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Examination room. Annual body mole/cancer scan. The little white cloth on the chair is for me to use for my privacy. :)

Day 15 of 365

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In your room

Where time stands still

Or moves at your will

Will you let the morning come soon

Or will you leave me lying here

In your favourite darkness

Your favourite half-light

Your favourite consciousness

Your favourite slave

 

In your room

Where souls disappear

Only you exist here

Will you lead me to your armchair

Or leave me lying here

Your favourite innocence

Your favourite prize

Your favourite smile

Your favourite slave

 

I'm hanging on your words

Living on your breath

Feeling with your skin

Will I always be here?

 

In your room

Your burning eyes

Cause flames to arise

Will you let the fire die down soon

Or will I always be here

Your favourite passion

Your favourite game

Your favourite mirror

Your favourite slave

 

I'm hanging on your words

Living on your breath

Feeling with your skin

Will I always be here?

 

[ lyrics | video (i ♥ fletch) ]

 

If we've learned anything from celebrity worship, it is that it's the things we aren't supposed to see that are the most fascinating. Especially if they're sordid. We want to know what's under the hood, we crave to make the private details public. We want to see what they're not going to show us, what is none of our business. It's considered a bad thing to have those interests about our neighbor or someone we actually know and could potentially obtain permission to learn the secrets of, we have names for that sort of behavior and codes of conduct that disallows gaining that information serrepticiously... but if that person's name is in the news, if that person gets paid big bucks to play or sing or act or just exist, all that notion of privacy goes out the window. All for your amusement.

 

We even used to hold our leaders in a higher state of sanctity (the media knew which presidents were getting a piece on the side but never said a word) up until about 1992 when personal lives became the scandals people paid attention to when the more relevant political facts proved to be blasé and ignorable. Big business is corrupting our representatives into allowing more pollution? Yawn. The commander-in-chief got a *what?!* We're all over it! That's one thing that scares me about elections in the near and distant future; it's practically like a contender for office could be videotaped gutting kittens while explaining to the camera how tartar sauce is a valuable resource produced by Canadian dental clinics which we must protect our pipeline to from space aliens before diving head-first into a big pile of oil industry lobbyist money, but as long as they say they believe in God and whatever political action or party is popular that year -- and more importantly have managed to keep their pants zipped as far as anyone knows -- they can get elected. Blind party allegiance scares me.

 

Getting media coverage for no other reason than being a media figure isn't anything new; that Paris airhead learned many things from that Zsa Zsa arrogant-head, such as how being famous doesn't necessarily put one above the law but it sure doesn't mean one has to abide by it, though Paris stepped it up a notch by letting some taped sex acts hit the airwaves so she wouldn't be forgotten the next week. Whoopsie. (Be happy it wasn't Zsa Zsa, she's content slapping cops not cocks.) Where I'm going is: People seem to want to be like their heroes, but do they really want to forfeit what makes them as private citizens happier than the stars? Most people never even give that little detail a thought until their supposed weight problem or imaginary new gay lover shows up on the cover of the tabloids, with or without a genuine newfound drug addiction to help them not care what anyone thinks, and then it's too late. Be careful what you wish for, kids.

  

You don't need to know anything about this image (since this isn't of a famous person's home) except that thing on bottom of the right pane is a unicorn, this is impressive for a hand-held shot of a second story window from across a street and a fenced backyard while sitting in a car with the engine running and the camera autofocusing at 1/8 of a second, and the frame is courtesy of the Frames4jpg 2.0 application.

 

View through the arch between the Green Court and the Stone Court of the Entrance tower.

 

Saturday 22nd May 2010 - Our impressions of Knole

 

WHAT WE LIKED:

•It’s a calendar house: 365 rooms, 52 staircases and 7 courtyards. It’s simply enormous. A vast palace;

•The parkland, really beautiful, with rolling views northwards towards the North Downs;

•The front facade is exquisite. In fact we enjoyed much of the architecture, both outside and inside (wood panelling, window frames intricately carved, ceilings).

•We were invited to guess the use of one of the rooms we could view from an upstairs window – it turned out it had been a jail for the area;

•In the Reynolds room (paintings by Sir Joshua Reynolds) was one painting of a young Chinese man, painted in 1776. His name was Wang-y-Tong. He was brought over from China in the 18th century. The written guide said he was a page boy to the household, but the room guide told us he was more like a companion to the lady of the house. He was educated at Sevenoaks Grammar School, and went on to have a successful career as a banker in the City of London.

 

WHAT WE DISLIKED:

•The only rooms on view are 17 staterooms, which were laid out in the same way they would have been in the 17th century. If you love stately homes and palaces, this is the place for you. But we like to see at least one room which you can imagine the family using as a sitting room, or a bedroom which really was slept in. We passed through several bedrooms, but according to one of the room guides, these were more like offices where important meetings would take place. If something really private needed to be talked about, for extra privacy, the participants would sit on the bed, shut the curtains on the four poster bit, and discuss their business there (apparently sound doesn’t travel through fabric in these circumstances!!!);

•It would have been interesting to see some of the servant’s quarters as well for much of the same reasons as above;

•There were masses of paintings throughout the house, virtually all of them portraits. We found these oppressive. Would the family really have had so many paintings in the 17th century – surely a collection builds up over time;

•The tapestries were also oppressive, though I suppose they would have been authentic.

 

That all sounds rather negative, but what we liked about the property far outweighed what we disliked.

We had hoped the sun would come round onto the west front before we left, but sadly it remained in shadow

 

Saturday 22nd May 2010 - Our impressions of Knole

 

WHAT WE LIKED:

•It’s a calendar house: 365 rooms, 52 staircases and 7 courtyards. It’s simply enormous. A vast palace;

•The parkland, really beautiful, with rolling views northwards towards the North Downs;

•The front facade is exquisite. In fact we enjoyed much of the architecture, both outside and inside (wood panelling, window frames intricately carved, ceilings).

•We were invited to guess the use of one of the rooms we could view from an upstairs window – it turned out it had been a jail for the area;

•In the Reynolds room (paintings by Sir Joshua Reynolds) was one painting of a young Chinese man, painted in 1776. His name was Wang-y-Tong. He was brought over from China in the 18th century. The written guide said he was a page boy to the household, but the room guide told us he was more like a companion to the lady of the house. He was educated at Sevenoaks Grammar School, and went on to have a successful career as a banker in the City of London.

 

WHAT WE DISLIKED:

•The only rooms on view are 17 staterooms, which were laid out in the same way they would have been in the 17th century. If you love stately homes and palaces, this is the place for you. But we like to see at least one room which you can imagine the family using as a sitting room, or a bedroom which really was slept in. We passed through several bedrooms, but according to one of the room guides, these were more like offices where important meetings would take place. If something really private needed to be talked about, for extra privacy, the participants would sit on the bed, shut the curtains on the four poster bit, and discuss their business there (apparently sound doesn’t travel through fabric in these circumstances!!!);

•It would have been interesting to see some of the servant’s quarters as well for much of the same reasons as above;

•There were masses of paintings throughout the house, virtually all of them portraits. We found these oppressive. Would the family really have had so many paintings in the 17th century – surely a collection builds up over time;

•The tapestries were also oppressive, though I suppose they would have been authentic.

 

That all sounds rather negative, but what we liked about the property far outweighed what we disliked.

You daren't publish this but I'll take a rain check.

I needed John McCain to shakeup the WhiteHouse. Democrats are slow-on boot-on-the-ground but patriot Republicans as

Senator John McCain, a Republican from Arizona who doesn’t need do get Tel-Aviv’s approval to oust Assad outta Syria. Assad Gassing Syrian Elders, Women & Children. It is getting harder and harder for Iran & Russia to maintain their military supplies lines. Russians, Iranians & Hezbollah mercenaries are butchered as boar allover Syria. Jordan king is happy to help to get more US-AID for his dying economy and please the Islamists at his end. Turks are mean. Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan will exploit stalemate to occupy Syrian lands he did in Iraq for Kurdish Homeland away from Turkey motherland where they belong. Tayyip Erdogan will fight to stop Obama have boot-on-the-ground in Syria. Turks cannot be trusted.

    

“When the world can seem very dark and confusing, presence of priest is presence of hope,” Rev. Richard Cannon is bluffing. Priest is for death and wedding unlike Imam who has to drop everything off hand, wash-out, head to mosque, call for prayer outloud and lead the prayers reciting memorized Quran 5397 times not only after bombing but five times a day, 365 days a year. Imam leads rain, eclipse, death & trarweeh prayers. Rev. Tom Carzon showed up for the bombing like any Truther or sympathizer on every blue moon. Back to priest ban: I vote. No. please let them pray.

Last week I said: watch your Tailgate. Vladimir! Especially when Kerry & Hagel at the Helm. Guys! Since Obama ditched Putin role as BMB Truther. Putin ain’t doing well. He lost control. Just now 30 Anti-Putin Protesters detained on Red Square and 140 people busted at Moscow mosque including more than 30 citizens of other countries. Putin used to be my hero when he weaned Caucuses away from Wahabi Mountaingoats and taken them as Proper Russians. BMB screwed up everything. He got greedy. He exploited BMB to silence Gorky Park Vodka Activists. That’s a wrong call. Syria’s sparks ain’t far away to ignite holy war in Chechnya. That’s Putin’s nightmare.

Russian state media quoted a Russian Federal Security Service statement as saying those detained Friday included more than 30 citizens of other countries. But the statement did not specify which nations.

Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais Mugshot with Geert Wilders Deputy Arnoud Van Doorn. What kind of stunt-show is this? Saudi Arabia fostered Geert Wilders campaign against Islam through FOXNEWS (a subsidiary of the Kingdom holdings run by Prince Alwaleed bin Talal). This is unorthodox and deciptive. Who are you trying to fool? Are you trying to deceive god as well? وَيَمْكُرُونَ وَيَمْكُرُ اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ‏ Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais is onto his second Stunt-Show somewhere in India next week without bothering to visit those 22 million devastated Kashmiris who crave to touch his feet. Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais is just following the agenda of those Godless endangered species of House of al-Saud.

GOD, PLEASE DEFEAT AMERICA’S ALLIES ON MAY 11 is preposterous headline. This is a secular & Godless argument. I need those arguing losers in that room to answer one question. Are they Muslims or Pakistani? History proved that you can’t be both. Pakistani means the boring Zardari, Nawaz Sharief, Imran Khan, Musharaf Etc. and Muslims. Use your imagination. KABOOOM if you ever touch Booze or America. I don’t think those in the room ready for that.

This comment is awaiting moderation. This is the harvest of Foreign Office seeds sown. Watching Thugocracies around the Globe committing heinous crimes against their own. All that is necessary for triumph of evil is that good men do nothing. Edmund Burke. Richard Branson devastated by ban on British tourists to Israel, Kenya, South Africa & Turkey due domestic unrest & al-Qaida and yet Thailand went unnoticed where conned British and sedated European tourists are butchered like wild boar in Phuket, Pattaya and those Schizophrenic Islands. Read Pattaya Daily & Phuket Gazette for body count. Ricardo. Mama Teresa killed more infants in her convents than al-Qaida.

Buddhist Monks beat Muslims to death in Burma watch video..Misinformation is act of crime. beforeitsnews contributors trying to draw attention gain mileage. That’s ain't right. Burmese Muslims are butchered while police watching.

Would you guys dumb down and Google how many millions been in Shanghai tower before getting into ranking Burj Khalifa. Bruno said: achievements build nations and ranks kill it.

Quit Googledjunk. What welfare? USA ain't afford foostamp them. They u hauled millions of petrodollars to America to survive in your hostile cities. They’re fooled by the American Dream Propaganda that deranged them to drop everything back home and rush to America and now headhunted as rabids. When Ann Coulter said on FOXNEWS Zubeidat Tsarnaeva must be arrested for wearing Hijab, Breitbart banned me for saying Ann Coulter must be arrested for being a woman.

 

View of the entrance tower from the Green Court.

 

Saturday 22nd May 2010 - Our impressions of Knole

 

WHAT WE LIKED:

•It’s a calendar house: 365 rooms, 52 staircases and 7 courtyards. It’s simply enormous. A vast palace;

•The parkland, really beautiful, with rolling views northwards towards the North Downs;

•The front facade is exquisite. In fact we enjoyed much of the architecture, both outside and inside (wood panelling, window frames intricately carved, ceilings).

•We were invited to guess the meaning of one of the rooms we could view from an upstairs window – it turned out it was a jail for the area;

•In the Reynolds room (paintings by Joshua Reynolds) was one painting of a young Chinese man, painted in 1776. His name was Wang-y-Tong. He was brought over from China in the 18th century. The written guide said he was a page boy to the household, but the room guide told us he was more like a companion to the lady of the house. He was educated at Sevenoaks Grammar School, and went on to have a successful career as a banker in the City of London.

 

WHAT WE DISLIKED:

•The only rooms on view are 17 staterooms, which were laid out in the same way they would have been in the 17th century. If you love stately homes and palaces, this is the place for you. But we like to see at least one room which you can imagine the family using as a sitting room, or a bedroom which really was slept in. We passed through several bedrooms, but according to one of the room guides, these were more like offices where important meetings would take place. If something really private needed to be talked about, for extra privacy, the participants would sit on the bed, shut the curtains on the four poster bit, and discuss their business there (apparently sound doesn’t travel through fabric in these circumstances!!!);

•It would have been interesting to see some of the servant’s quarters as well for much of the same reasons as above;

•There were masses of paintings throughout the house, virtually all of them portraits. We found these oppressive. Would the family really have had so many paintings in the 17th century – surely a collection builds up over time;

•The tapestries were also oppressive, though I suppose they would have been authentic.

 

That all sounds rather negative, but what we liked about the property far outweighed what we disliked.

Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

 

If you want to know more about my walks and photos, check out my blog.

 

Summary

 

The Wilbraham, built in 1888-90 as a bachelor apartment hotel, was commissioned by prominent Scottish-American jeweler William Moir as a real estate investment. It was designed by the versatile New York architectural firm of D. & J. Jardine, whose principals, David and John Jardine, were brothers and also of Scottish birth.

 

Located at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street, the Wilbraham is eight stories high (plus basement and penthouse) and crowned by a mansard roof. Clad in a handsome combination of Philadelphia brick, Belleville brownstone, and cast iron, the Wilbraham is extraordinarily well-detailed and reflects the influence of the Romanesque Revival style in the rock-faced stonework and excellent, intricately carved stone detail. The Real Estate Record & Guide in 1890 called it "quite an imposing piece of architecture." The building's two-story shopfront housed the famous china and glassware importing firm of Gilman Collamore & Co. from 1890 to about 1920.

 

The Wilbraham was constructed when this area was changing due to the inroads of commerce, but was still fashionable for clubs, theaters, apartments, and hotels. The bachelor apartment hotel, or "bachelor flats," was a multiple dwelling building type that arose in the 1870s to serve the city's very large population of single men. The Wilbraham catered to professional men of means.

 

Each apartment contained a two-room suite with a bathroom but no kitchen; a residents' dining room was provided on the eighth floor. In 1934-35, the apartments were remodeled to include kitchens, and the building ceased to operate solely as bachelor flats. The Wilbraham, an outstanding extant example of the bachelor apartment hotel building type, has remained in residential use.

 

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

 

Fifth Avenue, from 23rd to 34th Streets, in the 19th Century 1

 

By 1837, Fifth Avenue was extended north of 23rd Street to 42nd Street, and the surrounding land was sold as building lots. Madison Square, formerly part of "The Parade" and located on the east side of the avenue between 23rd and 26th Streets, was reserved as a park and opened in 1847. Gradually, New York's elite moved "uptown" as they escaped the encroachment of commerce farther downtown, and Fifth Avenue in this area became the most fashionable address and home to the some of the city's wealthiest individuals.

 

Most of the residences along the avenue were speculatively-built brownstones. Numerous churches also located in this vicinity.3

 

Amos R. Eno's Fifth Avenue Hotel (1856-59, Griffith Thomas, with William Washburn; demolished 1908), at Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street across from Madison Square, was initially dubbed "Eno's Folly" because it was built so far north. It soon became one of the most famous hotels in the city and spurred construction of other hotels west and northwest of Madison Square (particularly in the triangle formed by the intersection of Fifth Avenue with the diagonal of Broadway).

 

This district contained the city's best hotels, as well as men's social clubs that followed their constituents uptown. Apartment houses and apartment hotels began to appear on the avenue in the early 1870s. In 1876, Delmonico's, the well-known restaurant, moved to 212-214 Fifth Avenue (at 26th Street).6 By the 1870s, the theater district also relocated northward from Union Square to the Madison Square vicinity.7 Madison Square Garden, opened in 1879 at Madison Avenue and 26th Street and replaced with a new building (1889-91, McKim, Mead & White; demolished 1925), became one of the nation's premiere theater and entertainment centers.

 

The shopping area known as Ladies' Mile developed to the south between 14th and 23rd Streets, with the great department stores along Sixth Avenue and retail shops extending east to and along Broadway. Fifth Avenue in the late 19th century was also at the eastern edge of the legendary and crime-ridden section of midtown Manhattan known as "the Tenderloin," roughly bounded by 23rd and 42nd Streets and Fifth and Seventh Avenues (by the turn of the century, it extended northward and westward).

 

Beginning in the 1880s, as commerce encroached and the exclusivity of the area faded, many prominent New York families moved farther up Fifth Avenue around Central Park.9

 

Hotels and apartment houses continued to be built in the vicinity. The Knickerbocker Apartments (1882-84, Charles W. Clinton, demolished), 243-249 Fifth Avenue (at 28th Street), was a luxury building that included one floor of bachelor apartments. Holland House (1891, Harding & Gooch), 274-280 Fifth Avenue (at 30th Street), was for a brief period the most opulent and luxurious hotel in the city. This was surpassed by the Waldorf Hotel (1891-93, Henry J. Hardenbergh), expanded in 1895-97 as the Waldorf-Astoria, also by Hardenbergh (now demolished), which was on the site of the Astor residences.

 

The Wilbraham evokes the history of this stretch of Fifth Avenue as a fashionable area of shops, theaters, clubs, and residences.

 

William Moir

 

The Wilbraham was built as a real estate investment for prominent jeweler William Moir (18261896), who resided at 6 West 20th Street. Born in Aberdeen, Scotland, Moir immigrated to New York City around 1840 and was apprenticed to watchmaker Alexander Martin.

 

He later became a journeyman to jeweler Emmet T. Pell at 315 Hudson Street, and after Pell retired in 1844, purchased the business with his brother John Moir (d. 1895). J. & W. Moir ran a successful operation at that location for 25 years, until John's withdrawal from the firm. In 1870, William Moir commissioned a five-story, cast-iron-clad structure (Theodore A. Tribit, architect) for his own business at No. 711 [originally 373] Sixth Avenue, at the southwest corner of West 23 rd Street.12 Moir's business in 1872 included a fine selection of French clocks and bronzes, specially imported by him, and a yet larger stock of watches, native and foreign, jewelry, diamonds, and silver-plated ware. The diamond jewelry is noticeably good, and is all made on the premises.

 

At the time of his death, he was called "one of New York's oldest and best known retail jewelers."14 He was treasurer for 22 years of the First Presbyterian Church, 48 Fifth Avenue.

 

His widow, Emily Hun Sexton Moir, dedicated a memorial window (c. 1910, designed by Tiffany Studios and containing Scottish references) in his honor in the church. Moir also served as a trustee of the Presbyterian Hospital and a director of the Greenwich Bank and Greenwich Savings Bank, and was a member of the Saint Andrew's Society of the State of New York, for men of Scottish ancestry. He was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn.

 

Construction of the Wilbraham

 

In April 1888, William Moir purchased, for $245,000,17 a townhouse located at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street. Plans were filed in October 1888 by architects D. & J. Jardine for a six-story (plus basement) bachelor flats building on this site, to be fireproof, framed in iron, and clad in Philadelphia brick, Belleville (N.J.) brownstone, and cast iron, at an estimated cost of $150,000.

 

Construction began immediately, but plans were amended and approved in November 1888 to substitute steel for the proposed iron beams and girders.18 In December, Moir conveyed the property to his wife Emily. A rendering of the proposed six-story Wilbraham capped by a high balustrade parapet was published in January 1889 in Building.

 

An amendment filed in June 1889, however, increased the height of the building two stories including a one-story mansard roof, so that the completed building was eight full stories. This increase in height reflected the maximum possible return that Moir could achieve on his investment.

 

In 1885, a New York City law had been enacted to limit the height of all new residential construction to a height of 80 feet (six stories), but hotels and apartment hotels, including bachelor flats, were exempt because they were considered commercial properties.19 Another amendment filed in July 1889 added a penthouse to the roof of the Wilbraham, with three servants' rooms and a kitchen.

 

The building was completed in May 1890. An alteration application was filed by the Jardine firm in October 1890 to add another two servants' rooms to the penthouse, which were completed in 1891; William Moir pleaded for these rooms in a letter to the Buildings Dept. because "in the carrying on of the work in the building they are a positive necessity."

 

A store has continually occupied the building's two-story base, with frontage on Fifth Avenue and two bays on West 30th Street. Each apartment in the Wilbraham contained two rooms -- a parlor and a bedroom -- and the floors were arranged so that it was possible to combine apartments together.

 

Typical of apartment hotels, kitchens were not included in the apartments, instead a residents' dining room was provided on the eighth floor. The Real Estate Record & Guide called it "the most elegantly appointed among the bachelor apartment houses in New York City."

 

The building was equipped with technological amenities, including the latest in plumbing and ventilation, a manually-operated Otis elevator, steam heating, both gas and electric lighting, and an internal communication system connected with the superintendent. Tenants were also provided the housekeeping services of a hotel.

 

The Architects: D. & J. Jardine

 

Born in Whithorn, Wigtownshire, Scotland, David Jardine (1830-1892) trained under his builder-architect father before immigrating to America around 1850. In New York City he established an architectural practice by 1855, then was a partner in Jardine & [Edward G.] Thompson in 1858-60. His brother, John Jardine (1838-1920), also born in Whithorn, immigrated to the United States and worked for the U.S. government during the Civil War in the design of monitors and gunboats.

 

John moved to New York City, and in 1865 formed an architectural partnership with David. D. & J. Jardine, which lasted until David's death, was one of the more prominent, prolific, and versatile architectural firms in the city in the second half of the 19th century. George Elliott Jardine (1841-1902), another brother from Whithorn, began working for the firm around 1887. All three brothers were members of the Saint Andrew's Society of the State of New York (a possible source of their commission from Moir). A fourth member of the firm, from about 1886 to 1891, was Jay (Joseph) H. Van Norden.

 

D. & J. Jardine was active in rowhouse development in Greenwich Village and on the Upper East and Upper West Sides from the late-1860s through the mid-1880s.

 

The firm achieved prominence for its designs, in a variety of contemporary styles, for religious structures, store-and-loft buildings, warehouses, office buildings, and apartment houses.

 

D. & J. Jardine designed a number of notable cast-iron-fronted buildings, including: No. 319 Broadway ("Thomas Twin") ( 1869-70); G. Rosenblatt & Bro. Buildings, 57 Walker Street (1870), and 734 Broadway (1872-73); Davies Building (1874-75), 678 Broadway; Jones Building (1875-76, demolished), 171-175 8th Avenue, for drygoods merchant Owen Jones; B. Altman & Co. Building (1876-80), 625-629 Sixth Avenue; No. 121 Mercer Street (originally owned by the New York Eye & Ear Infirmary) (1879);24 and Baumann Brothers Furniture and Carpets Store (1880-81), 2226 East 14th Street.

 

Among the firm's other notable extant commissions are: the Fourth Reformed Presbyterian Church (1874), 359-365 West 48th Street; D.S. Hess & Co. Building (1880), 35-37 West 23 rd Street; and the Castree-Halliday Buildings (1887), store-and-loft structures located at 13-17 Jay Street.25 Aside from the Wilbraham, the firm's multiple-residential structures, few of which survive, included the Jardine Apartments (1872, demolished), 203-205 West 56th Street, one of New York City's earliest French flats buildings;26 Clermont Apartments (1878, demolished), 1706-1708 Broadway; St. Marc Hotel (1880, demolished), 434 Fifth Avenue; Palermo Apartments (1882, demolished), 125 East 57th Street; Dundonald Flats (1885), 71 West 83rd Street;27 and the Alpine (1886-87, demolished), bachelor flats at 1282-1286 Broadway.

