he didn’t know any thing about that area and when we asked him that what he will be looking in that area he mentioned he will go to near by villages and will see the life of villagers. Despite of the fact we were getting late we do gave him a short summary of the area and the main things to visit in shogran & naran region. We invited him to do Makra with us and descend on to Kashmir side but as he was on car parked at shogran, so we atleast invited him to Makra. He was staying at pine park hotel. We mentioned him that we will be on trek by sun rise so he should reach to Paya at that time on jeep. As a precaution that he may not be able to catch us, we explained his guide that to take him to Makra next day.

 

We started our trek. I intend to do camping at Paya. Ali decided to carry his own ruck sack whereas I gave me rucksack to the safi. Some local kids met us. They also showed willingness to join us to makra tomorrow.

 

Within 20 minutes after body start complaining about the lack of exercise. We went straight after Ramadan and doing trek quickly after the Ramadan was expected to create issues. After nearly 45 minutes into the trek; the body reduced complaining. I always believe that treks are done more with mental fitness than physical fitness so that’s why we went on it without any exercise. In normal days whenever we plan a trek we do start a gentle walk few days before start of trek but this time we were not able to do so. Any ways the local kids who met us showed gesture to carry our water bottles to some midway point on sari. Here we did two mistakes.

1- Our daypacks + dates were in the ruck sack which was with the porter and he was going through the shortcuts and was so much far away that even our full voice can’t be heard by him.

2- Our water bottles were with the local kids and they were also fond of shortcuts so they also left us. Now they also left us.

In my previous visits to sari, there use to be 2-3 water sources on way up but at this time of the year their was not a single “chasma” as they were all dried up.

 

Although the guy with the water bottles went far ahead but a few of his colleagues were moving with us. One of them rushed ahead and shouted his colleague to stop to stop water bottles on the jeep trek on which we were moving. What we later learned was that the village of those kids was near and they handed water bottles to our potter and went away. We took one turn & another turn but still the porter was far away from us. Thirst was getting like that as we haven’t drunk any thing for days. For me water and dates are like fuel of the body. It was getting difficult for us to move forward without water. Our feet were slightly dangling & head was whirling. We were wearing water proof clothes but these clothes are water proof from outside, it has as inner lining of probably cotton and that lining was all wet due to sweating. Good thing was that we could now hear our porter from behind the trees but we were not sure how far he was. As I was without any ruck sack so Ali sat down I went to fetch water from potter, I would have hardly taken 20 steps when I saw our porter (safi) coming back with a bottle of water. Bottle was only 30% filled but it does help us to return back to our senses. These were the bottles we bought from the filling station which around 30 minutes before balakot and it turned out to be a good decision as no shop was open in shogran, kiwai or balakot having mineral water bottles. Any ways while coming back to us our porter did a mistake.

 

He left our ruck sack which was containing the most important items like, food, camp on the road. He was around 5 minutes away from the point from where he could see the ruck sack. Due to Eid there were a very few people on the trek. Also we were so much engulfed with the thirst that at that moment we didn’t thought about that someone could take away the bag but on return we do met a group who suffered from almost the same type of loss. I will explain that particular incident later on the travel log.

 

Any ways the bottle which safi bought was only 30 % filled so as asked him that to drop another water bottle on way so as when we move up we can pick it up. It resolved our water problem till sari.

 

We met three guys from Karachi they were coming back from sari. One was having a guitar, we would have loved to listen to him playing guitar but unfortunately the string of it was broken. They mentioned they are coming back from makra top but considering the timings they were mentioning I was pretty sure they went to the Makra which 95 % mistake as to be Makra. Actual Makra is far behind the real makra. They were having sleeping bags only and were willing to do more trekking. Ali suggested them to do the Mahandri to Ansoo Lake and then through saran pass reach batakundi. We referred them to our friend Nadir and later in the trek we do learned that they successfully did Ansoo lake trek from mahandri but they did not went on to saran pass to reach batakundi & instead returned back through saif ul malook.

 

I been to sari twice before, once I went on jeep and other time I went in good 3-4 feet snow on ROAD. You might be wondering that why I wrote the ROAD in caps. The reason is that I was in search of point where we did a shortcut on our return to sari in snow. One of member got his foot strangled in the bush. He fell into soft snow. On digging for about 4-5 feet’s we learned that his foot was actually engulfed in a tree top which was fully covered in snow. So at that time on road there was only 3-4 feet of snow but on mountain slides it was good 12-15 feet of snow. The sides of mountain where sun does not directly reach do melt a little late so that why when we went there in April 2011 we encountered so much snow. That point was basically the half way mark to sari. Throughout my way to sari was trying to find only two point one that I just mentioned and other was a 60 degree straight height but issue was that in snow and after snow melts it’s very difficult to recognize the same points.

 

Almost on every turn I get that feeling that just one more turn and we will that gradual ascend but it was not coming. Even then since I started trekking this thing do work that by saying to yourself that only 15 minutes more. That’s a separate thing that most of the time that 15 minute more saying is repeated almost 15 times. We heard a jeep coming up. For an instance we do thought to get the lift from him and when it came near it was with the people whom we met at pine park hotel. They were probably fro Peshawar side. We offered a lift to sit on the bonnet of the jeep as rest of the jeep was packed. It was indeed a very attractive option and our body was also creating problems but we came here for trekking not for a jeep safari and when they offered the lift it was life grabbing the heart in the fist and signaling the head with no. We have heard that shogran to sari trek is only of 150 minutes. Although in snow it took us good 5 hours but in that season that should be only 2.5 hours long and as we were already into the trek since two hours so why to take lift when hardly 30 minutes more was left. Although we do have say that just 30 minute more for two times atleast.

 

On our way up we met few more local school kids. It was sad to see them doing smoking at such a young age and it was something annoying for us so we do gave them a small lecture on side effects of smoking. I am not sure how much that lecture would have affected them but they do said that it an Eid day and they are not regular smokers & they gave the same old excuse that they don’t inhale it to lungs. Here for the first time in this trek we initiated the stories relating to Bhuttay. If you don’t know that who are bhuttay then I will explain it shortly but just to get a bird eye view you can consider them like the current day political leaders who claims to be following policies of ZA Bhutto. If you know who are bhuttay & have respect for current ruling party then my above comments might have gone a little harsh on you but I am here to write the things exactly how I felt.

 

Any ways we do had 10 minutes break and again started our trek. Those kids do told us that sari is just 10 minutes away. But …

 

Another jeep passed by us and by just a wave of hand to say Salam/ hi it went away. Two jeeps were descending from paye and I was still in search of that gradual steep area which in snow we did it in around 45 minutes. We do receive the call of Mustaq (our host at sari) mentioning that our porter is at sari waiting for us. At the same time we do received the call of our mutual friend whose plan was dropped a day before we left. With his well wishes we dropped the call and continued our trek. Now the mist arrived and we could hardly see anything beyond 15-20feet. It was not a first time mist arrived in our trek so we were a little use to it. We were doing two things in those misty conditions.

1- To only maintain that must distance between two of us that we could easily see each other.

2- To stay on jeep trek and avoid any shortcuts.

 

From a distance we saw another gradual height gain. It was cruel to us as we were already exhausted but as soon as I turned towards my left and saw down I was filled full joy & energy because we were standing on the exact same steep area just before sari which I was trying to find in my whole trek. And I knew that sari is just there. We took another right and we could see the first house of sari village. So nearly after 3 hours of trek we reached to sari. 6-8 hours of trekking is just a normal thing for me but these 3 hours was purely a killer. Our body was not in shape, we were out of exercise. We were physically not ready for the trekking but just went on with because as I said earlier that mental fitness is more important than physical fitness

 

We rushed to Mustaq small hotel at sari. I do know mustaq by face but not by name since we did winter survival to paya in April 2011. We quickly opened our bag with dates and took a heavy dose of like 10 dates each. We already had the food packed so as rotis but when we asked mustaq that what he has he mentioned that he had daal mash. Which happens to be my favorite? Price was nominal (Considering that its away far away from main city) 100rs per head for daal mash & sabzi whereas chicken karahi was of 900rs per kg (per hen). I was also more in favor of eating from hotel as it would be fresh and our target for today was paya so it would save a lot of time. It was almost 4:30 pm when we reached sari and we do had at least 140 minutes of sun light. But even when we were thinking we saw mist/clouds rising up from shogran and within few minutes we were in position that we could hardly see beyond 15 feet.

 

Any ways Ali asked for sabzi and I asked for daal mash. Both were in ready to cook position. Ali went on with Mustaq to do some experimenting with that aaloo anda which only resulted in destroying it and he was not even able to finish even half a plate. Whereas I ate more than 2 rotis. We asked for tea and it was also quickly made. The moment of making the tea was extremely beautiful we could see a small rainbow of colors near the tandoor. It was a mystic feeling in which one feel that he is hallucinating. In that dark shop the burning of wood, blue & red flames the white smoke and clouds outside the window. The warmth of the tandoor, the hospitality of the mustaq, the dancing flames, the curling smoke, it was just like that we are in a paradise and some “Hoor ” will come in that hut with some sweet drink to kill the thirst forever. But instead of some hoor a local man with beard came in. It was nice meeting with him as his inlaws live on the other side of Makra and he has completed that trek few times to meet his inlaws. I was wondering what a journey that would be that to meet inlaws one has to walk for 10-12 hours (two ways). He could have easily refused the visit claiming that it’s too far. Lucky Man! Those who know me well know that I use Google earth a lot for before going to trek especially the escape routes. And before leaving for trek I do calculated out that there are three possible ridges, two of which descend towards Kashmir side and one to Chappar on naran road. That guy mentioned that if our face would be towards Kashmir than we need to descend towards the left most ridge (South east). He was perfectly correctly. That ridge towards southeast leads to bhairi and it’s the safest path.

 

Any ways after short meeting with him we went for a gentle walk. Ali went to sari lake to take some pics. I was not much interested in going to it as it would have required me to do ascend of good 10 minutes and I was not in that mood. For me it’s not a lake and I call it a pond. The reason for that logic is that for me a lake should must have proper inlet and outlet whereas sari pond/lake lacks any of such things. Sari pond is good 25-30 below the Mustaq hotel and when I came in winter I walked over it as that 25 feet was all filled with snow.

 

Mustaq has a big tent installed along with his hotel. He said if we want to spend night in that camp then we are most welcome. We were already carrying camp with us but when we saw soft mattress in the Mustaq camp then we decided to stay in that. That was quite a big camp and around 15 people can easily sleep in it at one time. He has also applied a sort of insulated sheet in it which does help to maintain the temperature inside. Moreover structure of that camp is supported by steel pipes so it can stand even the wildest weather. It outer is covered by a thick water proof sheet.

 

It was clean enough and we were the only tourist at sari on that night so we had the whole camp with us. It gives us advantage as we can openly spread our stuff in the camp without any risk of security.

 

I got off my trekking shoes took the camping sandal. I was in need to pee and saw a temporary built toilet. I took a water bottle and went in it. It was a bad decision as it was not clean and I would have came out more cleanly if I would have gone in the jungle. Readers might be wondering that why I am mentioning such a disgusting thing here but one purpose of this article is also to educate the readers about the environment.

We took our sleeping bags and went for a nap. It started to rain like cats & dogs. Mustaq camp was good hide to prevent us from that rain but unfortunately wind was so harsh that it blew one joint of water proof sheet near the corner where I was sleeping. Although that opening was with that angle that rain could not come in but still the wind was coming in. It was such a heavy rain that we can’t even dares to go out to fix it. Any ways soon we went into the valley of sleep. Although it was still time before sun could have gone down but clouds and mist made the night well before the sunset.

 

From bottom of my heart I was quite happier over rain as rain normally blew off the mist and that would be a blessing in disguise as we could get better views.

 

I was with a goose down sleeping bag and despite the fact it was extremely cold outside I was sweating due to goose down so I opened up the zip and slept for some time without sleeping bag. Mustaq was running outside with a ladder to his home nearby, probably to prevent seepage of water through the roof.

 

Those who into trekking knows this thing very well that camping nights are too long and mostly sleep come in patches of like 2-3 hours. We were half awaked when Mustaq & Safi came to our camp. Rain seems to have halted at that time and clock was probably ticking 8 pm. We are also having gotten reasonably fresh due to a good 2 hour nap. We haven’t finalized the rates with our porter and before start of trek when we do asked him for the rates then he asked that we should do it with Mustaq. As Mustaq is colleague of our mutual friend Nadir so we were ok with that. Moreover we also had some idea about the rates. They basically came to finalize the rates. Safi started the discussion with the same stories (One such accident do happened) that people have got killed in such weather we should not attempt Makra. Or we should go only till where weather allows it. Basically I believe safi was trying to convince us in such a manner that we would leave our bags at sari, do makra and camp back again sari and whole purpose of him was that he should not carry my rucksack and would only act as a guide. Although weather was tough but I was confident that it will clear in the morning. Safi was so much convincing that I do give his idea to return to sari after makra a serious thought. Mustaq was neutral and mediating between us. Safi was not agreeing to carry us to kashmir. We mentioned that we will give him the amount to reach back to sari from Muzaffarabad just accompany us. Discussion was getting nowhere; safi was not seemingly ready to go to Kashmir. We fired an arrow that if we need to get back to SARI then why we would even needs the guide/porter. I do have my working for makra and I could have gone for the summit without him if we have to come back to sari. Mustaq mentioned that we are his guest and our safety is a great concern for him. So we should not risk our lives. Safi again fired a shell that some looting incident has happened on top of makra so we should not carry our valuable with us and should leave the rucksack at sari. That all discussion was happening between Mustaq, Safi and Ali and I was more of a silent spectator. Safi when saw that we are not getting convinced he mentioned to us that its tough dangerous not everyone can do it. I mentioned that I have done twice the “Musa Ka Musalla”. And my friends who have done both MKM & Makra have rated makra slightly less tough. Ali added that he has done jungle trek from paya to manna meadow. And when he mentioned the things like water fall and other things he saw in trek Mustaq was quickly convinced that if we are insisting then we should descend towards Kashmir. Actually the reason that mustaq quickly agreed with us was because he know how dangerous that trek of paya to manna meadow trek is. Its highly unlikely that somebody attempts that trek and he doesn’t encounter any wild animal. Almost no one attempt it and 24 * 365 that jungle has lions, leopards and bear. After Mustaq got convinced we assured safi that we are not going to do a suicide we will go for Makra and if we found out at some place that it’s not wise to go forward then we will return back. Anyways half heartedly he agreed to move with us. Now the next hurdle was rates, I was sure that it won’t be tough thing to settle down but I was wrong. Safi demanded Rs 3000 per day plus we have to give him the cost from muzaffarabad to sari. That was a shocker for us as that high rate is nowhere in Pakistan and on first day and last day it only had 2-3 hours of planned trekking, Although the second day had the almost 10 hours of planned trekking. We mentioned to him that was too much. We decided to break the porter expense in two parts.

1- Actual portage price.

2- Price to reach from muzaffarabad to sari.

Safi mentioned around 1000 rs for part 2. After mentioning him some facts we lowered him to 500 rs for part 2.

 

Safi was not ready to reduce the price for part 1 and we were not ready to give him what he was demanding. To be very true we only had 16000 rs in cash in total. If we give him 9k then we would have ended on short side. We asked Mustaq to mediate between us and he asked us that how much we give. We mentioned that we will give him 5000 rs in total. If he is ok then we are moving ahead if he is not then please arrange some other porter for us and whatever his nominal amount is for from shogran to sari we give him now and Allah hafiz. After some discussion Safi agreed for 5000 rs in total.

 

It was around 8:30 pm and Safi & mustaq left the camp and we again went on to sleep. We decided to leave sari with sunrise.

 

Uploading late..... Stayed with friends in Half Moon Bay last night after a lovely dinner at The Four Seasons in Palo Alto. Attempted to take some photos on the office grounds next door but was told to move on by Security so had to settle for a wall shot near the hotel. Gorgeous weather and a fun evening!

 

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Today wasn't the best day... My iPad got stolen in the mall =( ...I put it down in game stop on the counter to pay for a game it was on sale for half price I got excited and walked out with out my iPad... I get in the car and reach for it and its gone... I called game stop and spoke to the sales person and he tells me he didn't see anything and it was gone.-_-... I rush back to check for my self ask to see the cameras..but there wasn't any -_-.... I go to the mall security office and the camera they have by the store is down -_-...Long story short its gone....=( Im trying with the find my iPad app but its not looking to good...

 

To my iPad...its been real..thanks for holding all my pictures and entertaining my self and little brothers.

 

To the new holder of my iPad...treat it well and enjoy

 

Strobist yn560 in softbox thru 28 inch apollo see BTS shot

Office 365 is familiar Microsoft Office collaboration and productivity tools delivered through the cloud. Everyone can work together easily with anywhere access to email, web conferencing, documents, and calendars. It includes business-class security and is backed by Microsoft. Whether you are a small business or multinational enterprise, Office 365 offers plans designed to fit your organization's unique needs. Learn more at epitresolutions.com

The western front of the United States Capitol in 2011.

General information

Architectural style American Neoclassicism

Town or city Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.

Country United States of America

Construction started September 18, 1793

  

The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States. Located in Washington, D.C., it sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall. Though it has never been the geographic center of the federal district, the Capitol is the origin by which the quadrants of the District are divided and the city was planned.

 

Officially, both the east and west sides of the Capitol are referred to as fronts. Historically, however, only the east front of the building was intended for the arrival of visitors and dignitaries. Like the federal buildings for the executive and judicial branches, it is built in the distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior.

Contents

  

History

See also: History of Washington, D.C. and List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C.

The US Capitol dome at night (photo 2010)

 

Prior to establishing the nation's capital in Washington, D.C., the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia (Independence Hall and Congress Hall), New York City (Federal Hall), and a number of other locations (Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland, Nassau Hall in Princeton, New Jersey).[2] In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, which met from May 1775 to March 1781.

 

After adopting the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall, demanding payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21, 1783,[3] and met in Annapolis, Maryland and Trenton, New Jersey before ending up in New York City.

 

The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790,[4] when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. The decision to locate the capital was contentious, but Alexander Hamilton helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from northern states for locating the capital along the Potomac River. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years (until December 1800), until the nation's capital in Washington, D.C. would be ready.[5]

 

Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city.[6] L'Enfant chose Jenkins Hill as the site for the Capitol building, with a grand boulevard connecting it with the President's House, and a public space stretching westward to the Potomac River.[7] In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from Latin and is associated with the Roman temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill.[8] In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House, however he was dismissed in February 1792 over disagreements with President George Washington and the commissioners, and there were no plans at that point for the Capitol.[9]

Design competition

Design for the U.S. Capitol, "An Elevation for a Capitol", by James Diamond was one of many submitted in the 1792 contest, but not selected.

 

In spring 1792, Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the President's House, and set a four-month deadline. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the federal city. At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol; however the drawings were regarded as crude and amateurish, reflecting the level of architectural skill present in the United States at the time.[10] The most promising of the submissions was by Stephen Hallet, a trained French architect.[11] However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, and were deemed too costly.[12]

 

A late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur, Simplicity, and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the center portion of the design.[13][14] Thornton's design was officially approved in a letter, dated April 5, 1793, from Washington.[15] In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, and serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes to Thornton's design, which he saw as costly to build and problematic.[16] In July 1793, Jefferson convened a five-member commission, bringing Hallet and Thornton together, along with James Hoban, to address problems with and revise Thornton's plan. Hallet suggested changes to the floor plan, which could be fitted within the exterior design by Thornton.[17][18] The revised plan was accepted, except that Jefferson and Washington insisted on an open recess in the center of the East front, which was part of Thornton's original plan.[19]

 

The original design by Thornton was later modified by Benjamin Henry Latrobe and then Charles Bulfinch.[20] The current dome and the House and Senate wings were designed by Thomas U. Walter and August Schoenborn,[21] a German immigrant, and were completed under the supervision of Edward Clark.[22]

Construction

The Capitol when first occupied by Congress (painting circa 1800 by William Russell Birch)

 

L'Enfant secured the lease of quarries at Wigginton Island and along Aquia Creek in Virginia for use in the foundations and outer walls of the Capitol in November 1791.[23] Surveying was underway soon after the Jefferson conference plan for the Capitol was accepted.[17] On September 18, 1793 George Washington, along with eight other Freemasons dressed in masonic regalia, laid the cornerstone, which was made by silversmith Caleb Bentley.[24][25]

 

Construction proceeded with Hallet working under supervision of James Hoban, who was also busy working on construction of the White House. Despite the wishes of Jefferson and the President, Hallet went ahead anyway and modified Thornton's design for the East front and created a square central court that projected from the center, with flanking wings which would house the legislative bodies. Hallet was dismissed by Jefferson on November 15, 1794.[26] George Hadfield was hired on October 15, 1795 as superintendent of construction, but resigned three years later in May 1798, due to dissatisfaction with Thornton's plan and quality of work done thus far.[27]

 

The Senate wing was completed in 1800, while the House wing was completed in 1811. However, the House of Representatives moved into the House wing in 1807. Though the building was incomplete, the Capitol held its first session of United States Congress on November 17, 1800. The legislature was moved to Washington prematurely, at the urging of President John Adams in hopes of securing enough Southern votes to be re-elected for a second term as president.[28]

Early religious usage

 

In its early days, the Capitol building was not only used for governmental functions. On Sundays, church services were regularly held there - a practice that continued until after the Civil War. According to the US Library of Congress exhibit "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic" "It is no exaggeration to say that on Sundays in Washington during the administrations of Thomas Jefferson (1801–1809) and of James Madison (1809–1817) the state became a church. Within a year of his inauguration, Jefferson began attending church services in the House of Representatives. Madison followed Jefferson's example, although unlike Jefferson, who rode on horseback to church in the Capitol, Madison came in a coach and four. Worship services in the House—a practice that continued until after the Civil War—were acceptable to Jefferson because they were nondiscriminatory and voluntary. Preachers of every Protestant denomination appeared. (Catholic priests began officiating in 1826.)"[29]

War of 1812

The Capitol after the burning of Washington, D.C. in the War of 1812 (painting 1814 by George Munger)

See also: Burning of Washington

 

Not long after the completion of both wings, the Capitol was partially burned by the British on August 24, 1814, during the War of 1812. George Bomford, and Joseph Gardner Swift, both military engineers, were called upon to help rebuild the Capitol. Reconstruction began in 1815 and was completed by 1819. Construction continued through to 1826, with the addition of the center Rotunda area and the first dome of the Capitol. Latrobe is principally connected with the original construction and many innovative interior features; his successor, Bulfinch, also played a major role, such as the design of the first dome.

The House and Senate Wings

Daguerreotype of east side of the Capitol (1846 by John Plumbe)

 

By 1850, it became clear that the Capitol could not accommodate the growing number of legislators arriving from newly admitted states. A new design competition was held, and President Millard Fillmore appointed Philadelphia architect Thomas U. Walter to carry out the expansion. Two new wings were added – a new chamber for the House of Representatives on the south side, and a new chamber for the Senate on the north.[30]

 

When the Capitol was expanded in the 1850s, some of the construction labor was carried out by slaves "who cut the logs, laid the stones and baked the bricks".[31] The original plan was to use workers brought in from Europe; however, there was a poor response to recruitment efforts, and African Americans—free and slave—comprised the majority of the work force.[32]

The Capitol Building with flowers in the foreground (photo 2010)

Capitol dome

Main article: United States Capitol dome

 

The 1850 expansion more than doubled the length of the Capitol, dwarfing the original, timber-framed 1818 dome. In 1855, the decision was made to tear it down and replace it with the "wedding-cake style" cast-iron dome that stands today. Also designed by Walter, the new dome stood three times the height of the original dome and 100 feet (30 m) in diameter, yet had to be supported on the existing masonry piers. Like Mansart's dome at Les Invalides (which he had visited in 1838), Walter's dome is double, with a large oculus in the inner dome, through which is seen The Apotheosis of Washington painted on a shell suspended from the supporting ribs, which also support the visible exterior structure and the tholos that supports Freedom, a colossal statue that was added to the top of the dome in 1863. This statue was cast by a slave named Philip Reid. The weight of the cast iron for the dome has been published as 8,909,200 pounds (4,041,100 kg).

Later expansion

US Senate chamber (photo circa 1873)

 

When the Capitol's new dome was finally completed, its massive visual weight, in turn, overpowered the proportions of the columns of the East Portico, built in 1828. The East Front of the Capitol building was rebuilt in 1904, following a design of the architects Carrère and Hastings, who also designed the Senate and House office buildings.

 

The next major expansion to the Capitol started in 1958, with a 33.5 feet (10.2 m) extension of the East Portico.[citation needed] During this project, the dome underwent its last restoration.[33] A marble duplicate of the sandstone East Front was built 33.5 feet (10.2 m) from the old Front. (In 1962, a connecting extension incorporated what formerly was an outside wall as an inside wall.) In the process, the Corinthian columns were removed. It was not until 1984 that landscape designer Russell Page created a suitable setting for them in a large meadow at the National Arboretum as the National Capitol Columns, where they are combined with a reflecting pool in an ensemble that reminds some visitors of Persepolis. Besides the columns, hundreds of blocks of the original stone were removed and are stored behind a National Park Service maintenance yard in Rock Creek Park.[34]

 

In 1960, the dome underwent its last restoration.[33]

National Capitol Columns at the National Arboretum (photo 2008)

 

On December 19, 1960, the Capitol was declared a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service.[35] The building was ranked #6 in a 2007 survey conducted for the American Institute of Architects' "America's Favorite Architecture" list.[36] The Capitol draws heavily from other notable buildings, especially churches and landmarks in Europe, including the dome of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican and St. Paul's Cathedral in London.[37] On the roofs of the Senate and House Chambers are flagpoles that fly the U.S. flag when either is in session. On September 18, 1993, to commemorate the Capitol's bicentennial, the Masonic ritual cornerstone laying with George Washington was reenacted. Strom Thurmond was one of the Freemason politicians who took part in the ceremony.

 

On June 20, 2000, ground was broken for the Capitol Visitor Center, which subsequently opened on December 2, 2008.[38] From 2001 through 2008, the East Front of the Capitol (site of most presidential inaugurations until Ronald Reagan began a new tradition in 1981) was the site of construction for this massive underground complex, designed to facilitate a more orderly entrance for visitors to the Capitol. Prior to the center being built, visitors to the Capitol had to queue on the parking lot and ascend the stairs, whereupon entry was made through the massive sculpted Columbus Doors, through a small narthex cramped with security, and thence directly into the Rotunda. The new underground facility provides a grand entrance hall, a visitors theater, room for exhibits, and dining and restroom facilities, in addition to space for building necessities such as an underground service tunnel.

 

$20 million in work around the base of the dome was done, and before the August 2012 recess, the Senate Appropriations Committee voted to spend $61 million to repair the exterior of the dome, which has at least 1,300 cracks that have led to rusting inside. The House wants to spend less on government operations, making it unlikely the money will be approved.[33]

Interior

Main article: United States Capitol rotunda

See also: United States Capitol Subway System

 

The Capitol building is marked by its central dome above a rotunda and two wings, one for each chamber of Congress: the north wing is the Senate chamber and the south wing is the House of Representatives chamber. Above these chambers are galleries where visitors can watch the Senate and House of Representatives. It is an example of the neoclassical architecture style. The statue on top of the dome is the Statue of Freedom.[39]

 

Underground tunnels and a private subway connect the main Capitol building with each of the Congressional office buildings in the surrounding complex. All rooms in the Capitol are designated as either S (for Senate) or H (for House), depending on whether they are north (Senate) or south (House) of the Rotunda. Additionally, all addresses in Washington, D.C. are designated NE, NW, SE, or SW, in relation to the Rotunda. Since the Capitol Rotunda is not located in the center of the District—it is slightly farther east and south—the four D.C. quadrants are not the same shape and size.

Art

The fresco painted on the interior of the Capitol's dome titled The Apotheosis of Washington was painted by Constantino Brumidi in 1865 (photo 2005)

 

The Capitol has a long history in art of the United States, beginning in 1856 with Italian/Greek American artist Constantino Brumidi and his murals in the hallways of the first floor of the Senate side of the Capitol. The murals, known as the Brumidi Corridors,[40] reflect great moments and people in United States history. Among the original works are those depicting Benjamin Franklin, John Fitch, Robert Fulton, and events such as the Cession of Louisiana. Also decorating the walls are animals, insects and natural flora indigenous to the United States. Brumidi's design left many spaces open so that future events in United States history could be added. Among those added are the Spirit of St. Louis, the Moon landing, and the Challenger shuttle crew.

 

Brumidi also worked within the Rotunda. He is responsible for the painting of The Apotheosis of Washington beneath the top of the dome, and also the famous Frieze of United States History.[41] The Apotheosis of Washington was completed in 11 months and painted by Brumidi while suspended nearly 180 feet (55 m) in the air. It is said to be the first attempt by the United States to deify a founding father. Washington is depicted surrounded by 13 maidens in an inner ring with many Greek and Roman gods and goddesses below him in a second ring. The frieze is located around the inside of the base of the dome and is a chronological, pictorial history of the United States from the landing of Christopher Columbus to the Wright Brothers's flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The frieze was started in 1878 and was not completed until 1953. The frieze was therefore painted by four different artists: Brumidi, Filippo Costaggini, Charles Ayer Whipple, and Allyn Cox. The final scenes depicted in the fresco had not yet occurred when Brumidi began his Frieze of the United States History.

Capitol Rotunda (photo 2005)

 

Within the Rotunda there are eight large paintings about the development of the United States as a nation. On the east side are four paintings depicting major events in the discovery of America. On the west are four paintings depicting the founding of the United States. The east side paintings include The Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman, The Embarkation of the Pilgrims by Robert Walter Weir, The Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell, and The Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn. The paintings on the west side are by John Trumbull: Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, and General George Washington Resigning His Commission. Trumbull was a contemporary of the United States' founding fathers and a participant in the American Revolutionary War; he painted a self-portrait into Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.

 

First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln hangs over the west staircase in the Senate wing.[42]

National Statuary Hall Collection viewed from the South (photo date unknown)[43]

 

The Capitol also houses the National Statuary Hall Collection, comprising two statues donated by each of the fifty states to honor persons notable in their histories. One of the most notable statues in the National Statuary Hall is a bronze statue of King Kamehameha donated by the state of Hawaii upon its accession to the union in 1959. The statue's extraordinary weight of 15,000 pounds (6,804 kg) raised concerns that it might come crashing through the floor, so it was moved to Emancipation Hall of the new Capitol Visitor Center. The 100th, and last statue for the collection, that of Po'pay from the state of New Mexico, was added on September 22, 2005. It was the first statue moved into the Emancipation Hall.

Features

 

Under the Rotunda there is an area known as the Crypt. It was designed to look down on the final resting place of George Washington in the tomb below. However, under the stipulations of his last will, Washington was buried at Mount Vernon, and as such the area remains open to visitors. The Crypt now houses exhibits on the history of the Capitol. A star inlaid in the floor marks the point at which Washington, D.C. is divided into its four quadrants; however, the exact center of the city lies near the White House. At one end of the room near the Old Supreme Court Chamber is a statue of John C. Calhoun. On the right leg of the statue, a mark from a bullet fired during the 1998 shooting incident is clearly visible. The bullet also left a mark on the cape, located on the back right side of the statue.

 

Eleven presidents have lain in state in the Rotunda for public viewing, most recently Gerald Ford. The tomb meant for Washington stored the catafalque which is used to support coffins lying in state or honor in the Capitol. The catafalque is now on display in the Capitol Visitors Center for the general public to see when not in use.

 

The Hall of Columns is located on the House side of the Capitol, home to twenty-eight fluted columns and statues from the National Statuary Hall Collection. In the basement of the Capitol building in a utility room are two marble bathtubs, which are all that remain of the once elaborate Senate baths. These baths were a spa-like facility designed for members of Congress and their guests before many buildings in the city had modern plumbing. The facilities included several bathtubs, a barbershop, and a massage parlor.

 

A steep, metal staircase, totaling 365 steps, leads from the basement to an outdoor walkway on top of the Capitol's dome.[44] The number of steps represents each day of the year.[45]

Height

Main article: Heights of Buildings Act of 1910

See also: The Height of Buildings Act of 1899

See also: List of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C.

 

Contrary to a popular myth, D.C. building height laws have never referenced the height of the Capitol building, which rises to 289 feet (88 m).[46] Indeed, the Capitol is only the fifth-tallest structure in Washington.

House Chamber

 

The House of Representatives Chamber has 448 permanent seats. Unlike Senators, Representatives do not have assigned seats.[47] It is adorned with relief portraits of famous lawmakers and lawgivers throughout history. Of the twenty-three relief portraits only Moses is sculpted from a full front view and is located across from the dais where the Speaker of the House ceremonially sits.

President George W. Bush delivering the annual State of the Union address in the House chamber (photo 2003)

  

There is also a quote etched in the marble of the chamber, as stated by venerable statesman Daniel Webster: "Let us develop the resources of our land, call forth its powers, build up its institutions, promote all its great interests, and see whether we also, in our day and generation, may not perform something worthy to be remembered."[49]

Senate Chamber

Main article: United States Senate Chamber

Old Supreme Court Chamber (photo 2007)

 

The current Senate Chamber opened in 1859[50] and is adorned with white marble busts of the former Presidents of the Senate (Vice Presidents).[51]

Old Supreme Court Chamber

Main article: Old Supreme Court Chamber

 

From 1800 to 1806, this room served as the Senate Chamber and from 1806 until 1860, the room was used as the Supreme Court Chamber. In 1860, the Supreme Court began using the newly vacated Old Senate Chamber. Since 1935, the Supreme Court has met in the United States Supreme Court Building.

Exterior

Grounds

See also: United States Capitol Complex

Capitol Hill and its reflection pool.

Aerial view of the Capitol Grounds from the West (photo date unknown, pre-2001)[52]

 

The Capitol Grounds cover approximately 274 acres (1.11 km²), with the grounds proper consisting mostly of lawns, walkways, streets, drives, and planting areas. Formerly, a number of monumental sculptures were located on the east facade and lawn of the Capitol including The Rescue and George Washington. The current grounds were designed by noted American landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who planned the expansion and landscaping performed from 1874 to 1892. In 1875, as one of his first recommendations, Olmsted proposed the construction of the marble terraces on the north, west, and south sides of the building that exist today.

 

Olmsted also designed the Summer House, the open-air brick building that sits just north of the Capitol. Three arches open into the hexagonal structure, which encloses a fountain and twenty-two brick chairs. A fourth wall holds a small window that looks onto an artificial grotto. Built between 1879 and 1881, the Summer House was intended to answer complaints that visitors to the Capitol had no place to sit and no place to obtain water for their horses and themselves. Modern drinking fountains have since replaced Olmsted's fountain for the latter purpose. Olmsted intended to build a second, matching Summer House on the southern side of the Capitol, but congressional objections led to the project's cancellation.

Flags

 

Up to four U.S. flags can be seen flying over the Capitol. Two flagpoles are located at the base of the dome on the East and West sides. These flagpoles have flown the flag day and night since World War I. The other two flagpoles are above the North (Senate) and South (House of Representatives) wings of the building, and fly only when the chamber below is in session. The flag above the House of Representatives is raised and lowered by House pages. The flag above the United States Senate is raised and lowered by Senate Doorkeepers. To raise the flag, Doorkeepers access the roof of the Capitol from the Senate Sergeant at Arms' office. Several auxiliary flagpoles, to the west of the dome and not visible from the ground, are used to meet congressional requests for flags flown over the Capitol.[citation needed] Constituents pay for U.S. flags flown over the Capitol to commemorate a variety of events such as the death of a veteran family member.

Major events

See also: State funerals in the United States and United States presidential inauguration

The body of former President Ronald Reagan lying in state (photo June 10, 2004)

 

The Capitol, as well as the grounds of Capitol Hill, have played host to major events, including presidential inaugurations held every four years. During an inauguration, the front of the Capitol is outfitted with a platform and a grand staircase. Annual events at the Capitol include Independence Day celebrations, and the National Memorial Day Concert.

In 1922 the US Post Office featured the US capitol on a US Postage stamp

 

The general public has paid respect to a number of individuals lying in state at the Capitol, including numerous former presidents, senators, and other officials. Other Americans lying in honor include Officers Jacob Chestnut and John Gibson, the two officers killed in the 1998 shooting incident. Chestnut was the first African American ever to lie in honor in the Capitol. The public also paid respect to civil rights icon Rosa Parks at the Capitol in 2005. She was the first woman and second African American to lie in honor in the Capitol.

Security

See also: United States Capitol shooting incident (1954), 1983 United States Senate bombing, and United States Capitol shooting incident (1998)

 

On January 30, 1835, what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting President of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol. When President Andrew Jackson was leaving the Capitol out of the East Portico after the funeral of South Carolina Representative Warren R. Davis, Richard Lawrence, an unemployed and deranged housepainter from England, either burst from a crowd or stepped out from hiding behind a column and aimed a pistol at Jackson which misfired. Lawrence then pulled out a second pistol which also misfired. It has since been postulated that the moisture from the humid weather of the day contributed to the double misfiring.[53] Lawrence was then restrained, with legend saying that Jackson attacked Lawrence with his cane, prompting his aides to restrain him. Others present, including David Crockett, restrained and disarmed Lawrence.

 

On July 2, 1915, prior to the United States' entry into World War I, Eric Muenter (aka Frank Holt), a German professor who wanted to stop American support of the Allies in World War I, exploded a bomb in the reception room of the U.S. Senate. The next morning he tried to assassinate J. P. Morgan, Jr., son of the financier, at his home on Long Island, New York. In a letter to the Washington Evening Star published after the explosion, Muenter writing under an assumed name, said he hoped that the detonation would "make enough noise to be heard above the voices that clamor for war." J.P. Morgan's company served as Great Britain's principal U.S. purchasing agent for munitions and other war supplies.

The Capitol at night (photo 2006)

 

In 1954, Puerto Rican nationalists opened fire on members of Congress from the visitors' gallery. On March 1, 1971, a bomb exploded on the ground floor of the Capitol, placed by the radical left domestic terrorist group, the Weather Underground. They placed the bomb as a demonstration against U.S. involvement in Laos. On November 7, 1983, a group called the Armed Resistance Unit claimed responsibility for a bomb that detonated in the lobby outside the office of Senate Minority Leader Robert Byrd.[54] Six people associated with the John Brown Anti-Klan Committee were later found in contempt of court for refusing to testify about the bombing.[55] In 1990, three members of the Armed Resistance Unit were convicted of the bombing, which they claimed was in response to the invasion of Grenada.[56] On July 24, 1998, Russell Eugene Weston Jr. burst into the Capitol and opened fire, killing two Capitol Police officers. The Capitol is believed to have been the intended target of the hijacked United Airlines Flight 93 on September 11, 2001, before it crashed near Shanksville in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, after passengers tried to take over control of the plane from hijackers.[57][58]

 

Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, the roads and grounds around the Capitol have undergone dramatic changes. The United States Capitol Police have also installed checkpoints to inspect vehicles at specific locations around Capitol Hill,[59][60] and have closed a section of one street indefinitely.[60] The level of screening employed varies. On the main east-west thoroughfares of Constitution and Independence Avenues, barricades are implanted in the roads that can be raised in the event of an emergency. Trucks larger than pickups are interdicted by the Capitol Police and are instructed to use other routes. On the checkpoints at the shorter cross streets, the barriers are typically kept in a permanent "emergency" position, and only vehicles with special permits are allowed to pass. All Capitol visitors are screened by a magnetometer, and all items that visitors may bring inside the building are screened by an x-ray device. In both chambers, gas masks are located underneath the chairs in each chamber for members to use in case of emergency.[citation needed] Structures ranging from scores of Jersey barriers to hundreds of ornamental bollards have been erected to obstruct the path of any vehicles that might stray from the designated roadways.[61]

Capitol Visitor Center

Opening ceremony of the Capitol Visitor Center, December 2008. The plaster cast model of the Statue of Freedom is in the foreground.

Main article: United States Capitol Visitor Center

 

The underground, three-level, 580,000-square-foot (54,000 m2) United States Capitol Visitor Center (CVC) opened on December 2, 2008. The CVC is meant to bring all visitors in through one handicap accessible security checkpoint, yards away from the Capitol itself, increasing security and offering visitors educational exhibits, a food court, and restrooms. The estimated final cost of constructing the CVC was US$621 million.[62] The project had long been in the planning stages, but the 1998 killings of two Capitol Police officers provided the impetus to start work. Construction began in the fall of 2001.

 

Critics say that security improvements have been the least of the project's expense. Construction delays and added features by Congress added greatly to the cost. Citizens Against Government Waste have called the CVC a "Monument to Waste".[63] However many, including those who work in the Capitol, consider it a necessary and appropriate historical project. It is located completely underground, though skylights provide views of the Capitol dome.

More Evidence 'al-Qaeda'

Is A CIA-ISI Contrivance

By Kurt Nimmo

9-24-6

 

Don't expect our corporate media "op-ed" stenographers to deviate from their Pentagon and neocon generated scripts and connect the dots now that another in-your-face link between "al-Qaeda" terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism (one in the same) has surfaced.

 

"Omar Khyam, an accused leader among seven men charged in 2004 with stockpiling half a ton of explosives in an Al Qaeda-linked bombing plot, took the stand Tuesday long enough to refuse to continue his testimony. The judge temporarily adjourned the trial, which began in March," reports the Los Angeles Times. "On Monday, Khyam stunned his own lawyer when he declared that his relatives in Pakistan had been intimidated in recent days by agents of the powerful Inter-Services Intelligence agency, which has a shadowy history of contacts with Islamic extremist networks."

 

No mention here of the "shadowy" fact the ISI is a branch office of the CIA. "A number of officers from the ISI's Covert Action Division received training in the US and many covert action experts of the CIA were attached to the ISI to guide it in its operations against the Soviet troops by using the Afghan Mujahideen, Islamic fundamentalists of Pakistan and Arab volunteers," writes B. Raman for the South Asia Analysis Group. These "Arab volunteers" and "Islamic fundamentalists," of the most virulent strain (Saudi Wahhabism), are now known as "al-Qaeda," a wily and phantasmal enemy specifically designed to serve as a forever enemy, an elusive Goldsteinesque enemy explicitly engineered to pose a threat in perpetuum.

 

"Despite longtime allegations that Pakistani agents have trained Islamic militants and protected fugitive Al Qaeda leaders, Khyam's testimony provided a rare account in a Western courtroom about the ISI's role in militant training camps," the Times continues. "His accusation also raised concerns that Pakistani intelligence officials might be seeking to disrupt a significant prosecution of alleged Islamic extremism in Europe."

 

Of course, this stands to reason, as "Islamic extremism," long ago blueprinted on a CIA drawing board, has demonstrated its transcendent usefulness and must be protected at all cost. One miserable patsy will not get in the way and no doubt Omar Khyam's family is now in danger, thanks to his detrimental revelation.

 

"If the allegations about intimidation are true, they raise troubling implications for the trial and the other pending cases involving British suspects of Pakistani origin with alleged connections to terrorist networks in Pakistan-as well as family ties there."

 

According to Jane's Information Group, the ISI "was modelled on Savak, the Iranian security agency, and like Savak was trained by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the SDECE, France's external intelligence service." SAVAK, according to Sam Ghandchi, who experienced the secret police's brutality firsthand, specialized in shoving broken bottles in the rectums of political dissidents, murdering "pregnant activists, and all other forms of killing and rape." SAVAK was a law unto itself, possessing the legal authority to arrest, detain, interrogate, and torture dissidents indefinitely. SAVAK operated its own prisons in Tehran, such as the Qezel-Qalaeh and Evin facilities. Because it operated autonomously, without checks and balances, it serves as a standard-bearer for secret police around the world.