 

David Jardine was called by the American Architect & Building News "one of the best known of the older generation of New York architects."28 After his death in 1892, John and George Jardine were joined by William W. Kent in the firm of Jardine, Kent & Jardine. In 1911, the firm became Jardine, Kent & [Clinton M.] Hill; its successor firm after 1913 was Jardine, Hill, & [Harris H.] Murdock. John Jardine committed suicide in 1920 at the age of 82. The firm continued as Jardine, Murdock, & Wright after 1936.

 

Design of the Wilbraham

 

The period of the 1880s in New York City was one of stylistic experimentation in which architects (including those of the various multiple dwelling building types), incorporated diverse influences, such as the Queen Anne, Victorian Gothic, Romanesque, Renaissance, and neo-Grec styles, French rationalism, and the German Run dbogens til.

 

The desire of architects and clients for originality, variety, and novelty was demonstrated, as well, by a freedom in design and materials. This was a period of interest in, and availability of, various types and colors of brick for exterior cladding.

 

There was also great interest in the use of several materials in combination (such as brick, terra cotta, stone, and cast iron), both to achieve varied and picturesque effects of color, texture, and ornament, and to exploit their functional qualities.

 

The Wilbraham's design reflects the influence of the Romanesque Revival style, which gained popularity in the 1880s due to the work of the distinguished Boston architect Henry Hobson Richardson. This influence is seen in the rock-faced stonework and arched openings, as well as the noteworthy, intricately carved, stone detail, particularly the residential entrance on West 30th Street. In this building, the Jardines freely interpreted the Romanesque Revival style, making creative use of its ornament while mixing it with classical references.

 

The Wilbraham is extraordinarily well-detailed and employs a handsome combination of materials, colors, and textures -- the red Philadelphia brick, warm Belleville brownstone, and cast iron. The Real Estate Record & Guide in 1890 called the Wilbraham "certainly the 'crack' apartment house of its kind in New York City... quite an imposing piece of architecture."

 

The Bachelor Apartment Hotel or "Bachelor Flats"

 

Throughout the 19th century, large numbers of New Yorkers lived in multiple residences, including converted dwellings and hotels, due (among other factors) to real estate conditions that made single-family residences prohibitive to all but the wealthy.

 

The bachelor apartment hotel, or "bachelor flats," was a variation on one of the purpose-built multiple dwelling building types that emerged in New York City in the early 1870s (and in such cities as Boston, Washington, and Chicago in the 1870s-80s). Though the contemporary terms were sometimes employed imprecisely, the building types came to be defined as follows: 1) the apartment house or French flats consisted of apartments with suites of rooms (including a bathroom and kitchen) for middle- and upper-middle-class residents (luxury apartment houses emerged after 1880); 2) the apartment hotel or residential hotel had apartments, for basically long-term residents, with suites of rooms (including a bathroom but no kitchen), while a dining room and other services were provided; and 3) the hotel, for transient visitors and long-term residents, had a variety of services, as well as a dining room open to the general public.

 

With the growth and industrialization of New York City in the 19th century, the work force consisted of very large numbers of unmarried men. The number of bachelors in the city ranged from 125,000 (about 13% of the total population) in 1870,31 to nearly 45 percent of the male population over the age of 15 in 18 90.

 

Howard Chudacoff, in a recent study on the "bachelor subculture in America" from 1880 to 1930, identified 1890 (the year of the Wilbraham's completion) as the peak year in American history of the number of unmarried males over the age of 15 - nearly 42 percent was the national average.33 He and other historians have noted a variety of contemporary social factors that contributed to these numbers of single men: the exclusion of women from most occupations; the greater number of male immigrants; postponement of marriage due to low income level; dissatisfaction with the institution of marriage; and the availability of alternatives, including socializing outside of marriage, the emergence of a gay male community, and the attractions of the heterosexual "sporting male culture."

 

Housing options for middle-class unmarried men in New York were severely limited. As rowhouses and better hotels were expensive, bachelors were forced to find quarters in boarding or rooming houses (usually converted rowhouses) with less privacy or security, in less-than-desirable rooms in cheaper hotels or apartment buildings, or in such facilities as clubs and YMCAs. It was observed in 1898 that "the bachelor was not considered to be entitled to much consideration; any old thing was good enough for him... Anyone who was old enough and had the means to marry and yet did not, was not thought to be entitled to anything better."

 

The emergence of the apartment hotel provided an alternative that accommodated unmarried men along with couples, families, and widows, but this was considered awkward as single men were seen as threatening married couples and traditional gender roles. Chudacoff comments that:

 

Americans have always revered and depended on the family as the chief institution for promoting citizenship and social order. They have celebrated family life as a basic stabilizing influence in society. Those who valued the family in this way considered individuals and groups living outside the family setting as outcasts, people handicapped by an inability to participate in wholesome social life. These individuals were said to be destabilizing influences...

 

The acute need for apartment hotels specifically for bachelors in New York City was reported by architect Emlen T. Littel in a paper read before the annual convention of the American Institute of Architects and published in 1876. He called for the construction of "club chambers, arranged for the special use of bachelors, [in which they] would find a permanent and real home."

 

In his proposal were characteristics that would become standard in bachelor flats: convenient location on a commercial avenue; storefront on the ground floor; apartments consisting of (at least) a bedroom, parlor, and bathroom; and floor plans in which parlors joined another so "that friends occupying adjacent chambers might, if so inclined, enjoy joint possession... [as well as] suites for those wishing to chum together permanently might consist of a larger parlor, two bedrooms, and a bathroom."

 

Littel concluded that "of single men, young and old... there is nothing which would conduce more to their welfare than the erection of such buildings; and, further, that there are few investments in real estate which would so amply reward the proprietor."

 

The first American apartment hotel is believed to have been the Hotel Pelham (1856-57, Alfred Stone of Arthur Gilman's firm) in Boston. In New York City, the proliferation of French flats is usually traced to the success of the Stuyvesant Apartments (1869-70, Richard Morris Hunt; demolished), 142 East 18th Street, which attracted a "respectable" clientele, while one of the city's earliest apartment hotels was the Grosvenor House (1871-72, Detlef Lienau; demolished), 35-37 Fifth Avenue (at 10th Street). Stevens House (1870-72, Richard Morris Hunt; demolished), Broadway and 27th Street, was originally built with apartments (above ground-floor stores), but the building was remodeled and enlarged in 1873-74 (Arthur Gilman, architect) as an apartment hotel.

 

It has been suggested that Stevens House also then became one of the first bachelor apartment hotels in New York.40 The Panic of 1873 slowed the construction of apartment hotels until economic recovery occurred around 1879-80.

 

Among the early buildings built as b ache lor flats were the Benedick (1879-80, McKim, Mead & Bigelow), 79-80 Washington Square East; the Percival (1882, McKim, Mead & White; demolished), 230 West 42nd Street; the Gorham Building (1883-84, Edward H. Kendall), 889-891 Broadway; and the Alpine (1886-87, D. & J. Jardine). Between 1880 and 1915, hundreds of bachelor apartment hotels were erected. The Real Estate Record & Guide in 1890 reflected that the bachelors' apartment house is a product of our modern life. It is not a social fad, ready to disappear directly.

 

It has ceased to be a novelty. It has come to stay, for it fills a gap in the life of every unmarried man who has become weary of the boarding house, the furnished room, or the hotel.

 

Historian Paul Groth noted that the success of American residential hotels, including bachelor flats, made possible a cultured, civilized life for men without the aid of a woman... provid[ing] domestic care as well as, or better than, a woman could. In some cases, then, the maxim "What every man needs is a good woman," became " What every man needs is a good hotel."

 

The Record & Guide commented in 1898 that bachelor flats "began to arise one after the other, and each later one surpassing its predecessor in elegance, comfort and convenience," and by 1905 noted that "such buildings are found for the most part along Fifth Avenue south of Central Park, and in the cross streets adjacent, on Broadway, and in some other choice locations" south to 23rd Street.

 

The Wilbraham was thus one of the earlier bachelor apartment hotels located in the midst of a district where such buildings would flourish prior to World War I. The Wilbraham catered to single professional men of means. The 1900 census listed eleven single male "boarders" at the Wilbraham, ranging in age from 28 to 80: two lawyers, two treasurers, two company "secretaries," a music professor, a drygoods clerk, a silk manufacturer, an architect, and an actor.

 

The 1910 census counted fifteen tenants, aged from 26 to 68: four lawyers, three stockbrokers, two newspaper solicitors, a publisher, a real estate agent, a shopowner, a civil engineer, a clerk, and a treasurer; only one of these men had resided here at the previous census.

 

Gilman Collamore & Co.

 

Occupying the Wilbraham's two-story shopfront (and basement) on Fifth Avenue upon its completion was Gilman Collamore & Co., famous dealers in expensive fine china, porcelain, pottery, glassware, and "bric-a-brac," who specialized in high-quality imported French and English goods. Gilman Collamo re (1834-1888), born in West Scitiuate, Mass., trained in the china importing firm of his uncle in Boston.

 

Collamore moved to New York City in 1854 and worked in the same business with his brother Davis Collamore; he established a firm under his own name in 1861.

 

An advertisement for his business at 731 Broadway in 1868 called it "importers and dealers in china, glass, silver-plated ware, &c." Prior to its move to the Wilbraham, the firm was located at 19 Union Square. After Collamore's death, the company was run by John Joseph Gibbons (d. 1917). King's Handbook remarked in 1893 that in houses of wealth and taste it seldom happens that there are not wares obtained through Collamore's... A large part of its imported goods cannot be found in any other house in America... [which] has always maintained itself at the head of its line of trade by virtue of the artistic excellence of its goods.

 

Gibbons purchased the Wilbraham from Emily Moir for one million dollars in 1908. Of the sale, the Real Estate Record & Guide stated that it shows the growing necessity of tenants on the avenue owning their own property in every case where it is possible. The supply is getting very limited, and as soon as the present inactivity is over investors will be climbing over each other to get choice avenue property.

 

In the New York Times, Gibbons said he believed that Fifth Avenue would "continue to be the best for high-class retail trade." The building, called by the Times "one of the first and finest bachelor apartment houses erected in the Fifth Avenue section," was also to continue in that use. Around 1920, a new building at 15 East 56th Street was constructed to house Gilman Collamore & Co.

 

Fifth Avenue in the 20th Century

 

After the turn of the century, Fifth Avenue between Madison Square and Central Park was largely transformed into a commercial thoroughfare. As the heyday of Ladies' Mile ended, the section of Fifth Avenue north of 34th Street developed a high-end retail trade, with specialty shops catering to the upper class and selling such items as jewelry, perfume, and furs. The section of the avenue south of 34th Street developed as "the main artery of the new wholesale trade centre," according to the New York Times in 1915.

 

The theater district moved to Times Square, new grand hotels were built near Central Park, large department stores opened around Herald Square, and the vicinity of Madison Square was developed with office buildings. Town & Country commented in 1903 that "the brown-stone streets are blossoming out, here and there, with odd houses, all designed for business purposes.

 

They break the monotonous line and make that part of the city a place of pleasant contrasts..."53 It was estimated that by 1907 the avenue had seen a 250 percent increase in real estate values. In 1908, Fifth Avenue was widened to accommodate the increased commercial and automobile traffic. Many 19th-century residences were demolished, and those that remained were converted to commercial use or had their facades replaced.

 

The new buildings were tall store-and-loft or office structures, some associated with the textile industry. Many of the great hotels in the area were demolished and replaced by office structures retaining the original names.

 

Holland House was converted to an office building about 1925. The Waldorf-Astoria Hotel was torn down for the Empire State Building (1929-31, Shreve, Lamb & Harmon), then the tallest building in the world.

 

Later History of the Wilbraham

 

The Wilbraham was sold in 1927 by the John J. Gibbons estate to the 1 West 30 St. Corp.58 A Manhattan directory in 1929 listed fifteen female and ten male residents, though a Buildings Dept. application in 1930 still listed "bachelor apartments" as the use. The building was conveyed to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. in 1934 due to unpaid taxes and a mortgage default. Architects Emery Roth and D. Everett Waid, with the firm of Bing & Bing, general contractors, made interior alterations in 1934-35, which included the creation of six apartments with kitchens on floors three through eight; creation of a second-story office; and extension of the penthouse for the creation of two apartments. The New York Times reflected that "a striking illustration of the fact that Fifth Avenue south of Thirty-fourth Street has not entirely lost its charm as a residential neighborhood is presented in the recent renovation of the old Wilbraham apartment building."

 

Metropolitan Life sold the property in 1944, and it has changed hands a number of times since. The Wilbraham has continually remained a residence, although its name was changed by 1984 to the Tiffany.

 

Description

 

The Wilbraham, located on the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street, is eight stories high (plus basement and a rooftop penthouse). Clad in Philadelphia brick, Belleville (N.J.) brownstone, and cast iron, the building is articulated in a tripartite manner, with a two-story base, three-story midsection, and three-story upper section (including a one-story mansard roof), all separated by cornices.

 

The facades are pierced by window groupings that are linked vertically. The Fifth Avenue facade is two bays wide, while the West 30th Street facade is seven bays with slight projections in the center and western end. A metal fire escape was added to this center section.

 

The building retains its wood sash windows. Base: Fifth Avenue The two-story base consists of two wide bays, separated by a monumental cast-iron Composite order half-round column set on a cast-iron pier (that has been covered with a veneer of polished granite). At each end of the base is a rusticated stone pier (consisting of bands of rock-faced stone alternating with smaller bands of delicate decorative carving) with a polished granite base/watertable and a carved capital with a foliate-and-head design.

 

Each bay of the ground story originally had a display window with a transom and bulkhead, and an entrance door with a transom. There are now non-historic single-pane display windows (with rolldown gates), and non-historic double entrance doors with a transom in the southern bay; the storefront is surmounted by a non-historic projecting metal signband with large lettering.

 

The ground floor is surmounted by cast-iron spandrel panels with dentils and a ribbon design that continues from the central column. The second story has paired one-over-one double-hung wood windows separated by cast-iron colonnettes. The base is capped by a cast-iron and stone cornice with dentils (this cornice originally held lettering for Gilman Collamore & Co.).

 

Base: West 30th Street [east to west] The easternmost two bays are similar in treatment to the Fifth Avenue facade (minus entrances), and are a continuation of the ground-floor storefront. Both display windows retain their original decorative iron framing and bulkhead/grille (now covered with wood). A non-historic projecting metal signband with large lettering, similar to that on Fifth Avenue, surmounts the storefront; both bays have rolldown gates.

 

The slightly projecting central two bays are clad in rock-faced stone with quoins above a high polished granite watertable. Wide round-arched openings are set into this section below smooth-finished and molded surrounds on the ground floor.

 

The eastern bay originally had a basement entrance door surmounted by two windows set within the arch, and steps with iron railings; currently the portion below the stone spandrel panel has non-historic metal service doors, and a non-historic metal fan grille is placed within the arch.

 

The western bay has non-historic entrance doors (to the storefront) with a transom, set below the round-arched transom. A canopy has been placed within this arch, and there is a rolldown gate. The second-story paired windows have a central column, transom, and outer colonnettes surmounted by carved stone ornamental brackets.

 

The next two bays to the west are similar in treatment to the storefront bays on each facade. The ground floor of the eastern bay is filled with masonry, a door, louvers, and a metal grille. The ground floor of the western bay is filled with masonry, glass block and several small windows, and is partly covered with a metal grille.

 

The westernmost bay has the main residential entrance to the building. Flanking the entry are paired squat piers with carved capitals, above a polished granite watertable/base, that support a decorative entablature, from which springs a round arch. The entry has a low stone platform and non-historic doors and a transom.

 

The arch above the entrance has a transom (now covered) set below a smooth-finished, molded surround with a prominent foliate keystone and banderole with the carved inscription "WILBRAHAM." The spandrels are ornamented with elaborate carving. A canopy is hung by cables over the entrance within the arch, and a non-historic light fixture is placed on the arched surround. The second story has a paired window similar to those on the center bays of the West 30th Street facade.

 

Midsection This section, clad in Philadelphia brick with stone trim, consists of the third through the fifth stories. The Fifth Avenue bays are tripartite, while those on West 30th Street are double. The window groupings are linked vertically by colossal decorative stone half-round columns, edge moldings/ colonnettes surmounted by decorative carving, and keyed enframements.

 

Original windows are single-pane wood sash with transoms (transoms on the fourth story are round-arched). Stone spandrel panels have ornate foliate carving. Additionally, there are small original windows located in the center bays and in the next two bays to the west on the West 30th Street facade. The section is capped by a smooth-finished stone cornice with voussoirs, keystones, and dentils.

 

Upper Section This section consists of the sixth through the eighth floors, the last a mansard roof. The Fifth Avenue bays are tripartite, while those on West 30th Street are double. Original windows are one-over-one double hung wood sash. The sixth-story windows are segmental, flanked by piers with corbels, and are surmounted by a stone cornice with voussoirs and corbels.

 

The westermost bay is capped by a pediment above the sixth story. The seventh-story windows are separated by rock-faced stone piers and are surmounted by a rock-faced band course. The top-story mansard roof, now covered in standing-seam copper but originally slate with cresting, has dormers with paired windows set on rock-faced bases, with decorative frames and shed roofs with eaves decorated with egg-and-dart designs; and four tall brick-and-stone chimneys on the West 30th Street facade (each having projecting non-historic metal vents). A non-historic metal railing lines the roof, upon which there is a roof garden.

 

Penthouse The one-story penthouse (dating from 1890-91 and 1934-35), set back at the western half of the roof, is visible from the street. West Wall The top two stories of the western wall (brick, partly painted), as well as the building's water tank, are visible above the adjacent building.

 

- From the 2004 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

Tenderloin, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

 

Summary

 

The Wilbraham, built in 1888-90 as a bachelor apartment hotel, was commissioned by prominent Scottish-American jeweler William Moir as a real estate investment. It was designed by the versatile New York architectural firm of D. & J. Jardine, whose principals, David and John Jardine, were brothers and also of Scottish birth.

 

Located at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street, the Wilbraham is eight stories high and crowned by a mansard roof. Clad in a handsome combination of Philadelphia brick, Belleville brownstone, and cast iron, the Wilbraham is extraordinarily well-detailed and reflects the influence of the Romanesque Revival style in the rock-faced stonework and excellent, intricately carved stone detail. The Real Estate Record & Guide in 1890 called it "quite an imposing piece of architecture." The building's two-story shopfront housed the famous china and glassware importing firm of Gilman Collamore & Co. from 1890 to about 1920.

 

The Wilbraham was constructed when this area was changing due to the inroads of commerce, but was still fashionable for clubs, theaters, apartments, and hotels. The bachelor apartment hotel, or "bachelor flats," was a multiple dwelling building type that arose in the 1870s to serve the city's very large population of single men. The Wilbraham catered to professional men of means.

 

Each apartment contained a two-room suite with a bathroom but no kitchen; a residents' dining room was provided on the eighth floor. In 1934-35, the apartments were remodeled to include kitchens, and the building ceased to operate solely as bachelor flats. The Wilbraham, an outstanding extant example of the bachelor apartment hotel building type, has remained in residential use.

 

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

 

Fifth Avenue, from 23rd to 34th Streets, in the 19th Century 1

 

By 1837, Fifth Avenue was extended north of 23rd Street to 42nd Street, and the surrounding land was sold as building lots. Madison Square, formerly part of "The Parade" and located on the east side of the avenue between 23rd and 26th Streets, was reserved as a park and opened in 1847. Gradually, New York's elite moved "uptown" as they escaped the encroachment of commerce farther downtown, and Fifth Avenue in this area became the most fashionable address and home to the some of the city's wealthiest individuals.

 

Most of the residences along the avenue were speculatively-built brownstones. Numerous churches also located in this vicinity.3

 

Amos R. Eno's Fifth Avenue Hotel , at Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street across from Madison Square, was initially dubbed "Eno's Folly" because it was built so far north. It soon became one of the most famous hotels in the city and spurred construction of other hotels west and northwest of Madison Square .

 

This district contained the city's best hotels, as well as men's social clubs that followed their constituents uptown. Apartment houses and apartment hotels began to appear on the avenue in the early 1870s. In 1876, Delmonico's, the well-known restaurant, moved to 212-214 Fifth Avenue .6 By the 1870s, the theater district also relocated northward from Union Square to the Madison Square vicinity.7 Madison Square Garden, opened in 1879 at Madison Avenue and 26th Street and replaced with a new building , became one of the nation's premiere theater and entertainment centers.

 

The shopping area known as Ladies' Mile developed to the south between 14th and 23rd Streets, with the great department stores along Sixth Avenue and retail shops extending east to and along Broadway. Fifth Avenue in the late 19th century was also at the eastern edge of the legendary and crime-ridden section of midtown Manhattan known as "the Tenderloin," roughly bounded by 23rd and 42nd Streets and Fifth and Seventh Avenues .

 

Beginning in the 1880s, as commerce encroached and the exclusivity of the area faded, many prominent New York families moved farther up Fifth Avenue around Central Park.9

 

Hotels and apartment houses continued to be built in the vicinity. The Knickerbocker Apartments , 243-249 Fifth Avenue , was a luxury building that included one floor of bachelor apartments. Holland House , 274-280 Fifth Avenue , was for a brief period the most opulent and luxurious hotel in the city. This was surpassed by the Waldorf Hotel , expanded in 1895-97 as the Waldorf-Astoria, also by Hardenbergh , which was on the site of the Astor residences.

 

The Wilbraham evokes the history of this stretch of Fifth Avenue as a fashionable area of shops, theaters, clubs, and residences.

 

William Moir

 

The Wilbraham was built as a real estate investment for prominent jeweler William Moir , who resided at 6 West 20th Street. Born in Aberdeen, Scotland, Moir immigrated to New York City around 1840 and was apprenticed to watchmaker Alexander Martin.

 

He later became a journeyman to jeweler Emmet T. Pell at 315 Hudson Street, and after Pell retired in 1844, purchased the business with his brother John Moir . J. & W. Moir ran a successful operation at that location for 25 years, until John's withdrawal from the firm. In 1870, William Moir commissioned a five-story, cast-iron-clad structure for his own business at No. 711 [originally 373] Sixth Avenue, at the southwest corner of West 23 rd Street.12 Moir's business in 1872 included a fine selection of French clocks and bronzes, specially imported by him, and a yet larger stock of watches, native and foreign, jewelry, diamonds, and silver-plated ware. The diamond jewelry is noticeably good, and is all made on the premises.

 

At the time of his death, he was called "one of New York's oldest and best known retail jewelers."14 He was treasurer for 22 years of the First Presbyterian Church, 48 Fifth Avenue.

 

His widow, Emily Hun Sexton Moir, dedicated a memorial window in his honor in the church. Moir also served as a trustee of the Presbyterian Hospital and a director of the Greenwich Bank and Greenwich Savings Bank, and was a member of the Saint Andrew's Society of the State of New York, for men of Scottish ancestry. He was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn.

 

Construction of the Wilbraham

 

In April 1888, William Moir purchased, for $245,000,17 a townhouse located at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street. Plans were filed in October 1888 by architects D. & J. Jardine for a six-story bachelor flats building on this site, to be fireproof, framed in iron, and clad in Philadelphia brick, Belleville brownstone, and cast iron, at an estimated cost of $150,000.

 

Construction began immediately, but plans were amended and approved in November 1888 to substitute steel for the proposed iron beams and girders.18 In December, Moir conveyed the property to his wife Emily. A rendering of the proposed six-story Wilbraham capped by a high balustrade parapet was published in January 1889 in Building.

 

An amendment filed in June 1889, however, increased the height of the building two stories including a one-story mansard roof, so that the completed building was eight full stories. This increase in height reflected the maximum possible return that Moir could achieve on his investment.

 

In 1885, a New York City law had been enacted to limit the height of all new residential construction to a height of 80 feet , but hotels and apartment hotels, including bachelor flats, were exempt because they were considered commercial properties.19 Another amendment filed in July 1889 added a penthouse to the roof of the Wilbraham, with three servants' rooms and a kitchen.

 

The building was completed in May 1890. An alteration application was filed by the Jardine firm in October 1890 to add another two servants' rooms to the penthouse, which were completed in 1891; William Moir pleaded for these rooms in a letter to the Buildings Dept. because "in the carrying on of the work in the building they are a positive necessity."