 

"Kashmir, along with Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Russian republic of Chechnya, is one of the battlegrounds that has provided a multinational flow of aspiring Islamic militants to Al Qaeda and its allies," the Times reports, once again neglecting to connect the dots.

 

For instance, as Michel Chossudovsky notes, the "Bosnian pattern," as described in a Republican Party Committee congressional report published in 1997, "was replicated in Kosovo" with "the complicity of NATO and the US State Department. Mujahideen mercenaries [recruited, trained, and financed by the CIA and ISI] from the Middle East and Central Asia were recruited to fight in the ranks of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) in 1998-99, largely supporting NATO's war effort. Confirmed by British military sources, the task of arming and training of the KLA had been entrusted in 1998 to the US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and Britain's Secret Intelligence Services MI6, together with 'former and serving members of 22 SAS [Britain's 22nd Special Air Services Regiment], as well as three British and American private security companies." This pattern was also put to work in Macedonia and Chechnya.

 

Omar Khyam has revealed but another glimmer of the precise nature of the "al-Qaeda" terror network, information useful for connecting dots but that will of course be studiously ignored by our corporate media stenographers. "Khyam has revealed more information than was expected," remarked Sajjan Gohel of the Asia-Pacific Foundation, billed as a counter-terrorism think tank. "He has given a lot of insight into how very many British Muslims have been recruited. I think everyone was shocked. The question now is whether the whole truth will come out."

 

Of course, it does not matter if "the whole truth will come out," as it is irrelevant, especially for a society unable to connect the dots and, really, not wanting to connect the dots and learn the truth, as this particular truth interupts sit-coms and football games.

 

For every person who looks beyond the official story and gleans the indisputable truth about "al-Qaeda" and various other intelligence contrivances engineered by the Pentagon, CIA, MI-6, Mossad, et al, there are literally millions of people who buy into the official explanation, or rather Brothers Grimm machination-the Muslims, represented by the dead Osama and al-Zarqawi, are out to get us and an incessant "clash of civilizations" is required, with attendant police state and tyranny at home.

 

Indeed, the "whole truth," according to our neocon rulers, is nothing less than base "appeasement" of "bad guys," those who wish us harm. Soon enough, especially after the imminent shock and awe of Iran, espousing the truth will result in Gestapo door knocks-with battering rams manned by ninja-clad thugs tossing stun grenades-at three in the morning, thus shuffling "fifth columnists," as Sen. Lindsey Graham would likely describe the readers of this blog, off to Rex 84 camps where waterboarding and secret military tribunals are the order of the day.

 

Note: Of course all points of fact in CIA's al Qaeda wars against US taxpayers and against Earth's non-corporate non-pentagon humans can be rapidly "debunked" by simply regurgitating CIA's 24-7-365 US media lies...designed for your "security"

  

I apologize for all the lame interior shots of my bedroom. I promise you guys I leave my house sometimes. Things have just been hard these past couple of days and I haven't had much time to focus on capturing my actual day.

Spent much of the afternoon emailing people and answering texts. Losing a friend is rough, man. There's going to be a get-together for all the old elementary school crew. That'll be weird but I'm looking forward to it.

Hit up the mall, got my new board. YEE! Had to get a little ghetto on our store manager for not scheduling me because he thought I wasn't free. Not down for that. I need dem hours.

Had to hit up the social security office to replace my card. I hate when things like that just go missing without reason.

Went to Jessica's after that. We used to work together. She's rad and I missed her. Spent the evening on her couch with Elysse. Watched the Giants game. Went to Mel's. Got milkshakes. Things really just aren't easy as of late. Kinda sucks. Hoping tomorrow will be better.

 

Song of the Day : Cats Van Bags -- Atmosphere

memphis-and-53rd.tumblr.com/

When working in the field, jungle or any suburban location, measure the safety issues (you might consider hiring a security officer to check it out).

 

After the harddrives humping of last night, tonight i found myself in a new situation, it was raining laptops and i almost took one of them over the face.

 

Strobist : Canon 550ex through umbrella, 2.5m away from subject 1,8m high, camera right, 1/8th power 50mm zoom.

I am officially a Poolman! YEP! I got all the paperwork done today. The Social Security Office was a drag - way too many people and not enough air! DMV was no problem - surprising. I even took Chrystyne with me so she could get a state ID. Now all I have to do is wait for everything to come in the mail.

So as luck would have it the Corvette and I crossed paths again today. By chance I was back at the same workplace, where we both had been yesterday, only this time I had my Nikon by my side, so I was armed and ready!

 

Seeing as its a little difficult to be inconspicuous with a DSLR camera and a zoom lens, thought it best to run it by someone, especially as this beautiful beast (yes I'm a bit of car nut) was parked near an occupied security office.

 

I had a pressing deadline back at the office and so being arrested for trespassing was not part of todays plan!

 

I approached the receptionist to run it by her . . . thinking she would just say yes . . . instead she started dialling the owners mobile . . . as he just happened to be the owner of this rather large company too.

 

A car buff himself he said 'Yeah no worries at all' . . . seconds later he appeared, lovely chap and a car buff too. I discovered he owned not one, but three vetts, several hotrods and also collected Indians (motorcycles).

 

After a lovely chat he handed me the keys to his precious red gem and said 'Here, take it for a spin . . . and he was serious!' The sun was shining and it was a glorious day for a drive in a 320kw (430hp) 6.2 litre V8 convertible!!!

 

Sadly I had to decline as work was looming . . . but not before taking a rain check!!!

 

Reeled off a couple quick shots but not before my camera, which had been sitting in the heat of the car all morning (oops) decided to jam for some reason . . . I couldn't select or modify the aperture! Seriously I thought, now . . . just as this opportunity presented itself.

 

Then visions of camera not working at all, it having to be repaired leaving me with nothing to complete my 365 project with, flashed before my eyes . . . panic set in . . . quick removal of the battery and lens seemed to rectify the situation . . . bizarre but maybe just a little overheated ???

 

Hot camera, hot car!

 

There are several of us working on a 365 project, and if you'd like to follow along, here are links to the others:

Janet

Kat

Stephanie

Mark

AJ

LadyK

Kristin

photography-andreas

 

9 October 2013

  

Well. Today.

  

How… to describe… today?

  

Uneventful and then ridiculous?

  

I took photos of food I made and other things that I did today, but at the end of the day, no photo is better than this one to demonstrate it.

  

Well, from the beginning.

  

I woke up late--I didn't HAVE to go to the school at all today. I only had one class scheduled, and the teacher told me I didn't need to come. I still wanted to come anyway, to prepare for the next day and see if any of the teachers needed me for anything… but I wasn't in any hurry.

  

I just had breakfast at my place and went to the school after, around 12:15. I made photocopies of the worksheets I need for tomorrow. I was hoping to be able to use the internet at the school, but here's the thing: THERE IS ONLY ONE PERSON IN THE SCHOOL WHO KNOWS THE WIFI PASSWORD. Literally one person, the IT guy, because they don't want the kids to get the password.

  

The fun part is, the IT guy is rarely ever in his office. I have yet to encounter him. So, I didn't have any luck getting on the wifi and instead just worked on organizing things for tomorrow. And made a grocery list.

  

I'm trying to buy groceries as naturally as possible this month. It's difficult because I'm worried about money, but I want to have an idea of how much I should expect to spend. I've been saving all my receipts, and just at a glance I don't seem to be doing TOO badly. But I've been refraining from buying extra things, like candy or chips or ice cream. That's a good thing, though--I'm pretty sure I've lost weight since I've been here, even though I haven't been running!

  

So after school I went to Mercadona and bought lots of vegetables to make a nice salad (and to put in salmorejo later), and some other groceries. Last week I bought some gluten-free pasta. I'm not exactly sure if I'm gluten intolerant or not, but I know it doesn't make me feel good to eat a lot of bread or grains. Some is fine, but if I eat too much in a day I get awful stomach cramps and if I keep eating it for days, I feel so tired and bloated.

  

I eat bread often here, so I figured it wouldn't hurt to get some gluten-free pasta so I don't overload on grains and feel bad. Also, in general it's easier to buy healthy food in Spain. In Mercadona, they label EVERYTHING according to whether it's "sin gluten" or not. And when I went to buy ground beef, I saw that ground chicken and turkey was the same price, so I bought that to use since it's healthier.

  

Came home, cooked some pasta and some sauce with the ground chicken/turkey, and made a nice big salad. Unfortunately I never can judge the correct amount to cook, so I always end up with lots of extra food! I need more people to cook for!

  

Then, I went down to the cafe to use the wifi. New problem: today my phone received a text from Vodafone telling me that I've used 90% of my data for the month. I have like, 10 more days to go. I'm not really surprised, since I've been using my phone as basically my sole source of internet--for maps, social networks, videos on how to use my washer, etc. I guess tomorrow I'll have to go to the store and find out if I can load some more data :( What a pain!

  

So I stayed in the cafe for a while using the wifi. Olivia came for a while to talk with me and have coffee, but I stayed longer there uploading yesterday's photo and reading articles.

  

I went back up to my apartment, and as usual, I remembered the things that I'd MEANT to look up on the internet while I was in the cafe, but had forgotten. Today: best way to cook hard-boiled eggs, and tips for using watercolors. I've been meaning to paint with watercolors but never seem to have time when it's light out. And I was going to hard-boil some eggs to put in some salmorejo for dinner.

  

But laziness and lack of desire to use precious internet on my phone led to me not painting, and eating some of my leftover lunch for dinner instead of messing with the salmorejo. I finished eating and was about to wash the dishes, but I noticed my phone was almost dead. So I walked back to my bedroom to plug it in.

  

The weather has recently changed in El Ejido, recent as in TODAY. It's become much colder and VERY VERY windy. I leave windows open in my apartment to enjoy the breeze, but an annoying side effect is that sometimes strong drafts will blow doors shut in the apartment.

  

I discovered this phenomenon the other day when I came home to an unlocked front door (the only time I've ever forgotten to lock it), and a closed bedroom door (I never shut it). I reacted to this strange set of circumstances by opening my bedroom door quickly and brandishing a kitchen knife. No one was in my apartment, but I felt kind of like a badass checking for intruders, nonetheless. I'm also pretty sure this event is what triggered my nightmare about things being moved the other night.

  

I've been trying to put things in front of the door so I don't have to hear it slamming shut all the time, but when I walked back into my bedroom to plug my phone in, I must have moved the sneaker that was in front of it. As I sat down on my bed and procrastinated going to wash the dishes, a huge breeze blew through and loudly slammed my bedroom door shut. I didn't really think anything of it, since it's happened so many times in the past couple days.

  

After a few minutes, I finally got up to go to the kitchen, and went to open the door. The handle turned, but it didn't work to open the door. I thought it might be stuck, so I jiggled the handle more insistently and pulled on the door a little harder. It didn't seem to be engaging correctly inside the door.

  

I started wrenching the handle up and down and pulling hard on the door. BUT IT WOULDN'T OPEN!

  

I guess this might be a good time to mention that I'm slightly claustrophobic. Not INCREDIBLY claustrophobic, but I don't like small enclosed spaces like elevators or the window seats on airplanes, and I've had a lifelong fear of being locked in places. Once when we were little, my brother and I got locked out on the enclosed balcony in my house (probably for less than an hour, but as a child it felt like AGES), and for a while after that, I didn't like closing doors at all. It's not a big deal, but I still get nervous thinking about being trapped somewhere.

  

Needless to say, I started to get a little panicky. I tried the door again. I pulled and shook the handle, rattled the heavy door against the frame. No dice. I would take a break and sit down on the bed to try to think of another strategy. I examined the hinges--not easily removed, and I had no tools. I tried moving the handle slowly, pulling at each degree. I tried jiggling it quickly.

  

I kept at this desperate fight for 20 minutes until my hands got red and sore, but nothing worked.

  

I figured Isabel and Joaquin probably had an extra key, but I felt embarrassed calling them about something so odd. I wanted to make sure I DEFINITELY couldn't open it on my own. After a couple last ditch efforts, I swallowed my pride and called Isabel. She was understanding, and told me Joaquin would come over shortly and help me out, since he had the key.

  

I thought that maybe the door just needed to be opened from the other side, or fiddled with by someone stronger than I am, so when Joaquin arrived, I expected to be outside quickly. But he tried the door, and it didn't open for him, either. We tried everything with the handle, then tried sliding a piece of plastic between the door and the frame. We tried the same things over and over, but after about an hour, I was still imprisoned.

  

We called Isabel, who called a specialist. Well, first we tried a carpenter but there was no answer, and then finally someone who deals with security in buildings and has the right tools. Maybe I should mention that I was the only one with the phone, on the other side of the door. So I was telling Joaquin what Isabel said, then Isabel what Joaquin said, passing phone numbers back and forth… all in Spanish. What a situation!

  

While waiting, I couldn't help but reflect on how ridiculous it all was. How stupid, and weird, and uncomfortable! In a way, it was also hilarious because, I mean, WHAT ARE THE ODDS THAT THIS WOULD HAPPEN? So insane.

  

Eventually the specialist came. I heard him using all sorts of tools. I would hear loud drilling sounds on the door, and then he would try to push it open. And then more drilling sounds. And then other strange sounds. But he was having just about as much trouble as we'd had. At one point, Joaquin passed me a screwdriver through my window by swinging it out to me on a piece of fabric from an adjacent window. I used it to remove the door handle on my side. But I was still there for a looong time after.

  

Finally, close to midnight, the specialist drilled and took the door's mechanism completely apart and ALAS, the door opened and I was free! But then I could see the extent of what he'd had to do to open the door… including taking a frame off and removing the entire handle's mechanism. Apparently the part that fits into the frame to keep the door shut had become somehow impossibly stuck. I'm not sure if it was from the force of the wind slamming it, or some weird fluke, but… at least I know it wasn't just me having some silly trouble with it. It was a real problem!

  

Actually, I'm really lucky that my phone was in the room with me. Otherwise… I have no idea what I would have done. I know now that there was literally NO WAY I could have opened the door by myself, and Isabel and Joaquin are the only people who could have gotten into my apartment, since they have the extra key. And there was no reason why they would have just come over, if I hadn't called. I imagine I would have had to yell out the window (top floor, not facing a major street). If any people heard me, they probably would have called the cops or something. It could have been a huge awful mess. It still was a mess, but I really have to be thankful that it wasn't much, much worse.

  

I didn't get to bed until very late, after washing the dishes and taking a shower. Jeez, what an absurd thing to happen!!

 

It's silly, but sometimes when bad things happen to me, I pretend that my life is like The Truman Show. I know it's a strange and narcissistic thing to do, but if I can say "well, I guess we need some dramatic conflict to keep the viewers interested!" I can have a sense of humor about even the worst situations and step outside myself to look at things. I suppose it's a coping mechanism that allows me to detach from my emotions and see things less seriously. It's a very strange coping mechanism, but it works.

 

But sometimes things happen in my life that are so ridiculous and uncanny that if someone were to tell me "your life really is just scripted to keep people entertained!" I would probably believe them. This was one of those things.

Sending a gift through the US Mail.

 

365/092

Lee, Russell,, 1903-1986,, photographer.

 

Grace was said before the barbeque was served at the Pie Town, New Mexico Fair

 

1940 Oct.

 

1 slide : color.

 

Notes:

Title from FSA or OWI agency caption.

Photo shows 1935 Ford parked in background. (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2009)

Transfer from U.S. Office of War Information, 1944.

 

Subjects:

Prayer

Barbecues

Fairs

United States--New Mexico--Pie Town

 

Format: Slides--Color

 

Rights Info: No known restrictions on publication.

 

Repository: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA, hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

 

Part Of: Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Collection 11671-24 (DLC) 93845501

 

General information about the FSA/OWI Color Photographs is available at hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.fsac

 

Higher resolution image is available (Persistent URL): hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/fsac.1a34144

 

Call Number: LC-USF35-365

  

Moments after this photo was taken this little Gosling went into the water. A walk to the lake at lunchtime for a break on my first day back at work, with enough drama over job descriptions and office politics to distract me from home life. Work is both my security and sanity at the moment and gives me a routine. The girls in my team (Jules, Merin and Jo) are good friends and trusty confidants.

2010.5.4

 

I've not been able to post my photos the last few days so I need to catch up. I had to take a trip to Boston for the day job, and needed to bring my "work" laptop computer. I did not want to go through airport security with 2 laptops. My work laptop does not have photoshop, my photos, or even the ability to attach a drive or a card of any sort. Security is pretty tight at my work place.

 

Anyway, it is time to get caught up. This picture is a staircase that is just behind my office. It normally is full of smoking waiters, busboys, waitresses, hostesses, and managers from the next door restaurant. I found it empty for a few minutes and liked the way the light even out all of the textures.

 

It was very nice spending a few days back in Boston, my second favorite place to live (my first being where I'm at now). Now I need to get down to catching up on posting my daily photos. Be prepared, a few more are coming this weekend.

The one time I had to actually take an hour or so to shoot in LA was at night. So, every night I went out and shot something different. This particular night I decided to go back to the Walt Disney Concert Hall to get some shots with less people of this extremely awesome building. Every angle looks different and spectacular. This is of the side but liked the background of the downtown buildings and the tail lights. I'll upload a daytime shot next week as well. But why the title? Well, apparently you aren't allowed to take professional photos of this building on their property. And "professional" = no tripods. So, you have to stand on the city sidewalk, not the property of the concert hall. The security guard was very nice, but annoying nonetheless...

 

-----

DJ at the Sound Table

118/365

So I'm reliably informed that, following the site visit to the Trinity offices last month by homeland security, my US visa application has now been filed in the fast-track processing. That all means there should be a result within 15 days. I really hope so!

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yankee_Stadium

  

Yankee Stadium is a stadium located in The Bronx in New York City, New York. It serves as the home ballpark for the New York Yankees, replacing the previous Yankee Stadium, built in 1923. The new ballpark was constructed across the street, north-northeast of the 1923 Yankee Stadium, on the former site of Macombs Dam Park. The ballpark opened April 2, 2009, when the Yankees hosted a workout day in front of fans from the Bronx community. The first game at the new Yankee Stadium was a pre-season exhibition game against the Chicago Cubs played on April 3, 2009, which the Yankees won 7–4.[4] The first regular season game was played on April 16, a 10–2 Yankee loss to the Cleveland Indians.[5][6]

 

Much of the stadium incorporates design elements from the previous Yankee Stadium, paying homage to the Yankees' history. Although stadium construction began in August 2006, the project of building a new stadium for the Yankees is one that spanned many years and faced many controversies. The stadium was built on what had been 24 acres (97,000 m2) of public parkland. Replacement ballfields, slated to open when the new stadium did, have not been completed. Also controversial was the price tag of $2.3 billion, including $1.2 billion in taxpayer subsidies.[7] It was the third most expensive stadium[citation needed] after Wembley Stadium in London and New Meadowlands Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.[citation needed]

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Planning

1.2 Construction

1.3 Financing

2 Features

2.1 Design and layout

2.2 Field dimensions and playing surface

2.2.1 Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

2.3 Amenities and facilities

3 Accessibility and transportation

4 Public opinion

4.1 Opening and public perception

5 Yankee Stadium firsts

6 Other events

7 See also

8 References

9 External links

  

[edit] History

[edit] Planning

New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner began campaigning for the building of a new stadium in the 1980s, even alleging unsafe conditions around the original Yankee Stadium despite the possibility that such statements could discourage attendance at his own team's games. Yankees ownership allegedly planned to move the team across the Hudson River to New Jersey. The Yankees also considered moving to the West Side of Manhattan, which was where the proposed West Side Stadium would later be considered for the New York Jets.[8][9]

 

New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani had already been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities MCU Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. Shortly before leaving office in December 2001, he announced "tentative agreements" for both the New York Yankees and New York Mets to build new stadiums. Of $1.5 billion sought for the stadiums, city and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation.[10] The plan also said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had already said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams.[11] The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadium, and would get low-cost electricity from the state of New York.[11] Business officials criticized the plan as giving too much money to successful teams with little reason to move to a different city.[11]

 

Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor in 2002, called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare" and exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Yankees and Mets. Bloomberg said that unbeknownst to him, Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Yankees and Mets to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement.[10][11] At the time, Bloomberg said that publicly funded stadiums were a poor investment. Under Bloomberg, the New York City government would only offer public financing for infrastructure improvements; the teams would have to pay for the stadium themselves.

 

The proposal for the current stadium was unveiled by the Yankees in 2004. The team scrapped plans to build a retractable roof, saving $200 million in construction costs.[12]

 

[edit] Construction

 

The stadium under construction in 2007 (top), and the completed venue next to the remains of the former facility in 2010 (bottom)Groundbreaking ceremonies for the stadium took place on August 16, 2006, the 58th anniversary of Babe Ruth's death, with Steinbrenner, Bloomberg and then-Governor of New York George Pataki among the notables donning Yankees hard hats and wielding ceremonial shovels to mark the occasion.[13][14] The Yankees continued to play in the previous Yankee Stadium during the 2007 and 2008 seasons while their new home stadium was built across the street.

 

During construction of the stadium, a construction worker and avid Boston Red Sox fan, buried a replica jersey of Red Sox player David Ortiz underneath the visitors' dugout with the objective of placing a "hex" on the Yankees, much like the "Curse of the Bambino" that had plagued the Red Sox long after trading Ruth to the Yankees. After the worker was exposed by co-workers, he was forced to help exhume the jersey.[15] The Yankees organization then donated the retrieved jersey to the Jimmy Fund, a charity started in 1948 by the Red Sox' National League rivals, the Boston Braves, but long championed by the Red Sox and particularly associated with Ted Williams.[16][17] The worker has since claimed to have buried a 2004 American League Championship Series program/scorecard, but has not said where he placed it.[18] These attempts did not work; the Yankees won the World Series in their first year in the new stadium.[19]

 

[edit] Financing

$1.5 million of New York state tax revenue will be used to build parking garages (as authorized by the State Legislature). The parking garage project would cost $320 million. City and state taxpayers will forgo up to $7.5 million annually in lost taxes resulting from the sale of $225 million in tax-exempt bonds authorized on October 9, 2007, by the New York City Industrial Development Agency (administered by the New York City Economic Development Corporation) to finance construction and renovation of the parking garages.[20][21] However, if the parking revenues are not enough to pay a reported $3.2 million land lease to the city, the entity that will operate the parking garages and collect revenue will be able to defer that payment.[22]

 

[edit] Features

The new stadium is meant to be very similar in design to the original Yankee Stadium, both in its original 1923 state and its post-renovation state in 1976. The exterior resembles the original look of the 1923 Yankee Stadium. The interior, a modern ballpark with greater space and increased amenities, features a playing field that closely resembles the previous ballpark before its closing. The stadium features 4,300 club seats and 68 luxury suites.

 

[edit] Design and layout

 

The Indiana limestone exterior, shown at Gate 4, mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium in 1923.The stadium was designed by the architect firm Populous (formerly HOK Sport). The exterior was made from 11,000 pieces of Indiana limestone, along with granite and pre-cast concrete.[23] The design closely mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium when it first opened in 1923.[23] The exterior features the building's name V-cut and gold-leaf lettered above each gate.[23] The interior of the stadium is adorned with hundreds of photographs capturing the history of the Yankees. The New York Daily News newspaper partnered with the Yankees for the exhibition "The Glory of the Yankees Photo Collection", which was selected from the Daily News' collection of over 2,000 photographs.[24] Sports & The Arts was hired by the Yankees to curate the nearly 1,300 photographs that adorn the building from sources including the Daily News, Getty Images, the Baseball Hall of Fame and Major League Baseball.

 

The seats are laid out similar to the original stadium's stands, with grandstand seating that stretches beyond the foul poles, as well as bleacher seats beyond the outfield fences. The Field Level and Main Level comprise the lower bowl, with suites on the H&R Block Level, and the Upper Level and Grandstand Level comprising the upper bowl.[25] Approximately two-thirds of the stadium's seating is in the lower bowl, the inverse from the original Yankee Stadium.[25] Approximately 51,000 fans can be seated, with a standing room capacity of 52,325.[26] The new stadium's seating is spaced outward in a bowl, unlike the stacked-tiers design at the old stadium. This design places most fans farther back but lower to the field, by about an average of 30 feet (9.1 m). Over 56 suites are located within the ballpark, triple the amount from the previous stadium.[23] Seats are 19–24 inches (48–61 cm) wide, up from the previous stadium's 18–22-inch (46–56 cm) wide seats, while there is 33–39 inches (84–99 cm) of leg room, up from 29.5 inches (75 cm) of leg room in the previous stadium.[25] Many lower level seats are cushioned, while all seats are equipped with cupholders.[25] To allow for the extra seating space, the stadium's capacity is reduced by more than 4,000 seats in comparison to the previous stadium.[25]

  

The frieze that lined the roof of the original Yankee Stadium from 1923-1973 is replicated in its original location.Many design elements of the ballpark's interior are inspired by the original Yankee Stadium. The roof of the new facility features a replica of the frieze that was a trademark of the previous ballpark.[25] In the original Yankee Stadium, a copper frieze originally lined the roof of the upper deck stands, but it was torn down during the 1974–75 renovations and replicated atop the wall beyond the bleachers.[25] The new stadium replicates the frieze in its original location along the upper deck stands.[25] Made of steel coated with zinc for rust protection, it is part of the support system for the cantilevers holding up the top deck and the lighting on the roof.[27] The wall beyond the bleacher seats is "cut out" to reveal the subway trains as they pass by, like they were in the original facility. A manually-operated auxiliary scoreboard is built into the left and right field fences, in the same locations it existed in the pre-renovation iteration of the original Yankee Stadium.[25]

  

The Great Hall is situated along the southern front of the stadium.Between the exterior perimeter wall and interior of the stadium is the "Great Hall", a large concourse that runs between Gates 4 and 6.[28] With seven-story ceilings, the Great Hall features more than 31,000 square feet (2,900 m2) of retail space and is lined with 20 banners of past and present Yankees superstars.[28] The Great Hall features a 5-by-383-foot (1.5 by 117 m) LED (light-emitting diode) ribbon display as well as a 25' by 36' LED video display above the entrance to the ballpark from Daktronics, a company in ‹See Tfd›Brookings, South Dakota.[28] [28]

 

Monument Park, which features the Yankees' retired numbers, as well as monuments and plaques dedicated to distinguished Yankees, has been moved from its location beyond the left field fences in the original Yankee Stadium to its new location beyond the center field fences at the new facility. The newly relocated Monument Park is now situated under the sports bar, this choice of location has drawn criticism as the many monuments are underneath the sports bar and not as in the open as in the previous Yankee Stadium. Fueling this criticism has been the advent of black shades that cover monuments on the back wall during games to prevent interference with the vision of the batter.[29] The new location of the monuments is meant to mirror their original placement in center field at the original pre-renovation Yankee Stadium, albeit when they were on the playing field. The transfer of Monument Park from the old stadium to the new stadium began on November 10, 2008.[30] The first monuments were put in place on February 23, 2009.[31] Yankees pitcher Mariano Rivera requested that the Yankees reposition the team's bullpen, as well as add a door to connect the Yankees' bullpen to Monument Park, in order to allow access to it by Yankee relievers. The organization complied with his request.[23][32]

 

[edit] Field dimensions and playing surface

 

The view from the Grandstand Level (400 Level).The field dimensions for the outfield fences have the same distance markers as the original facility prior to closing yet the dimensions are not identical.[33] Due to the design of the right-field stands and the inclusion of an embedded manual scoreboard, the right-field wall is an average of 5 feet (1.5 m) closer to home plate.[34] Overall, the fences measure 318 feet (97 m) to left field, 399 feet (122 m) to left-center field, 408 feet (124 m) to center field, 385 feet (117 m) to right-center field, and 314 to right field.[25][26] At the old Yankee Stadium, the right field wall curved from the right-field corner to straightaway center, while at the new ballpark the fence takes a sharp, almost entirely straight angle.[34] This results in a difference at certain points between the right field markers of as much as 9 feet (2.7 m).[34] The dimensions in left field are substantially the same despite the presence of an embedded auxiliary scoreboard there as well.[34]

 

The outfield fences measure 8 feet 5 inches (2.57 m) high from the left-field foul pole until the Yankees' bullpen, when the fences begin to gradually descend in height until the right field foul pole, where they are only 8 feet (2.4 m) tall.[25] This also marks a decrease from the previous Yankee Stadium, where the outfield walls stood at a height of approximately 10 feet (3.0 m).[33] The distance from home plate to the backstop is 52 feet 4 inches (15.95 m), a reduction of 20 feet (6.1 m) from the previous facility.[26] The field is made up of Kentucky bluegrass, the same surface as the previous stadium, which is grown on a 1,300 acres (530 ha) farm in Bridgeton, New Jersey. The grass is equipped with a drainage system (featuring over 14,000 feet (4,300 m) of pipe) that makes the field playable an hour after taking 2 inches (51 mm) of rain.[25]

 

[edit] Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

Characteristic Old Stadium [as of 2008] New Stadium

Opening Day April 18, 1923 April 16, 2009

Capacity 56,866 52,325 [35](including standing room)

Seat width 18 inches (46 cm)–22 inches (56 cm) 19 inches (48 cm)–24 inches (61 cm)

Legroom 29.5 inches (75 cm) 33 inches (84 cm)–39 inches (99 cm)

Concourse width (average) 17 feet (5.2 m) 32 feet (9.8 m)

Cup holders Select Field Level Seating For every seat in General Seating

Luxury suites 19 56

Club Seats N/A 4,300

Team stores 6,800 square feet (630 m2) 11,560 square feet (1,074 m2)

Restroom fixture ratio 1 per 89 fans 1 per 60 fans

Public elevators

(passenger lifts) 3

(Otis Traction) 16

(KONE Traction)

Video scoreboard 25 feet (7.6 m) by 33 feet (10 m)

(Standard Definition LED) 59 feet (18 m) by 101 feet (31 m)

(High Definition LED)

Distance from Home Plate to:

Backstop 72 feet 4 inches (22 m) 52 feet 4 inches (16 m)

Left Field 318 feet (97 m)

Left Center 399 feet (122 m)

Center Field 408 feet (124 m)

Right Center 385 feet (117 m)

Right Field 314 feet (96 m)

Sources: The New York Yankees [26] and Andrew Clem [36]

 

[edit] Amenities and facilities

 

A signature by Babe Ruth is one of many autographs in the "ball wall", the centerpiece of the Yankee Museum.Yankee Stadium features a wide array of amenities. It contains 63 percent more space, 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) more in total, than the previous stadium, with wider concourses and open sight lines on concourses.[23] Along with 227 miles (365 km) of wired Ethernet cable, the building has sufficient fiber-optic cable wiring that Cisco Vice President and Treasurer David Holland calls the building "future proof".[23] Over 1,100 high-definition video monitors are placed within the stadium and approximately $10 million worth of baseball merchandise is housed within the ballpark.[23]

 

The center field scoreboard, which measures 59 x 101 feet (31 m) and offers 5,925 square feet (550.5 m2) of viewing area, was the third-largest high definition scoreboard in the world when it opened (behind the 8,736-square-foot (811.6 m2) board at newly renovated Kauffman Stadium and the new 8,066-square-foot (749.4 m2) board at the renovated Tokyo Racecourse).[37] Since then, it has also been surpassed by the world's largest scoreboard at the new Cowboys Stadium.[38] Displaying 5,925 ft (1,806 m)² of video, the scoreboard can display four 1080p high definition images simultaneously.[25]

 

The Yankees clubhouse features 30,000 ft (9,100 m)² of space, over 2.5 times the space of the clubhouse from the previous facility.[39] The dressing area alone features 3,344 ft (1,019 m)² of space, with each locker equipped with a safety deposit box and touch-screen computer.[39] The Yankees clubhouse features a weight room, training room, video room, and lounge area, while both teams' clubhouses have their own indoor batting cages.[39] The Yankees' therapy room features a hydrotherapy pool with an underwater treadmill.[39] The Yankees are believed to be the first team to chemically treat their uniforms, as well as the showering surfaces with an anti-bacterial agent that reduces the risk of infection.[39]

 

The Yankees Museum, located on the lower level at Gate 6, displays a wide range of Yankees' memorabilia.[40] A "Ball Wall" features hundreds of balls autographed by past and present Yankees, and there are plans to eventually add autographs for every living player who has played for the Yankees.[40] The centerpiece of the museum is a tribute to Don Larsen's perfect game in the 1956 World Series, with a commemorative home plate in the floor and statues of Larsen pitching to Yogi Berra.[40] Along with a facsimile of a current locker from the Yankees' clubhouse, fans can view the locker of the late Thurman Munson, which sat unoccupied in the previous stadium's Yankee clubhouse in honor of Munson.[40]

 

The ballpark offers a wide choice of restaurants. There are 25 fixed concessions stands, along with 112 moveable ones.[28] A Hard Rock Cafe is located within the ballpark, but it is open to anyone at the 161 St. and River Ave. entrance year round.[28] The Hard Rock Cafe at Yankee Stadium officially opened on March 30, 2009, and an opening ceremony took place on April 2, 2009.[41] A steakhouse called NYY Steak is located beyond right field.[28] Celebrity chefs will occasionally make appearances at the ballpark's restaurants and help prepare food for fans in premium seating over the course of the season.[28] Above Monument Park in center field is the Mohegan Sun sports bar, whose tinted black glass acts as the ballpark's batter's eye. The sports bar obstructs the view of approximately 600 bleacher seats in the right and left field bleachers, preventing fans from seeing the action occurring deep in the opposite side of the outfield. In response, the Yankees installed TV monitors on the sides of the sports bar's outer walls, and have reduced the price of these obstructed-view seats from $12 to $5.[42][43]

 

[edit] Accessibility and transportation

 

The stadium is serviced via subway by the 161st Street station on the IRT Jerome Avenue Line (top) (as well as the IND Concourse Line; not shown) and via railroad by the East 153rd Street Metro North station (bottom)The stadium is reachable via the 161st Street – Yankee Stadium station complex, the same that served the old Yankee Stadium, by the 4 B D trains of the New York City Subway. It is also served by the Yankees - East 153rd Street (Metro-North station), which opened on May 23, 2009,[44] which routinely features Hudson Line train service, but on game days, Harlem Line and New Haven Line trains as well as shuttle trains from Grand Central Terminal also platform there. The stadium is also served by multiple bus lines. On game days, NY Waterway operates the "Yankee Clipper" ferry route stopping at Port Imperial (Weehawken) and Hoboken in New Jersey and West 38th Street, the Wall Street Ferry Pier, and East 34th Street in Manhattan, and New York Water Taxi operates a free ferry to the stadium from the Wall Street Ferry Pier before every game only. For selected games, SeaStreak provides high-speed ferry service to Highlands, New Jersey.

 

Yankee Stadium is accessible by car via the Major Deegan Expressway (Interstate 87), with connections to Interstate 95, Interstate 278 and other major thoroughfares. Aside from existing parking lots and garages serving the stadium, construction for additional parking garages is planned. The New York State Legislature agreed to $70 million in subsidies for a $320 million parking garage project. On October 9, 2007, the New York City Industrial Development Agency approved $225 million in tax-exempt bonds to finance construction of three new parking garages that will have 3,600 new parking spaces, and renovation of the existing 5,569 parking spaces nearby.[45] Plans initially called for a fourth new garage, but this was eliminated before the final approval. The garages will be built (and renovated) by the Community Initiatives Development Corporation of Hudson, N.Y., a nonprofit entity that will use the parking revenue to repay the bonds and pay a $3 million yearly land lease to the City of New York. Parking is expected to cost $25 per game.[45]

 

[edit] Public opinion

[edit] Opening and public perception

 

Four F-16C Fighting Falcons from the 174th Fighter Wing fly over the "New" Yankee Stadium on Opening DayAlthough Yankee Stadium has been praised for its amenities and its usage of "classic" design elements from the original facility, the new stadium has been widely criticized for fan-unfriendly practices.[46][47] Seats within the first eight rows in the lower bowl, called the "Legends Suite", rank among the highest priced tickets in professional sports, with the average ticket in the section selling for $510 and the most expensive single game-day ticket costing $2,600.[46] Legends Suite Seats have been regularly empty, with many ticket holders in this section having given up their tickets, and others remaining unsold, despite most other seats in the ballpark selling out. This has created an "embarrassing" image on television of the seats behind home plate being almost completely vacant.[46] Consequently, a surplus of tickets for Legends Seats have emerged in the secondary market, and with supply exceeding demand, resale prices have dropped. Empty seats in the Legends Suite could even be seen during the 2009 playoffs, including World Series games. Even though all playoff games have been sellouts, Legends Suite ticket holders are in the lounges and the restaurant underneath instead of their seats.[48][49]

 

Legends Suite seats are also separate from the other lower bowl seating and are vigorously patrolled by stadium security, with the divider being described as a "concrete moat".[46][47] Fans that do not have tickets within this premium section in the front rows are not allowed to access it or stand behind the dugouts during batting practice to watch players hit and request autographs.[46][47]

 

The Yankee Stadium staff was also criticized for an incident during a May 4, 2009 game, which was interrupted by a rain delay.[50] Fans were told by some staff members that the game was unlikely to resume and consequently, many fans exited the stadium, only for the game to eventually resume play.[50] The fans that left the ballpark were not permitted to re-enter, per the stadium's re-entry policy, and many subsequently got into arguments with stadium personnel.[50] In response to the backlash the Yankees received for the incident, the staff members were required to sign a gag order preventing them from speaking to media, but they did indicate that communication for rain delays would be improved.[50]

 

After less than a season, cracks have appeared on the concrete ramps of the Stadium. The Yankees are trying to determine whether there was something wrong with the cement, or the ramps' installation or design. The company involved in designing the concrete mix were indicted on charges that they either faked or failed to perform some required tests and falsified the results of others.[51]

    

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised because of out-of-date information. Please help improve the article by updating it. There may be additional information on the talk page. (September 2010)

 

In 2009, the stadium was criticized for its propensity for allowing home runs. In its opening season, 237 home runs were hit.Yankee Stadium has quickly acquired a reputation as a "bandbox" and a "launching pad" due to the high number of home runs hit at the new ballpark.[52][53][54][55][56][57] Through its first 23 games, 87 home runs were hit at the venue, easily besting Enron Field's (now called Minute Maid Park) previous record set in 2000.[58] Early in the season, Yankee Stadium was on pace to break Coors Field's 1999 single-season record of 303 home runs allowed, and the hometown New York Daily News newspaper started publishing a daily graphic comparing each stadium's home run totals through a similar number of games.

 

ESPN commentator Peter Gammons has denounced the new facility as "one of the biggest jokes in baseball" and concludes that "[it] was not a very well-planned ballpark."[54] Likewise, Gammons' ESPN colleague Buster Olney has described the stadium as being "on steroids" and likened it to his childhood Wiffle-ball park.[52][59] Newsday columnist Wallace Matthews joined in the criticism, labeling the stadium "ridiculous" and decrying its cheapening of the home run.[53] Former Yankee Reggie Jackson termed the park "too small" to contain current player Alex Rodriguez and suggested it might enable the third baseman to hit 75 home runs in a season.[53]

 

A variety of theories have been posited to account for the dramatic increase in home runs at the new Yankee Stadium over the original stadium, foremost among these the sharper angles of the outfield walls[34] and the speculated presence of a wind tunnel.[52] During construction of the new ballpark, engineers commissioned a wind study, the results of which indicated there would be no noticeable difference between the two stadiums.[60] The franchise is planning to conduct a second study, but Major League rules prohibit it from making any changes to the playing field until the off-season.[60]

 

An independent study by the weather service provider AccuWeather in June 2009 concluded that the shape and height of the right field wall, rather than the wind, is responsible for the proliferation of home runs at the stadium.[61] AccuWeather's analysis found that roughly 20% of the home runs hit at the new ballpark would not have been home runs at the old ballpark due to the gentle curve of its right field corner, and its 10-foot (3.0 m) wall height.[61] Nothing was observed in wind speeds and patterns that would account for the increase.[61]

 

The number of home runs hit at the new stadium slowed significantly as the season progressed,[62] but a new single-season record for most home runs hit at a Yankee home ballpark was nonetheless set in the Yankees' 73rd home game of 2009 when Vladimir Guerrero of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim hit the 216th home run of the season at the venue, surpassing the previous record of 215 set at the original Yankee Stadium in 2005.[63]

 

In 2010, the rate of home runs were markedly less as of May 15, 2010, with 35 home runs hit in 14 games for 2.5 per game (a projection of 205 - in 2009, the stadium was at 2.93 per game for a total of 237.) Several reasons were given for the sudden dropoff in home runs, including a lower April 2010 temperature (56 degrees in comparison with 63 the previous year), slower winds, poor pitching, a change in direction in winds,[64] as well as removal of the original Yankee Stadium and the effect this has had on wind currents.[citation needed] ESPN suggested the prolific home run totals of 2009 were a fluke.[64]

 

[edit] Yankee Stadium firsts

 

Logo for the inaugural season at the Stadium.Before the official Opening Day against the Cleveland Indians April 16, 2009, the Yankees hosted a two-game exhibition series at the Stadium in early April against the Chicago Cubs.[5] Grady Sizemore of the Indians was the first player to hit a grand slam off of Yankee pitcher Dámaso Marte. The Indians and 2008 Cy Young Award winner, Cliff Lee, spoiled the opening of the new stadium by winning 10-2. Before the Yankees went to bat for the first time, the bat that Babe Ruth used to hit his first home run at the old Yankee Stadium in 1923 was placed momentarily on home plate.[65] Jorge Posada hit the first Yankee home run in the new ballpark hitting his off Lee in the same game. Russell Branyan, while playing for the Seattle Mariners, was the first player to hit a home run off of the Mohegan Sun Restaurant in center field. Like its predecessor, the new Yankee Stadium hosted the World Series in its very first season; in the 2009 World Series, the Yankees defeated the Philadelphia Phillies 4 games to 2. It also became the latest stadium to host a World Series-clinching victory by its home team in the venue's first season (after the St. Louis Cardinals won the World Series at Busch Stadium in 2006), when, on November 4, 2009, the Yankees won their 27th World Series championship against the Phillies. The Yankees are the only team to inaugurate two stadiums with World Series wins and also appeared in the 1976 World Series following the refurbishment of the original Yankee Stadium.

 

Statistic Exhibition Regular season Postseason

First game April 3, 2009

Yankees 7, Cubs 4 April 16, 2009

Indians 10, Yankees 2 October 7, 2009

Yankees 7, Twins 2

Ceremonial First Pitch Reggie Jackson Yogi Berra Eric T. Olson

First Pitch Chien-Ming Wang CC Sabathia CC Sabathia

First Batter Aaron Miles (Cubs) Grady Sizemore (Indians) Denard Span (Twins)

First Hit Aaron Miles (Cubs) Johnny Damon Denard Span (Twins)

First Yankees Hit Derek Jeter Johnny Damon Derek Jeter

First Home Run Robinson Cano Jorge Posada Derek Jeter

First Win Chien-Ming Wang Cliff Lee (Indians) CC Sabathia

First Save Jonathan Albaladejo Mariano Rivera (4/17) Mariano Rivera

 

[edit] Other events

 

Football configuration for new Yankee Stadium.The first ever non-baseball event at the Stadium took place on April 25, 2009, with pastor and televangelist Joel Osteen holding a “Historic Night of Hope” prayer service.[66]

 

A New York University graduation ceremony took place on May 13, 2009 with the address being delivered by U.S. Secretary of State and former New York Senator Hillary Clinton. The 2010 NYU ceremony featured alumnus Alec Baldwin as a speaker.[67]

 

The promotional tour for the Manny Pacquiao-Miguel Cotto fight began with an event at Yankee Stadium on September 10, 2009.