 

A store has continually occupied the building's two-story base, with frontage on Fifth Avenue and two bays on West 30th Street. Each apartment in the Wilbraham contained two rooms -- a parlor and a bedroom -- and the floors were arranged so that it was possible to combine apartments together.

 

Typical of apartment hotels, kitchens were not included in the apartments, instead a residents' dining room was provided on the eighth floor. The Real Estate Record & Guide called it "the most elegantly appointed among the bachelor apartment houses in New York City."

 

The building was equipped with technological amenities, including the latest in plumbing and ventilation, a manually-operated Otis elevator, steam heating, both gas and electric lighting, and an internal communication system connected with the superintendent. Tenants were also provided the housekeeping services of a hotel.

 

The Architects: D. & J. Jardine

 

Born in Whithorn, Wigtownshire, Scotland, David Jardine trained under his builder-architect father before immigrating to America around 1850. In New York City he established an architectural practice by 1855, then was a partner in Jardine & [Edward G.] Thompson in 1858-60. His brother, John Jardine , also born in Whithorn, immigrated to the United States and worked for the U.S. government during the Civil War in the design of monitors and gunboats.

 

John moved to New York City, and in 1865 formed an architectural partnership with David. D. & J. Jardine, which lasted until David's death, was one of the more prominent, prolific, and versatile architectural firms in the city in the second half of the 19th century. George Elliott Jardine , another brother from Whithorn, began working for the firm around 1887. All three brothers were members of the Saint Andrew's Society of the State of New York . A fourth member of the firm, from about 1886 to 1891, was Jay H. Van Norden.

 

D. & J. Jardine was active in rowhouse development in Greenwich Village and on the Upper East and Upper West Sides from the late-1860s through the mid-1880s.

 

The firm achieved prominence for its designs, in a variety of contemporary styles, for religious structures, store-and-loft buildings, warehouses, office buildings, and apartment houses.

 

D. & J. Jardine designed a number of notable cast-iron-fronted buildings, including: No. 319 Broadway ; G. Rosenblatt & Bro. Buildings, 57 Walker Street , and 734 Broadway ; Davies Building , 678 Broadway; Jones Building , 171-175 8th Avenue, for drygoods merchant Owen Jones; B. Altman & Co. Building , 625-629 Sixth Avenue; No. 121 Mercer Street ;24 and Baumann Brothers Furniture and Carpets Store , 2226 East 14th Street.

 

Among the firm's other notable extant commissions are: the Fourth Reformed Presbyterian Church , 359-365 West 48th Street; D.S. Hess & Co. Building , 35-37 West 23 rd Street; and the Castree-Halliday Buildings , store-and-loft structures located at 13-17 Jay Street.25 Aside from the Wilbraham, the firm's multiple-residential structures, few of which survive, included the Jardine Apartments , 203-205 West 56th Street, one of New York City's earliest French flats buildings;26 Clermont Apartments , 1706-1708 Broadway; St. Marc Hotel , 434 Fifth Avenue; Palermo Apartments , 125 East 57th Street; Dundonald Flats , 71 West 83rd Street;27 and the Alpine , bachelor flats at 1282-1286 Broadway.

 

David Jardine was called by the American Architect & Building News "one of the best known of the older generation of New York architects."28 After his death in 1892, John and George Jardine were joined by William W. Kent in the firm of Jardine, Kent & Jardine. In 1911, the firm became Jardine, Kent & [Clinton M.] Hill; its successor firm after 1913 was Jardine, Hill, & [Harris H.] Murdock. John Jardine committed suicide in 1920 at the age of 82. The firm continued as Jardine, Murdock, & Wright after 1936.

 

Design of the Wilbraham

 

The period of the 1880s in New York City was one of stylistic experimentation in which architects , incorporated diverse influences, such as the Queen Anne, Victorian Gothic, Romanesque, Renaissance, and neo-Grec styles, French rationalism, and the German Run dbogens til.

 

The desire of architects and clients for originality, variety, and novelty was demonstrated, as well, by a freedom in design and materials. This was a period of interest in, and availability of, various types and colors of brick for exterior cladding.

 

There was also great interest in the use of several materials in combination , both to achieve varied and picturesque effects of color, texture, and ornament, and to exploit their functional qualities.

 

The Wilbraham's design reflects the influence of the Romanesque Revival style, which gained popularity in the 1880s due to the work of the distinguished Boston architect Henry Hobson Richardson. This influence is seen in the rock-faced stonework and arched openings, as well as the noteworthy, intricately carved, stone detail, particularly the residential entrance on West 30th Street. In this building, the Jardines freely interpreted the Romanesque Revival style, making creative use of its ornament while mixing it with classical references.

 

The Wilbraham is extraordinarily well-detailed and employs a handsome combination of materials, colors, and textures -- the red Philadelphia brick, warm Belleville brownstone, and cast iron. The Real Estate Record & Guide in 1890 called the Wilbraham "certainly the 'crack' apartment house of its kind in New York City... quite an imposing piece of architecture."

 

The Bachelor Apartment Hotel or "Bachelor Flats"

 

Throughout the 19th century, large numbers of New Yorkers lived in multiple residences, including converted dwellings and hotels, due to real estate conditions that made single-family residences prohibitive to all but the wealthy.

 

The bachelor apartment hotel, or "bachelor flats," was a variation on one of the purpose-built multiple dwelling building types that emerged in New York City in the early 1870s . Though the contemporary terms were sometimes employed imprecisely, the building types came to be defined as follows: 1) the apartment house or French flats consisted of apartments with suites of rooms for middle- and upper-middle-class residents ; 2) the apartment hotel or residential hotel had apartments, for basically long-term residents, with suites of rooms , while a dining room and other services were provided; and 3) the hotel, for transient visitors and long-term residents, had a variety of services, as well as a dining room open to the general public.

 

With the growth and industrialization of New York City in the 19th century, the work force consisted of very large numbers of unmarried men. The number of bachelors in the city ranged from 125,000 in 1870,31 to nearly 45 percent of the male population over the age of 15 in 18 90.

 

Howard Chudacoff, in a recent study on the "bachelor subculture in America" from 1880 to 1930, identified 1890 as the peak year in American history of the number of unmarried males over the age of 15 - nearly 42 percent was the national average.33 He and other historians have noted a variety of contemporary social factors that contributed to these numbers of single men: the exclusion of women from most occupations; the greater number of male immigrants; postponement of marriage due to low income level; dissatisfaction with the institution of marriage; and the availability of alternatives, including socializing outside of marriage, the emergence of a gay male community, and the attractions of the heterosexual "sporting male culture."

 

Housing options for middle-class unmarried men in New York were severely limited. As rowhouses and better hotels were expensive, bachelors were forced to find quarters in boarding or rooming houses with less privacy or security, in less-than-desirable rooms in cheaper hotels or apartment buildings, or in such facilities as clubs and YMCAs. It was observed in 1898 that "the bachelor was not considered to be entitled to much consideration; any old thing was good enough for him... Anyone who was old enough and had the means to marry and yet did not, was not thought to be entitled to anything better."

 

The emergence of the apartment hotel provided an alternative that accommodated unmarried men along with couples, families, and widows, but this was considered awkward as single men were seen as threatening married couples and traditional gender roles. Chudacoff comments that:

 

Americans have always revered and depended on the family as the chief institution for promoting citizenship and social order. They have celebrated family life as a basic stabilizing influence in society. Those who valued the family in this way considered individuals and groups living outside the family setting as outcasts, people handicapped by an inability to participate in wholesome social life. These individuals were said to be destabilizing influences...

 

The acute need for apartment hotels specifically for bachelors in New York City was reported by architect Emlen T. Littel in a paper read before the annual convention of the American Institute of Architects and published in 1876. He called for the construction of "club chambers, arranged for the special use of bachelors, [in which they] would find a permanent and real home."

 

In his proposal were characteristics that would become standard in bachelor flats: convenient location on a commercial avenue; storefront on the ground floor; apartments consisting of a bedroom, parlor, and bathroom; and floor plans in which parlors joined another so "that friends occupying adjacent chambers might, if so inclined, enjoy joint possession... [as well as] suites for those wishing to chum together permanently might consist of a larger parlor, two bedrooms, and a bathroom."

 

Littel concluded that "of single men, young and old... there is nothing which would conduce more to their welfare than the erection of such buildings; and, further, that there are few investments in real estate which would so amply reward the proprietor."

 

The first American apartment hotel is believed to have been the Hotel Pelham in Boston. In New York City, the proliferation of French flats is usually traced to the success of the Stuyvesant Apartments , 142 East 18th Street, which attracted a "respectable" clientele, while one of the city's earliest apartment hotels was the Grosvenor House , 35-37 Fifth Avenue . Stevens House , Broadway and 27th Street, was originally built with apartments , but the building was remodeled and enlarged in 1873-74 as an apartment hotel.

 

It has been suggested that Stevens House also then became one of the first bachelor apartment hotels in New York.40 The Panic of 1873 slowed the construction of apartment hotels until economic recovery occurred around 1879-80.

 

Among the early buildings built as b ache lor flats were the Benedick , 79-80 Washington Square East; the Percival , 230 West 42nd Street; the Gorham Building , 889-891 Broadway; and the Alpine . Between 1880 and 1915, hundreds of bachelor apartment hotels were erected. The Real Estate Record & Guide in 1890 reflected that the bachelors' apartment house is a product of our modern life. It is not a social fad, ready to disappear directly.

 

It has ceased to be a novelty. It has come to stay, for it fills a gap in the life of every unmarried man who has become weary of the boarding house, the furnished room, or the hotel.

 

Historian Paul Groth noted that the success of American residential hotels, including bachelor flats, made possible a cultured, civilized life for men without the aid of a woman... provid[ing] domestic care as well as, or better than, a woman could. In some cases, then, the maxim "What every man needs is a good woman," became " What every man needs is a good hotel."

 

The Record & Guide commented in 1898 that bachelor flats "began to arise one after the other, and each later one surpassing its predecessor in elegance, comfort and convenience," and by 1905 noted that "such buildings are found for the most part along Fifth Avenue south of Central Park, and in the cross streets adjacent, on Broadway, and in some other choice locations" south to 23rd Street.

 

The Wilbraham was thus one of the earlier bachelor apartment hotels located in the midst of a district where such buildings would flourish prior to World War I. The Wilbraham catered to single professional men of means. The 1900 census listed eleven single male "boarders" at the Wilbraham, ranging in age from 28 to 80: two lawyers, two treasurers, two company "secretaries," a music professor, a drygoods clerk, a silk manufacturer, an architect, and an actor.

 

The 1910 census counted fifteen tenants, aged from 26 to 68: four lawyers, three stockbrokers, two newspaper solicitors, a publisher, a real estate agent, a shopowner, a civil engineer, a clerk, and a treasurer; only one of these men had resided here at the previous census.

 

Gilman Collamore & Co.

 

Occupying the Wilbraham's two-story shopfront on Fifth Avenue upon its completion was Gilman Collamore & Co., famous dealers in expensive fine china, porcelain, pottery, glassware, and "bric-a-brac," who specialized in high-quality imported French and English goods. Gilman Collamo re , born in West Scitiuate, Mass., trained in the china importing firm of his uncle in Boston.

 

Collamore moved to New York City in 1854 and worked in the same business with his brother Davis Collamore; he established a firm under his own name in 1861.

 

An advertisement for his business at 731 Broadway in 1868 called it "importers and dealers in china, glass, silver-plated ware, &c." Prior to its move to the Wilbraham, the firm was located at 19 Union Square. After Collamore's death, the company was run by John Joseph Gibbons . King's Handbook remarked in 1893 that in houses of wealth and taste it seldom happens that there are not wares obtained through Collamore's... A large part of its imported goods cannot be found in any other house in America... [which] has always maintained itself at the head of its line of trade by virtue of the artistic excellence of its goods.

 

Gibbons purchased the Wilbraham from Emily Moir for one million dollars in 1908. Of the sale, the Real Estate Record & Guide stated that it shows the growing necessity of tenants on the avenue owning their own property in every case where it is possible. The supply is getting very limited, and as soon as the present inactivity is over investors will be climbing over each other to get choice avenue property.

 

In the New York Times, Gibbons said he believed that Fifth Avenue would "continue to be the best for high-class retail trade." The building, called by the Times "one of the first and finest bachelor apartment houses erected in the Fifth Avenue section," was also to continue in that use. Around 1920, a new building at 15 East 56th Street was constructed to house Gilman Collamore & Co.

 

Fifth Avenue in the 20th Century

 

After the turn of the century, Fifth Avenue between Madison Square and Central Park was largely transformed into a commercial thoroughfare. As the heyday of Ladies' Mile ended, the section of Fifth Avenue north of 34th Street developed a high-end retail trade, with specialty shops catering to the upper class and selling such items as jewelry, perfume, and furs. The section of the avenue south of 34th Street developed as "the main artery of the new wholesale trade centre," according to the New York Times in 1915.

 

The theater district moved to Times Square, new grand hotels were built near Central Park, large department stores opened around Herald Square, and the vicinity of Madison Square was developed with office buildings. Town & Country commented in 1903 that "the brown-stone streets are blossoming out, here and there, with odd houses, all designed for business purposes.

 

They break the monotonous line and make that part of the city a place of pleasant contrasts..."53 It was estimated that by 1907 the avenue had seen a 250 percent increase in real estate values. In 1908, Fifth Avenue was widened to accommodate the increased commercial and automobile traffic. Many 19th-century residences were demolished, and those that remained were converted to commercial use or had their facades replaced.

 

The new buildings were tall store-and-loft or office structures, some associated with the textile industry. Many of the great hotels in the area were demolished and replaced by office structures retaining the original names.

 

Holland House was converted to an office building about 1925. The Waldorf-Astoria Hotel was torn down for the Empire State Building , then the tallest building in the world.

 

Later History of the Wilbraham

 

The Wilbraham was sold in 1927 by the John J. Gibbons estate to the 1 West 30 St. Corp.58 A Manhattan directory in 1929 listed fifteen female and ten male residents, though a Buildings Dept. application in 1930 still listed "bachelor apartments" as the use. The building was conveyed to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. in 1934 due to unpaid taxes and a mortgage default. Architects Emery Roth and D. Everett Waid, with the firm of Bing & Bing, general contractors, made interior alterations in 1934-35, which included the creation of six apartments with kitchens on floors three through eight; creation of a second-story office; and extension of the penthouse for the creation of two apartments. The New York Times reflected that "a striking illustration of the fact that Fifth Avenue south of Thirty-fourth Street has not entirely lost its charm as a residential neighborhood is presented in the recent renovation of the old Wilbraham apartment building."

 

Metropolitan Life sold the property in 1944, and it has changed hands a number of times since. The Wilbraham has continually remained a residence, although its name was changed by 1984 to the Tiffany.

 

Description

 

The Wilbraham, located on the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street, is eight stories high . Clad in Philadelphia brick, Belleville brownstone, and cast iron, the building is articulated in a tripartite manner, with a two-story base, three-story midsection, and three-story upper section , all separated by cornices.

 

The facades are pierced by window groupings that are linked vertically. The Fifth Avenue facade is two bays wide, while the West 30th Street facade is seven bays with slight projections in the center and western end. A metal fire escape was added to this center section.

 

The building retains its wood sash windows. Base: Fifth Avenue The two-story base consists of two wide bays, separated by a monumental cast-iron Composite order half-round column set on a cast-iron pier . At each end of the base is a rusticated stone pier with a polished granite base/watertable and a carved capital with a foliate-and-head design.

 

Each bay of the ground story originally had a display window with a transom and bulkhead, and an entrance door with a transom. There are now non-historic single-pane display windows , and non-historic double entrance doors with a transom in the southern bay; the storefront is surmounted by a non-historic projecting metal signband with large lettering.

 

The ground floor is surmounted by cast-iron spandrel panels with dentils and a ribbon design that continues from the central column. The second story has paired one-over-one double-hung wood windows separated by cast-iron colonnettes. The base is capped by a cast-iron and stone cornice with dentils .

 

Base: West 30th Street [east to west] The easternmost two bays are similar in treatment to the Fifth Avenue facade , and are a continuation of the ground-floor storefront. Both display windows retain their original decorative iron framing and bulkhead/grille . A non-historic projecting metal signband with large lettering, similar to that on Fifth Avenue, surmounts the storefront; both bays have rolldown gates.

 

The slightly projecting central two bays are clad in rock-faced stone with quoins above a high polished granite watertable. Wide round-arched openings are set into this section below smooth-finished and molded surrounds on the ground floor.

 

The eastern bay originally had a basement entrance door surmounted by two windows set within the arch, and steps with iron railings; currently the portion below the stone spandrel panel has non-historic metal service doors, and a non-historic metal fan grille is placed within the arch.

 

The western bay has non-historic entrance doors with a transom, set below the round-arched transom. A canopy has been placed within this arch, and there is a rolldown gate. The second-story paired windows have a central column, transom, and outer colonnettes surmounted by carved stone ornamental brackets.

 

The next two bays to the west are similar in treatment to the storefront bays on each facade. The ground floor of the eastern bay is filled with masonry, a door, louvers, and a metal grille. The ground floor of the western bay is filled with masonry, glass block and several small windows, and is partly covered with a metal grille.

 

The westernmost bay has the main residential entrance to the building. Flanking the entry are paired squat piers with carved capitals, above a polished granite watertable/base, that support a decorative entablature, from which springs a round arch. The entry has a low stone platform and non-historic doors and a transom.

 

The arch above the entrance has a transom set below a smooth-finished, molded surround with a prominent foliate keystone and banderole with the carved inscription "WILBRAHAM." The spandrels are ornamented with elaborate carving. A canopy is hung by cables over the entrance within the arch, and a non-historic light fixture is placed on the arched surround. The second story has a paired window similar to those on the center bays of the West 30th Street facade.

 

Midsection This section, clad in Philadelphia brick with stone trim, consists of the third through the fifth stories. The Fifth Avenue bays are tripartite, while those on West 30th Street are double. The window groupings are linked vertically by colossal decorative stone half-round columns, edge moldings/ colonnettes surmounted by decorative carving, and keyed enframements.

 

Original windows are single-pane wood sash with transoms . Stone spandrel panels have ornate foliate carving. Additionally, there are small original windows located in the center bays and in the next two bays to the west on the West 30th Street facade. The section is capped by a smooth-finished stone cornice with voussoirs, keystones, and dentils.

 

Upper Section This section consists of the sixth through the eighth floors, the last a mansard roof. The Fifth Avenue bays are tripartite, while those on West 30th Street are double. Original windows are one-over-one double hung wood sash. The sixth-story windows are segmental, flanked by piers with corbels, and are surmounted by a stone cornice with voussoirs and corbels.

 

The westermost bay is capped by a pediment above the sixth story. The seventh-story windows are separated by rock-faced stone piers and are surmounted by a rock-faced band course. The top-story mansard roof, now covered in standing-seam copper but originally slate with cresting, has dormers with paired windows set on rock-faced bases, with decorative frames and shed roofs with eaves decorated with egg-and-dart designs; and four tall brick-and-stone chimneys on the West 30th Street facade . A non-historic metal railing lines the roof, upon which there is a roof garden.

 

Penthouse The one-story penthouse , set back at the western half of the roof, is visible from the street. West Wall The top two stories of the western wall , as well as the building's water tank, are visible above the adjacent building.

 

- From the 2004 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

 

If you want to know more about my walks and photos, check out my blog.

 

Summary

 

The Wilbraham, built in 1888-90 as a bachelor apartment hotel, was commissioned by prominent Scottish-American jeweler William Moir as a real estate investment. It was designed by the versatile New York architectural firm of D. & J. Jardine, whose principals, David and John Jardine, were brothers and also of Scottish birth.

 

Located at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street, the Wilbraham is eight stories high (plus basement and penthouse) and crowned by a mansard roof. Clad in a handsome combination of Philadelphia brick, Belleville brownstone, and cast iron, the Wilbraham is extraordinarily well-detailed and reflects the influence of the Romanesque Revival style in the rock-faced stonework and excellent, intricately carved stone detail. The Real Estate Record & Guide in 1890 called it "quite an imposing piece of architecture." The building's two-story shopfront housed the famous china and glassware importing firm of Gilman Collamore & Co. from 1890 to about 1920.

 

The Wilbraham was constructed when this area was changing due to the inroads of commerce, but was still fashionable for clubs, theaters, apartments, and hotels. The bachelor apartment hotel, or "bachelor flats," was a multiple dwelling building type that arose in the 1870s to serve the city's very large population of single men. The Wilbraham catered to professional men of means.

 

Each apartment contained a two-room suite with a bathroom but no kitchen; a residents' dining room was provided on the eighth floor. In 1934-35, the apartments were remodeled to include kitchens, and the building ceased to operate solely as bachelor flats. The Wilbraham, an outstanding extant example of the bachelor apartment hotel building type, has remained in residential use.

 

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

 

Fifth Avenue, from 23rd to 34th Streets, in the 19th Century 1

 

By 1837, Fifth Avenue was extended north of 23rd Street to 42nd Street, and the surrounding land was sold as building lots. Madison Square, formerly part of "The Parade" and located on the east side of the avenue between 23rd and 26th Streets, was reserved as a park and opened in 1847. Gradually, New York's elite moved "uptown" as they escaped the encroachment of commerce farther downtown, and Fifth Avenue in this area became the most fashionable address and home to the some of the city's wealthiest individuals.

 

Most of the residences along the avenue were speculatively-built brownstones. Numerous churches also located in this vicinity.3

 

Amos R. Eno's Fifth Avenue Hotel (1856-59, Griffith Thomas, with William Washburn; demolished 1908), at Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street across from Madison Square, was initially dubbed "Eno's Folly" because it was built so far north. It soon became one of the most famous hotels in the city and spurred construction of other hotels west and northwest of Madison Square (particularly in the triangle formed by the intersection of Fifth Avenue with the diagonal of Broadway).

 

This district contained the city's best hotels, as well as men's social clubs that followed their constituents uptown. Apartment houses and apartment hotels began to appear on the avenue in the early 1870s. In 1876, Delmonico's, the well-known restaurant, moved to 212-214 Fifth Avenue (at 26th Street).6 By the 1870s, the theater district also relocated northward from Union Square to the Madison Square vicinity.7 Madison Square Garden, opened in 1879 at Madison Avenue and 26th Street and replaced with a new building (1889-91, McKim, Mead & White; demolished 1925), became one of the nation's premiere theater and entertainment centers.

 

The shopping area known as Ladies' Mile developed to the south between 14th and 23rd Streets, with the great department stores along Sixth Avenue and retail shops extending east to and along Broadway. Fifth Avenue in the late 19th century was also at the eastern edge of the legendary and crime-ridden section of midtown Manhattan known as "the Tenderloin," roughly bounded by 23rd and 42nd Streets and Fifth and Seventh Avenues (by the turn of the century, it extended northward and westward).

 

Beginning in the 1880s, as commerce encroached and the exclusivity of the area faded, many prominent New York families moved farther up Fifth Avenue around Central Park.9

 

Hotels and apartment houses continued to be built in the vicinity. The Knickerbocker Apartments (1882-84, Charles W. Clinton, demolished), 243-249 Fifth Avenue (at 28th Street), was a luxury building that included one floor of bachelor apartments. Holland House (1891, Harding & Gooch), 274-280 Fifth Avenue (at 30th Street), was for a brief period the most opulent and luxurious hotel in the city. This was surpassed by the Waldorf Hotel (1891-93, Henry J. Hardenbergh), expanded in 1895-97 as the Waldorf-Astoria, also by Hardenbergh (now demolished), which was on the site of the Astor residences.

 

The Wilbraham evokes the history of this stretch of Fifth Avenue as a fashionable area of shops, theaters, clubs, and residences.

 

William Moir

 

The Wilbraham was built as a real estate investment for prominent jeweler William Moir (18261896), who resided at 6 West 20th Street. Born in Aberdeen, Scotland, Moir immigrated to New York City around 1840 and was apprenticed to watchmaker Alexander Martin.

 

He later became a journeyman to jeweler Emmet T. Pell at 315 Hudson Street, and after Pell retired in 1844, purchased the business with his brother John Moir (d. 1895). J. & W. Moir ran a successful operation at that location for 25 years, until John's withdrawal from the firm. In 1870, William Moir commissioned a five-story, cast-iron-clad structure (Theodore A. Tribit, architect) for his own business at No. 711 [originally 373] Sixth Avenue, at the southwest corner of West 23 rd Street.12 Moir's business in 1872 included a fine selection of French clocks and bronzes, specially imported by him, and a yet larger stock of watches, native and foreign, jewelry, diamonds, and silver-plated ware. The diamond jewelry is noticeably good, and is all made on the premises.