 

On June 5, 2010, Yuri Foreman fought Cotto in the first boxing match in The Bronx since 1976. The fight was referred to as the "Stadium Slugfest." Cotto defeated Foreman with a TKO in the ninth round.[68]

 

The Army Black Knights will play a college football game at Yankee Stadium against The Notre Dame Fighting Irish on November 20, 2010. This will mark the two teams' first meeting in the Bronx since 1969.[69] Also, Army will play Air Force, Rutgers, and Boston College in 2011, 2012, and 2014 respectively at Yankee Stadium.

 

Yankee Stadium will also host the newly-created Pinstripe Bowl, an annual college football bowl game that will pit the third-place team from the Big East against the seventh-place team from the Big 12. Organizers plan to hold the inaugural game December 30, 2010.[70]

 

The Yankees were in discussions with the National Hockey League to have Yankee Stadium host the 2011 NHL Winter Classic. However, the NHL chose Heinz Field as the host. The stadium was a candidate to host the 2010 NHL Winter Classic before it was awarded to Boston's Fenway Park.[71]

 

Rappers Jay-Z and Eminem performed the first concert at Yankee Stadium on September 13, 2010.[72]

 

[edit] See also

Citi Field, a new baseball stadium for the New York Mets (National League) also opened in 2009, replacing the Mets' previous home Shea Stadium in northern Queens (New York City).

Barclays Center, an arena for the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association to be built by and over the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Atlantic Avenue railyards in northwestern Brooklyn (New York City) currently under construction.

New Meadowlands Stadium, a new football stadium for the New York Giants and the New York Jets of the National Football League which replaced Giants Stadium at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey that opened in 2010.

Red Bull Arena, a new stadium for the Major League Soccer team New York Red Bulls that opened in 2010, replacing the team's previous home, Giants Stadium.

[edit] References

^ Blum, Ron (April 16, 2009). "New $1.5 billion Yankee Stadium formally opens". YahooSports.com. Associated Press. sports.yahoo.com/mlb/news?slug=ap-newyankeestadiumopens. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Yankee Stadium Populus.com

^ Stadium Comparison MLB.com

^ Yanks open Stadium against Cubs MLB.com

^ a b Kepner, Tyler (April 16, 2009). "Getting Ready for the Real Thing". The New York Times. bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/16/getting-ready-for-the-r.... Retrieved 2009-04-16.

^ "Cleveland 10, New York 2". MLB.com. April 16, 2009. www.mlb.com/news/wrap.jsp?ymd=20090416&content_id=429.... Retrieved 2009-04-16.

^ www.fieldofschemes.com/documents/Yanks-Mets-costs.pdf

^ Barry, Dan (April 20, 1998). "Mayor Making Case for Yanks on West Side". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/1998/04/20/nyregion/mayor-making-case-for.... Retrieved 2010-03-06.

^ Barry, Dan (January 15, 1999). "Giuliani Offers Plan to Put Up Sports Complex". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/1999/01/15/nyregion/giuliani-offers-plan-.... Retrieved 2010-03-06.

^ a b "Bonus Season for Baseball". The New York Times. January 17, 2002. query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A06E7D91138F934A.... Retrieved 2010-05-05.

^ a b c d Bagli, Charles V. (January 16, 2002). "Bloomberg Says Details On Stadiums Were Omitted". The New York Times. query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D01E7DE1338F935A.... Retrieved 2010-05-05.

^ Bagli, Charles V. (July 30, 2004). "Yankees Propose New Stadium, and Would Pay". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2004/07/30/sports/30stadium.html?adxnnl=1.... Retrieved 2010-10-10. [dead link]

^ Yankees break ground on new $1 billion home ESPN.com, August 16, 2006

^ New Yankee Stadium MLB.com

^ Lengel, David (April 17, 2007). "Yankees dig deep to rid new Stadium of curse". The Guardian (London). blogs.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/04/17/yankees_dig_deep_to.... Retrieved 2010-05-05.

^ Jimmy Fund Auctions Buried Red Sox Jersey On eBay WBZ-TV, Boston, from CBS and The Associated Press, April 17, 2008, retrieved on July 19, 2008

^ History of the Jimmy Fund, retrieved on July 19, 2008

^ Schmidt, Michael S. (May 20, 2008). "Yanks May Be Scratching Surface of Sox Items at New Stadium". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2008/05/20/sports/baseball/20scorecard.html. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Kernan, Kevin (November 10, 2009). "No Papi jinx for Yankees". New York Post. www.nypost.com/p/sports/yankees/attempted_papi_jinx_faile.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ New York City Economic Development Corporation (July 11, 2006). "NYC Industrial Development Agency Authorizes Financing Assistance for New Stadiums for Yankees and Mets". Press release. www.nycedc.com/Web/PressRoom/PressReleases/IDAJuly2006.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-21.

^ Egbert, Bill (October 16, 2007). "Stadium garage plan gets OK; Carrion drops opposition". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/bronx/2007/10/16/2007-10-16_.... Retrieved 2008-09-24.

^ Curveball Thrown at Public With Yankee Stadium Garages Daily News (New York), October 10, 2007, retrieved on July 21, 2008.

^ a b c d e f g h "Tour the new House - Welcome Home". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ "Tour the new House - Daily News on Display". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Tour the new House - A Closer Look". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ a b c d New Yankee Stadium Comparison, New York Yankees, retrieved on September 26, 2008

^ Sandomir, Richard (April 14, 2009). "A Distinctive Facade Is Recreated at New Yankee Stadium". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/sports/baseball/15facade.html. Retrieved 2010-05-05.

^ a b c d e f g h "Tour the new House - Hall of a Place". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ Dog bites (Krazy) man Yankees.lhblogs.com

^ Monument Park transition under way MLB.com

^ Coffey, Wayne (February 25, 2009). "Babe Ruth, other monuments settle in new Yankee Stadium home". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/02/24/20.... Retrieved 2009-03-01.

^ Yes Network broadcast of Yankees vs. Cubs, Apr. 3 2009.

^ a b "AccuWeather: Smaller Stadium causes HR surge". Newsday. Associated Press. June 9, 2009. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/yankees/ny-spyweat0610,0,.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ a b c d e Kepner, Tyler (April 20, 2009). "Over the Wall and Under the Microscope in the Bronx". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2009/04/21/sports/baseball/21homeruns.html. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ www.seating-chart.info/mlb/american-league/yankee-stadium/

^ Andrew Clem www.andrewclem.com/Baseball/YankeeStadium_II.html

^ www.engadgethd.com/2007/10/03/kansas-city-royals-to-get-w... Kansas City Royals to get 'world's largest' HD LED scoreboard – endgadeget.com – Retrieved May 18, 2009

^ MJD (June 12, 2008). "Jerry Jones aims to make all Cowboys' fans blind by 2010". Sports.yahoo.com. sports.yahoo.com/nfl/blog/shutdown_corner/post/Jerry-Jone.... Retrieved November 28, 2008.

^ a b c d e "Tour the new House - Inside the Clubhouse". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ a b c d "Tour the new House - Pinstripe Pride". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ "New York Yankees-owned steakhouse will be part of new stadium". Daily News. Bloomberg News (New York). June 18, 2008. www.nydailynews.com/money/2008/06/18/2008-06-18_new_york_.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Best, Neil (February 24, 2009). "Old Yankee Stadium's obstructed views make a comeback". Newsday. www.newsday.com/services/newspaper/printedition/wednesday.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Best, Neil (February 25, 2009). "Yankees lower partial-view seat price to $5". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/ny-sptix2612496709feb26,0,5172494..... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Metro-North Railroad (April 1, 2009). "Train Service to MTA Metro-North Railroad's Newest Station Yankees – E. 153rd Street Begins Saturday May 23, 2009". Press release. www.mta.info/mta/news/releases/?en=090401-MNR11. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ a b N.Y.C. IDA Approves $325.3 Million, Most for Yankee Stadium Garages, The Bond Buyer, October 10, 2007

^ a b c d e Green, Sarah (May 5, 2009). "New Yankee Stadium Strikes Out With Customers". Harvard Business Publishing. blogs.harvardbusiness.org/cs/2009/05/new_yankee_stadium_i.... Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ a b c Kepner, Tyler (Maay 6, 2009). "New Home, New Atmosphere". The New York Times. bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/05/06/new-home-new-atmosphere/. Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ Miller, Scott (October 29, 2009). "Yankees create no excitement, and now pressure's on". CBS Sports.com. www.cbssports.com/mlb/story/12436398. Retrieved 2009-10-31.

^ Best, Neil (October 29, 2009). "Empty seats at Yankee Stadium not what they seem". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/empty-seats-at-yankee-stadium-not-.... Retrieved 2009-10-31.

^ a b c d Gagne, Matt (May 6, 2009). "Fallout from Yankeegate lingers with Stadium workers, irate fans". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/05/05/20.... Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ Rashbaum, William K.; Belson, Ken (October 23, 2009). "Cracks Emerge in Ramps at New Yankee Stadium". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2009/10/24/nyregion/24stadium.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

^ a b c Olney, Buster (April 21, 2009). "New Yankee Stadium on steroids?". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/mlb/news/story?id=4080195. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b c Matthews, Wallace (May 20, 2009). "Home runs a cheap thrill at Yankee Stadium". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/ny-spwally2112790416may20.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b "Yankee Stadium: Biggest Joke in Baseball". New York Post. May 22, 2009. www.nypost.com/seven/05222009/sports/yankees/gammons_rips.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Keown, Tim (April 28, 2009). "Trouble at the House that George Built". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=keown/090428. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Roberts, Jeff (May 23, 2009). "Ruthian blasts now a common sight". NorthJersey.com. www.northjersey.com/sports/yankees/45886242.html. Retrieved 2009-05-23. [dead link]

^ McKee, Don (May 21, 2009). "Bronx launching pad awaits Phils". The Philadelphia Inquirer. www.philly.com/philly/news/breaking/20090521_Morning_Repo.... Retrieved 2009-05-23. [dead link]

^ "Phillies' Ruiz finishes Yanks in 11th, takes Lidge off hook". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/mlb/recap?gameId=290524110. Retrieved 2009-05-29.

^ Olney, Buster (May 23, 2009). "Too many homers to right? Add a chicken coop". ESPN.com. insider.espn.go.com/espn/blog/index?entryID=4201092&n.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b Feinsand, Mark (April 21, 2009). "Homer's Odyssey: News tries to solve new Yankee Stadium's quandary". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/04/20/20.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b c Dittmeier, Bobbie (June 10, 2009). "Study: Design cause of Stadium homers". MLB.com. www.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090610&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-06-10.

^ The New Stadium's a Bandbox TheYankeeUniverse.com

^ Hoch, Bryan (September 14, 2009). "Guerrero's homer sets Yankee Stadium mark". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090914&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-09-17.

^ a b Marchand, Andrew (April 30, 2010). "It is high, it is far, it is ... caught!". ESPN. sports.espn.go.com/new-york/mlb/news/story?id=5151275.

^ "Cleveland 10, New York 2". USA Today. April 16, 2009. content.usatoday.com/sportsdata/baseball/mlb/game/Indians.... Retrieved 2009-04-16.

^ Gibson, David (April 19, 2009). "God’s Will in Hard Times". New York Magazine. nymag.com/news/intelligencer/56161/. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Alec Baldwin Speaks At NYU Graduation (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. May 12, 2010. www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/12/alec-baldwin-speaks-at-.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

^ Weichselbaum, Simone; Schapiro, Rich (June 6, 2010). "Yankee Stadium slugfest: Miguel Cotto beats junior middleweight champ Yuri Foreman". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2010/06/06/2010-06-06_boxers.... Retrieved 2010-06-07.

^ Hoch, Bryan (July 20, 2009). "Yanks to host Notre Dame-Army game". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090720&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "First Pinstripe Bowl to Be Held Dec. 30". ESPN.com. March 9, 2010. sports.espn.go.com/ncf/news/story?id=4978803. Retrieved 2010-05-20.

^ "Yankee Stadium to host NHL game in 2011?". Newsday. July 20, 2009. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/yankee-stadium-to-host-nh.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Jay-Z, Eminem to play local ballparks". MLB.com. May 13, 2010. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20100512&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Yankee Stadium

Official Site

Virtual tour of new Yankee Stadium

Newsday.com New Yankee Stadium

Ballparks of Baseball

Ballparks.com overview of proposed stadium

Photographic Updates of the Construction of the New Yankee Stadium

Demolition of Yankee Stadium

Metro-North Railroad station at Yankee Stadium

  

Identifier: cangrocerjulydec1895toro

Title: Canadian grocer July-December 1895

Year: 1895 (1890s)

Authors:

Subjects: Supermarkets Grocery trade Food industry and trade

Publisher: Toronto : Maclean-Hunter Pub. Co. [1887]-

Contributing Library: Fisher - University of Toronto

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

  

View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book

 

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

  

Text Appearing Before Image:

38 THE CANADIAN GROCER WESTERN Incorporated1861. ASSURANCE COMPANY Fire and Marine Capital - -Assets, ovep -Annual Income $2,000,000.002,375,000.002,200,000.00 Head Office: TORONTO, ONT. Geo. a. Cox, President. J. J. Kenny, Vice-Presidfent. C. C. Foster, Secretary. THE PEOPLES Building and Loan Association (INCORPORATED) Head Office - - London, Ont. When business is prosperous every merchant shouldput by a regular monthly sum in our Class A stock.It will be available when you need it most. 83 deposit-ed monthly is estimated to niature a .S500 certificate iny^/i years. Larger amounts in like ratio. Security, first mortgage loans—the basis of wealth. Money loaned to buy a home, to build, to re-model theold house or pay off old mortgages. Agencies in all the principal towns and cities inOntario Write for manuals and name of resident agent in yourlocality. Do not delay. It will pay you. English Army Blacking

 

Text Appearing After Image:

THE ROYAL HOTEL, Hamilton, July 12th, 1894.The F. F. Dalley Co., Ltd., City : Dear Sirs,—Our porters, having a large number ofboots to polish every day, ranging from seventy-five totwo hundred pairs, we endeavor to give them the bestblacking to be got. We have used all the best knownblackings in the market, and have pleasure m statingthat the ENGLISH ARMY BLACKING is theirchoice, as they consider it far superior to any other makefor a quick, bright and permanent polish, giving abeautiful jet black finish to the leather.Yours truly, Hood & Bro., Proprietors. CONDENSED MINGE MEAT Delicious Mince Pies every day in the year. Handled by retaileras shelf or countergoods. No waste.Gives general satis-faction. Sells at all Seasons. Will not ferment inwarm weatlier.

  

Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

at the al Yamama Hotel in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 1985. 35mm Olympus XA2 with Kodacolor 200 film after I climbed through my window onto a hot metal roof. I was a co-pilot at the time, and my aircraft commander (a dear friend today) was screaming at me to get off of the roof and climb back inside. He was an Academy grad, and me, a 90-day wonder from OTS with a film degree from UT Austin.

 

The al Yamama Hotel in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was "home" for deployed AWACS aircrews in the 1980s until they were moved to the infamous Khobar Towers. The hotel was vacant and condemned by the Saudis when the Air Force accepted it as housing. Previously, the crews stayed at the King's palace and in hotels in Riyadh. U.S. military security forces were not permitted to guard the facility, which was blocks away from a PLO office, and had to remove the barbed wire around the perimeter wall because it was deemed "offensive" to the local population. Saudi intelligence personnel conveniently had offices in the basement. All of our rooms were bugged.

 

We infidels once cut the loudspeaker wires to get a break from the five-times-per-day prayer call, so we could sleep, and caught hell for it. After a lecture from a 2-Star General we waited until the Saudis repaired the cuts, and then cut them again in about 4 or 5 new places with several more days of sleep. It was hilarious watching them trying to repair it again. But it was nice while it lasted... since we were providing the Kingdom 24-hour airborne radar coverage 365 days per year.

 

Saudi guards stationed on the rooftop of the hotel routinely spied through binoculars on our female personnel when they showed up at the pool in their bikinis.

 

In September 1980 four E-3s and almost 200 wing members deployed to Saudi Arabia in an operation called "Elf One," which continued for 8.5 years. We provided "round-the-clock" airborne radar coverage, and enhanced Saudi air defenses during the dispute between Iran and Iraq. In March 1988, wing personnel were authorized wear of the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for continued service in the Persian Gulf arena.

 

In the long run, nobody gives a shit, as long as they can put that nozzle in their gas tank. Were we even a figment of their imagination? No. Of course not.

After being released early from dress rehearsal, I explored the little garden on the roof of the Disney Concert Hall. One of the parapets overlooked Hope and 2nd with a nice view of some tall buildings. I had a tripod with me so that I could do a long exposure, and one flash to light the foreground. Conveniently, there were also five chairs. Three of them raised my tripod high enough to view the street, the fourth let me see through the camera, and the fifth was my step up to the top of the wall!

 

I had finally worked out the composition and settings I wanted when a security guard came by and told me no professional photography was allowed. Although I explained that I was just taking a picture of myself, he insisted that the tripod made me a professional. I posited that it would be tough to be in my own photo without one. After I bemoaned being unable to get a shot of myself in this great location, I apologized for giving him a hard time and acknowleged that the dumb rule wasn't his fault. He said I wasn't as bad as most people and asked me how much more time I needed. I said ten minutes, and he promised to return then. I was gone in nine. Thanks, nice security guy!

 

Lighting: An SB-900 with a CTO gel through a collapsed umbrella camera left. Manually triggered with a Pocket Wizard as close to the end of the 10 second exposure as I could guess.

 

259/365

Day Two-Hundred and Eighty-Eight, "Night Walking" theme, fifteenth shot.

 

Porta Portese, Rome, Pedestrian Alley.

 

Here's one of the secret alleys which connects roads and areas of the neighbourhood which otherwise would be hardly accessible. Most of the buildings here are destined to offices and get quickly empty and lonely at night, when even the most overzealous employees have left for good. Lights do never switch off, as they work in tandem with the myriads of security cameras to dissuades the homeless who seek repair and the thugs who seek a diversive. After all, nights are unspeakably long and desolate where no people have homes. There may be light, but there won't ever be the warmth of true human life.

  

365 Days of RX1 - one camera, one lens, 12 projects

www.lucarossini.it/category/365-days-of-rx1/

 

www.lucarossini.it

www.facebook.com/LucaRossiniPhotographer

TCS office campus - Siruseri, India: The TCS office in Chennai is amazing - it is a butterfly shaped building with 6 wings on either side made of steel.

 

This is one of the data centers and security access control systems buildings in the campus.

 

In the below article, the whole structure construction is outlined - worth a read

 

www.nbmcw.com/articles/architects-a-project-watch/21478-t...

 

Oh and btw - obviously we cannot carry our cameras in there for security reasons - and as such had to take this via my iPhone.

Work weekend: Was involved in a major system cutover which required me to be in the office for > 24 hours straight.

 

Being stuck in office limits your photo opportunity - this flower was by the security desk in the office.

This is the Eagle Gate Tower, one of many properties owned by Zion Securities Corporation, a subsidiary of Deseret Management Corporation. The Deseret Management Corporation is a holding company for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. The building is the ninth tallest building in Salt Lake City(a), standing at 320 feet. It was completed in 1986.

 

As you walk along South Temple across the street from this building, the view you see here presents itself. The bright reflection on the windows of Eagle Gate Tower is that of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Office Building.

 

I chose the title of this shot, “Influence from Above,” to elude to the the oft-mentioned issue of whether or not the LDS Church influences various businesses in Utah.

 

I don’t know and will not speculate. I will leave that to all of you (b, c, d).

  

References:

a. www.emporis.com/building/eaglegateplaza-saltlakecity-ut-usa

b. www.zsc.com/office/properties.aspx

c. www.mormonwiki.com/Deseret_Management_Corporation

d. www.mormonwiki.com/Zion_Securities_Corporation

   

Process:

Nikon D200, 20mm, 1/80sec, f/13, ISO 100, WB Daylight, handheld, 1 exposure. Adjustments in Adobe Photoshop include:

a. Level adjustments and sharpening

  

_WGP8341AAACrop5x7 copy (repost from prior mis-identified shot)

[87/365]

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yankee_Stadium

  

Yankee Stadium is a stadium located in The Bronx in New York City, New York. It serves as the home ballpark for the New York Yankees, replacing the previous Yankee Stadium, built in 1923. The new ballpark was constructed across the street, north-northeast of the 1923 Yankee Stadium, on the former site of Macombs Dam Park. The ballpark opened April 2, 2009, when the Yankees hosted a workout day in front of fans from the Bronx community. The first game at the new Yankee Stadium was a pre-season exhibition game against the Chicago Cubs played on April 3, 2009, which the Yankees won 7–4.[4] The first regular season game was played on April 16, a 10–2 Yankee loss to the Cleveland Indians.[5][6]

 

Much of the stadium incorporates design elements from the previous Yankee Stadium, paying homage to the Yankees' history. Although stadium construction began in August 2006, the project of building a new stadium for the Yankees is one that spanned many years and faced many controversies. The stadium was built on what had been 24 acres (97,000 m2) of public parkland. Replacement ballfields, slated to open when the new stadium did, have not been completed. Also controversial was the price tag of $2.3 billion, including $1.2 billion in taxpayer subsidies.[7] It was the third most expensive stadium[citation needed] after Wembley Stadium in London and New Meadowlands Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.[citation needed]

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Planning

1.2 Construction

1.3 Financing

2 Features

2.1 Design and layout

2.2 Field dimensions and playing surface

2.2.1 Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

2.3 Amenities and facilities

3 Accessibility and transportation

4 Public opinion

4.1 Opening and public perception

5 Yankee Stadium firsts

6 Other events

7 See also

8 References

9 External links

  

[edit] History

[edit] Planning

New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner began campaigning for the building of a new stadium in the 1980s, even alleging unsafe conditions around the original Yankee Stadium despite the possibility that such statements could discourage attendance at his own team's games. Yankees ownership allegedly planned to move the team across the Hudson River to New Jersey. The Yankees also considered moving to the West Side of Manhattan, which was where the proposed West Side Stadium would later be considered for the New York Jets.[8][9]

 

New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani had already been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities MCU Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. Shortly before leaving office in December 2001, he announced "tentative agreements" for both the New York Yankees and New York Mets to build new stadiums. Of $1.5 billion sought for the stadiums, city and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation.[10] The plan also said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had already said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams.[11] The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadium, and would get low-cost electricity from the state of New York.[11] Business officials criticized the plan as giving too much money to successful teams with little reason to move to a different city.[11]

 

Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor in 2002, called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare" and exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Yankees and Mets. Bloomberg said that unbeknownst to him, Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Yankees and Mets to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement.[10][11] At the time, Bloomberg said that publicly funded stadiums were a poor investment. Under Bloomberg, the New York City government would only offer public financing for infrastructure improvements; the teams would have to pay for the stadium themselves.

 

The proposal for the current stadium was unveiled by the Yankees in 2004. The team scrapped plans to build a retractable roof, saving $200 million in construction costs.[12]

 

[edit] Construction

 

The stadium under construction in 2007 (top), and the completed venue next to the remains of the former facility in 2010 (bottom)Groundbreaking ceremonies for the stadium took place on August 16, 2006, the 58th anniversary of Babe Ruth's death, with Steinbrenner, Bloomberg and then-Governor of New York George Pataki among the notables donning Yankees hard hats and wielding ceremonial shovels to mark the occasion.[13][14] The Yankees continued to play in the previous Yankee Stadium during the 2007 and 2008 seasons while their new home stadium was built across the street.

 

During construction of the stadium, a construction worker and avid Boston Red Sox fan, buried a replica jersey of Red Sox player David Ortiz underneath the visitors' dugout with the objective of placing a "hex" on the Yankees, much like the "Curse of the Bambino" that had plagued the Red Sox long after trading Ruth to the Yankees. After the worker was exposed by co-workers, he was forced to help exhume the jersey.[15] The Yankees organization then donated the retrieved jersey to the Jimmy Fund, a charity started in 1948 by the Red Sox' National League rivals, the Boston Braves, but long championed by the Red Sox and particularly associated with Ted Williams.[16][17] The worker has since claimed to have buried a 2004 American League Championship Series program/scorecard, but has not said where he placed it.[18] These attempts did not work; the Yankees won the World Series in their first year in the new stadium.[19]

 

[edit] Financing

$1.5 million of New York state tax revenue will be used to build parking garages (as authorized by the State Legislature). The parking garage project would cost $320 million. City and state taxpayers will forgo up to $7.5 million annually in lost taxes resulting from the sale of $225 million in tax-exempt bonds authorized on October 9, 2007, by the New York City Industrial Development Agency (administered by the New York City Economic Development Corporation) to finance construction and renovation of the parking garages.[20][21] However, if the parking revenues are not enough to pay a reported $3.2 million land lease to the city, the entity that will operate the parking garages and collect revenue will be able to defer that payment.[22]

 

[edit] Features

The new stadium is meant to be very similar in design to the original Yankee Stadium, both in its original 1923 state and its post-renovation state in 1976. The exterior resembles the original look of the 1923 Yankee Stadium. The interior, a modern ballpark with greater space and increased amenities, features a playing field that closely resembles the previous ballpark before its closing. The stadium features 4,300 club seats and 68 luxury suites.

 

[edit] Design and layout

 

The Indiana limestone exterior, shown at Gate 4, mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium in 1923.The stadium was designed by the architect firm Populous (formerly HOK Sport). The exterior was made from 11,000 pieces of Indiana limestone, along with granite and pre-cast concrete.[23] The design closely mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium when it first opened in 1923.[23] The exterior features the building's name V-cut and gold-leaf lettered above each gate.[23] The interior of the stadium is adorned with hundreds of photographs capturing the history of the Yankees. The New York Daily News newspaper partnered with the Yankees for the exhibition "The Glory of the Yankees Photo Collection", which was selected from the Daily News' collection of over 2,000 photographs.[24] Sports & The Arts was hired by the Yankees to curate the nearly 1,300 photographs that adorn the building from sources including the Daily News, Getty Images, the Baseball Hall of Fame and Major League Baseball.

 

The seats are laid out similar to the original stadium's stands, with grandstand seating that stretches beyond the foul poles, as well as bleacher seats beyond the outfield fences. The Field Level and Main Level comprise the lower bowl, with suites on the H&R Block Level, and the Upper Level and Grandstand Level comprising the upper bowl.[25] Approximately two-thirds of the stadium's seating is in the lower bowl, the inverse from the original Yankee Stadium.[25] Approximately 51,000 fans can be seated, with a standing room capacity of 52,325.[26] The new stadium's seating is spaced outward in a bowl, unlike the stacked-tiers design at the old stadium. This design places most fans farther back but lower to the field, by about an average of 30 feet (9.1 m). Over 56 suites are located within the ballpark, triple the amount from the previous stadium.[23] Seats are 19–24 inches (48–61 cm) wide, up from the previous stadium's 18–22-inch (46–56 cm) wide seats, while there is 33–39 inches (84–99 cm) of leg room, up from 29.5 inches (75 cm) of leg room in the previous stadium.[25] Many lower level seats are cushioned, while all seats are equipped with cupholders.[25] To allow for the extra seating space, the stadium's capacity is reduced by more than 4,000 seats in comparison to the previous stadium.[25]

  

The frieze that lined the roof of the original Yankee Stadium from 1923-1973 is replicated in its original location.Many design elements of the ballpark's interior are inspired by the original Yankee Stadium. The roof of the new facility features a replica of the frieze that was a trademark of the previous ballpark.[25] In the original Yankee Stadium, a copper frieze originally lined the roof of the upper deck stands, but it was torn down during the 1974–75 renovations and replicated atop the wall beyond the bleachers.[25] The new stadium replicates the frieze in its original location along the upper deck stands.[25] Made of steel coated with zinc for rust protection, it is part of the support system for the cantilevers holding up the top deck and the lighting on the roof.[27] The wall beyond the bleacher seats is "cut out" to reveal the subway trains as they pass by, like they were in the original facility. A manually-operated auxiliary scoreboard is built into the left and right field fences, in the same locations it existed in the pre-renovation iteration of the original Yankee Stadium.[25]

  

The Great Hall is situated along the southern front of the stadium.Between the exterior perimeter wall and interior of the stadium is the "Great Hall", a large concourse that runs between Gates 4 and 6.[28] With seven-story ceilings, the Great Hall features more than 31,000 square feet (2,900 m2) of retail space and is lined with 20 banners of past and present Yankees superstars.[28] The Great Hall features a 5-by-383-foot (1.5 by 117 m) LED (light-emitting diode) ribbon display as well as a 25' by 36' LED video display above the entrance to the ballpark from Daktronics, a company in ‹See Tfd›Brookings, South Dakota.[28] [28]

 

Monument Park, which features the Yankees' retired numbers, as well as monuments and plaques dedicated to distinguished Yankees, has been moved from its location beyond the left field fences in the original Yankee Stadium to its new location beyond the center field fences at the new facility. The newly relocated Monument Park is now situated under the sports bar, this choice of location has drawn criticism as the many monuments are underneath the sports bar and not as in the open as in the previous Yankee Stadium. Fueling this criticism has been the advent of black shades that cover monuments on the back wall during games to prevent interference with the vision of the batter.[29] The new location of the monuments is meant to mirror their original placement in center field at the original pre-renovation Yankee Stadium, albeit when they were on the playing field. The transfer of Monument Park from the old stadium to the new stadium began on November 10, 2008.[30] The first monuments were put in place on February 23, 2009.[31] Yankees pitcher Mariano Rivera requested that the Yankees reposition the team's bullpen, as well as add a door to connect the Yankees' bullpen to Monument Park, in order to allow access to it by Yankee relievers. The organization complied with his request.[23][32]

 

[edit] Field dimensions and playing surface

 

The view from the Grandstand Level (400 Level).The field dimensions for the outfield fences have the same distance markers as the original facility prior to closing yet the dimensions are not identical.[33] Due to the design of the right-field stands and the inclusion of an embedded manual scoreboard, the right-field wall is an average of 5 feet (1.5 m) closer to home plate.[34] Overall, the fences measure 318 feet (97 m) to left field, 399 feet (122 m) to left-center field, 408 feet (124 m) to center field, 385 feet (117 m) to right-center field, and 314 to right field.[25][26] At the old Yankee Stadium, the right field wall curved from the right-field corner to straightaway center, while at the new ballpark the fence takes a sharp, almost entirely straight angle.[34] This results in a difference at certain points between the right field markers of as much as 9 feet (2.7 m).[34] The dimensions in left field are substantially the same despite the presence of an embedded auxiliary scoreboard there as well.[34]

 

The outfield fences measure 8 feet 5 inches (2.57 m) high from the left-field foul pole until the Yankees' bullpen, when the fences begin to gradually descend in height until the right field foul pole, where they are only 8 feet (2.4 m) tall.[25] This also marks a decrease from the previous Yankee Stadium, where the outfield walls stood at a height of approximately 10 feet (3.0 m).[33] The distance from home plate to the backstop is 52 feet 4 inches (15.95 m), a reduction of 20 feet (6.1 m) from the previous facility.[26] The field is made up of Kentucky bluegrass, the same surface as the previous stadium, which is grown on a 1,300 acres (530 ha) farm in Bridgeton, New Jersey. The grass is equipped with a drainage system (featuring over 14,000 feet (4,300 m) of pipe) that makes the field playable an hour after taking 2 inches (51 mm) of rain.[25]

 

[edit] Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

Characteristic Old Stadium [as of 2008] New Stadium

Opening Day April 18, 1923 April 16, 2009

Capacity 56,866 52,325 [35](including standing room)

Seat width 18 inches (46 cm)–22 inches (56 cm) 19 inches (48 cm)–24 inches (61 cm)

Legroom 29.5 inches (75 cm) 33 inches (84 cm)–39 inches (99 cm)

Concourse width (average) 17 feet (5.2 m) 32 feet (9.8 m)

Cup holders Select Field Level Seating For every seat in General Seating

Luxury suites 19 56

Club Seats N/A 4,300

Team stores 6,800 square feet (630 m2) 11,560 square feet (1,074 m2)

Restroom fixture ratio 1 per 89 fans 1 per 60 fans

Public elevators

(passenger lifts) 3

(Otis Traction) 16

(KONE Traction)

Video scoreboard 25 feet (7.6 m) by 33 feet (10 m)

(Standard Definition LED) 59 feet (18 m) by 101 feet (31 m)

(High Definition LED)

Distance from Home Plate to:

Backstop 72 feet 4 inches (22 m) 52 feet 4 inches (16 m)

Left Field 318 feet (97 m)

Left Center 399 feet (122 m)

Center Field 408 feet (124 m)

Right Center 385 feet (117 m)

Right Field 314 feet (96 m)

Sources: The New York Yankees [26] and Andrew Clem [36]

 

[edit] Amenities and facilities

 

A signature by Babe Ruth is one of many autographs in the "ball wall", the centerpiece of the Yankee Museum.Yankee Stadium features a wide array of amenities. It contains 63 percent more space, 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) more in total, than the previous stadium, with wider concourses and open sight lines on concourses.[23] Along with 227 miles (365 km) of wired Ethernet cable, the building has sufficient fiber-optic cable wiring that Cisco Vice President and Treasurer David Holland calls the building "future proof".[23] Over 1,100 high-definition video monitors are placed within the stadium and approximately $10 million worth of baseball merchandise is housed within the ballpark.[23]

 

The center field scoreboard, which measures 59 x 101 feet (31 m) and offers 5,925 square feet (550.5 m2) of viewing area, was the third-largest high definition scoreboard in the world when it opened (behind the 8,736-square-foot (811.6 m2) board at newly renovated Kauffman Stadium and the new 8,066-square-foot (749.4 m2) board at the renovated Tokyo Racecourse).[37] Since then, it has also been surpassed by the world's largest scoreboard at the new Cowboys Stadium.[38] Displaying 5,925 ft (1,806 m)² of video, the scoreboard can display four 1080p high definition images simultaneously.[25]

 

The Yankees clubhouse features 30,000 ft (9,100 m)² of space, over 2.5 times the space of the clubhouse from the previous facility.[39] The dressing area alone features 3,344 ft (1,019 m)² of space, with each locker equipped with a safety deposit box and touch-screen computer.[39] The Yankees clubhouse features a weight room, training room, video room, and lounge area, while both teams' clubhouses have their own indoor batting cages.[39] The Yankees' therapy room features a hydrotherapy pool with an underwater treadmill.[39] The Yankees are believed to be the first team to chemically treat their uniforms, as well as the showering surfaces with an anti-bacterial agent that reduces the risk of infection.[39]

 

The Yankees Museum, located on the lower level at Gate 6, displays a wide range of Yankees' memorabilia.[40] A "Ball Wall" features hundreds of balls autographed by past and present Yankees, and there are plans to eventually add autographs for every living player who has played for the Yankees.[40] The centerpiece of the museum is a tribute to Don Larsen's perfect game in the 1956 World Series, with a commemorative home plate in the floor and statues of Larsen pitching to Yogi Berra.[40] Along with a facsimile of a current locker from the Yankees' clubhouse, fans can view the locker of the late Thurman Munson, which sat unoccupied in the previous stadium's Yankee clubhouse in honor of Munson.[40]

 

The ballpark offers a wide choice of restaurants. There are 25 fixed concessions stands, along with 112 moveable ones.[28] A Hard Rock Cafe is located within the ballpark, but it is open to anyone at the 161 St. and River Ave. entrance year round.[28] The Hard Rock Cafe at Yankee Stadium officially opened on March 30, 2009, and an opening ceremony took place on April 2, 2009.[41] A steakhouse called NYY Steak is located beyond right field.[28] Celebrity chefs will occasionally make appearances at the ballpark's restaurants and help prepare food for fans in premium seating over the course of the season.[28] Above Monument Park in center field is the Mohegan Sun sports bar, whose tinted black glass acts as the ballpark's batter's eye. The sports bar obstructs the view of approximately 600 bleacher seats in the right and left field bleachers, preventing fans from seeing the action occurring deep in the opposite side of the outfield. In response, the Yankees installed TV monitors on the sides of the sports bar's outer walls, and have reduced the price of these obstructed-view seats from $12 to $5.[42][43]

 

[edit] Accessibility and transportation

 

The stadium is serviced via subway by the 161st Street station on the IRT Jerome Avenue Line (top) (as well as the IND Concourse Line; not shown) and via railroad by the East 153rd Street Metro North station (bottom)The stadium is reachable via the 161st Street – Yankee Stadium station complex, the same that served the old Yankee Stadium, by the 4 B D trains of the New York City Subway. It is also served by the Yankees - East 153rd Street (Metro-North station), which opened on May 23, 2009,[44] which routinely features Hudson Line train service, but on game days, Harlem Line and New Haven Line trains as well as shuttle trains from Grand Central Terminal also platform there. The stadium is also served by multiple bus lines. On game days, NY Waterway operates the "Yankee Clipper" ferry route stopping at Port Imperial (Weehawken) and Hoboken in New Jersey and West 38th Street, the Wall Street Ferry Pier, and East 34th Street in Manhattan, and New York Water Taxi operates a free ferry to the stadium from the Wall Street Ferry Pier before every game only. For selected games, SeaStreak provides high-speed ferry service to Highlands, New Jersey.

 

Yankee Stadium is accessible by car via the Major Deegan Expressway (Interstate 87), with connections to Interstate 95, Interstate 278 and other major thoroughfares. Aside from existing parking lots and garages serving the stadium, construction for additional parking garages is planned. The New York State Legislature agreed to $70 million in subsidies for a $320 million parking garage project. On October 9, 2007, the New York City Industrial Development Agency approved $225 million in tax-exempt bonds to finance construction of three new parking garages that will have 3,600 new parking spaces, and renovation of the existing 5,569 parking spaces nearby.[45] Plans initially called for a fourth new garage, but this was eliminated before the final approval. The garages will be built (and renovated) by the Community Initiatives Development Corporation of Hudson, N.Y., a nonprofit entity that will use the parking revenue to repay the bonds and pay a $3 million yearly land lease to the City of New York. Parking is expected to cost $25 per game.[45]

 

[edit] Public opinion

[edit] Opening and public perception

 

Four F-16C Fighting Falcons from the 174th Fighter Wing fly over the "New" Yankee Stadium on Opening DayAlthough Yankee Stadium has been praised for its amenities and its usage of "classic" design elements from the original facility, the new stadium has been widely criticized for fan-unfriendly practices.[46][47] Seats within the first eight rows in the lower bowl, called the "Legends Suite", rank among the highest priced tickets in professional sports, with the average ticket in the section selling for $510 and the most expensive single game-day ticket costing $2,600.[46] Legends Suite Seats have been regularly empty, with many ticket holders in this section having given up their tickets, and others remaining unsold, despite most other seats in the ballpark selling out. This has created an "embarrassing" image on television of the seats behind home plate being almost completely vacant.[46] Consequently, a surplus of tickets for Legends Seats have emerged in the secondary market, and with supply exceeding demand, resale prices have dropped. Empty seats in the Legends Suite could even be seen during the 2009 playoffs, including World Series games. Even though all playoff games have been sellouts, Legends Suite ticket holders are in the lounges and the restaurant underneath instead of their seats.[48][49]

 

Legends Suite seats are also separate from the other lower bowl seating and are vigorously patrolled by stadium security, with the divider being described as a "concrete moat".[46][47] Fans that do not have tickets within this premium section in the front rows are not allowed to access it or stand behind the dugouts during batting practice to watch players hit and request autographs.[46][47]

 

The Yankee Stadium staff was also criticized for an incident during a May 4, 2009 game, which was interrupted by a rain delay.[50] Fans were told by some staff members that the game was unlikely to resume and consequently, many fans exited the stadium, only for the game to eventually resume play.[50] The fans that left the ballpark were not permitted to re-enter, per the stadium's re-entry policy, and many subsequently got into arguments with stadium personnel.[50] In response to the backlash the Yankees received for the incident, the staff members were required to sign a gag order preventing them from speaking to media, but they did indicate that communication for rain delays would be improved.[50]

 

After less than a season, cracks have appeared on the concrete ramps of the Stadium. The Yankees are trying to determine whether there was something wrong with the cement, or the ramps' installation or design. The company involved in designing the concrete mix were indicted on charges that they either faked or failed to perform some required tests and falsified the results of others.[51]

    

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised because of out-of-date information. Please help improve the article by updating it. There may be additional information on the talk page. (September 2010)

 

In 2009, the stadium was criticized for its propensity for allowing home runs. In its opening season, 237 home runs were hit.Yankee Stadium has quickly acquired a reputation as a "bandbox" and a "launching pad" due to the high number of home runs hit at the new ballpark.[52][53][54][55][56][57] Through its first 23 games, 87 home runs were hit at the venue, easily besting Enron Field's (now called Minute Maid Park) previous record set in 2000.[58] Early in the season, Yankee Stadium was on pace to break Coors Field's 1999 single-season record of 303 home runs allowed, and the hometown New York Daily News newspaper started publishing a daily graphic comparing each stadium's home run totals through a similar number of games.

 

ESPN commentator Peter Gammons has denounced the new facility as "one of the biggest jokes in baseball" and concludes that "[it] was not a very well-planned ballpark."[54] Likewise, Gammons' ESPN colleague Buster Olney has described the stadium as being "on steroids" and likened it to his childhood Wiffle-ball park.[52][59] Newsday columnist Wallace Matthews joined in the criticism, labeling the stadium "ridiculous" and decrying its cheapening of the home run.[53] Former Yankee Reggie Jackson termed the park "too small" to contain current player Alex Rodriguez and suggested it might enable the third baseman to hit 75 home runs in a season.[53]

 

A variety of theories have been posited to account for the dramatic increase in home runs at the new Yankee Stadium over the original stadium, foremost among these the sharper angles of the outfield walls[34] and the speculated presence of a wind tunnel.[52] During construction of the new ballpark, engineers commissioned a wind study, the results of which indicated there would be no noticeable difference between the two stadiums.[60] The franchise is planning to conduct a second study, but Major League rules prohibit it from making any changes to the playing field until the off-season.[60]

 

An independent study by the weather service provider AccuWeather in June 2009 concluded that the shape and height of the right field wall, rather than the wind, is responsible for the proliferation of home runs at the stadium.[61] AccuWeather's analysis found that roughly 20% of the home runs hit at the new ballpark would not have been home runs at the old ballpark due to the gentle curve of its right field corner, and its 10-foot (3.0 m) wall height.[61] Nothing was observed in wind speeds and patterns that would account for the increase.[61]

 

The number of home runs hit at the new stadium slowed significantly as the season progressed,[62] but a new single-season record for most home runs hit at a Yankee home ballpark was nonetheless set in the Yankees' 73rd home game of 2009 when Vladimir Guerrero of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim hit the 216th home run of the season at the venue, surpassing the previous record of 215 set at the original Yankee Stadium in 2005.[63]

 

In 2010, the rate of home runs were markedly less as of May 15, 2010, with 35 home runs hit in 14 games for 2.5 per game (a projection of 205 - in 2009, the stadium was at 2.93 per game for a total of 237.) Several reasons were given for the sudden dropoff in home runs, including a lower April 2010 temperature (56 degrees in comparison with 63 the previous year), slower winds, poor pitching, a change in direction in winds,[64] as well as removal of the original Yankee Stadium and the effect this has had on wind currents.[citation needed] ESPN suggested the prolific home run totals of 2009 were a fluke.[64]

 

[edit] Yankee Stadium firsts

 

Logo for the inaugural season at the Stadium.Before the official Opening Day against the Cleveland Indians April 16, 2009, the Yankees hosted a two-game exhibition series at the Stadium in early April against the Chicago Cubs.[5] Grady Sizemore of the Indians was the first player to hit a grand slam off of Yankee pitcher Dámaso Marte. The Indians and 2008 Cy Young Award winner, Cliff Lee, spoiled the opening of the new stadium by winning 10-2. Before the Yankees went to bat for the first time, the bat that Babe Ruth used to hit his first home run at the old Yankee Stadium in 1923 was placed momentarily on home plate.[65] Jorge Posada hit the first Yankee home run in the new ballpark hitting his off Lee in the same game. Russell Branyan, while playing for the Seattle Mariners, was the first player to hit a home run off of the Mohegan Sun Restaurant in center field. Like its predecessor, the new Yankee Stadium hosted the World Series in its very first season; in the 2009 World Series, the Yankees defeated the Philadelphia Phillies 4 games to 2. It also became the latest stadium to host a World Series-clinching victory by its home team in the venue's first season (after the St. Louis Cardinals won the World Series at Busch Stadium in 2006), when, on November 4, 2009, the Yankees won their 27th World Series championship against the Phillies. The Yankees are the only team to inaugurate two stadiums with World Series wins and also appeared in the 1976 World Series following the refurbishment of the original Yankee Stadium.