 

At the time of his death, he was called "one of New York's oldest and best known retail jewelers."14 He was treasurer for 22 years of the First Presbyterian Church, 48 Fifth Avenue.

 

His widow, Emily Hun Sexton Moir, dedicated a memorial window (c. 1910, designed by Tiffany Studios and containing Scottish references) in his honor in the church. Moir also served as a trustee of the Presbyterian Hospital and a director of the Greenwich Bank and Greenwich Savings Bank, and was a member of the Saint Andrew's Society of the State of New York, for men of Scottish ancestry. He was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn.

 

Construction of the Wilbraham

 

In April 1888, William Moir purchased, for $245,000,17 a townhouse located at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street. Plans were filed in October 1888 by architects D. & J. Jardine for a six-story (plus basement) bachelor flats building on this site, to be fireproof, framed in iron, and clad in Philadelphia brick, Belleville (N.J.) brownstone, and cast iron, at an estimated cost of $150,000.

 

Construction began immediately, but plans were amended and approved in November 1888 to substitute steel for the proposed iron beams and girders.18 In December, Moir conveyed the property to his wife Emily. A rendering of the proposed six-story Wilbraham capped by a high balustrade parapet was published in January 1889 in Building.

 

An amendment filed in June 1889, however, increased the height of the building two stories including a one-story mansard roof, so that the completed building was eight full stories. This increase in height reflected the maximum possible return that Moir could achieve on his investment.

 

In 1885, a New York City law had been enacted to limit the height of all new residential construction to a height of 80 feet (six stories), but hotels and apartment hotels, including bachelor flats, were exempt because they were considered commercial properties.19 Another amendment filed in July 1889 added a penthouse to the roof of the Wilbraham, with three servants' rooms and a kitchen.

 

The building was completed in May 1890. An alteration application was filed by the Jardine firm in October 1890 to add another two servants' rooms to the penthouse, which were completed in 1891; William Moir pleaded for these rooms in a letter to the Buildings Dept. because "in the carrying on of the work in the building they are a positive necessity."

 

A store has continually occupied the building's two-story base, with frontage on Fifth Avenue and two bays on West 30th Street. Each apartment in the Wilbraham contained two rooms -- a parlor and a bedroom -- and the floors were arranged so that it was possible to combine apartments together.

 

Typical of apartment hotels, kitchens were not included in the apartments, instead a residents' dining room was provided on the eighth floor. The Real Estate Record & Guide called it "the most elegantly appointed among the bachelor apartment houses in New York City."

 

The building was equipped with technological amenities, including the latest in plumbing and ventilation, a manually-operated Otis elevator, steam heating, both gas and electric lighting, and an internal communication system connected with the superintendent. Tenants were also provided the housekeeping services of a hotel.

 

The Architects: D. & J. Jardine

 

Born in Whithorn, Wigtownshire, Scotland, David Jardine (1830-1892) trained under his builder-architect father before immigrating to America around 1850. In New York City he established an architectural practice by 1855, then was a partner in Jardine & [Edward G.] Thompson in 1858-60. His brother, John Jardine (1838-1920), also born in Whithorn, immigrated to the United States and worked for the U.S. government during the Civil War in the design of monitors and gunboats.

 

John moved to New York City, and in 1865 formed an architectural partnership with David. D. & J. Jardine, which lasted until David's death, was one of the more prominent, prolific, and versatile architectural firms in the city in the second half of the 19th century. George Elliott Jardine (1841-1902), another brother from Whithorn, began working for the firm around 1887. All three brothers were members of the Saint Andrew's Society of the State of New York (a possible source of their commission from Moir). A fourth member of the firm, from about 1886 to 1891, was Jay (Joseph) H. Van Norden.

 

D. & J. Jardine was active in rowhouse development in Greenwich Village and on the Upper East and Upper West Sides from the late-1860s through the mid-1880s.

 

The firm achieved prominence for its designs, in a variety of contemporary styles, for religious structures, store-and-loft buildings, warehouses, office buildings, and apartment houses.

 

D. & J. Jardine designed a number of notable cast-iron-fronted buildings, including: No. 319 Broadway ("Thomas Twin") ( 1869-70); G. Rosenblatt & Bro. Buildings, 57 Walker Street (1870), and 734 Broadway (1872-73); Davies Building (1874-75), 678 Broadway; Jones Building (1875-76, demolished), 171-175 8th Avenue, for drygoods merchant Owen Jones; B. Altman & Co. Building (1876-80), 625-629 Sixth Avenue; No. 121 Mercer Street (originally owned by the New York Eye & Ear Infirmary) (1879);24 and Baumann Brothers Furniture and Carpets Store (1880-81), 2226 East 14th Street.

 

Among the firm's other notable extant commissions are: the Fourth Reformed Presbyterian Church (1874), 359-365 West 48th Street; D.S. Hess & Co. Building (1880), 35-37 West 23 rd Street; and the Castree-Halliday Buildings (1887), store-and-loft structures located at 13-17 Jay Street.25 Aside from the Wilbraham, the firm's multiple-residential structures, few of which survive, included the Jardine Apartments (1872, demolished), 203-205 West 56th Street, one of New York City's earliest French flats buildings;26 Clermont Apartments (1878, demolished), 1706-1708 Broadway; St. Marc Hotel (1880, demolished), 434 Fifth Avenue; Palermo Apartments (1882, demolished), 125 East 57th Street; Dundonald Flats (1885), 71 West 83rd Street;27 and the Alpine (1886-87, demolished), bachelor flats at 1282-1286 Broadway.

 

David Jardine was called by the American Architect & Building News "one of the best known of the older generation of New York architects."28 After his death in 1892, John and George Jardine were joined by William W. Kent in the firm of Jardine, Kent & Jardine. In 1911, the firm became Jardine, Kent & [Clinton M.] Hill; its successor firm after 1913 was Jardine, Hill, & [Harris H.] Murdock. John Jardine committed suicide in 1920 at the age of 82. The firm continued as Jardine, Murdock, & Wright after 1936.

 

Design of the Wilbraham

 

The period of the 1880s in New York City was one of stylistic experimentation in which architects (including those of the various multiple dwelling building types), incorporated diverse influences, such as the Queen Anne, Victorian Gothic, Romanesque, Renaissance, and neo-Grec styles, French rationalism, and the German Run dbogens til.

 

The desire of architects and clients for originality, variety, and novelty was demonstrated, as well, by a freedom in design and materials. This was a period of interest in, and availability of, various types and colors of brick for exterior cladding.

 

There was also great interest in the use of several materials in combination (such as brick, terra cotta, stone, and cast iron), both to achieve varied and picturesque effects of color, texture, and ornament, and to exploit their functional qualities.

 

The Wilbraham's design reflects the influence of the Romanesque Revival style, which gained popularity in the 1880s due to the work of the distinguished Boston architect Henry Hobson Richardson. This influence is seen in the rock-faced stonework and arched openings, as well as the noteworthy, intricately carved, stone detail, particularly the residential entrance on West 30th Street. In this building, the Jardines freely interpreted the Romanesque Revival style, making creative use of its ornament while mixing it with classical references.

 

The Wilbraham is extraordinarily well-detailed and employs a handsome combination of materials, colors, and textures -- the red Philadelphia brick, warm Belleville brownstone, and cast iron. The Real Estate Record & Guide in 1890 called the Wilbraham "certainly the 'crack' apartment house of its kind in New York City... quite an imposing piece of architecture."

 

The Bachelor Apartment Hotel or "Bachelor Flats"

 

Throughout the 19th century, large numbers of New Yorkers lived in multiple residences, including converted dwellings and hotels, due (among other factors) to real estate conditions that made single-family residences prohibitive to all but the wealthy.

 

The bachelor apartment hotel, or "bachelor flats," was a variation on one of the purpose-built multiple dwelling building types that emerged in New York City in the early 1870s (and in such cities as Boston, Washington, and Chicago in the 1870s-80s). Though the contemporary terms were sometimes employed imprecisely, the building types came to be defined as follows: 1) the apartment house or French flats consisted of apartments with suites of rooms (including a bathroom and kitchen) for middle- and upper-middle-class residents (luxury apartment houses emerged after 1880); 2) the apartment hotel or residential hotel had apartments, for basically long-term residents, with suites of rooms (including a bathroom but no kitchen), while a dining room and other services were provided; and 3) the hotel, for transient visitors and long-term residents, had a variety of services, as well as a dining room open to the general public.

 

With the growth and industrialization of New York City in the 19th century, the work force consisted of very large numbers of unmarried men. The number of bachelors in the city ranged from 125,000 (about 13% of the total population) in 1870,31 to nearly 45 percent of the male population over the age of 15 in 18 90.

 

Howard Chudacoff, in a recent study on the "bachelor subculture in America" from 1880 to 1930, identified 1890 (the year of the Wilbraham's completion) as the peak year in American history of the number of unmarried males over the age of 15 - nearly 42 percent was the national average.33 He and other historians have noted a variety of contemporary social factors that contributed to these numbers of single men: the exclusion of women from most occupations; the greater number of male immigrants; postponement of marriage due to low income level; dissatisfaction with the institution of marriage; and the availability of alternatives, including socializing outside of marriage, the emergence of a gay male community, and the attractions of the heterosexual "sporting male culture."

 

Housing options for middle-class unmarried men in New York were severely limited. As rowhouses and better hotels were expensive, bachelors were forced to find quarters in boarding or rooming houses (usually converted rowhouses) with less privacy or security, in less-than-desirable rooms in cheaper hotels or apartment buildings, or in such facilities as clubs and YMCAs. It was observed in 1898 that "the bachelor was not considered to be entitled to much consideration; any old thing was good enough for him... Anyone who was old enough and had the means to marry and yet did not, was not thought to be entitled to anything better."

 

The emergence of the apartment hotel provided an alternative that accommodated unmarried men along with couples, families, and widows, but this was considered awkward as single men were seen as threatening married couples and traditional gender roles. Chudacoff comments that:

 

Americans have always revered and depended on the family as the chief institution for promoting citizenship and social order. They have celebrated family life as a basic stabilizing influence in society. Those who valued the family in this way considered individuals and groups living outside the family setting as outcasts, people handicapped by an inability to participate in wholesome social life. These individuals were said to be destabilizing influences...

 

The acute need for apartment hotels specifically for bachelors in New York City was reported by architect Emlen T. Littel in a paper read before the annual convention of the American Institute of Architects and published in 1876. He called for the construction of "club chambers, arranged for the special use of bachelors, [in which they] would find a permanent and real home."

 

In his proposal were characteristics that would become standard in bachelor flats: convenient location on a commercial avenue; storefront on the ground floor; apartments consisting of (at least) a bedroom, parlor, and bathroom; and floor plans in which parlors joined another so "that friends occupying adjacent chambers might, if so inclined, enjoy joint possession... [as well as] suites for those wishing to chum together permanently might consist of a larger parlor, two bedrooms, and a bathroom."

 

Littel concluded that "of single men, young and old... there is nothing which would conduce more to their welfare than the erection of such buildings; and, further, that there are few investments in real estate which would so amply reward the proprietor."

 

The first American apartment hotel is believed to have been the Hotel Pelham (1856-57, Alfred Stone of Arthur Gilman's firm) in Boston. In New York City, the proliferation of French flats is usually traced to the success of the Stuyvesant Apartments (1869-70, Richard Morris Hunt; demolished), 142 East 18th Street, which attracted a "respectable" clientele, while one of the city's earliest apartment hotels was the Grosvenor House (1871-72, Detlef Lienau; demolished), 35-37 Fifth Avenue (at 10th Street). Stevens House (1870-72, Richard Morris Hunt; demolished), Broadway and 27th Street, was originally built with apartments (above ground-floor stores), but the building was remodeled and enlarged in 1873-74 (Arthur Gilman, architect) as an apartment hotel.

 

It has been suggested that Stevens House also then became one of the first bachelor apartment hotels in New York.40 The Panic of 1873 slowed the construction of apartment hotels until economic recovery occurred around 1879-80.

 

Among the early buildings built as b ache lor flats were the Benedick (1879-80, McKim, Mead & Bigelow), 79-80 Washington Square East; the Percival (1882, McKim, Mead & White; demolished), 230 West 42nd Street; the Gorham Building (1883-84, Edward H. Kendall), 889-891 Broadway; and the Alpine (1886-87, D. & J. Jardine). Between 1880 and 1915, hundreds of bachelor apartment hotels were erected. The Real Estate Record & Guide in 1890 reflected that the bachelors' apartment house is a product of our modern life. It is not a social fad, ready to disappear directly.

 

It has ceased to be a novelty. It has come to stay, for it fills a gap in the life of every unmarried man who has become weary of the boarding house, the furnished room, or the hotel.

 

Historian Paul Groth noted that the success of American residential hotels, including bachelor flats, made possible a cultured, civilized life for men without the aid of a woman... provid[ing] domestic care as well as, or better than, a woman could. In some cases, then, the maxim "What every man needs is a good woman," became " What every man needs is a good hotel."

 

The Record & Guide commented in 1898 that bachelor flats "began to arise one after the other, and each later one surpassing its predecessor in elegance, comfort and convenience," and by 1905 noted that "such buildings are found for the most part along Fifth Avenue south of Central Park, and in the cross streets adjacent, on Broadway, and in some other choice locations" south to 23rd Street.

 

The Wilbraham was thus one of the earlier bachelor apartment hotels located in the midst of a district where such buildings would flourish prior to World War I. The Wilbraham catered to single professional men of means. The 1900 census listed eleven single male "boarders" at the Wilbraham, ranging in age from 28 to 80: two lawyers, two treasurers, two company "secretaries," a music professor, a drygoods clerk, a silk manufacturer, an architect, and an actor.

 

The 1910 census counted fifteen tenants, aged from 26 to 68: four lawyers, three stockbrokers, two newspaper solicitors, a publisher, a real estate agent, a shopowner, a civil engineer, a clerk, and a treasurer; only one of these men had resided here at the previous census.

 

Gilman Collamore & Co.

 

Occupying the Wilbraham's two-story shopfront (and basement) on Fifth Avenue upon its completion was Gilman Collamore & Co., famous dealers in expensive fine china, porcelain, pottery, glassware, and "bric-a-brac," who specialized in high-quality imported French and English goods. Gilman Collamo re (1834-1888), born in West Scitiuate, Mass., trained in the china importing firm of his uncle in Boston.

 

Collamore moved to New York City in 1854 and worked in the same business with his brother Davis Collamore; he established a firm under his own name in 1861.

 

An advertisement for his business at 731 Broadway in 1868 called it "importers and dealers in china, glass, silver-plated ware, &c." Prior to its move to the Wilbraham, the firm was located at 19 Union Square. After Collamore's death, the company was run by John Joseph Gibbons (d. 1917). King's Handbook remarked in 1893 that in houses of wealth and taste it seldom happens that there are not wares obtained through Collamore's... A large part of its imported goods cannot be found in any other house in America... [which] has always maintained itself at the head of its line of trade by virtue of the artistic excellence of its goods.

 

Gibbons purchased the Wilbraham from Emily Moir for one million dollars in 1908. Of the sale, the Real Estate Record & Guide stated that it shows the growing necessity of tenants on the avenue owning their own property in every case where it is possible. The supply is getting very limited, and as soon as the present inactivity is over investors will be climbing over each other to get choice avenue property.

 

In the New York Times, Gibbons said he believed that Fifth Avenue would "continue to be the best for high-class retail trade." The building, called by the Times "one of the first and finest bachelor apartment houses erected in the Fifth Avenue section," was also to continue in that use. Around 1920, a new building at 15 East 56th Street was constructed to house Gilman Collamore & Co.

 

Fifth Avenue in the 20th Century

 

After the turn of the century, Fifth Avenue between Madison Square and Central Park was largely transformed into a commercial thoroughfare. As the heyday of Ladies' Mile ended, the section of Fifth Avenue north of 34th Street developed a high-end retail trade, with specialty shops catering to the upper class and selling such items as jewelry, perfume, and furs. The section of the avenue south of 34th Street developed as "the main artery of the new wholesale trade centre," according to the New York Times in 1915.

 

The theater district moved to Times Square, new grand hotels were built near Central Park, large department stores opened around Herald Square, and the vicinity of Madison Square was developed with office buildings. Town & Country commented in 1903 that "the brown-stone streets are blossoming out, here and there, with odd houses, all designed for business purposes.

 

They break the monotonous line and make that part of the city a place of pleasant contrasts..."53 It was estimated that by 1907 the avenue had seen a 250 percent increase in real estate values. In 1908, Fifth Avenue was widened to accommodate the increased commercial and automobile traffic. Many 19th-century residences were demolished, and those that remained were converted to commercial use or had their facades replaced.

 

The new buildings were tall store-and-loft or office structures, some associated with the textile industry. Many of the great hotels in the area were demolished and replaced by office structures retaining the original names.

 

Holland House was converted to an office building about 1925. The Waldorf-Astoria Hotel was torn down for the Empire State Building (1929-31, Shreve, Lamb & Harmon), then the tallest building in the world.

 

Later History of the Wilbraham

 

The Wilbraham was sold in 1927 by the John J. Gibbons estate to the 1 West 30 St. Corp.58 A Manhattan directory in 1929 listed fifteen female and ten male residents, though a Buildings Dept. application in 1930 still listed "bachelor apartments" as the use. The building was conveyed to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. in 1934 due to unpaid taxes and a mortgage default. Architects Emery Roth and D. Everett Waid, with the firm of Bing & Bing, general contractors, made interior alterations in 1934-35, which included the creation of six apartments with kitchens on floors three through eight; creation of a second-story office; and extension of the penthouse for the creation of two apartments. The New York Times reflected that "a striking illustration of the fact that Fifth Avenue south of Thirty-fourth Street has not entirely lost its charm as a residential neighborhood is presented in the recent renovation of the old Wilbraham apartment building."

 

Metropolitan Life sold the property in 1944, and it has changed hands a number of times since. The Wilbraham has continually remained a residence, although its name was changed by 1984 to the Tiffany.

 

Description

 

The Wilbraham, located on the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street, is eight stories high (plus basement and a rooftop penthouse). Clad in Philadelphia brick, Belleville (N.J.) brownstone, and cast iron, the building is articulated in a tripartite manner, with a two-story base, three-story midsection, and three-story upper section (including a one-story mansard roof), all separated by cornices.

 

The facades are pierced by window groupings that are linked vertically. The Fifth Avenue facade is two bays wide, while the West 30th Street facade is seven bays with slight projections in the center and western end. A metal fire escape was added to this center section.

 

The building retains its wood sash windows. Base: Fifth Avenue The two-story base consists of two wide bays, separated by a monumental cast-iron Composite order half-round column set on a cast-iron pier (that has been covered with a veneer of polished granite). At each end of the base is a rusticated stone pier (consisting of bands of rock-faced stone alternating with smaller bands of delicate decorative carving) with a polished granite base/watertable and a carved capital with a foliate-and-head design.

 

Each bay of the ground story originally had a display window with a transom and bulkhead, and an entrance door with a transom. There are now non-historic single-pane display windows (with rolldown gates), and non-historic double entrance doors with a transom in the southern bay; the storefront is surmounted by a non-historic projecting metal signband with large lettering.

 

The ground floor is surmounted by cast-iron spandrel panels with dentils and a ribbon design that continues from the central column. The second story has paired one-over-one double-hung wood windows separated by cast-iron colonnettes. The base is capped by a cast-iron and stone cornice with dentils (this cornice originally held lettering for Gilman Collamore & Co.).

 

Base: West 30th Street [east to west] The easternmost two bays are similar in treatment to the Fifth Avenue facade (minus entrances), and are a continuation of the ground-floor storefront. Both display windows retain their original decorative iron framing and bulkhead/grille (now covered with wood). A non-historic projecting metal signband with large lettering, similar to that on Fifth Avenue, surmounts the storefront; both bays have rolldown gates.

 

The slightly projecting central two bays are clad in rock-faced stone with quoins above a high polished granite watertable. Wide round-arched openings are set into this section below smooth-finished and molded surrounds on the ground floor.

 

The eastern bay originally had a basement entrance door surmounted by two windows set within the arch, and steps with iron railings; currently the portion below the stone spandrel panel has non-historic metal service doors, and a non-historic metal fan grille is placed within the arch.

 

The western bay has non-historic entrance doors (to the storefront) with a transom, set below the round-arched transom. A canopy has been placed within this arch, and there is a rolldown gate. The second-story paired windows have a central column, transom, and outer colonnettes surmounted by carved stone ornamental brackets.

 

The next two bays to the west are similar in treatment to the storefront bays on each facade. The ground floor of the eastern bay is filled with masonry, a door, louvers, and a metal grille. The ground floor of the western bay is filled with masonry, glass block and several small windows, and is partly covered with a metal grille.

 

The westernmost bay has the main residential entrance to the building. Flanking the entry are paired squat piers with carved capitals, above a polished granite watertable/base, that support a decorative entablature, from which springs a round arch. The entry has a low stone platform and non-historic doors and a transom.

 

The arch above the entrance has a transom (now covered) set below a smooth-finished, molded surround with a prominent foliate keystone and banderole with the carved inscription "WILBRAHAM." The spandrels are ornamented with elaborate carving. A canopy is hung by cables over the entrance within the arch, and a non-historic light fixture is placed on the arched surround. The second story has a paired window similar to those on the center bays of the West 30th Street facade.

 

Midsection This section, clad in Philadelphia brick with stone trim, consists of the third through the fifth stories. The Fifth Avenue bays are tripartite, while those on West 30th Street are double. The window groupings are linked vertically by colossal decorative stone half-round columns, edge moldings/ colonnettes surmounted by decorative carving, and keyed enframements.

 

Original windows are single-pane wood sash with transoms (transoms on the fourth story are round-arched). Stone spandrel panels have ornate foliate carving. Additionally, there are small original windows located in the center bays and in the next two bays to the west on the West 30th Street facade. The section is capped by a smooth-finished stone cornice with voussoirs, keystones, and dentils.

 

Upper Section This section consists of the sixth through the eighth floors, the last a mansard roof. The Fifth Avenue bays are tripartite, while those on West 30th Street are double. Original windows are one-over-one double hung wood sash. The sixth-story windows are segmental, flanked by piers with corbels, and are surmounted by a stone cornice with voussoirs and corbels.

 

The westermost bay is capped by a pediment above the sixth story. The seventh-story windows are separated by rock-faced stone piers and are surmounted by a rock-faced band course. The top-story mansard roof, now covered in standing-seam copper but originally slate with cresting, has dormers with paired windows set on rock-faced bases, with decorative frames and shed roofs with eaves decorated with egg-and-dart designs; and four tall brick-and-stone chimneys on the West 30th Street facade (each having projecting non-historic metal vents). A non-historic metal railing lines the roof, upon which there is a roof garden.

 

Penthouse The one-story penthouse (dating from 1890-91 and 1934-35), set back at the western half of the roof, is visible from the street. West Wall The top two stories of the western wall (brick, partly painted), as well as the building's water tank, are visible above the adjacent building.

 

- From the 2004 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

[I have found that one offshoot of the 365 day Portrait Project- one other than the fact that it is trying to get the time everyday to take a picture, try to make it interesting, and then make it both somewhat artistic and a reflection of me (and the by product that it is deadening the other photos I am taking for the photostream, which is hardly any, at the moment)- is that as new bumps and opportunities appear on life’s highway, they not only suggest photos but they demonstrate and illuminate where I am/was on a particular day, like today:]

 

A friend of a friend is looking for a place to live. He is a younger guy and happens to work (at least for now) within walking distance of my house. My friend Jayson thought it would be perfect for me to bring him in as a roommate, since I have been debating about getting a roommate to help pay the bills and mortgage for months. I didn’t just want to put out a blurb on Craig’s List, because of the bad experiences my friends have had with that, but this guy is now sort of within my social sphere, and I was keen on the idea of him moving in by the end of the month when it was presented to me yesterday, but some new wrinkles appeared today, and I am not sure what to do. I thought I might put it out to my Flickr friends to get your opinions as I mull it over. I appreciate everyone’s comments and input!!! Roommate or no?