 

Statistic Exhibition Regular season Postseason

First game April 3, 2009

Yankees 7, Cubs 4 April 16, 2009

Indians 10, Yankees 2 October 7, 2009

Yankees 7, Twins 2

Ceremonial First Pitch Reggie Jackson Yogi Berra Eric T. Olson

First Pitch Chien-Ming Wang CC Sabathia CC Sabathia

First Batter Aaron Miles (Cubs) Grady Sizemore (Indians) Denard Span (Twins)

First Hit Aaron Miles (Cubs) Johnny Damon Denard Span (Twins)

First Yankees Hit Derek Jeter Johnny Damon Derek Jeter

First Home Run Robinson Cano Jorge Posada Derek Jeter

First Win Chien-Ming Wang Cliff Lee (Indians) CC Sabathia

First Save Jonathan Albaladejo Mariano Rivera (4/17) Mariano Rivera

 

[edit] Other events

 

Football configuration for new Yankee Stadium.The first ever non-baseball event at the Stadium took place on April 25, 2009, with pastor and televangelist Joel Osteen holding a “Historic Night of Hope” prayer service.[66]

 

A New York University graduation ceremony took place on May 13, 2009 with the address being delivered by U.S. Secretary of State and former New York Senator Hillary Clinton. The 2010 NYU ceremony featured alumnus Alec Baldwin as a speaker.[67]

 

The promotional tour for the Manny Pacquiao-Miguel Cotto fight began with an event at Yankee Stadium on September 10, 2009.

 

On June 5, 2010, Yuri Foreman fought Cotto in the first boxing match in The Bronx since 1976. The fight was referred to as the "Stadium Slugfest." Cotto defeated Foreman with a TKO in the ninth round.[68]

 

The Army Black Knights will play a college football game at Yankee Stadium against The Notre Dame Fighting Irish on November 20, 2010. This will mark the two teams' first meeting in the Bronx since 1969.[69] Also, Army will play Air Force, Rutgers, and Boston College in 2011, 2012, and 2014 respectively at Yankee Stadium.

 

Yankee Stadium will also host the newly-created Pinstripe Bowl, an annual college football bowl game that will pit the third-place team from the Big East against the seventh-place team from the Big 12. Organizers plan to hold the inaugural game December 30, 2010.[70]

 

The Yankees were in discussions with the National Hockey League to have Yankee Stadium host the 2011 NHL Winter Classic. However, the NHL chose Heinz Field as the host. The stadium was a candidate to host the 2010 NHL Winter Classic before it was awarded to Boston's Fenway Park.[71]

 

Rappers Jay-Z and Eminem performed the first concert at Yankee Stadium on September 13, 2010.[72]

 

[edit] See also

Citi Field, a new baseball stadium for the New York Mets (National League) also opened in 2009, replacing the Mets' previous home Shea Stadium in northern Queens (New York City).

Barclays Center, an arena for the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association to be built by and over the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Atlantic Avenue railyards in northwestern Brooklyn (New York City) currently under construction.

New Meadowlands Stadium, a new football stadium for the New York Giants and the New York Jets of the National Football League which replaced Giants Stadium at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey that opened in 2010.

Red Bull Arena, a new stadium for the Major League Soccer team New York Red Bulls that opened in 2010, replacing the team's previous home, Giants Stadium.

[edit] References

^ Blum, Ron (April 16, 2009). "New $1.5 billion Yankee Stadium formally opens". YahooSports.com. Associated Press. sports.yahoo.com/mlb/news?slug=ap-newyankeestadiumopens. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Yankee Stadium Populus.com

^ Stadium Comparison MLB.com

^ Yanks open Stadium against Cubs MLB.com

^ a b Kepner, Tyler (April 16, 2009). "Getting Ready for the Real Thing". The New York Times. bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/16/getting-ready-for-the-r.... Retrieved 2009-04-16.

^ "Cleveland 10, New York 2". MLB.com. April 16, 2009. www.mlb.com/news/wrap.jsp?ymd=20090416&content_id=429.... Retrieved 2009-04-16.

^ www.fieldofschemes.com/documents/Yanks-Mets-costs.pdf

^ Barry, Dan (April 20, 1998). "Mayor Making Case for Yanks on West Side". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/1998/04/20/nyregion/mayor-making-case-for.... Retrieved 2010-03-06.

^ Barry, Dan (January 15, 1999). "Giuliani Offers Plan to Put Up Sports Complex". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/1999/01/15/nyregion/giuliani-offers-plan-.... Retrieved 2010-03-06.

^ a b "Bonus Season for Baseball". The New York Times. January 17, 2002. query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A06E7D91138F934A.... Retrieved 2010-05-05.

^ a b c d Bagli, Charles V. (January 16, 2002). "Bloomberg Says Details On Stadiums Were Omitted". The New York Times. query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D01E7DE1338F935A.... Retrieved 2010-05-05.

^ Bagli, Charles V. (July 30, 2004). "Yankees Propose New Stadium, and Would Pay". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2004/07/30/sports/30stadium.html?adxnnl=1.... Retrieved 2010-10-10. [dead link]

^ Yankees break ground on new $1 billion home ESPN.com, August 16, 2006

^ New Yankee Stadium MLB.com

^ Lengel, David (April 17, 2007). "Yankees dig deep to rid new Stadium of curse". The Guardian (London). blogs.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/04/17/yankees_dig_deep_to.... Retrieved 2010-05-05.

^ Jimmy Fund Auctions Buried Red Sox Jersey On eBay WBZ-TV, Boston, from CBS and The Associated Press, April 17, 2008, retrieved on July 19, 2008

^ History of the Jimmy Fund, retrieved on July 19, 2008

^ Schmidt, Michael S. (May 20, 2008). "Yanks May Be Scratching Surface of Sox Items at New Stadium". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2008/05/20/sports/baseball/20scorecard.html. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Kernan, Kevin (November 10, 2009). "No Papi jinx for Yankees". New York Post. www.nypost.com/p/sports/yankees/attempted_papi_jinx_faile.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ New York City Economic Development Corporation (July 11, 2006). "NYC Industrial Development Agency Authorizes Financing Assistance for New Stadiums for Yankees and Mets". Press release. www.nycedc.com/Web/PressRoom/PressReleases/IDAJuly2006.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-21.

^ Egbert, Bill (October 16, 2007). "Stadium garage plan gets OK; Carrion drops opposition". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/bronx/2007/10/16/2007-10-16_.... Retrieved 2008-09-24.

^ Curveball Thrown at Public With Yankee Stadium Garages Daily News (New York), October 10, 2007, retrieved on July 21, 2008.

^ a b c d e f g h "Tour the new House - Welcome Home". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ "Tour the new House - Daily News on Display". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Tour the new House - A Closer Look". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ a b c d New Yankee Stadium Comparison, New York Yankees, retrieved on September 26, 2008

^ Sandomir, Richard (April 14, 2009). "A Distinctive Facade Is Recreated at New Yankee Stadium". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/sports/baseball/15facade.html. Retrieved 2010-05-05.

^ a b c d e f g h "Tour the new House - Hall of a Place". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ Dog bites (Krazy) man Yankees.lhblogs.com

^ Monument Park transition under way MLB.com

^ Coffey, Wayne (February 25, 2009). "Babe Ruth, other monuments settle in new Yankee Stadium home". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/02/24/20.... Retrieved 2009-03-01.

^ Yes Network broadcast of Yankees vs. Cubs, Apr. 3 2009.

^ a b "AccuWeather: Smaller Stadium causes HR surge". Newsday. Associated Press. June 9, 2009. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/yankees/ny-spyweat0610,0,.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ a b c d e Kepner, Tyler (April 20, 2009). "Over the Wall and Under the Microscope in the Bronx". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2009/04/21/sports/baseball/21homeruns.html. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ www.seating-chart.info/mlb/american-league/yankee-stadium/

^ Andrew Clem www.andrewclem.com/Baseball/YankeeStadium_II.html

^ www.engadgethd.com/2007/10/03/kansas-city-royals-to-get-w... Kansas City Royals to get 'world's largest' HD LED scoreboard – endgadeget.com – Retrieved May 18, 2009

^ MJD (June 12, 2008). "Jerry Jones aims to make all Cowboys' fans blind by 2010". Sports.yahoo.com. sports.yahoo.com/nfl/blog/shutdown_corner/post/Jerry-Jone.... Retrieved November 28, 2008.

^ a b c d e "Tour the new House - Inside the Clubhouse". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ a b c d "Tour the new House - Pinstripe Pride". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ "New York Yankees-owned steakhouse will be part of new stadium". Daily News. Bloomberg News (New York). June 18, 2008. www.nydailynews.com/money/2008/06/18/2008-06-18_new_york_.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Best, Neil (February 24, 2009). "Old Yankee Stadium's obstructed views make a comeback". Newsday. www.newsday.com/services/newspaper/printedition/wednesday.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Best, Neil (February 25, 2009). "Yankees lower partial-view seat price to $5". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/ny-sptix2612496709feb26,0,5172494..... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Metro-North Railroad (April 1, 2009). "Train Service to MTA Metro-North Railroad's Newest Station Yankees – E. 153rd Street Begins Saturday May 23, 2009". Press release. www.mta.info/mta/news/releases/?en=090401-MNR11. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ a b N.Y.C. IDA Approves $325.3 Million, Most for Yankee Stadium Garages, The Bond Buyer, October 10, 2007

^ a b c d e Green, Sarah (May 5, 2009). "New Yankee Stadium Strikes Out With Customers". Harvard Business Publishing. blogs.harvardbusiness.org/cs/2009/05/new_yankee_stadium_i.... Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ a b c Kepner, Tyler (Maay 6, 2009). "New Home, New Atmosphere". The New York Times. bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/05/06/new-home-new-atmosphere/. Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ Miller, Scott (October 29, 2009). "Yankees create no excitement, and now pressure's on". CBS Sports.com. www.cbssports.com/mlb/story/12436398. Retrieved 2009-10-31.

^ Best, Neil (October 29, 2009). "Empty seats at Yankee Stadium not what they seem". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/empty-seats-at-yankee-stadium-not-.... Retrieved 2009-10-31.

^ a b c d Gagne, Matt (May 6, 2009). "Fallout from Yankeegate lingers with Stadium workers, irate fans". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/05/05/20.... Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ Rashbaum, William K.; Belson, Ken (October 23, 2009). "Cracks Emerge in Ramps at New Yankee Stadium". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2009/10/24/nyregion/24stadium.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

^ a b c Olney, Buster (April 21, 2009). "New Yankee Stadium on steroids?". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/mlb/news/story?id=4080195. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b c Matthews, Wallace (May 20, 2009). "Home runs a cheap thrill at Yankee Stadium". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/ny-spwally2112790416may20.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b "Yankee Stadium: Biggest Joke in Baseball". New York Post. May 22, 2009. www.nypost.com/seven/05222009/sports/yankees/gammons_rips.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Keown, Tim (April 28, 2009). "Trouble at the House that George Built". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=keown/090428. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Roberts, Jeff (May 23, 2009). "Ruthian blasts now a common sight". NorthJersey.com. www.northjersey.com/sports/yankees/45886242.html. Retrieved 2009-05-23. [dead link]

^ McKee, Don (May 21, 2009). "Bronx launching pad awaits Phils". The Philadelphia Inquirer. www.philly.com/philly/news/breaking/20090521_Morning_Repo.... Retrieved 2009-05-23. [dead link]

^ "Phillies' Ruiz finishes Yanks in 11th, takes Lidge off hook". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/mlb/recap?gameId=290524110. Retrieved 2009-05-29.

^ Olney, Buster (May 23, 2009). "Too many homers to right? Add a chicken coop". ESPN.com. insider.espn.go.com/espn/blog/index?entryID=4201092&n.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b Feinsand, Mark (April 21, 2009). "Homer's Odyssey: News tries to solve new Yankee Stadium's quandary". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/04/20/20.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b c Dittmeier, Bobbie (June 10, 2009). "Study: Design cause of Stadium homers". MLB.com. www.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090610&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-06-10.

^ The New Stadium's a Bandbox TheYankeeUniverse.com

^ Hoch, Bryan (September 14, 2009). "Guerrero's homer sets Yankee Stadium mark". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090914&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-09-17.

^ a b Marchand, Andrew (April 30, 2010). "It is high, it is far, it is ... caught!". ESPN. sports.espn.go.com/new-york/mlb/news/story?id=5151275.

^ "Cleveland 10, New York 2". USA Today. April 16, 2009. content.usatoday.com/sportsdata/baseball/mlb/game/Indians.... Retrieved 2009-04-16.

^ Gibson, David (April 19, 2009). "God’s Will in Hard Times". New York Magazine. nymag.com/news/intelligencer/56161/. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Alec Baldwin Speaks At NYU Graduation (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. May 12, 2010. www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/12/alec-baldwin-speaks-at-.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

^ Weichselbaum, Simone; Schapiro, Rich (June 6, 2010). "Yankee Stadium slugfest: Miguel Cotto beats junior middleweight champ Yuri Foreman". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2010/06/06/2010-06-06_boxers.... Retrieved 2010-06-07.

^ Hoch, Bryan (July 20, 2009). "Yanks to host Notre Dame-Army game". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090720&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "First Pinstripe Bowl to Be Held Dec. 30". ESPN.com. March 9, 2010. sports.espn.go.com/ncf/news/story?id=4978803. Retrieved 2010-05-20.

^ "Yankee Stadium to host NHL game in 2011?". Newsday. July 20, 2009. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/yankee-stadium-to-host-nh.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Jay-Z, Eminem to play local ballparks". MLB.com. May 13, 2010. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20100512&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Yankee Stadium

Official Site

Virtual tour of new Yankee Stadium

Newsday.com New Yankee Stadium

Ballparks of Baseball

Ballparks.com overview of proposed stadium

Photographic Updates of the Construction of the New Yankee Stadium

Demolition of Yankee Stadium

Metro-North Railroad station at Yankee Stadium

  

at the al Yamama Hotel in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 1985. 35mm Olympus XA2 with Kodacolor 200 film.

 

The al Yamama Hotel in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was "home" for deployed AWACS aircrews in the 1980s until they were moved to the infamous Khobar Towers. The hotel was vacant and condemned by the Saudis when the Air Force accepted it as housing. Previously, the crews stayed at the King's palace and in hotels in Riyadh. U.S. military security forces were not permitted to guard the facility, which was blocks away from a PLO office, and had to remove the barbed wire around the perimeter wall because it was deemed "offensive" to the local population. Saudi intelligence personnel conveniently had offices in the basement. All of our rooms were bugged.

 

We infidels once cut the loudspeaker wires to get a break from the five-times-per-day prayer call, so we could sleep, and caught hell for it. After a lecture from a 2-Star General we waited until the Saudis repaired the cuts, and then cut them again in about 4 or 5 new places and several more days of sleep. It was hilarious watching them trying to repair it again. But it was nice while it lasted... since we were providing the Kingdom 24-hour airborne radar coverage 365 days per year.

 

Saudi guards stationed on the rooftop of the hotel routinely spied through binoculars on our female personnel when they showed up at the pool in their bikinis.

 

In September 1980 four E-3s and almost 200 wing members deployed to Saudi Arabia in an operation called "Elf One," which continued for 8.5 years. We provided "round-the-clock" airborne radar coverage, and enhanced Saudi air defenses during the dispute between Iran and Iraq. In March 1988, wing personnel were authorized wear of the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for continued service in the Persian Gulf arena.

While shooting this lift gate at the Bremerton Ferry terminal I was questioned by one of the office managers. What are you photographing he asked, I replied by saying stripes, What? I said today's photo is stripes. He then was at ease and said, oh I thought you were taking pictures of our security.

Security Guard: Hey you, what are you doing, there? (him, waiving at my camera)

 

Me: Talking pictures (matter of fact tone, seeings that it was quite obvious I was holding a big-ass Canon EOS 5D in my hands and I wasn’t using it to peel lemons)

 

Security Guard: Well, you can’t take pictures here with a camera like that.

 

Me: Okie dokie, sorry (me, putting camera into backpack)

 

Security Guard: You have to ask at the front office for permission.

 

Me: Okay, thanks (me, leaving)

 

It’s funny how technology has put some issues into surreal reversal. Anyone who wanted to image the public spaces in a shopping mall with nefarious intent is going to do it with a hidden camera or a camera phone. In contrast, someone imaging with artistic intent is going to be totally obvious, schlepping around a 5D, a D3 or a 500CM. Artistic intent is not going to degrade the wealth of the mall owners, but we live in a one-size-fits-all world. Corporate lawyers have done a magnificent job of expanding property rights over public spaces, and I might say, bedrock civil rights. Although this is Constitutionally dodgy, it is what it is. I’m not going to argue with an $8-an-hour security guard, who was in fact, quite civil. Best I can do is reciprocate and be polite; he didn’t buy the rules.

 

www.bobatkins.com/photography/tutorials/photography_law_r...

 

informant.kalwnews.org/2010/11/how-shopping-malls-became-...

 

www.legalandrew.com/2007/10/11/photo-law-your-right-to-ta...

 

www.davelippman.com/LawoftheMall.html

     

Lunchtime wander near the Gherkin and Lloyd's buildings trying out some more street photography. Particularly liked this shot of am office worker relaxing in the sunshine. Especially tricky as the local building security were getting agitated at all the tourists taking shots on their private land - had to be extra sneaky.

Shot on iPhone 4. My office at Bowen Hills is near one end of the Clem7 tunnel, which goes under the Brisbane River. I've wanted to take a photo of the opening for a while, because it's weird and funky and vaguely reminiscent of body parts (no, you don't want to know what body parts). I couldn't get that shot without stopping in the middle of the road, but I managed to get the roof of the entrance by poking my iPhone under a security fence and doing my best not to drop it.

Raindrops on the trunk of my car. I was working late tonight and was wondering how I would fit in my Picture of the Day before I went to sleep, and as I walked outside, I saw that the security lights outside my office were casting shadows from the raindrops on my trunk.

Palmer, Alfred T.,, photographer.

 

Eight generator units in the generator room of a new addition to TVA's hydroelectric plant at Wilson Dam, Sheffield vicinity, Ala. Located 260 miles above the mouth of the Tennessee River, the dam has an authorized power installation of 288,000 kw., which can be increased to a possible ultimate of 444,000 kw. The reservoir at the dam adds 377,000 acre-feet of water to controlled storage on the Tennessee River system

 

1942 June

 

1 transparency : color.

 

Notes:

Title from FSA or OWI agency caption.

Transfer from U.S. Office of War Information, 1944.

 

Subjects:

Tennessee Valley Authority

World War, 1939-1945

Dams

Hydroelectric power

Engines

Power plants

United States--Alabama--Sheffield

 

Format: Transparencies--Color

 

Rights Info: No known restrictions on publication.

 

Repository: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA, hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

 

Part Of: Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Collection 12002-36 (DLC) 93845501

 

General information about the FSA/OWI Color Photographs is available at hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.fsac

 

Higher resolution image is available (Persistent URL): hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/fsac.1a35266

 

Call Number: LC-USW36-365

  

Today highlighted the problems of being a photographer. Two days before, I had been moved on for trying to take a picture on the MoreLondon estate near County Hall, which was partly why I didn't feel like taking many photos yesterday. Today, I thought I'd take a picture of Canada Tower as it was disappearing into the mist, worth a photo I hope you'll agree.

 

I'd seen some security guards wandering around, but decided that I wasn't breaking the Canary Wharf rules of amateur photography and decided to carry on. I took only two or three shots then decided to move on quickly. On route to the office, I saw the fountain outside my office steaming in the mist - as I stopped to contemplate a picture, I glanced over my shoulder to see the two security guards headed in my direction. I had been walking fairly quickly, so I thought it strange they were behind me but I decided that it might have been a coincidence. I carried onto the office - now, I would have written this off as paranoia had it not been for the fact that as I glanced over my shoulder while waiting for the lifts, there were the two security guards in the foyer. I have never in 6 years seen security guards come into the building.

 

I am really starting to resent the hassle you can get as a photographer - I'm not breaking any laws! This year, I have had two police searches (one random, one for taking photos), three jobsworths telling me to stop and one possible pursuit by security guards!