 

[I suppose I could list things endlessly as they occur to me, but after 45 minutes, these are the ones that have sprung out at me:]

 

PROS:

I like the guy

He’s intelligent

He’s young and gay

I could use the money

He wants to do the gardening and would take care of the pool, so that I would save by cancelling those service men

He doesn’t smoke or drink (much); he doesn’t do drugs

He is spiritual and seems stable and mature

He’s a computer guy, and can fix computer hardware problems, as well as tinker to improve systems

He seems sensitive to my issues and misgivings, and I feel that he would not only enjoy living here, but he would really be interested in “helping me out” in keeping the house and making the repairs and improvements I have wanted to do for years but haven’t had the help

I would have company in the house again; Pepita would have another person to be around

I could go away for a time and leave Pepita without worrying about her or the house (well, not much worrying, anyway)

Pepita so far seems to tolerate him, though she was fussy with him tonight; no doubt she would get used to him and start to like him as well

With someone else in the house each night, I would feel safer

With someone in the house I would be more focused and wouldn’t goof off so much

With someone in the house I would usually go to bed earlier

With someone in the house I might eat better

He loves to cook

We might have Thanksgiving again here this year!!!!!!!!!!! YAY!!!!!!!!!!!!!

He’s cute, so he will always be nice to look at

He wants to create a vegetable garden outside

He has lots of ideas for improvements and repairs

I think we would have some nice discussions and conversations

My little-used master bathroom could be improved and I could actually get used to using it instead of the “green” bathroom in the hall I have always used since I have been in the house.

Shaking up my life and the patterns in this house probably would be a good thing for me as I move into a new chapter of my life- in some ways it will be like moving into a new place in my own house- not a bad thing, since there are still both the ghosts of what life was like with Richard here, as well as what it has been like for the two lonely years I have lived here alone.

He claims to be content to keep his stuff in his room for now and let me have the rest of the house for my stuff

I think we could be friends

  

CONS:

My privacy and private life would be radically altered

The money he is able to pay is about $300 less than I expected to get, and my expenses right now are very high

I do not know if I can even keep the house much longer, since I am still not working enough to pay all of my bills as it is

He wants to rent the room that is currently my study, instead of the guest room I have been offering

He wants to use the hall bathroom, which has been my habitual bathroom since I moved in, insead of the bathroom I offered

Moving all of my stuff around will be a LOT of work and stressful

I am not sure the guest room will be an adequate office/study for me

Where in the hell am I gonna put all of the stuff that I have to move out of the study that won’t fit?!?!?

I will have to get (or build) another bookcase in the living room

I will be forced to clean out the garage and make some order out there to accommodate the dislocated stuff from the study and guest room

It will be a little problematic for me or him if we bring someone home some evening- a loss of privacy issue

There will be less time for goofing off, for my obsessions, for my waking around the house naked

I will not be able to just leave messes around the house like I do now

There is a chance that he could break my stuff, or lose something, or some friend if his might come visit and do the same

He’s cute, so I might fall into jealousy issues, or envious issues if he brings guys home and I am all alone in my room...sob

I will be forced to cut back on many things I am spending money on (cable, phone, etc.) Right now because my prospective roommate won’t use the services and doesn’t want to help pay for them

He seems honest and straightforward, and has a strong, positive energy that I fear might be something that I will cower under, letting him take over instead of me saying anything, as I agree to what he wants (like this change of what I had planned as far as the room to rent), convincing myself that “I can live with that,” but in fact I really do not want it and won’t be able to live with it

I doubt my ability to draw boundaries where I need them to be drawn

The job he has is temporary, and he might get a job somewhere else farther away and not want to be stuck in Van Nuys any longer (though if he moves in, it seems like he would be willing to make a commitment to stay indefinitely)

I have to decide by the end of the week so things can either get underway or he can start looking elsewhere

What if I solidfy a boyfriend and he wants to move in?!?!? Do I kick the roommate out?

I am just not certain that it will work out

I am really afraid of such radical change (but should an emotion like fear really stop me?!?!?)

Yoko Ono’s own relationship and partnership with John Lennon have given her access and opportunities she might never have achieved on her own, but her status as a pop icon has largely obscured her own achievements as an artist. Now where is this more obvious than in the area of filmmaking. Between 1966 and 1971, Ono made substantial contribution to avant-garde cinema,

 

Most of which are now a vague memory, even for those generally cognizant of developments in this field. With few expectations, her films have been out of circulation for years, but fortunately this situation needs to be changing; in the spring of 1989 the Whitney Museum of American Art presented a film retrospective along with a small show of objects - eighties versions of conceptual objects Ono has exhibited in 1966 and 1967 – and the American Federation of Arts re-released Ono’s films in the spring of 1991.

Except as a film-goer, Ono was not involved with film until the 1960s, though by this time she began to make her own films, she was an established artist. At the end of the fifties, after studying poetry and music at Sarah Lawrence College, she became part of a circle of avant-garde musicians (including John Cage and Merce Cunningham): in fact the “Chambers Street Series.” An influential concert series organized by LaMonte Young, was held at Ono’s loft at 112 Chambers. Ono’s activities in music led to her first public concert, A Grapefruit in the World of Park (at the Village Gate, 1961) and later that same year to an evening of performance events in which Yvonne Rainer stood up and sat down before a table stacked with dishes for ten minutes, then smashed the dishes “accompanied by a rhythmic background of repeated syllables, a tape recording of moans and words spoken backwards, and by an aria of high-pitched wails sung by Ono” (Barbara Haskell’s description in Yoko Ono: Objects, Films, the catalogue for the 1989 Whitney Museum show).

 

In the early sixties Ono was part of what became known as Fluxus, an art movement with roots in Dada, in Marcel Duchamp and John Cage, and energised by George Maciunas. The Fluxus artists were dedicated to challenging conventional definitions in the fine arts, and conventional relationships between artwork and viewer. In the early sixties, Ono made such works as Painting to See the Room through (1961), a canvas with an almost invisible hole in the centre through which one peered to see the room, and Painting to Hammer the Nail in (1961), a white wood panel that “viewers” were instructed to hammer nails into with an attached hammer. Instructions for dozens of these early pieces, and for later ones, are reprinted in Ono’s Grapefruit, which has appeared several times in several different editions- most recently in a Simon and Schuster/ Touchstone paperback edition, reprinted in 1979.

 

By the mid sixties, Ono had become interested in film, as a writer of mini film scripts (sixteen are reprinted in the Fall 1989 Film Quarterly), and as a contributor of three films to the Fluxfilm Program coordinated by Maciunas in 1966: two one-shot films shot at 2000 frames per second, Eyeblink and Match, and No.4, a sequence of buttocks of walking males and females. Along with several other films in the Fluxfilm Program (and two 1966 films by Bruce Baillie), Eyeblink and No.4 are, so far as I know, the first instances of what was to become a mini-genre of avant-garde cinema: the single-shot film (films that are or appear to be precisely one shot long), No.4 (Bottoms) (1966).

 

For the eighty minutes of No.4 (Bottoms), all we see are human buttocks in the act of walking, filmed in black and white, in close-up, so that each buttocks fills the screen: the crack between the cheeks and the crease between hams and legs divide the frame into four approximately equal sectors: we cannot see around the edges of the walking bodies. Each buttocks is filmed for a few seconds (often for fifteen seconds or so; sometimes for less than ten seconds), and is then followed immediately by the next buttocks. The sound track consists of interviews with people whose buttocks we see and with other people considering whether to allow themselves to be filmed; they talk about the project in general, and they raise the issue of the film’s probable boredom, which becomes a comment on viewers’ actual experience of the film. The sound track also includes segments of television news coverage of the project (which had considerable visibility in London in 1966), including an interview with Ono, who discusses the conceptual design of the film.

 

No. 4 (Bottoms) is fascinating and entertaining, especially in its revelation of the human body. Because Ono’s structuring of the visuals is rigorously serial, No.4 (Bottoms) is reminiscent of Edward Muybridge’s motion studies, though in this instance the “grid” against which we measure the motion is temporal, as well as implicitly spatial: though there’s no literal grid behind the bottoms, each bottom is framed in precisely the same way. What we realize from seeing these bottoms, and inevitably comparing them with one another- and with our idea of “bottom”- is both obvious and startling. Not only are people’s bottoms remarkably varied in their shape, colouring, and texture, but no two bottoms move in the same way.

 

On a more formal level No.4 (Bottoms) is interesting both as an early instance of the serial structuring that was to become so common in avant-garde film by the end of the sixties (in Snow’s Wavelength and Ernie Gehr’s Serene Velocity, 1970; Hollis Frampton’s Zorns Lemma, 1970 and Robert Huot’s Rolls: 1971, 1972; J.J. Murphey’s Print Generation, 1974…) and because Ono’s editing makes the experience of No.4 (Bottoms) more complex than simple descriptions of the film seem to suggest. As the film develops, particular bottoms and comments on the sound track are sometimes repeated, often in new contexts; and a variety of subtle interconnections between image and sound occur.

 

Like No.4 (Bottoms), Ono’s next long film, Film No.5 (Smile) (1968, fifty-one minutes), was an extension of work included in the Fluxfilm Program. Like her Eyeblink and Match- and like Chieko Shiomi’s Disappearing Music for Face (in which Ono’s smile gradually “disappears”), also on the Fluxfilm Program- Film No.5 (Smile) was shot with a high-speed camera. Unlike these earlier films, all of which filmed simple actions in black and white, indoors, at 2000 frames per second, Film No.5 (Smile) reveals John Lennon’s face, recorded at 333 frames per second for an extended duration, outdoors, in colour, and accompanied by a sound track of outdoor sounds recorded at the same time the imagery was recorded. Film No.5 (Smile) divides roughly into two halves, one continuous shot each. During the first half, the film is a meditation on Lennon’s face, which is so still that on first viewing I wasn’t entirely sure for a while that the film was live action and not an optically printed photograph of Lennon smiling slightly. Though almost nothing happens in any conventional sense, the intersection of the high-speed filming and our extended gaze creates continuous, subtle transformations: it is as if we can see Lennon’s expression evolve in conjunction with the flow of his thoughts. Well into the first shot, Lennon forms his lips into an “O”- a kiss perhaps- and then slowly returns to the slight smile with which the shot opens. During the second shot of Film No.5 (Smile), which differs from the first in subtleties of colour and texture (both shots are lovely), Lennon’s face is more active; he blinks several times, sticks his tongue out, smiles broadly twice, and seems to say “Ah!” Of course, while the second shot is more active than the first, the amount of activity remains minimal by conventional standards (and unusually so even for avant-garde film.) It is as though those of us in the theatre and Lennon are meditating on each other from opposite sides of the cinematic apparatus, joined together by Ono in a lovely, hypnotic stasis.

 

The excitement Ono and Lennon were discovering living and working together fuelled Two Virgins (1968) and Bed-In (1969), both of which were collaborations. Two Virgins enacts two metaphors for the two artists’ interaction. First, we see a long passage of Ono’s and Lennon’s faces superimposed, often with a third layer of leaves, sky, and water; then we see an extended shot of Ono and Lennon looking at each other, then kissing. Bed-In is a relatively conventional record of the Montreal performance; it includes a number of remarkable moments, most noteworthy among them, perhaps, Al Capp’s blatantly mean-spirited, passive-aggressive visit, and the song “Give Peace a Chance.” Nearly all of Ono’s remaining films were collaborations with John Lennon.

 

When the Whitney Museum presented Ono’s films at its 1989 retrospective, Rape (1969) provoked the most extensive critical commentary. The relentless seventy-seven-minute feature elaborates the single action of a small filmmaking crew coming upon a woman in a London park and following her through the park, along streets, and into her apartment where she becomes increasingly isolated by her cinematic tormentors. (Her isolation is a theme from the beginning since the woman speaks German; because the film isn’t subtitled, even we don’t know what she’s saying in any detail.) The film was, according to Ono, a candid recording by cinematographer Nic Knowland of a woman who was not willingly a part of this project. When Rape was first released, it was widely seen as a comment on Ono’s experience on being in the media spotlight with Lennon. Two decades later, the films seems more a parable about the implicit victimization of women by the institution of cinema.

 

Fly (1970) has a number of historical precedents- Willard Maas’s Geography of the Body (1943), most obviously- but it remains powerful and fascinating. At first, a fly is seen, in extreme close-up, as it “explores” the body of a nude woman (she’s identified as “Virginia Lust” in the credits); later more and more flies are seen crawling on the body, which now looks more like a corpse; and at the end, the camera pans up and “flies” out the window of the room. The remarkable sound track is a combination of excerpts from Ono’s vocal piece, Fly, and music composed by Lennon.

 

Up Your Legs Forever (1970) is basically a remake of No.4 (Bottoms), using legs, rather than buttocks: the camera continually pans up from the feet to the upper thighs of hundreds of men and women, as we listen to the sound of the panning apparatus and a variety of conversations about the project. Though UP Your Legs Forever has some interesting moments, it doesn’t have the drama or the humour of No.4 (Bottoms).

 

Ono and Lennon also collaborated on two Lennon films (whether a film is a “Lennon film” or and “Ono film” depends on whose basic concept instigated the project). Apotheosis (1970) is one of the most ingenious single-shot films ever made. A camera pans up the cloaked bodies of Lennon and Ono, then on up into the sky above a village, higher and higher across snow-covered fields (the camera was mounted in a hot-air balloon, which we never see- though we hear the device that heats the air) and then up into the clouds; the screen remains completely white for several minutes, and finally, once many members of the audience have given up on the film, the camera rises out into the sunny skyscraper above the clouds. The film is a test and reward of viewer patience and serenity. For Erection, a camera was mounted so that we can watch the construction of a building, in time-lapse dissolves from one image to another, several hours or days later. The film is not so much about the action of constructing a building (as a pixellated film of such a subject might be), as it is about the subtle, sometimes magical changes that take place between the dissolves. Erection is more mystery than documentation.

 

Imagine (1971)- not to be confused with the recent Imagine: John Lennon (1988, directed by Andrew Solt)- was the final Ono/Lennon cinematic collaboration: it’s a series of sketches accompanied by their music. Since 1971 Ono has made no films, though she did make a seven minute video documenting the response to a conceptual event at the Museum of Modern Art: Museum of Modern Art Show (1971). She has also made several music videos that document her process of recovering from Lennon’s death- Walking on Thin Ice (1981), Woman (1981), Goodbye Sadness (1982)- as well as records and art objects.

 

Of course, she remains one of the world’s most visible public figures and the most widely known conceptual artist.

 

I spoke with Ono at her office at the Dakota in May 1989.

 

MacDonald: Were you a moviegoer as a child?

 

Ono: I was a movie buff, yes. In prep school in Tokyo you were supposed to go directly home after school. But most kids often went to the movies. We used to hide our school badges and sneak into the theatre.

 

MacDonald: Do you remember what you saw?

 

Ono: Yes, I mostly saw French films. There was a group of kids who like American films- Jimmy Stewart and Katharine Hepburn, Doris Day and Rock Hudson, Bob Hope and Bing Crosby- and there was another crowd of girls who thought they were intellectuals, and went to French films. I was in the French film group. We would go to see The Children of Paradise (1945), that sort of thing. It was a very exciting time. I loved those films.

 

MacDonald: Did you see some of the early French surrealist films from the twenties?

 

Ono: Those things I saw much later. We’re talking about when I was in high school in the late forties. I saw the surrealist films in the sixties in New York and Paris.

 

The films I saw in high school that were closest to surrealism wee the Cocteau films, Beauty and the Beast and Orpheus (1950). Those films really gave me some ideas.

 

MacDonald: The earliest I know of you in connection with film is the sound track you did for Taka Iimura’s Love in 1963 by hanging the microphone out the window. I know the later Fluxfilm reels that were made in 1966, but did the Fluxus group get involved with film before that?

 

Ono: No. I think that one of the reasons why we couldn’t make films or didn’t think of making films was that we felt that it was an enormously expensive venture. At that time, I didn’t even have the money to buy canvas. I’d go to army surplus shops and get that canvas that’s rolled up. During that period, I felt that getting a camera to do a film was unrealistic.

 

MacDonald: Grapefruit includes three tiny descriptions of conceptual film projects that are identified as excerpts from “Six Film Scripts by Yoko Ono.” Were there others, or was the indication that there were six scripts a conceptual joke?

 

Ono: No, there were six at first; then later there were others. At the time I wrote those scripts, I sent most of them to Jones Mekas, to document them. Actually, that’s why I have copies of them now.

 

MacDonald: There seems to be confusion about the names and numbers of the films on the Fluxfilm Program, and about who did them. I assume you made the two slow-motion films, Eyeblink and Match, and the first film about buttocks, No.4.

 

Ono: Those are mine, yes.

 

MacDonald: Did people collaborate in making those films, or did everybody work individually and then just put the films onto those two Fluxus reels?

 

Ono: One day George (Maciunas) called me and said he’s got the use of a high-speed camera and it’s a good opportunity, so just come over (to Peter Moore’s apartment on East 36th St) and make some films. So I went there, and the high-speed camera was set up and he said, “Give me some ideas!” Think of some ideas for films!” There weren’t many people around, at the beginning just George and…

 

MacDonald: Peter Moore is credited on a lot of the slow-motion films.

 

Ono: Yeah, Peter Moore was there, and Barbara Moore came too. And other people were coming in- I forget who they were- but not many. When I arrived, I was the only person there, outside of George. I don’t know how George managed to get the high-speed camera. I don’t think he paid for it. But it was the kind of opportunity that if you can get it, you grab it. So I’m there, and I got the idea of Match and Eyeblink and we shot these. Eyeblink didn’t come out too well. It was my eye, and I didn’t like my eye.

 

MacDonald: I like that film a lot. Framed the way it is, the eye becomes erotic; it’s suggestive of body parts normally considered more erotic.

 

Ono: The one of those high-speed films I liked best was one you didn’t mention: Smoking.

 

MacDonald: The one by Joe Jones.

 

Ono: Yes. I thought that one was amazing, so beautiful; it was like frozen smoke.

 

MacDonald: There’s a film on that reel called Disappearing Music for Face…

 

Ono: Chieko Shiomi’s film, yeah.

 

MacDonald: I understand you were involved in that one too.

 

Ono: Well, that was my smile. That was me. What happened was that Chieko Shiomi was in Japan at the time. She was coming here often; it wasn’t like she was stationed in Japan all the time, but at the time I think she had just left to go to Japan. Then this high-speed camera idea came up, and when George was saying, “Quick, quick, ideas,” I said, “Well, how about smile”; and he said, “NO, that you can’t do, think of something else.” “But,” I said, “Smile is a very important one, I really want to do it,” because I always had that idea, but George keeps saying, “No you can’t do that one.” Finally, he said, “Well, OK , actually I wanted to save that for Chieko Shiomi because she had the same idea. But I will let you perform.” So that’s me smiling. Later I found out that her concept was totally different from what I wanted to do. Chieko Shiomi’s idea is beautiful; she catches the disappearance of a smile. At the time I didn’t know what her title was.

 

MacDonald: I assume No.4 was shot at a different time.

 

Ono: Yes. At the time I was living at 1 West 100th Street. It was shot in my apartment. My then husband Tony Cox and Jeff Perkins helped.

 

MacDonald: The long version of the buttocks film, No.4 (Bottoms), is still amazing.

 

Ono: I think that film had a social impact at the time because of what was going on in the world and also because of what was going on in the film world. It’s a pretty interesting film really.

 

Do you know the statement I wrote about taking any film and burying it underground for fifty years [see Grapefruit (New York; Simon and Schuster/ Touchstone, 1971), Section 9, “On Film No.4,” paragraph 3, and “On Film No.5 and Two Virgins,” paragraph 2]? It’s like wine. Any film, any cheap film, if you put it underground for fifty years, becomes interesting [laughter]. You just take a shot of people walking, and that’s enough: the weight of history is so incredible.

 

MacDonald: When No.4 (Bottoms) was made, the idea of showing a lot of asses was completely outrageous. Bottoms were less-respected, less-revealed part of the anatomy. These days things have changed. Now bottoms are OK- certain bottoms. What I found exhilarating about watching the film (maybe because I’ve always been insecure about my bottom!) is that after you see hundreds of bottoms, you realize that during the whole time you watched the film, you never saw the “correct,” marketable jean-ad bottom. You realize that nobody’s bottom is the way bottoms are supposed to be: the droop, or there are pimples- something is “wrong.” I think the film has almost as much impact now as it did then- though in a different way.

 

Ono: Well, you see, it’s not just to do with bottoms. For me the film is less about bottoms than about a certain bear, a beat you didn’t see in films, even in avant-garde films, then.

 

This is something else, but I remember one beautiful film where the stationary camera just keeps zooming toward a wall…

 

MacDonald: Wavelength? Michael Snow’s film?

 

Ono: Right, Michael Snow. That’s an incredibly beautiful film. A revolution in itself really. Bottoms film was a different thing, but just as revolutionary I think. It was about a beat, about movement. The beat in bottoms film is comparable to a rock beat. Even in the music world there wasn’t that beat until rock came. It’s the closest thing to the heartbeat. I tried to capture that again with Up Your Legs Forever. But in No.4 (Bottoms) it worked much better. Maybe it was the bottoms. That film has a basic energy. I couldn’t capture it in Up Your Legs Forever.

 

MacDonald: No.4 (Bottoms) plays with perceptions and memory in different ways. For a while it seems like a simple, serial structure, one bottom after another. Then at a certain point you realize, Oh I’ve seen that bottom before… but was it with this sound? No, I don’t think so. Later you may see another bottom a second time, clearly with the same sound. A new kind of viewing experience develops. Did you record all the bottoms and the spoken material for the track, and then later, using that material, develop a structure? It seems almost scored.

 

Ono: Yes. I spent a lot of hours editing. It wasn’t just put together. The sequence was important. A sympathetic studio said that I could come at midnight or whenever no one was using the facilities, to do the editing. I got a lot of editing time free; that’s how I was able to finish it.

 

MacDonald: On the sound track some of the participants talk about the process of getting people to show up to have their bottoms recorded, but I’m not completely sure what the process was. You put an ad in a theatrical paper apparently.

 

Ono: Well, we had an ad, yes, but most of the people were friends of friends. It became a fantastic event. You have to understand, the minute the announcement was made, there was a new joke about it in the newspapers everyday, and everybody was into it. We filmed at Victor Musgrave’s place; he was a very good friend who was very generous in letting me use his townhouse.

 

MacDonald: Did you select bottoms or did you use everybody that was filmed? Were there really 365 bottoms involved?

 

Ono: I didn’t select bottoms. There was not enough for 365 anyway. And the impact of the film as a happening was already getting lost from filming for so long. And there was the rental of the camera and the practical aspect of the shooting schedule. At a certain point I said, “Oh well, the number’s conceptual anyway, so who cares. It’s enough!”

 

MacDonald: I assume that when you did the early Fluxus version of No.4, you just followed people walking across an apartment. For the long film you’d built a machine to do the filming, which allowed you to film in more controlled close-up; we can’t see around the sides of the bodies the way we can in the earlier film.

 

Ono: Well, in the first No.4 I was pretty close too. But, as you say, it wasn’t really perfect. In London we did it almost perfect. In London we did it almost perfectly. My idea both times was very visual. All my films had very visual concepts behind them in the beginning. I mean No.4 (Bottoms) has many levels of impact- one being political- but originally I simply wanted to cover the screen with one object, with something that was moving constantly. There’s always a background. The closest you get to what I mean s like some macho guy, a cowboy or something, standing with his back to the screen, but you always see a little background. The screen is never covered; so I thought, if you don’t leave a background it might be like the whole screen is moving. I just wanted to have that experience. As you say, it didn’t work in the early version, but it was the first idea I had for the film actually.

 

And also, the juxtaposition of the movement of the four sections of the bottoms was fascinating, I thought.

 

MacDonald: No.4 (Bottoms) reminds me of Edward Muybridge’s motion photographs.

 

Ono: Oh I see, yeah.

 

MacDonald: Was the finished film shown a lot?

 

Ono: Well, I finally got an OK from the censor and we showed it in Charing Cross Road. Then some American Hollywood producer came and said he wanted to buy it and take it to the United States. Also, he wanted me to make 365 breasts, and I said, if we’re going to do breasts, then I will do a sequence of one breast, you know, fill the screen with a single breast over and over, but I don’t think that was erotic enough for him. He was thinking eroticism; I was thinking about visual, graphic concepts- a totally different thing. I was too proud to make two breasts [laughter]. I think there was an attempt to take the bottoms film to the United States, but it was promptly confiscated by the censor.

 

MacDonald: At customs?

 

Ono: Yes.

 

MacDonald: There’s a mention on the sound track that you were planning to do other versions of that film in other countries, and the film ends with the phrase, “To Be Continued.” Was that a concept for other films, or were there some specific plans for follow-ups?

 

Ono: Well you see, all my films do have a conceptual side. I have all these scripts, and I get excited just to show them to people because my hope is that maybe they will want to make some of them. That would be great. I mean most of my films are film instructions; they were never made actually. Just as film instructions, I think they are valid, but it wouldn’t be very good if somebody makes them. I don’t have to make them myself. And also, each film I made had a projection of future plans built into the idea. If somebody picks up on one of them, that’s great.

 

At the time I was making films, what I felt I was doing was similar to what The Rocky Horror Picture Show [1975] did later. I wanted to involve the audience directly in new ways.

 

MacDonald: How did Film No.5 (Smile) come about?

 

Ono: When I went to London, I still kept thinking about the idea of smile, so when I had the chance, I decided to do my version. Of course, until John and I got together, I could never have rented a high-speed camera. Well, maybe if I’d looked into it, I could have. I don’t know, but I thought it would be too expensive.

 

MacDonald: Did you know Lennon well at the point when you did Film No.5 (Smile)?

 

Ono: Yes.

 

MacDonald: Because I wondered whether you made the film because you wanted to capture a certain complexity in him, or whether the complexity that’s revealed in that seemingly simple image is a result of what the high-speed camera reveals, or creates, as it films,

 

Ono: Well, certainly I knew John was complex person. But the film wasn’t so much about his complexity as a person. I was trying to capture the complexity of a visual experience. What you see in that film is very similar to how you perceive somebody when you are on acid. We had done acid trips together, and that gave me the idea. I wondered how do you capture this?

 

MacDonald: It’s a beautiful film.

 

Ono: Well, of course, you know from the statements I made about Smile [see Ono, Grapefruit, “On Film No.5 & Two Virgins”] that my idea was really very different from the film I finally made. My idea was to do everybody’s smile. But when I met John, I thought, doing everybody’s smile is going to be impossible; and he can represent everybody’s smile.

 

MacDonald: What I find incredible about Smile is that as you watch John’s face, it’s almost as though you can see his mind working. I don’t know whether it’s an optical illusion, maybe it’s created by the way that the camera works. But it’s almost as though as you watch, the expression is changing every second.

 

Ono: I know. It’s incredible, isn’t it? Of course I didn’t know what exactly a high-speed camera would do. I knew in general, but I didn’t know what the exact effect would be. And, of course, I never would have known unless George Maciunas had rented a high-speed camera and called me up. George was a very interesting person. He had a very artistic mind. I never knew why he didn’t create his own art; he always wanted to take the role of helping create other people’s work. But that combination was very good; he not only executed what we wanted, he gave us the opportunity to look into the areas we would never have looked into. He had that kind of mind.

 

MacDonald: With Two Virgins you and John began collaborating on films and in the next few years there was a whole series of collaborations. Judging from the credits on the films, I assume that one or the other of you would get an idea and then both of you would work the idea out, and whoever had the original idea for a particular film- that film was theirs. Normally, the directorial credit is considered the most important one, but on these films there’s a more basic credit. It might be “Film by Yoko Ono,” then “Directed and produced by John and Yoko.” Am I correct: was it that whoever had the original concept for the film, that’s whose film it was?

 

Ono: Yes.

 

MacDonald: I remember reading years ago in a collection of Rolling Stone interviews that when you and John got involved with politics and in particular with the Bed-In, It was partly because Peter Watkins had written you a letter. Is that how you remember it?

 

Ono: Well, yes, Peter Watkin’s letter was a confrontation to us, and at the time we had a conversation about what we felt we had been doing politically: “Well, I was doing this, Yes I was doing that.” As a Beatle, John was always asked, “What is your position about the Vietnam War,” or something else; and I think that their manager, Brian Epstein, was very concerned that they wouldn’t make any statements, and so they didn’t make any direct statements. But a covert statement was made through an album cover that was censored, as you know. And I was standing in Trafalgar Square, in a bag, for peace and all that. So separately we had that awareness, and we were expressing it in the ways that we could. I was doing it more freely because it was easier for me. So we were comparing notes after getting the letter, and then we were saying, “Well what about doing something together,” which was the Bed-In (and the film Bed-In), so Peter Watkin’s letter definitely did mean something to us.

 

MacDonald: How much control did you (or you and John) have over the way Bed-In looks? You credit a large crew on that film. What was your part in the final film, other than as performers?

 

Ono: We always maintained careful control over the finished films. I was generally in charge of editing, which I did for that film, and for others, frame by frame. I mean I would have a film editor working with me- I don’t know the technology- but I would be very specific about what I wanted. When Jonas [Mekas] did the John and Yoko screenings at Anthology [Anthology Film Archives], I had three editing machines and editors brought into our hotel room, and I edited Bed-In there because of the deadline.

 

I enjoy the editing part of filmmaking most of all; that’s where the films really get made.

 

MacDonald: Rape is often talked about as a parable of the media intruding into your lives, but when I saw it again the other week, it struck me as very similar to pieces in Grapefruit.

 

Ono: Well, they keep saying that. I’ll tell you what happened. By the time that I actually got to make the film, John and I were together, and the reporters were hounding us, but the Rape concept was something I thought of before John and I got together.

 

MacDonald: In Grapefruit there’s “Black Piece II,” a part of which is “Walk behind a person for four hours.”

 

Ono: It was that kind of thing, right. But it was also a film script

 

[“Film No.5 (Rape or Chase)”]

 

MacDonald: How candid is the Rape footage? It no longer looks candid to me.

 

Ono: It was completely candid- except for the effects we did later in the editing. The girl in the film did not know what was happening. Her sister was in on it, so when she calls her sister on the phone, her sister is just laughing at her and the girl doesn’t understand why. Nic Knowland did the actual shooting. I wasn’t there. Everything was candid, but I kept pushing him to bring back better material. The type of material he brought back at first was something like he would be standing on the street, and when a group of girls passed by, he would direct the camera to them. The girls would just giggle and run away, and he wouldn’t follow. I kept saying he could do better than that, be he actually had a personal problem doing the film because he was a Buddhist and a peacenik: he didn’t want to intrude on people’s privacy. I remember John saying later that no actress could have given a performance that real.

 

I’ve done tons of work, and I don’t have time to check it all out, but I wish I could check about this strange thing, which is that a lot of my works have been a projection of my future fate. It frightens me. It simply frightens me. I don’t want to see Rape now. I haven’t seen the Rape film in a long time, but just thinking about the concept of it frightens me because now I’m in that position, the position of the woman in the film.

 

MacDonald: In the video Walking on Thin Ice, we see a similar scene, but with you.

 

Ono: I know. And why did I think of that song? After I wrote that song all sorts of trouble started to happen, all of which was somehow related to the song, that feeling of walking on thin ice. Sometimes I intentionally try to write something positive. But in a situation like that, art comes first. I really thought “Walking on Thin Ice” was a good song when it came to me. I had no qualms about recording it. The artistic desire of expressing something supersedes the worry, I suppose, and you think, ah it’s nothing, it’s fine, it’s just a nice song or something; and then it turns out that it becomes my life and I don’t want that.

 

Just recently I was in this film where I performed as a bag lady [Homeless, by Yukihiko Tsutsumi, unreleased at time of interview]. I was a bit concerned what it might mean to enact a bag lady, in terms of future projections. But I reasoned that there are actors who die many times in films, but live long lives, so actually enacting death makes their real lives longer. Well, in the first scene it was a beautiful April day, one of those I’m-glad-to-be-in-New-York days, and I’m wearing these rags and I’m pushing an empty baby carriage in this beautiful green environment. And as I was doing it, I remembered the song “Greenfield Morning” and the line, “I pushed an empty baby carriage all over the city.” That was the first song we recorded for Yoko Ono’s Plastic Ono Band, and I think it’s in Grapefruit, too- I mean the instruction “Push an empty baby carriage” [See “City Piece: Walk all over the city with an empty baby carriage” (Winter, 1961) near the end of the first section (Music) of Grapefruit]. So I’m pushing the baby carriage and I’m thinking I don’t want to know about this. That aspect of projection is interesting, isn’t it?

 

MacDonald: Yes.

 

Ono: If you are somebody who makes films with a commercial concern or other concerns, other than just inspiration, maybe that sort of thing wouldn’t happen. I don’t know. But inspiration is very much connected with your life in past and future.

 

MacDonald: Apotheosis is a gorgeous film. It’s one of the collaborations that’s listed as John’s film, though the idea of stripping things away until you’ve got a white screen is very much like some of you work.

 

Ono: Well, I’ll tell you what happened. I think some of the instructions are already there in Grapefruit, or maybe not, maybe it’s one of the instructions that haven’t been published [Ono is referring to the second version of her film script, “Film No.1 (A Walk to the Taj Mahal)”]. There was a constant feeling of wanting to take an object that’s on the ground- not necessarily an object, could be a person- in fact the original idea was a drunken guy walking in a snowy field; you don’t see the drunken guy, but the camera suggests that he’s drunk because of the way it moves. So he walks and sways, and finally the camera goes up in the sky. When we did the cover for the “Two Virgins” album, where we were both naked, one of us said, “Why don’t we make a film where the camera moves from the ground up, shooting our naked bodies, and then just goes up in the air.” Later, John said, “Well, let’s make one where the camera goes up.” So the idea stemmed from that. What happened, of course, was that we didn’t expect the balloon film to be the way it was turned out. We went up in the balloon, and it happened to be a snowy day.

 

MacDonald: You were in the balloon with the camera?

 

Ono: Up to a certain point. The part where you go into the cloud, and then break out of the cloud, was taken later. The footage that came back from the lab was beautiful. It was just something that happened naturally, the dogs barking, everything that happened- it was an incredible experience. We didn’t expect it was going to be that beautiful. A lot of things just happen, you know.

 

MacDonald: If you allow them to, I guess.

 

Ono: Yes!

 

MacDonald: Fly seems almost the opposite of Apotheosis in a way; it seems…

 

Ono: Very much intentionally calculated?

 

MacDonald: Right.

 

Ono: It’s true

 

MacDonald: You did the sound [for the vocal piece Fly] before you did the film. Had you had the idea in mind then?

 

Ono: I was always thinking about the idea of fly. Actually, I was always fascinated with the pun “fly and “fly” in English. There was also a conceptual event about flies and where they fly to.

 

MacDonald: The piece you did for the Museum of Modern Art?

 

Ono: Yes. Did you see that Museum of Modern Art catalogue? [A 112-page, one foot by one foot catalogue- the title seems to be Museum of Modern FArt (Ono is carrying a shopping bag with the letter “F” directly beneath the Museum of Modern Art marquee)- which details her concept at length; the catalogue was designed by Ono and produced by Michael Gross.] At the end of that, I talk about how to fly,

 

MacDonald: I know the video with the sandwich-board guy in front of the Museum of Modern Art who interviews people about the Yoko Ono show that “isn’t there” [The Museum of Modern Art Show]. In the text for that piece, you explain how some flies were exposed to your perfume and let loose and that people are following those flies around to see where they land.

 

Ono: The catalogue was made for that event; it had all sorts of interesting stuff in it, about how to fly and all that. All the pages are postcards that you could mail, so the catalogue and Fly piece could fly all over the place.

 

MacDonald: So MoMA had this on sale?

 

Ono: No, no, no, no! MoMA would not do it. MoMA was busy saying to people, “There’s no Yoko Ono show here.” People would come in and ask, is there a Yoko Ono show, and they would say no. They were very upset; they didn’t know what was going on. I couldn’t sell the book anywhere. Nobody bought it, so I have piles of it.

 

MacDonald: Earlier, in the mid sixties, you did a number of descriptions of environmental boxes that the viewer would go inside of and images would be projected on the outside. Eyeblink was involved in a number of those descriptions, and another was called “Fly”. I guess the idea was that a viewer would go inside the box and on all sides you would project images that would create the sensation that the viewer was flying.

 

Ono: How do you know about those boxes?

 

MacDonald: I found the descriptions in the Fluxus Codex, in the Yoko Ono section [See John Hendricks, Fluxus Codex (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1988), p.418 for the descriptions]. Was either piece ever built?

 

Ono: They were never built. I haven’t seen these ideas since I did them. Whenever I had an idea, I sent it to George Maciunas. He probably kept them. I don’t even have the originals for those. I’ll have to get this book. You know, I have this thing about reading about me. When something about me is in a book, I mostly don’t want to know about it.

 

MacDonald: One of the interesting things about watching the film Fly is that one’s sense of what the body we’re seeing is about, and what the film is about, is constantly changing.

 

Ono: A cartoon in a newspaper gave me the idea. There’s this woman with a low-cut dress, and a guy is looking at her, and the guy’s wife says, “What are you looking at!” and the guy says, “Oh, I’m looking at a fly on her.” I wanted the film to be an experience where you’re always wondering, am I following the movement of the fly or am I looking at the body? I think that life is full of that kind of thing. We’re always sort of deceiving ourselves about what we’re really seeing.

 

MacDonald: Do you know the Willard Maas film, Geography of the Body? It’s all close-ups of bodies, framed so that you can’t quite tell what body part you’re looking at- but they all look erotic. Eyeblink is a little like that, and Fly is full of the same effect. If you go close enough, every part of the body looks the same, and they’re all equally erotic.

 

Ono: Oh, there’s an incredible film instruction that has to do with that close-up idea. It’s a travelogue [“Film No.13 (Travelogue”]. You have a travelogue to Japan or somewhere, and you say, “Well, now I’m on Mount Fuji,” and there’s an incredible close-up of stones; and then, “We bathed in a mixed bath,” and you see just steam- you get it?- and then, “We ate noodles,” and you see an incredible close-up of noodles… so in effect you can make a travelogue of any country without going out of your apartment! “Then we saw geisha girls,” and you see an incredible close-up of hair [laughter]. I wanted to make that, but I just never got around it.

 

MacDonald: Freedom [1970], the little one-minute film of you trying to take your bra off, was made the same year as Fly.

 

Ono: Yeah, isn’t that a great little film?

 

MacDonald: It’s so paradoxical. You show freedom as the ability to try to break free, which implies that you’re never really free.

 

Ono: Right, exactly.

 

MacDonald: You mentioned earlier that you didn’t think Up Your Legs Forever worked as well as No.4 (Bottoms). I thought it was interesting to see that people’s one leg is very different from their other leg.

 

Ono: The best thing about that film is the title, I think. My first vision for that film was like going up all the legs, up, up, up, to eternity. [“Film No. 12 (Esstacy)”- the misspelling of “ecstasy” is left as it was in the original film script, at Ono’s request]. But in making it, that vision got lost because of what was necessary to film the legs. I don’t know how you can do what I originally had in mind.

 

MacDonald: Jonas and Adolfas Mekas are thanked at the end of Up Your Legs Forever.

 

Ono: Because they did the editing. That was one of the few films I didn’t edit myself.

 

MacDonald: Somebody mentioned to me the other day, and I assume it’s not true, that Erection was originally a film about John’s penis. Was there a film like that?

 

Ono: Yes, there was. But it wasn’t called Erection. I think it was called Self Portrait, and it wasn’t an erection, it was just a long shot of his penis. That was his idea. The funny thing was that Self Portrait was never questioned by customs because of it’s title, and Erection, which was about the erection of a building , was questioned.

 

MacDonald: Is there a relation between the 1971 version of Imagine and the recent Imagine: John Lennon?

 

Ono: There’s no relationship. We wanted to make surrealistic film in the tradition of Luis Bunuel and Jean Cocteau. It was John’s idea to say just one or two words at the beginning, and make the reset of the film silent, like silent movie. I liked that idea and we did it. I think that now it’s more or less known as a forefather of MTV. Each scene came from some idea John or I had. It was really a collaboration between John and me.

 

MacDonald: Are you involved in film now? Are you planning to make films? You made several videos in the early eighties, but it’s been a while since you’ve made a film.

 

Ono: I don’t know; it might get to that. I’m one of those people who can’t do something unless I’m totally motivated. That’s one of the reasons I jump from one medium to another. I did the Whitney Museum show, and suddenly all the inspiration is sculptural; and then last night or the night before, I went to the studio to do some music. But I’m not getting that feeling like I gotta make a film- except for The Tea Party [the film script “Film No.7 (Tea Party)”]: for years I’ve been wanting to make that one, but because of the technical difficulties I don’t seem to be able to get it together. I think one of the reasons I’m not making more films is that I’ve done so many film scripts. I’d like to see one of them made by somebody else. Maybe one day out of the blue I’ll feel it so strongly that I’ll make a film myself again.

 

Seven months ago, my office moved to a new building. My "open office" is separated from to a conference room by a wall of glass.

 

We were told at move-in that the glass would be etched for privacy. That hasn't happened yet, so I got some static cling window film to put up on the middle of the windows, in direct violation of policy. (My awesome director told me to do this! Not his policy ...)

 

Much better. Now I don't have people staring at me while I'm trying to work.

I spend about half of my life in this approximately 8' x8' box. I drive, sleep, eat, read, and watch TV. It is literally my home away from home. Pardon any mess, but most everything is put or placed somewhere for practicality and accessibility, not for aesthetics. Besides, after almost three years your house would have a lived in look, too.

 

From the top down......... There is a sunroof in the roof / ceiling. I usually keep it covered as it often adds glare to the dash, which is annoying. Three storage areas below it. CD's on the left, baseball caps in the center and books on the right. Just below that more, smaller storage. On the left I keep my sunglasses and the current CD (I often listen to Books on CD) that I am listening to. Moving to the right there is a place for some optional switches. The CB radio is mounted in the center. (For the CB nuts it is a new model Cobra 29 LTD peaked and tuned with Galaxy finals added). Nothing in the small area to the right of the CB. On the far right is a bunch of miscellaneous stuff (duct tape, 20' tape measure, marker, stapler, accident reports with disposable camera, and other odds and ends).

 

The sun visor on the drivers side is down. The side facing me is covered with a smooth clear vinyl. I use a dry erase marker to keep notes on it.

 

In the center of the dash is the Qualcomm Satellite/GPS unit, a 12v-to-120v Power Inverter, and my cell phone.

 

There are privacy curtains that wrap around the side and front windows. They allow, well, privacy (you close your bedroom curtains at night, don't you?). And they really help during the winter to keep the inside of the cab warmer.

 

Quite simply, this is nothing more than a rolling office.

 

info:

Canon A-1

Canon 17mm F/4

Polaris Meter

Natural light from side windows and sunroof.

Metered and shot at f?5.6 @ 1/30

Kodak Portra 400VC (expired 2009)

Instead of a proper guest room, we have an all-purpose office/craft space/kid mess receptacle/place to flop down an air mattress. Which we're ok with, because we rarely have overnight guests. I'd originally had some notion that I'd fashion up some kind of curtain, modern and tailored. It never happened, and frankly, we prefer those rear-facing doors naked, letting the generous foliage out there take care of any privacy we'd need during heavy-duty craft/work sessions. But overnight guests tend to require arrangements for modesty. So today's naptime was spent in a quick and dirty hem job on some store-bought curtains. Which we'll probably pack up and store away until they're needed again.

 

www.lovelihood.com

We were charmed by this father and his children playing a game round the plinth of the statue in the Green Court.

 

Saturday 22nd May 2010 Our impressions of Knole

 

WHAT WE LIKED:

•It’s a calendar house: 365 rooms, 52 staircases and 7 courtyards. It’s simply enormous. A vast palace;

•The parkland, really beautiful, with rolling views northwards towards the North Downs;

•The front facade is exquisite. In fact we enjoyed much of the architecture, both outside and inside (wood panelling, window frames intricately carved, ceilings).

•We were invited to guess the meaning of one of the rooms we could view from an upstairs window – it turned out it was a jail for the area;

•In the Reynolds room (paintings by Joshua Reynolds) was one painting of a young Chinese man, painted in 1776. His name was Wang-y-Tong. He was brought over from China in the 18th century. The written guide said he was a page boy to the household, but the room guide told us he was more like a companion to the lady of the house. He was educated at Sevenoaks Grammar School, and went on to have a successful career as a banker in the City of London.

 

WHAT WE DISLIKED:

•The only rooms on view are 17 staterooms, which were laid out in the same way they would have been in the 17th century. If you love stately homes and palaces, this is the place for you. But we like to see at least one room which you can imagine the family using as a sitting room, or a bedroom which really was slept in. We passed through several bedrooms, but according to one of the room guides, these were more like offices where important meetings would take place. If something really private needed to be talked about, for extra privacy, the participants would sit on the bed, shut the curtains on the four poster bit, and discuss their business there (apparently sound doesn’t travel through fabric in these circumstances!!!);

•It would have been interesting to see some of the servant’s quarters as well for much of the same reasons as above;

•There were masses of paintings throughout the house, virtually all of them portraits. We found these oppressive. Would the family really have had so many paintings in the 17th century – surely a collection builds up over time;

•The tapestries were also oppressive, though I suppose they would have been authentic.

 

That all sounds rather negative, but what we liked about the property far outweighed what we disliked.

A long exposure photo of cars zoom zooming.

Frank Capra

from Wikipedia

 

Born Francesco Rosario Capra

May 18, 1897

Bisacquino, Sicily, Kingdom of Italy

Died September 3, 1991 (aged 94)

La Quinta, California, United States

Cause of death Heart failure

Occupation

 

Director Producer Writer

 

Years active 1922–1964

Political party Republican

Spouse(s)

Helen Howell (m. 1923; div. 1928)

Lucille Warner (m. 1932; wid. 1984)

Children 4

 

Frank Russell Capra (born Francesco Rosario Capra; May 18, 1897 – September 3, 1991) was an Italian-American film director, producer and writer who became the creative force behind some of the major award-winning films of the 1930s and 1940s. Born in Italy and raised in Los Angeles from the age of five, his rags-to-riches story has led film historians such as Ian Freer to consider him the "American dream personified."[1]

 

Capra became one of America's most influential directors during the 1930s, winning three Oscars as Best Director. Among his leading films was It Happened One Night (1934), which became the first film to win the "Big Five Academy Awards", including Best Picture. Other leading films in his prime included You Can't Take It With You (1938) and Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939). During World War II, Capra served in the U.S. Army Signal Corps and produced propaganda films, such as the Why We Fight series.

 

After World War II, Capra's career declined as his later films such as It's a Wonderful Life (1946) were critically derided as being "simplistic" or "overly idealistic".[2] In succeeding decades, however, these films have been favorably reassessed.

 

Outside of directing, Capra was active in the film industry, engaging in various political and social issues. He served as President of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, worked alongside the Screenwriters Guild, and was head of the Directors Guild of America.