It was one of the first days we'd had sun in quite some time, and I was in an office in Pittsburgh in a meeting ALL DAY. OH well. I got a lot done at the meeting, so that was nice. I'm pretty sure the security guard in the parking garage was eying me up as I took this picture. I get it -- who's the weirdo with the camera taking pictures in the parking lot, right? I managed to get this shot before I arousing too much suspicion.

 

January 13, 2010

13/365

 

View On Black

After a great deal of thought and consideration, I finally made up my mind and went down to the local military recruiting office in Downtown Brooklyn and signed up for the Marines.

 

The decision wasn't easy for me, but as President George W. Bush has always maintained, we're fighting them over there so we don't have to fight them over here. The President has also said that with one more surge, we'll have victory over the terrorists. I feel it's my patriotic duty to be part of this massive effort to fight for our freedom and keep America safe.

 

It doesn't matter that too many of us would rather sip French wine and appease Islamic Jihadists like modern-day Chamberlains. I'm just going to do my part to fight for security and our way of life, because surrendering to the global Jihad is simply not an option.

Moorgate, City of London. Looking up into the sky through the front of a modern office block. Had to make a hasty exit just after taking this photo as the security guard was none too pleased!

The world according to criminal corporations is the 24-7-365 media disinformation sewage manufacturing system.

 

Their war on objective facts slaves onward. At least I can enjoy their lovely plastic women deliver the sewage if boredom drives me to watch the grotesque circus.

-RT

**********************************************************************************

Mainstream Media Omissions and Distortions: The World as the Washington Post Would Like It to Be

By Jim Naureckas

 

Global Research, August 27, 2014

FAIR 26 August 2014

Region: USA

Theme: Media Disinformation, US NATO War Agenda

 

So much of our discussion of public policy consists of absurd accusations from the right matched with self-serving justifications from the somewhat-less-right. The most obvious example of this is the perennial think piece on Obama’s foreign policy, which is invariably analyzed as being either foolishly pacifistic or prudently diplomatic. The reality that the Obama administration has used military force on a large scale in many countries is not acknowledged, because it’s not something either major party likes to point out (FAIR Blog, 7/16/13, 8/30/13,3/18/14, 8/12/14).

 

The latest installment in this genre comes from the Washington Post(8/22/14), where Zachary Goldfarb presents a classic false dichotomy:

 

Obama’s detractors revived criticism that his foreign policy is based on retreat from the world, typified by the withdrawal of US forces from Iraq three years ago, a lack of direct action in Syria and an economics-first approach to driving Russia’s military back from Ukraine.

 

His supporters argue that his approach has been consistent with his strategy of returning the United States–after post-September 11 wars–to a foreign policy built around economic engagement rather than military intervention.

 

US troop levels in Afghanistan (NPR)

 

Obama’s forgotten Afghan surge (graphic: NPR)

 

How do you write a sentence like this one–”In place of the large military deployments, Obama has relied on smaller operations to manage, rather than resolve, many of the conflicts that have arisen during his time in office”–without mentioning that Obama sent nearly 70,000 extra troops to Afghanistan, tripling the deployment there? Since then, 1,700 US troops have died, and at least 13,000 Afghan civilians, along with an unknown number of Afghan combatants; surely this has a bearing on whether you can characterize Obama’s presidency as a “retreat from the world”?

 

But the only mentions of Afghanistan, Obama’s biggest single military engagement, in Goldfarb’s piece are in a passage in which Obama adviser Ben Rhodes is allowed to claim that Obama policy there is the exact opposite of what it actually was:

 

At the same time, he said, Obama is not reconsidering his view that Iraq–and Afghanistan–must be primarily responsible for their own security.

 

“The basic premise still holds that we’re transitioning from wars in which the United States was on the ground in big numbers fighting to secure Afghanistan and Iraq to Afghans and Iraqis fighting on the ground to secure their own countries,” Rhodes said.

 

In Afghanistan, Obama has mostly been “transitioning” from the “big numbers” of troops that he sent there himself (FAIR Blog, 11/25/13)–but that’s an inconvenient detail that interferes with the story Goldfarb is trying to tell.

 

To get another viewpoint that is essentially the same viewpoint, only with a frowny face, Goldfarb goes to Cheney-era State Department official David Kramer, who says things like, “The problem for Obama is he often sets up these false choices between essentially doing nothing and sending in the 82nd battalion.”

 

Zachary Goldfarb/Washington Post

 

The Washington Post’s Zachary Goldfarb

 

This would have been a good time to mention that in numerous countries, rather than doing nothing or sending in the 82nd, Obama has chosen to use drones to assassinate some 2,400 people, including several hundred civilians and at least 168 children (Huffington Post, 1/23/14). But, remarkably, the word “drone” never appears in an article ostensibly about whether Obama has done a “retreat from the world” or not.

 

After setting up his fake dichotomy between Obama as namby-pamby pacifist and Obama as wise diplomat, Goldfarb writes:

 

The question, though, is whether he is contradicting the pledge embraced in his 2009 Nobel Prize lecture: “to face the world as it is,” not as he would like it to be.

 

No one who writes an article like this one is any position to give lectures about facing the world as it is.

 

Some say, he walks the lonely corridors of offices late at night providing security; whilst others think they've ordered a pizza! All we know is, he's called Graham!

 

I work in the exams office of a school and for security purposes we have to have obscured glass in the windows at eye level and lockable security blinds. So whilst the view through the bottom panes of glass was handy for 'translucent' , it does make it look as if I work in a prison!

The US Consitution was a clear and present danger to the PNAC-AIPAC-Wall Street corporate architects of 911.

 

Luckily for its billionaire holocaust survivors, for their multinational corporations, for their Supreme Mafia Court, their toy president and toy congress and for their terrorist military corporations aimed directly at the people of the United States....

 

...That dangerous constitution rag can never threaten multinational terrorist corporations and war profits again. As GOPDEM's describe their corporate 911 junta, they are the new American Citizens. That's why it is their corporate military NSA-CIA-CIA-Homeland spy and repress mission to war against the 99.99% of former Americans stripped of rights.

 

They pay themselves well to stay safe from the pre-911 former Americans. Their behemoth corporate spy and war machine endows itself with certain inalienable rights to terrorize whomever it profits the military corporations to do so. That's what Wall Street's toy congress and toy presidents are payed to do.

 

In order to outlaw challenges to post 911 crime corporation supremacy, their Supreme Mafia Court officially legislated that multinational corporations are replacement citizens that rule as law officially in 2010. They replace non-corporations meaning they replace people.

 

Constitutional "consent of the governed" is a relic. The 911 junta is Earth's multinational corporate law unto itself and permanent war against the governed.

 

Consent of the governed is corporate consent by The Supreme Mafia Court Corporation of common thugs: Roberts, Alito, Scalia, Thomas and Kennedy.

-RT

**********************************************************************************

 

Shredding the Fourth Amendment in Post-Constitutional America

Four Ways It No Longer Applies

By Peter Van Buren

 

Here’s a bit of history from another America: the Bill of Rights was designed to protect the people from their government. If the First Amendment’s right to speak out publicly was the people's wall of security, then the Fourth Amendment’s right to privacy was its buttress. It was once thought that the government should neither be able to stop citizens from speaking nor peer into their lives. Think of that as the essence of the Constitutional era that ended when those towers came down on September 11, 2001. Consider how privacy worked before 9/11 and how it works now in Post-Constitutional America.

 

The Fourth Amendment

 

A response to British King George’s excessive invasions of privacy in colonial America, the Fourth Amendment pulls no punches: “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.”

 

In Post-Constitutional America, the government might as well have taken scissors to the original copy of the Constitution stored in the National Archives, then crumpled up the Fourth Amendment and tossed it in the garbage can. The NSA revelations of Edward Snowden are, in that sense, not just a shock to the conscience but to the Fourth Amendment itself: our government spies on us. All of us. Without suspicion. Without warrants. Without probable cause. Without restraint. This would qualify as “unreasonable” in our old constitutional world, but no more.

 

Here, then, are four ways that, in the name of American “security” and according to our government, the Fourth Amendment no longer really applies to our lives.

 

The Constitutional Borderline

 

Begin at America's borders. Most people believe they are “in” the United States as soon as they step off an international flight and are thus fully covered by the Bill of Rights. The truth has, in the twenty-first century, become infinitely more complicated as long-standing practices are manipulated to serve the expanding desires of the national security state. The mining of words and concepts for new, darker meanings is a hallmark of how things work in Post-Constitutional America.

 

Over the years, recognizing that certain situations could render Fourth Amendment requirements impractical or against the public interest, the Supreme Court crafted various exceptions to them. One was the “border search.” The idea was that the United States should be able to protect itself by stopping and examining people entering the country. As a result, routine border searches without warrants are constitutionally “reasonable” simply by virtue of where they take place. It’s a concept with a long history, enumerated by the First Congress in 1789.

 

Here’s the twist in the present era: the definition of “border” has been changed. Upon arriving in the United States from abroad, you are not legally present in the country until allowed to enter by Department of Homeland Security (DHS) officials. You know, the guys who look into your luggage and stamp your passport. Until that moment, you exist in a legal void where the protections of the Bill of Rights and the laws of the United States do not apply. This concept also predates Post-Constitutional America and the DHS. Remember the sorting process at Ellis Island in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? No lawyers allowed there.

 

Those modest exceptions were all part of constitutional America. Today, once reasonable searches at the border have morphed into a vast “Constitution-free zone.” The “border” is now a strip of land circling the country and extending 100 miles inland that includes two-thirds of the U.S. population. In this vast region, Customs and Border Protection (CBP) can set up checkpoints and conduct warrantless searches. At airports, American citizens are now similarly subjected to search and seizure as filmmaker Laura Poitras -- whose work focuses on national security issues in general and Edward Snowden in the particular -- knows firsthand. Since 2006, almost every time Poitras has returned to the U.S., her plane has been met by government agents and her laptop and phone examined.

 

There are multiple similar high-profile cases (including those of a Wikileaks researcher and a Chelsea Manning supporter), but ordinary citizens are hardly exempt. Despite standing in an American airport, a pane of glass away from loved ones, you are not in the U.S. and have no Fourth Amendment rights. How many such airport searches are conducted in the aggregate is unknown. The best information we have comes from a FOIA request by the ACLU. It revealed that, in the 18-month period beginning in October 2008, more than 6,600 people, about half of them U.S. citizens, were subjected to electronic device searches at the border.

 

Still, reminding us that it’s possible to have a sense of humor on the road to hell, the CBP offers this undoubtedly inadvertent pun at its website: “It is not the intent of CBP to subject travelers to unwarranted scrutiny.” (emphasis added)

 

Making It All Constitutional In-House

 

Here’s another example of how definitions have been readjusted to serve the national security state's overriding needs: the Department of Justice (DOJ) created a Post-Constitutional interpretation of the Fourth Amendment that allows it to access millions of records of Americans using only subpoenas, not search warrants.

 

Some background: a warrant is court permission to search and seize something. As the Fourth Amendment makes clear, it must be specific: enter Thomas Anderson's home and look for hacked software. Warrants can only be issued on “probable cause.” The Supreme Court defined probable cause as requiring a high standard of proof, or to quote its words, “a fair probability that contraband or evidence of a crime will be found in a particular place.”

 

A subpoena on the other hand is nothing more than a government order issued to a citizen or organization to do something, most typically to produce a document. Standards for issuing a subpoena are flexible, as most executive agencies can issue them on their own without interaction with a court. In such cases, there is no independent oversight.

 

The Department of Justice now claims that, under the Fourth Amendment, it can simply subpoena an Internet company like Facebook and demand that they look for and turn over all the records they have on our Mr. Anderson. Their explanation: the DOJ isn't doing the searching, just demanding that another organization do it. As far as its lawyers are concerned, in such a situation, no warrant is needed. In addition, the Department of Justice believes it has the authority to subpoena multiple records, maybe even all the records Facebook has. Records on you? Some group of people including you? Everyone? We don't know, as sources of data like Facebook and Google are prohibited from disclosing much about the information they hand over to the NSA or other government outfits about you.

 

It’s easy enough to miss the gravity of this in-house interpretation when it comes to the Fourth Amendment. If the FBI today came to your home and demanded access to your emails, it would require a warrant obtained from a court after a show of probable cause to get them. If, however, the Department of Justice can simply issue a subpoena to Google to the same end, they can potentially vacuum up every Gmail message you’ve ever sent without a warrant and it won’t constitute a “search.” The DOJ has continued this practice even though in 2010 a federal appeals court ruled that bulk warrantless access to email violates the Fourth Amendment. An FBI field manual released under the Freedom of Information Act similarly makes it clear that the Bureau’s agents don’t need warrants to access email in bulk when it’s pulled directly from Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, or other service providers.

 

How far can the use of a subpoena go in bypassing the Fourth Amendment? Recently, the inspector general of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) issued a subpoena -- no court involved -- demanding that the Project On Government Oversight (POGO) turn over all information it has collected relating to abuses and mismanagement at VA medical facilities. POGO is a private, non-profit group, dedicated to assisting whistleblowers. The VA subpoena demands access to records sent via an encrypted website to POGO under a promise of anonymity, many from current or former VA employees.

 

Rather than seek to break the encryption surreptitiously and illegally to expose the whistleblowers, the government has taken a simpler, if unconstitutional route, by simply demanding the names and reports. POGO has refused to comply, setting up a legal confrontation. In the meantime, consider it just another sign of the direction the government is heading when it comes to the Fourth Amendment.

 

Technology and the Fourth Amendment

 

Some observers suggest that there is little new here. For example, the compiling of information on innocent Americans by J. Edgar Hoover's low-tech FBI back in the 1960s has been well documented. Paper reports on activities, recordings of conversations, and photos of meetings and trysts, all secretly obtained, exposed the lives of civil rights leaders, popular musicians, and antiwar protesters. From 1956 to at least 1971, the government also wiretapped the calls and conversations of Americans under the Bureau’s counterintelligence program (COINTELPRO).

 

But those who look to such history of government illegality for a strange kind of nothing-new-under-the-sun reassurance have not grasped the impact of fast-developing technology. In scale, scope, and sheer efficiency, the systems now being employed inside the U.S. by the NSA and other intelligence agencies are something quite new and historically significant. Size matters.

 

To avoid such encroaching digitization would essentially mean withdrawing from society, not exactly an option for most Americans. More of life is now online -- from banking to travel to social media. Where the NSA was once limited to traditional notions of communication -- the written and spoken word -- new possibilities for following you and intruding on your life in myriad ways are being created. The agency can, for instance, now collect images, photos, and video, and subject them to facial recognition technology that can increasingly put a name to a face. Such technology, employed today at casinos as well as in the secret world of the national security state, can pick out a face in a crowd and identify it, taking into account age, changes in facial hair, new glasses, hats, and the like.

 

An offshoot of facial recognition is the broader category of biometrics, the use of physical and biological traits unique to a person for identification. These can be anything from ordinary fingerprinting to cutting-edge DNA records and iris scans. (Biometrics is already big business and even has its own trade association in Washington.) One of the world's largest known collections of biometric data is held by the Department of State. As of December 2009, its Consular Consolidated Database (CCD) contained more than 75 million photographs of Americans and foreigners and is growing at a rate of approximately 35,000 records per day. CCD also collects and stores indefinitely the fingerprints of all foreigners issued visas.

 

With ever more data available, the NSA and other agencies are creating ever more robust ways to store it. Such storage is cheap and bounteous, with few limits other than the availability of electricity and water to cool the electronics. Emerging tech will surely bypass many of the existing constraints to make holding more data longer even easier and cheaper. The old days of file cabinets, or later, clunky disk drives, are over in an era of mega-data storage warehouses.

 

The way data is aggregated is also changing fast. Where data was once kept in cabinets in separate offices, later in bureaucratically isolated, agency-by-agency digital islands, post-9/11 sharing mandates coupled with new technology have led to fusion databases. In these, information from such disparate sources as license plate readers, wiretaps, and records of library book choices can be aggregated and easily shared. Basically everything about a person, gathered worldwide by various agencies and means, can now be put into a single “file.”

 

Once you have the whole haystack, there’s still the problem of how to locate the needle. For this, emerging technologies grow ever more capable of analyzing Big Data. Some simple ones are even available to the public, like IBM's Non-Obvious Relationship Awareness software (NORA). It can, for example, scan multiple databases, geolocation information, and social media friend lists and recognize relationships that may not be obvious at first glance. The software is fast and requires no human intervention. It runs 24/7/365/Forever.

 

Tools like NORA and its more sophisticated classified cousins are NSA's solution to one of the last hurdles to knowing nearly everything: the need for human analysts to “connect the dots.” Skilled analysts take time to train, are prone to human error, and -- given the quickly expanding supply of data -- will always be in demand. Automated analysis also offers the NSA other advantages. Software doesn't have a conscience and it can't blow the whistle.

 

What does all this mean in terms of the Fourth Amendment? It’s simple: the technological and human factors that constrained the gathering and processing of data in the past are fast disappearing. Prior to these “advances,” even the most ill-intentioned government urges to intrude on and do away with the privacy of citizens were held in check by the possible. The techno-gloves are now off and the possible is increasingly whatever an official or bureaucrat wants to do. That means violations of the Fourth Amendment are held in check only by the goodwill of the government, which might have qualified as the ultimate nightmare of those who wrote the Constitution.

 

On this front, however, there are signs of hope that the Supreme Court may return to its check-and-balance role of the Constitutional era. One sign, directly addressing the Fourth Amendment, is this week's unanimous decision that the police cannot search the contents of a cell phone without a warrant. (The court also recently issued a ruling determining that the procedures for challenging one's inclusion on the government’s no-fly list are unconstitutional, another hopeful sign.)

 

Prior to the cell phone decision, law enforcement held that if someone was arrested for, say, a traffic violation, the police had the right to examine the full contents of his or her cell phone -- call lists, photos, social media, contacts, whatever was on the device. Police traditionally have been able to search physical objects they find on an arrestee without a warrant on the grounds that such searches are for the protection of the officers.

 

In its new decision, however, the court acknowledged that cell phones represent far more than a "physical object." The information they hold is a portrait of someone's life like what’s in a closet at home or on a computer sitting on your desk. Searches of those locations almost always require a warrant.

 

Does this matter when talking about the NSA's technological dragnet? Maybe. While the Supreme Court's decision applies directly to street-level law enforcement, it does suggest an evolution within the court, a recognition of the way advances in technology have changed the Fourth Amendment. A cell phone is not an object anymore; it is now recognized as a portal to other information that a person has gathered in one place for convenience with, as of this decision, a reasonable expectation of privacy.

 

National Security Disclosures Under HIPPA

 

While the NSA’s electronic basket of violations of the Fourth Amendment were, pre-Snowden, meant to take place in utter secrecy, here’s a violation that sits in broad daylight: since 2002, my doctor can disclose my medical records to the NSA without my permission or knowledge. So can yours.

 

Congress passed the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) in 1996 “to assure that individuals’ health information is properly protected.” You likely signed a HIPPA agreement at your doctor's office, granting access to your records. However, Congress quietly amended the HIPPA Act in 2002 to permit disclosure of those records for national security purposes. Specifically, the new version of this “privacy law” states: “We may also disclose your PHI [Personal Health Information] to authorized federal officials as necessary for national security and intelligence activities.” The text is embedded deep in your health care provider’s documentation. Look for it.

 

How does this work? We don’t know. Do the NSA or other agencies have ongoing access to the medical records of all Americans? Do they have to request specific ones? Do doctors have any choice in whose records to forward under what conditions? No one knows. My HMO, after much transferring of my calls, would ultimately only refer me back to the HIPPA text with a promise that they follow the law.

 

The Snowden revelations are often dismissed by people who wonder what they have to hide. (Who cares if the NSA sees my cute cat videos?) That's why health-care spying stands out. How much more invasive could it be than for your government to have unfettered access to such a potentially personal and private part of your life -- something, by the way, that couldn’t have less to do with American “security” or combating terrorism.

 

Our health-care providers, in direct confrontation with the Fourth Amendment, are now part of the metastasizing national security state. You’re right to be afraid, but for goodness sake, don't discuss your fears with your doctor.

 

How the Unreasonable Becomes Reasonable

 

At this point, when it comes to national security matters, the Fourth Amendment has by any practical definition been done away with as a part of Post-Constitutional America. Whole books have been written just about Edward Snowden and more information about government spying regularly becomes available. We don't lack for examples. Yet as the obviousness of what is being done becomes impossible to ignore and reassurances offered up by the president and others are shown to be lies, the government continues to spin the debate into false discussions about how to “balance” freedom versus security, to raise the specter of another 9/11 if spying is curtailed, and to fall back on that go-to “nothing to hide, nothing to fear” line.

 

In Post-Constitutional America, the old words that once defined our democracy are twisted in new ways, not discarded. Previously unreasonable searches become reasonable ones under new government interpretations of the Fourth Amendment. Traditional tools of law, like subpoenas and warrants, continue to exist even as they morph into monstrous new forms.

 

Americans are told (and often believe) that they retain rights they no longer have. Wait for the rhetoric that goes with the celebrations of our freedoms this July 4th. You won’t hear a lot about the NSA then, but you should. In pre-constitutional America the colonists knew that they were under the king's thumb. In totalitarian states of the last century like the Soviet Union, people dealt with their lack of rights and privacy with grim humor and subtle protest. However, in America, ever exceptional, citizens passively watch their rights disappear in the service of dark ends, largely without protest and often while still celebrating a land that no longer exists.

 

Peter Van Buren blew the whistle on State Department waste and mismanagement during the Iraqi reconstruction in his first book, We Meant Well: How I Helped Lose the Battle for the Hearts and Minds of the Iraqi People. A Tom Dispatch regular, he writes about current events at his blog, We Meant Well. His new book, Ghosts of Tom Joad: A Story of the #99Percent, is available now. This is the second in a three-part series on the shredding of the Bill of Rights.

 

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