 

Contents

 

1 Early life

2 World War I and after

3 Early career

3.1 Silent film comedies

3.2 Columbia Pictures

4 Film career (1934–1941)

4.1 It Happened One Night (1934)

4.2 Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939)

4.3 Meet John Doe (1941)

5 World War II years (1941–1945)

5.1 Joining the Army after Pearl Harbor

5.2 Why We Fight series

6 Post-war career (1946–1961)

6.1 It's a Wonderful Life (1946)

6.2 Representing U.S. at International Film Festival

6.3 Disillusionment period and later years

6.4 Later films (1950–1961)

7 Directing style

8 Personal life

9 Death

10 Political beliefs

11 Legacy

12 Awards and honors

12.1 Academy Awards

13 Filmography

14 See also

15 Notes

16 Citations

17 Bibliography

18 External links

18.1 Video clips

18.2 Audio clips

 

Early life

 

Capra was born Francesco Rosario Capra in Bisacquino, Sicily, a village near Palermo. He was the youngest of seven children of Salvatore Capra, a fruit grower, and the former Rosaria "Serah" Nicolosi. Capra's family was Roman Catholic.[3]

 

The name "Capra", notes Capra's biographer Joseph McBride, represents his family's closeness to the land, and means "goat".[4] He notes that the English word "capricious" derives from it, "evoking the animal's skittish temperament", adding that "the name neatly expresses two aspects of Frank Capra's personality: emotionalism and obstinacy."[4]

 

In 1903, when he was five, Capra emigrated to the United States with his family, who traveled in the steerage section of the boat, which was the cheapest way to gain passage. For Capra, the journey, which took 13 days, remained in his mind for the rest of his life as one of his worst experiences:

 

You're all together – you have no privacy. You have a cot. Very few people have trunks or anything that takes up space. They have just what they can carry in their hands or in a bag. Nobody takes their clothes off. There's no ventilation, and it stinks like hell. They're all miserable. It's the most degrading place you could ever be.[5]

 

Capra remembers the ship's arrival in New York Harbor, where he saw "a statue of a great lady, taller than a church steeple, holding a torch above the land we were about to enter". He recalls his father's exclamation at the sight:

 

Ciccio, look! Look at that! That's the greatest light since the star of Bethlehem! That's the light of freedom! Remember that. Freedom.[6]

 

The family settled in Los Angeles's East Side (today Chinatown) which Capra described in his autobiography as an Italian "ghetto." [7] Capra's father worked as a fruit picker and young Capra sold newspapers after school for 10 years, until he graduated from high school. Instead of working after graduating, as his parents wanted, he enrolled in college. He worked through college at the California Institute of Technology, playing banjo at nightclubs and taking odd jobs, which included working at the campus laundry facility, waiting tables, and cleaning engines at a local power plant. He studied chemical engineering and graduated in the spring of 1918.[8] Capra later wrote that his college education had "changed his whole viewpoint on life from the viewpoint of an alley rat to the viewpoint of a cultured person".[9]

World War I and after

 

Soon after graduating college, Capra was commissioned in the US Army as a second lieutenant, having already worked on the campus ROTC. In the Army, he taught mathematics to artillerymen at Fort Scott, San Francisco. His father died during the war in an accident (1916). In the army, Capra contracted Spanish flu and was medically discharged to return home to live with his mother. He became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1920, taking the name Frank Russell Capra.[9]

 

Living at home with his siblings and mother, Capra was the only family member with a college education, yet he was the only one who remained chronically unemployed. After a year without work, seeing how his siblings had steady jobs, he felt he was a failure, which led to bouts of depression and abdominal pains, later discovered to have been an undiagnosed burst appendix.[9]

 

After recovering at home, Capra moved out and spent the next few years living in flophouses in San Francisco and hopping freight trains, wandering the Western United States. To support himself, he took odd jobs on farms, as a movie extra, playing poker, and selling local oil well stocks. In his early twenties, Capra had to undergo a circumcision due to recurring bouts of STIs (the first of which happened after an anonymous encounter with a woman at a party in San Francisco), which caused severe damage to his sex life, an affliction that lasted until his twilight years.[10]

 

It was during this time that the 24-year-old Capra directed a 32-minute documentary film entitled La Visita Dell'Incrociatore Italiano LIBYA a San Francisco. Not only did it document the visit of the Italian naval vessel LIBYA to San Francisco, but also the reception given to the crew of the ship by San Francisco's L'Italia Virtus Club, now known as the San Francisco Italian Athletic Club.

 

At age 25, Capra took a job selling books written and published by American philosopher, Elbert Hubbard.[9] Capra recalled that he "hated being a peasant, being a scrounging new kid trapped in the Sicilian ghetto of Los Angeles ... All I had was cockiness – and let me tell you that gets you a long way."[11]

Early career

Silent film comedies

 

During his book sales efforts – and nearly broke – Capra read a newspaper article about a new movie studio opening in San Francisco. Capra phoned them saying he had moved from Hollywood, and falsely implied that he had experience in the budding film industry. Capra's only prior exposure to films was in 1915 while attending Manual Arts High School. The studio's founder, Walter Montague, was nonetheless impressed by Capra and offered him $75 to direct a one-reel silent film. Capra, with the help of a cameraman, made the film in two days and cast it with amateurs.[9]

 

After that first serious job in films, Capra began efforts to finding similar openings in the film industry. He took a position with another minor San Francisco studio, and subsequently received an offer to work with producer Harry Cohn at his new studio in Los Angeles. During this time, he worked as a property man, film cutter, title writer, and assistant director.[12]

 

Capra later became a gag writer for Hal Roach's Our Gang series and then writer for slapstick comedy director, Mack Sennett, where he wrote scripts for comedian Harry Langdon. According to Capra, it was he who invented Langdon's character, the innocent fool living in a "naughty world."[12]

 

When Langdon eventually left Sennett to make longer, feature-length movies with First National Studios, he took Capra along as his personal writer and director. They made three feature films together during 1926 and 1927, all of them successful with critics and the public. The films made Langdon a recognized comedian in the caliber of Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton. Capra and Langdon later had a falling out, and Capra was fired. During the following years, Langdon's films went into decline without Capra's assistance.[citation needed] After splitting with Langdon, Capra directed a picture for First National, For the Love of Mike, (1927). This was a silent comedy about three bickering godfathers, a German, a Jew, and an Irishman, starring a budding actress, Claudette Colbert. The movie was considered a failure.[12]

Columbia Pictures

 

Early sound films Capra returned to Harry Cohn's studio, now named Columbia Pictures, which was then producing short films and two-reel comedies used as "fillers", which played between main features. Columbia was one of many start-up studios on "Poverty Row" in Los Angeles. Like the others, Columbia was unable to compete with larger studios which often had their own production facilities, distribution and theaters. Cohn rehired Capra in 1928 to help his studio produce new, full-length feature films, to compete with the major studios. Capra would eventually direct 20 films for Cohn's studio, including all of his classics.[12]

 

Because of Capra's engineering education, he adapted more easily to the new sound technology than most directors. He welcomed the transition to sound, recalling, "I wasn't at home in silent films."[12] Most studios were unwilling to invest in the new sound technology, assuming it was a passing fad. Many in Hollywood considered sound a threat to the industry and hoped it would pass quickly; McBride notes that "Capra was not one of them." When he saw Al Jolson singing in The Jazz Singer in 1927, considered the first talkie, Capra recalled his reaction:

 

It was an absolute shock to hear this man open his mouth and a song come out of it. It was one of those once-in-a-lifetime experiences.[13]

 

Few of the studio heads or crew were aware of Capra's engineering background until he began directing The Younger Generation in 1929. The chief cinematographer who worked with Capra on a number of films, was likewise unaware. He describes this early period in sound for film:

 

It wasn't something that came up. You had to bluff to survive. When sound first came in, nobody knew much about it. We were all walking around in the dark. Even the sound man didn't know much about it. Frank lived through it. But he was quite intelligent. He was one of the few directors who knew what the hell they were doing. Most of your directors walked around in a fog – they didn't know where the door was.[14]

 

During his first year with Columbia, Capra directed nine films, some of which were successful. After the first few, Harry Cohn said "it was the beginning of Columbia making a better quality of pictures."[15] According to Barson, "Capra became ensconced as Harry Cohn's most trusted director."[16] His films soon established Capra as a "bankable" director known throughout the industry, and Cohn raised Capra's initial salary of $1,000 per film to $25,000 per year.[12] Capra directed a film for MGM during this period, but soon realized he "had much more freedom under Harry Cohn's benevolent dictatorship", where Cohn also put Capra's "name above the title" of his films, a first for the movie industry.[17] Capra wrote of this period and recalled the confidence that Cohn placed in Capra's vision and directing:

 

I owed Cohn a lot – I owed him my whole career. So I had respect for him, and a certain amount of love. Despite his crudeness and everything else, he gave me my chance. He took a gamble on me.[18]

 

Capra directed his first "real" sound picture, The Younger Generation, in 1929. It was a rags-to-riches romantic comedy about a Jewish family's upward mobility in New York City, with their son later trying to deny his Jewish roots in order to keep his rich gentile girlfriend. According to Capra biographer Joseph McBride, Capra "obviously felt a strong identification with the story of a Jewish immigrant who grows up in the ghetto of New York... and feels he has to deny his ethnic origins to rise to success in America." Capra, however, denied any connection of the story with his own life.

 

Nonetheless, McBride insists that The Younger Generation abounds with parallels to Capra's own life." McBride notes the "devastatingly painful climactic scene", where the young social-climbing son, embarrassed when his wealthy new friends first meet his parents, passes his mother and father off as house servants. That scene, notes McBride, "echoes the shame Capra admitted feeling toward his own family as he rose in social status."[19]

 

During his years at Columbia, Capra worked often with screenwriter Robert Riskin (husband of Fay Wray), and cameraman Joseph Walker. In many of Capra's films, the wise-cracking and sharp dialogue was often written by Riskin, and he and Capra went on to become Hollywood's "most admired writer-director team."[20]

Film career (1934–1941)

It Happened One Night (1934)

 

Capra's films in the 1930s enjoyed immense success at the Academy Awards. It Happened One Night (1934) became the first film to win all five top Oscars (Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, and Best Screenplay). Written by Robert Riskin, it is one of the first of the "screwball comedies", and with its release in the Great Depression, critics considered it an escapist story and a variation of the "American Dream". The film established the names of Capra, Columbia Pictures, and stars Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert in the movie industry. The film has been called "picaresque", and was one of the earliest "road movies" which inspired variations on its theme by other filmmakers.[21]

 

The film was followed by Broadway Bill (1934), a screwball comedy about horse racing. The film was a turning point for Capra, however, as he began to conceive of an additional dimension to his movies. He started using his films to convey messages to the public. Capra explains his new thinking:

 

My films must let every man, woman, and child know that God loves them, that I love them, and that peace and salvation will become a reality only when they all learn to love each other.[21]

 

This added goal was inspired after meeting with a Christian Scientist friend who told him to view his talents in a different way:

 

The talents you have, Mr. Capra, are not your own, not self-acquired. God gave you those talents; they are His gifts to you, to use for His purpose.[21]

 

Capra began to embody messages in subsequent films, many of which conveyed "fantasies of goodwill." The first of those was Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936), for which Capra won his second Best Director Oscar. Critic Alistair Cooke observed that Capra was "starting to make movies about themes instead of people."[22]

 

In 1938, Capra won his third Director Oscar in five years for You Can't Take It with You, which also won Best Picture. In addition to his three directing wins, Capra received directing nominations for three other films (Lady for a Day, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, and It's a Wonderful Life). On May 5, 1936, Capra hosted the 8th Academy Awards ceremony.

Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939)

 

Although It's a Wonderful Life is his best-known film, Friedman notes that it was Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939) which most represented the "Capra myth." That film expressed Capra's patriotism more than any others, and "presented the individual working within the democratic system to overcome rampant political corruption."[23]

 

The film, however, became Capra's most controversial. In his research before filming, he was able to stand close to President Franklin D. Roosevelt during a press conference after the recent acts of war by Germany in Europe. Capra recalls his fears:

 

And panic hit me. Japan was slicing up the colossus of China piece by piece. Nazi panzers had rolled into Austria and Czechoslovakia; their thunder echoed over Europe. England and France shuddered. The Russian bear growled ominously in the Kremlin. The black cloud of war hung over the chancelleries of the world. Official Washington from the President down, was in the process of making hard, torturing decisions. "And here was I, in the process of making a satire about government officials; ... Wasn't this the most untimely time for me to make a film about Washington?"[24]

 

When the filming was completed, the studio sent preview copies to Washington. Joseph P. Kennedy, U.S. ambassador to the UK, wrote to Columbia head Harry Cohn, "Please do not play this picture in Europe."[23] Politicians were concerned about the potential negative impact the film might have on the morale of the United States' allies, as World War II had begun. Kennedy wrote to president Roosevelt that "in foreign countries this film must inevitably strengthen the mistaken impression that the United States is full of graft, corruption and lawlessness."[25] Many studio heads agreed nor did they want negative feelings about Hollywood to be instilled in political leaders.[26]

 

Nonetheless, Capra's vision of the film's significance was clear:

 

The more uncertain are the people of the world, the more their hard-won freedoms are scattered and lost in the winds of chance, the more they need a ringing statement of America's democratic ideals. The soul of our film would be anchored in Lincol. Our Jefferson Smith would be a young Abe Lincoln, tailored to the rail-splitter's simplicity, compassion, ideals, humor, and unswerving moral courage under pressure.[27]

 

Capra pleaded with Cohn to allow the film to go into distribution and remembers the intensity of their decision making:

 

Harry Cohn paced the floor, as stunned as Abraham must have been when the Lord asked him to sacrifice his beloved son Isaac.[28]

 

Cohn and Capra chose to ignore the negative publicity and demands, and released the film as planned. It was later nominated for 11 Academy Awards, only winning one (for Best Original Story) partly because of the number of major pictures that were nominated that year was 10, including The Wizard of Oz and Gone with the Wind.[16] Hollywood columnist Louella Parsons called it a "smash patriotic hit" and most critics agreed, seeing that audiences left the theaters with "an enthusiasm for democracy" and "in a glow of patriotism."[25]

 

The significance of the film's message was established further in France, shortly after World War II began. When the French public were asked to select which film they wanted to see most, having been told by the Vichy government that soon no more American films would be allowed in France, the overwhelming majority chose it over all others. To a France, soon to be invaded and occupied by Nazi forces, the film most expressed the "perseverance of democracy and the American way."[23]

Meet John Doe (1941)

Walter Brennan, Gary Cooper, Irving Bacon, Barbara Stanwyck, and James Gleason in Meet John Doe

 

In 1941 Capra directed Meet John Doe (1941), considered by some to be Capra's most controversial movie. The film's hero, played by Gary Cooper, is a former baseball player now bumming around, lacking goals. He is selected by a news reporter to represent the "common man", used to capture the imagination of ordinary Americans. The film was released shortly before America became involved in World War II, and citizens were still in an isolationist mood. According to some historians, the film was made to convey a "deliberate reaffirmation of American values", although ones which seemed uncertain with respect to the future.

 

Film author Richard Glazer speculates that the film may have been autobiographical, "reflecting Capra's own uncertainties." Glazer describes how "John's accidental transformation from drifter to national figure parallels Capra's own early drifting experience and subsequent involvement in movie making ... Meet John Doe, then, was an attempt to work out his own fears and questions."[29]

World War II years (1941–1945)

Joining the Army after Pearl Harbor

Editing film as Major during World War II

 

Within four days after the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Capra quit his successful directing career in Hollywood and received a commission as a major in the United States Army. He also gave up his presidency of the Screen Directors Guild. Being 44 years of age, he was not asked to enlist, but, notes Friedman, "Capra had an intense desire to prove his patriotism to his adopted land."[23]

 

Capra recalls some personal reasons for enlisting:

 

I had a guilty conscience. In my films I championed the cause of the gentle, the poor, the downtrodden. Yet I had begun to live like the Aga Khan. The curse of Hollywood is big money. It comes so fast it breeds and imposes its own mores, not of wealth, but of ostentation and phony status.[30]

 

Why We Fight series

Main article: Why We Fight

 

During the next four years of World War II, Capra's job was to head a special section on morale to explain to soldiers "why the hell they're in uniform", writes Capra, and were not "propaganda" films like those created by the Nazis and Japan. Capra directed or co-directed seven documentary war information films.

 

Capra was assigned to work directly under Chief of Staff George C. Marshall, the most senior officer in command of the Army, who later created the Marshall Plan and was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize. Marshall chose to bypass the usual documentary film-making department, Signal Corps, because he felt they were not capable of producing "sensitive and objective troop information films." One colonel explained the importance of these future films to Capra:

 

You were the answer to the General's prayer ... You see, Frank, this idea about films to explain "Why" the boys are in uniform is General Marshall's own baby, and he wants the nursery right next to his Chief of Staff's office.[31]

 

Receiving medal from General George C. Marshall, 1945

 

During his first meeting with General Marshall, Capra was told his mission:

 

Now, Capra, I want to nail down with you a plan to make a series of documented, factual-information films – the first in our history – that will explain to our boys in the Army why we are fighting, and the principles for which we are fighting ... You have an opportunity to contribute enormously to your country and the cause of freedom. Are you aware of that, sir?[32]

 

The films included the seven-episode Why We Fight series – consisting of Prelude to War (1942), The Nazis Strike (1942), Divide and Conquer (1943), The Battle of Britain (1943), The Battle of Russia (1943), The Battle of China (1944), War Comes to America (1945) – plus Know Your Enemy: Japan (1945), Here Is Germany (1945), Tunisian Victory (1945), and Two Down and One to Go (1945) that do not bear the Why We Fight banner; as well as the African-American related film, The Negro Soldier (1944).

 

After completion of the first few documentaries, government officials and U.S. Army staff found them to be powerful messages and excellent presentations of why it was necessary for the U.S. to fight in the war. All footage came from military and government sources, whereas during earlier years, many newsreels secretly used footage from enemy sources. Animated charts were created by Walt Disney and his animators. A number of Hollywood composers wrote the background music, including Alfred Newman and Russian-born composer Dimitri Tiomkin. After the first complete film was viewed by General Marshall along with U.S. Army staff, Marshall approached Capra: "Colonel Capra, how did you do it? That is a most wonderful thing."[33]

 

Officials made efforts to see that the films were seen in theaters throughout the U.S. They were translated into French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Chinese for use by other countries. Winston Churchill ordered that all of them be shown to the British public in theaters.[34] They are today often broadcast on television and used as a teaching aid.[23]

 

The Why We Fight series is widely considered a masterpiece of war information documentaries, and won an Academy Award. Prelude to War won the 1942 Academy Award for Documentary Feature. When his career ended, Capra regarded these films as his most important works. As a colonel, he received the Legion of Merit in 1943 and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1945.

Post-war career (1946–1961)

It's a Wonderful Life (1946)

Henry Travers and James Stewart

 

After the war ended, along with directors William Wyler and George Stevens, Capra founded Liberty Films. Their studio became the first independent company of directors since United Artists in 1919 whose goal was to make films without interference by studio bosses. However, the only picture completed by the studio was It's a Wonderful Life (1946).[11] It was a box office disappointment, but was nonetheless nominated for five Academy Awards.

 

The American Film Institute named it one of the best films ever made, putting it at the top of the list of AFI's 100 Years... 100 Cheers, a list of what AFI considers to be the most inspirational American movies of all time. The film also appeared in another AFI Top 100 list: it placed at 11th on AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies list of the top American films. It would become Capra's last important film and, although he directed five more films over the next 14 years, his successful years were now behind him.[11]

 

For State of the Union (1948), Capra changed studios, working for the only time for MGM Pictures. Although the project had an excellent pedigree with stars Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn, the film was not a success, and Capra's eyebrow-raising statement, "I think State of the Union was my most perfect film in handling people and ideas" has few adherents today.[35]

Representing U.S. at International Film Festival

 

In January 1952, Capra was requested by the U.S. Ambassador to India to represent the U.S. film industry at the International Film Festival to be held in India. A State Department friend of Capra asked him and explained why his trip would be important:

 

[Ambassador] Bowles thinks the Festival is a Communist shenanigan of some kind, but he doesn't know what ... Bowles has asked for you. "I want a free-wheeling guy to take care of our interest on his own. I want Capra. His name is big here, and I've heard he's quick on his feet in an alley fight."[36]

 

After two weeks in India, Capra discovered that Bowles' fears were warranted, as many film sessions were used by Russian and Chinese representatives to give long political speeches. At a lunch with 15 Indian directors and producers, he stressed that "they must preserve freedom as artists, and that any government control would hinder that freedom. A totalitarian system – and they would become nothing but publicity men for the party in power." Capra had a difficult time communicating this, however, as he noted in his diary:

 

They all think some super-government or super-collection of individuals dictates all American pictures. Free enterprise is mystery to them. Somebody must control, either visible or invisible ... Even intellectuals have no great understanding of liberty and freedom ... Democracy only a theory to them. They have no idea of service to others, of service to the poor. The poor are despised, in a sense.[37]

 

When he returned to Washington to give his report, Secretary of State Dean Acheson gave Capra his commendation for "virtually single-handedly forestalling a possible Communist take-over of Indian films." Ambassador Bowles also conveyed gratitude to Capra for "one helluva job."[38]

Disillusionment period and later years

 

Although It's a Wonderful Life and State of the Union were successful soon after the war ended, Capra's themes were becoming out of step with changes in the film industry and the public mood. Friedman finds that while Capra's ideas were popular with depression-era and prewar audiences, they became less relevant to a prospering post-war America. Capra had become "disconnected from an American culture that had changed" during the previous decade.[23] Biographer Joseph McBride argues that Capra's disillusionment was more related to the negative effect that the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) had on the film industry in general. The HUAC interrogations in the early 1950s ended many Hollywood careers. Capra himself was not called to testify, although he was a prime target of the committee due to his past associations with many Hollywood blacklisted screenwriters.[23]

 

Capra blames his early retirement from films on the rising power of stars, which forced him to continually compromise his artistic vision. He also claims that increasing budgetary and scheduling demands were constraining his creative abilities.[23] Film historian Michael Medved agrees with and understands Capra's impressions, noting that he walked away from the movie business because "he refused to adjust to the cynicism of the new order."[39] In his autobiography written in 1971, Capra expressed his feelings about the shifting film industry:[40]

 

The winds of change blew through the dream factories of make-believe, tore at its crinoline tatters.... The hedonists, the homosexuals, the hemophiliac bleeding hearts, the God-haters, the quick-buck artists who substituted shock for talent, all cried: "Shake 'em! Rattle 'em! God is dead. Long live pleasure! Nudity? Yea! Wife-swapping? Yea! Liberate the world from prudery. Emancipate our films from morality!".... Kill for thrill – shock! Shock! To hell with the good in man, Dredge up his evil – shock! Shock![39]

 

Capra added that in his opinion, "practically all the Hollywood film-making of today is stooping to cheap salacious pornography in a crazy bastardization of a great art to compete for the 'patronage' of deviates and masturbators."[41][Note 1]

 

Capra remained employable in Hollywood during and after the HUAC hearings, but chose nonetheless to demonstrate his loyalty by attempting to re-enlist in the Army at the outbreak of the Korean War, in 1950. He was rejected due to his age.[citation needed] He was later invited to join the Defense Department's newly formed Think Tank project, VISTA, but was denied the necessary clearance. According to Friedman, "these two rejections were devastating to the man who had made a career of demonstrating American ideals in film", along with his directing award-winning documentary films for the Army. By 1952, at the age of 55, Capra effectively retired from Hollywood filmmaking and spent his later years working with Caltech, his alma mater, to produce educational films on science topics.[23]

Later films (1950–1961)

 

Capra directed two films at Paramount Pictures starring Bing Crosby, Riding High (1950) and Here Comes the Groom (1951). From 1952 to 1956, Capra produced four science-related television specials in color for The Bell Laboratory Science Series: Our Mr. Sun (1956), Hemo the Magnificent (1957), The Strange Case of the Cosmic Rays (1957), and Meteora: The Unchained Goddess (1958). These educational science documentaries were popular favorites for school science classrooms.[42] It was eight years before he directed another theatrical film, A Hole in the Head (1959) with Frank Sinatra and Edward G. Robinson, his first feature film in color. Capra's final theatrical film was with Glenn Ford and Bette Davis, named Pocketful of Miracles (1961), a remake of his 1933 film Lady for a Day. In the mid-1960s he worked on pre-production for an adaptation of Martin Caidin's novel Marooned, but budgetary constraints caused him to eventually shelve it.[43]

 

Capra's final film, Rendezvous in Space (1964), was an industrial film made for the Martin Marietta Company and shown at the 1964 New York World's Fair. It was exhibited at the New York Hall of Science after the Fair ended.

Directing style

 

Capra's directing style relied on improvisation to a great extent. He was noted for going on the set with no more than the master scenes written. He explained his reasoning:

 

What you need is what the scene is about, who does what to whom, and who cares about whom ... All I want is a master scene and I'll take care of the rest – how to shoot it, how to keep the machinery out of the way, and how to focus attention on the actors at all times.[44]

 

According to some experts, Capra used great, unobtrusive craftsmanship when directing, and felt it was bad directing to distract the audience with fancy technical gimmicks. Film historian and author William S. Pechter described Capra's style as one "of almost classical purity." He adds that his style relied on editing to help his films sustain a "sequence of rhythmic motion." Pechter describes its effect:

 

Capra's [editing] has the effect of imposing order on images constantly in motion, imposing order on chaos. The end of all this is indeed a kind of beauty, a beauty of controlled motion, more like dancing than painting ... His films move at a breathtaking clip: dynamic, driving, taut, at their extreme even hysterical; the unrelenting, frantic acceleration of pace seems to spring from the release of some tremendous accumulation of pressure.[44]

 

Film critic John Raeburn discusses an early Capra film, American Madness (1932), as an example of how he had mastered the movie medium and expressed a unique style:

 

The tempo of the film, for example, is perfectly synchronized with the action ... As the intensity of the panic increases, Capra reduces the duration of each shot and uses more and more crosscutting and jump shots to emphasize the "madness" of what is happening ... Capra added to the naturalistic quality of the dialogue by having speakers overlap one another, as they often do in ordinary life; this was an innovation that helped to move the talkies away from the example of the legitimate stage.[20]

 

As for Capra's subject matter, film author Richard Griffith tries to summarize Capra's common theme:

 

[A] messianic innocent ... pits himself against the forces of entrenched greed. His inexperience defeats him strategically, but his gallant integrity in the face of temptation calls for the goodwill of the "little people", and through their combined protest, he triumphs.[44]

 

Capra's personality when directing gave him a reputation for "fierce independence" when dealing with studio bosses. On the set he was said to be gentle and considerate, "a director who displays absolutely no exhibitionism."[45]

 

Because Capra's films often carry a message about basic goodness in human nature, and show the value of unselfishness and hard work, his wholesome, feel-good themes have led some cynics to term his style "Capra-corn." However, those who hold his vision in higher regard prefer the term "Capraesque".[23]

 

Capra's basic themes of championing the common man, as well as his use of spontaneous, fast-paced dialogue and goofy, memorable lead and supporting characters, made him one of the most popular and respected filmmakers of the 20th century. His influence can be traced in the works of many directors, including Robert Altman,[46] Ron Howard,[46] Masaki Kobayashi,[47] Akira Kurosawa,[48] John Lasseter,[49] David Lynch,[50] John Milius,[46] Martin Scorsese,[46] Steven Spielberg,[51] Oliver Stone[46] and François Truffaut [52]

Personal life

 

Capra married actress Helen Howell in 1923; they divorced in 1928. He married Lucille Warner in 1928, with whom he had a daughter and three sons, one of whom died in infancy.

 

Capra was four times president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and three times president of the Directors Guild of America, which he helped found. Under his presidency, he worked to give directors more artistic control of their films. During his career as a director, he retained an early ambition to teach science, and after his career declined in the 1950s, he made educational TV films related to science subjects.[45]

 

Physically, Capra was short, stocky, and vigorous, and enjoyed outdoor activities such as hunting, fishing, and mountain climbing. In his much later years, he spent time writing short stories and songs, along with playing his guitar.[45] He collected fine and rare books during the 1930s and '40s. His 'Distinguished Library' was sold at auction in New York in 1949, realizing over $68,000.

 

His son Frank Capra Jr., one of the four children born to Capra and his second wife, Lucille Capra, was the president of EUE Screen Gems Studios, in Wilmington, North Carolina, until his death on December 19, 2007. His grandson, Frank Capra III, is a Hollywood director and worked as an assistant director in the 1995 film The American President, which referred to Capra in the film's dialogue.

Death

 

In 1985, at age 88, Capra suffered one of a series of strokes.[53] He died in La Quinta, California, of a heart attack in his sleep in 1991 at the age of 94.[54] He was interred in the Coachella Valley Public Cemetery in Coachella, California.[55]

 

He left part of his 1,100-acre (4 km2) ranch in Fallbrook, California, to Caltech as a retreat center.[56] Capra's personal papers and some film related materials are contained in the Wesleyan University Cinema Archives, which allows scholars and media experts full access.[57]

Political beliefs

 

Capra’s political beliefs coalesced in his films, which promoted and celebrated the spirit of American individualism. A conservative Republican, Capra railed against Franklin Delano Roosevelt during his tenure as governor of New York State, and opposed his presidency during the years of the Depression. Capra stood against government intervention during the national economic crisis.[58]

Legacy

 

During the golden age of Hollywood, Capra's "fantasies of goodwill" made him one of the two or three most famous and successful directors in the world.[45] Film historian Ian Freer notes that at the time of his death in 1991, his legacy remained intact:

 

He had created feelgood entertainments before the phrase was invented, and his influence on culture – from Steven Spielberg to David Lynch, and from television soap operas to greeting-card sentiments – is simply too huge to calculate.[1]

 

Director/actor John Cassavetes contemplating Capra’s contribution to the art of film quipped: "Maybe there really wasn't an America, it was only Frank Capra." [59] Capra’s films were his love letters to an idealized America – a cinematic landscape of his own invention. The performances his actors gave were invariable portrayals of personalities developed into recognizable images of popular culture, "their acting has the bold simplicity of an icon..." [60]

 

Like his contemporary, director John Ford, Capra defined and aggrandized the tropes of mythic America where individual courage invariably triumphs over collective evil. Film historian Richard Griffith speaks of Capra's "...reliance on sentimental conversation and the ultimate benevolence of ordinary America to resolve all deep conflicts." [61] "Average America" is visualized as "...a tree lined street, undistinguished frame houses surrounded by modest areas of grass, a few automobiles. For certain purposes it assumed that all real Americans live in towns like this, and so great is the power of myth, even the born city-dweller is likely to believe vaguely that he too lives on this shady street, or comes from it, or is going to." [62]

 

NYU professor of Humanities and Performing Arts, Leonard Quart writes:

 

"There would be no enduring conflicts – harmony, no matter how contrived and specious, would ultimately triumph in the last frame...In true Hollywood fashion, no Capra film would ever suggest that social change was a complex, painful act. For Capra, there would be pain and loss, but no enduring sense of tragedy would be allowed to intrude on his fabulist world." [61] The theatre screen was the mirror in front of which American movie audiences sat enamored with the reflected images of their better selves–an idealistic storybook America.

 

Although Capra's stature as a director had declined in the 1950s, his films underwent a revival in the 1960s:

 

Ten years later, it was clear that this trend had reversed itself. Post-auteurist critics once more acclaimed Capra as a cinematic master, and perhaps more surprisingly, young people packed Capra festivals and revivals all over the United States.[45]

 

French film historian John Raeburn, editor of Cahiers du cinéma, notes that Capra's films were unknown in France, but there too his films underwent a fresh discovery by the public. He believes the reason for his renewed popularity had to do with his themes, which he made credible "an ideal conception of an American national character":

 

There is a strong libertarian streak in Capra's films, a distrust of power wherever it occurs and in whomever it is invested. Young people are won over by the fact that his heroes are uninterested in wealth and are characterized by vigorous ... individualism, a zest for experience, and a keen sense of political and social justice. ... Capra's heroes, in short, are ideal types, created in the image of a powerful national myth.[45]

 

In 1982, the American Film Institute honored Capra by giving him their AFI Life Achievement Award. The event was used to create the television film, The American Film Institute Salute to Frank Capra, hosted by James Stewart. In 1986, Capra received the National Medal of Arts.

 

During his acceptance speech for the AFI award, Capra stressed his most important values:

 

The art of Frank Capra is very, very simple: It's the love of people. Add two simple ideals to this love of people: the freedom of each individual, and the equal importance of each individual, and you have the principle upon which I based all my films.

 

Capra expanded on his visions in his 1971 autobiography, The Name Above the Title:

 

Forgotten among the hue-and criers were the hard-working stiffs that came home too tired to shout or demonstrate in streets ... and prayed they'd have enough left over to keep their kids in college, despite their knowing that some were pot-smoking, parasitic parent-haters.

 

Who would make films about, and for, these uncomplaining, unsqueaky wheels that greased the squeaky? Not me. My "one man, one film" Hollywood had ceased to exist. Actors had sliced it up into capital gains. And yet – mankind needed dramatizations of the truth that man is essentially good, a living atom of divinity; that compassion for others, friend or foe, is the noblest of all virtues. Films must be made to say these things, to counteract the violence and the meanness, to buy time to demobilize the hatreds.[63]

 

Awards and honors

 

In 1957, Capra was awarded the George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film.[64]

 

Los Angeles Mayor Sam Yorty, by vote of the city council, declared May 12, 1962 as "Frank Capra Day." George Sidney, President of the Directors Guild, stated that "This is the first time in the history of Hollywood, that the city of Los Angeles has officially recognized a creative talent." At the event ceremony, director John Ford announced that Capra had also received the Order of British Empire (OBE) on the recommendation of Winston Churchill.[65] Ford suggested publicly to Capra:

 

Make those human comedy-dramas, the kind only you can make – the kind of films America is proud to show here, behind the iron curtain, the bamboo curtain – and behind the lace curtain.[65]

 

An annual It's a Wonderful Life celebration that Capra attended in 1981, during which he said, "This is one of the proudest moments of my life," was recounted in The New Yorker.[66]

Academy Awards

 

Capra won six Academy Awards.[67] He was nominated six times for Best Director and seven times for Outstanding Production/Best Picture. Out of six nominations for Best Director, Capra received the award three times. He briefly held the record for winning the most Best Director Oscars when he won for the third time in 1938, until this record was matched by John Ford in 1941, and then later surpassed by Ford in 1952. William Wyler also matched this record upon winning his third Oscar in 1959.

Filmography

Main article: Frank Capra filmography

See also

 

The Bell Laboratory Science Series

Frank Capra at the First International Film Festival of India, 1952

 

Notes

 

Medved points out the irony in Capra's expression of disillusionment: Capra's film It Happened One Night (1934) was the first film to win all five top Oscars; and in 1991, a few months after Capra's death, The Silence of the Lambs also won all five top Oscars. Medved observes that the film, "a pitch-dark thriller about transvestite and cannibalistic serial killers" would later equal Capra's earlier achievement.[39]

 

Citations

 

Freer 2009, pp. 40–41.

Poague 2004, p. viii.

De Las Carreras, Maria Elena. "The Catholic Vision of Frank Capra." Crisis, 20, no. 2, February 2002. Retrieved: May 31, 2011.

McBride 1992, p. 16.

McBride 1992, p. 29.

McBride 1992, p. 30.

McBride 1992, p. 34.

"Distinguished Alumni Award: 1966 Recipients." Caltech Alumni Association. Retrieved: December 18, 2010.

Wakeman 1987, p. 96.

Schnakenberg 2010, p. 51.

Stevens 2006, pp. 74–76.

Wakeman 1987, p. 97.

McBride 1992, p. 200.

McBride 1992, p. 201.

McBride 1992, p. 189.

Barson 1995, pp. 56–63.

McBride 1992, p. 197.

McBride 1992, p. 199.

McBride 1992, p. 203.

Wakeman 1987, p. 98.

Wakeman 1987, p. 99.

Wakeman 1987, p. 100.

Pendergast 2000, pp. 428–429.

Capra 1971, p. 259.

Beauchamp 2010, pp. 364–365.

Capra 1971, p. 261.

Capra 1971, p. 260.

Capra 1971, p. 289.

Wakeman 1987, p. 101.

Capra 1971, p. 314.

Capra 1971, p. 322.

Capra 1971, p. 326.

Capra 1971, p. 341.

Capra 1971, p. 336.

Poague 2004, p. 180.

Capra 1971, p. 429.

Capra 1971, p. 433.

Capra 1971, p. 437.

Medved 1992, p. 279.

Capra 1971, p. 486.

Capra 1971, p. 400.

Capra 1997, p. 443.

" 'Marooned'." tcm.com. Retrieved: September 26, 2010.

Wakeman 1987, p. 102.

Wakeman 1987, p. 103.

"The Premiere Frank Capra Collection." DVD Talk Review of the DVD Video. Retrieved: September 26, 2010.

Christian, Diane and Bruce Jackson. "The Buffalo Film Seminars: Hara Kari (1962), directed by Masaki Kobayashi." csac.buffalo.edu, February 26, 2008. Retrieved: September 26, 2010.

"BAM/PFA Film Programs: Kurosawa." banpfa.berkeley.edu. Retrieved: September 26, 2010.

Day, Aubrey "Film features: Interview: John Lasseter." totalfilm.com, June 3, 2009. Retrieved: September 26, 2010.

Barney 2009, pp. 35, 119, 265.

"Frank Capra: Hollywood Star Walk." The Los Angeles Times, September 3, 1991. Retrieved: September 26, 2010.

Dixon 1993, p. 150.

Lambert, Gavin. "Book review: "The World Outside the Pictures: 'Frank CAapra: The Catastrophe of Success'." The Los Angeles Times, May 27, 1992.

"Frank Capra Biography." FilmReference.com. Retrieved: April 15, 2015.

Brooks 2006, p. 248.

"75th Year Booklet: The Caltech Y History." caltechy.org. Retrieved: July 24, 2011.

"Description of the Capra Collection." wesleyan.edu. Retrieved: 23 March 2010.

Wilson 2013, p. 266.

Lazere 1987, p. 178.

Dickstein 2010, pp. 479–480.

Dickstein 2010, p. 479.

Dickstein 2010, p. 480.

Capra 1971, p. 468.

"Awards granted by George Eastman House International Museum of Photography & Film" George Eastman House. Retrieved: April 30, 2012.

Capra 1971, p. 488.

"Talk of the Town." The New Yorker, January 12, 1981, pp. 29–31.

 

Frank Capra shared the 1934 Best Picture award with Harry Cohn, since the "Outstanding Production" award at that time went to the studio, rather than going to the producers. awardsdatabase.oscars.org/ampas_awards/DisplayMain.jsp?cu...

 

Bibliography

 

Barney, Richard A. David Lynch: Interviews (Conversations with Filmmakers Series). Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2009. ISBN 978-1-60473-237-5.

Barson, Michael. The Illustrated Who's Who of Hollywood Directors: The Sound Era. New York: Noonday Press, 1995. ISBN 0-374-52428-9.

Beauchamp, Cari. Joseph P. Kennedy Presents: His Hollywood Years. New York: Vintage, 2010. ISBN 978-0-307-47522-0.

Brooks, Patricia and Johnathan. "Chapter 8: East L.A. and the Desert." Laid to Rest in California: A Guide to the Cemeteries and Grave Sites of the Rich and Famous. Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7627-4101-4.

Capra, Frank. Frank Capra, The Name Above the Title: An Autobiography. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1971. ISBN 0-306-80771-8.

Chandler, Charlotte. The Girl Who Walked Home Alone: Bette Davis, A Personal Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. ISBN 0-7862-8639-3.

Dickstein, Morris. Dancing in The Dark: A Cultural History of The Great Depression. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010. ISBN 978-0-393-07225-9.

Dixon, Wheeler W. The Early Film Criticism of Francois Truffaut. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-253-20771-5.

Freer, Ian. Movie Makers: 50 Iconic Directors from Chaplin to the Coen Brothers. London: Quercus Publishing Plc, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84724-512-0.

Kotsabilas-Davis, James and Myrna Loy. Being and Becoming. New York: Primus, Donald I Fine Inc., 1987. ISBN 1-55611-101-0.

Lazere, Donald. American Media and Mass Culture: Left Perspectives. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0-520-04496-8.

Medved, Michael. Hollywood vs. America: Popular Culture and the War on Traditional Values. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. ISBN 978-0-06-016882-7.

McBride, Joseph. Frank Capra: The Catastrophe of Success. New York: Touchstone Books, 1992. ISBN 0-671-79788-3.

Oderman, Stuart. Talking To the Piano Player: Silent Film Stars, Writers and Directors Remember. Albany, Georgia: BearManor Media, 2005. ISBN 1-59393-013-5.

Poague, Leland. Frank Capra: Interviews (Conversations With Filmmakers Series). Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2004. ISBN 978-1-57806-617-9.

Pendergast, Tom and Sara, eds. St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, Vol. 1. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. ISBN 1-55862-348-5.

Stevens, George Jr. Conversations with the Great Moviemakers of Hollywood's Golden Age. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4000-4054-4.

Wakeman, John, ed. World Film Directors: Volume One, 1890–1945. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1987. ISBN 978-0-8242-0757-1.

Wiley, Mason and Damien Bona. Inside Oscar: The Unofficial History of the Academy Awards. New York: Ballantine Books, 1987. ISBN 0-345-34453-7.

Wilson, Victoria. A Life of Barbara Stanwyck: Steel-True 1907–1940. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013, ISBN 978-0-6848-3168-8.

  

You daren't publish this but I'll take a rain check.

When Hezbollah boys of FBI busted Castro in Ohio and DNAed em’on the fly? I though we’re saved, he must be Tamerlan’ Biological father? I waited impatiently more than a week to FOXNEWS, NEWSBUSTER, WEASEL-ZIPPERS, ATLANTIC WIRE, COMMENTARY MAGAZINE, and FRONTPAGE MAGAZINE, TWITCHY and many bankrupt Mediawhores to hail their zombies invade Cuba or Spain or Mexico and send their Patriarch Rich Wyatt Zombies to US streets to Gun-Down anything moving - hoping it’s Castro as they do to Muslims as we speak right after BMB. Absolutely Nothing! Instead, they move their battle-ground to Benghazi where Ambassador Stephens turned USA embassy to gay-bar for green-eyed beaus shoot at each other and got shot in crossfire by Jealous Libyan boyfriend. Latino ain’t miracle enough to move these bankrupt Mediawhores desperadoes’ zombies from Benghazi & Boston to Cleveland Ohio. Those Mediawhores needed a Muslim Castro badly to nail. Castor kidnapped 3 underage girls, rapped, impregnated, tortured, starved tossed their babies in gutters for ten years and yet he’s a celebrity bass player granted 8 million Dollar Bail. Local police ignored Castro’s wife complaints who tortured and murdered. He rounded raping the 3 girls with his two brothers. Read: Mediawhores published articles about Castro. It’s all published in gibberish. Simply because Castro ain’t Muslim enough to be taken seriously. I bet on my bottom dollar that Castro is still at large and whatever’s reported is horsemanure. I saw the worst moments of man last week when Americans celebrated and congratulated each other for denying Tamerlan burial. Trust me. FOXNEWS, NEWSBUSTER, WEASEL-ZIPPERS, ATLANTIC WIRE, COMMENTARY MAGAZINE, and FRONTPAGE MAGAZINE, TWITCHY will move covering Prince Harry’s promoting his bottled pickled scat in New York. These Mediawhores shall downplay it even if Castro abducted Sasha and Malia. To all those Anglosexual Geographical Muslims who ditched Islam for Dollar. This is America-at-large. Stop insulting Islam fighting to cover up your ignorance prejudice and handicap. Don’t worthy the worthless Christian Action Network. How ugly can’t be. Deranged republican frugals are jumpy not to let Benghazi go outta hand, they went into the trap that Obama rapt for them to get IRS apologize or Teeebaagerzz for harassing ‘m during polling.

GOP conspiring to Impeach Obama as bill Clinton. I ain’t taking Benghazi seriously and I go for Hilary stance ‘who the hell cares’ until Gregory Hicks [the faithful] tell us what’s the name of his Boss’s Libyan Boyfriend who he envied? And why has he left early THEM that afternoon? ‘sup John Boehner! Jack Daniel’s hangover again? What email? Ambassador Stephens turned USA embassy to GAYBAR for jealous beaus shoot at each other and got shot crossfire by jealous Libyan boyfriend. No Coburn please. With a lot of Alexjones. Go on boy. We’re waiting. Benghazi is Republican Frugals’ JUNKBOND IPO they toss it on the floor to scarecrow speculators, rig the market and rip-off foolish shareholders. The first rally was thrown to condemn Susan Rice outta State Department Race, Kerry got the job uncontested. The second raid was to dismiss the Legendary CIA Boss & SURGE Architect Sir David Petraeus outta 2016 Presidency run [never mind about his Bitch-autobiographer Richard Cranium!]. The Third was the incomparable Darrell Issa’s Dog and Pony show of Donuthole underprivileged trio Thomson-Hicks-Nordstrom fabricating new Bollywood Fairytale on AFRICOM, SOCAFRICA & RAO handicap to show-up and gun-down anything that’s moves in Benghazi & nuke the hell of Libya. Braggingly: ‘They would have been scared to death that we would have gotten a laser on them and killed them’. Shut-up... Cut it out CHRIS KYLE! Don’t you ever forget that Hillary is the Republican Frugals Worst Nightmare of Next Poll? Benghazi is one. DARRELL ISSA is Maronite Phalangists has no predicament but to prove that he’s thoroughbred American ain’t Lebanese immigrant no mo; he’s walking circus. He served Osama boy’s as spicy spaghetti to hit Hillary harder to quit the race. Darrell Issa got lucky to impeach Obama during the first term. Now he’s facing another Obama & Hillary to conquer. Idiots never learn. I have notice an alien creature there! What Michele Bachmann was doing backstage? Its Hillary’s tailgate that she’s after? Michele Bachmann believes that has a shot in 2016 Outhouse. To dramatize the hearing to Hollywood norms Chaffetz almost certainly applied Ammonium hydroxide Tear Agents to get poignant emotional and burst in tears. Chaffetz went snooping all the way to Benghazi to steal some ground truth intelligence to crush the Democrats who’re ain’t permitted to have an access to the magnificent trio? He got none. What the heck? Mr. Hicks admitted in his opening statement that he’s influenced by his Shiite Brothers who filled his hollow skull with horsemanure that killed Ambassador Chris Stevens. In short Republican Frugals cut Ambassador Chris Stevens body-guarding budget and doled the money to Israelis to make a YouTube video that eventually killed Ambassador Chris Stevens. Oh no that’s what both Republican & Democrats loathe. Is that all about Attack on U.S. Consulate in Benghazi? Wow easy and literally to stooopid for Libya House Oversight & Government Reform Committee Hearing. I smell Hezbollah Stench Outta Darrell Issa armpit. It’s just boring 213 minutes waste of quality time watching Republican Little League desperately struggling to assassinate Hillary’s and Obama’s characters arguing with 3 frogmarched nutjobs. Please fast-forward Gowdy babble as he puts words in Hicks mouth to aid him to lie. Hicks mentioned very dangerous statement that Ambassador Chris Stevens was taken to Ansar-El-Sharia Hospital at 10 pm on 09.11.2012. Ansar-El-Sharia nomenclature is created and went public just 2 months ago this year when Ansar-El-Sharia declared to overthrow Assad regime in Syria & al-Maliki regime in Iraq and send Iran back where they belong. Hell! What’s going on? What have we here? Another Redherring called Mr. Hicks! Is Mr. Hicks an Iranian spy or what? Hicks is making Corker mission harder to convince the Congress to Arm McCain Germs to oust Assad outta Syria and that’s what Hicks Iranians Masters love most. WOW. Dow Jones closes above 15,000 for first time today and Japan’s Nikkei tops 14,000 for 1st time since 2008 yesterday. Thanks to the Deranged Republican Frugals. The last thing Darrell Issa needs is Pastor Mike Huckabee [the dog slayer] to string up Kathy Issa’s poodle. We got to call Dr. Otto Hasslein for Darrell Issa. I am Provocateur Arabspringer of Picassoic Attitude. This is a bit personal and homophobic. I am going neither here but I like to set facts straight. The secret service & FBI surely performed thorough autopsy on Late Ambassador John Christopher Stevens’s Corpse and surely noted alien Seminal Fluid all over his biology besides HIS off course. Would Darrell Issa quit Redherring? Go kamikaze further this time and be honest to probe into Stevens’ Saliva and Rectum Juice? At least to know whose DNA it is? This is the only way to find out by his name who was that jealous killer beau than grilling Langley underprivileged unemployable to school Al-Qaeda how to hit harder US targets elsewhere. Sorry. I can’t help it.

I never forget Bob Corker when he told Tony Blair: go back to Israel’s and tell them to stop Settlements. Settlements stopped until the word ‘moratorium’ added to Merriam-Webster. Now is the same good ol’ Bob Corker. My libertarian hero took Saxby Chambliss under his arm to beat Obama in golf and push Senate Foreign Relations Committee to arm McCain Germs to overthrow Syria's Bashar Assad. Nice potting POTUS ‘if you won you will never get Syria bill’. It’s Turkey’s Nightmare. Turkey hates Israel’s Airstrikes. Turkey needs Assad in power to Devastate McCain Germs and Syria. It’s an Ugly Turkish dirty game to stop Obama getting into Syria. Turks want to exodus Stateless Kurds outta Turkey to where they belong. HELL. Turks are mean that’s why they ain’t get into you this life. This is Khamenei’s Gettysburg. Winfield Scott Hancock is rolling all over his grave. AWR Hawkins is a conservative writer who holds a Ph.D. in Military History from Texas Tech University. My question for AWR HAWKINS: is Iran male or female? AWR HAWKINS answer I guess is: SHUTUP RAGHEAD. Thank you. I get it. Anti-McCain Germs conservatives enjoyed dollops of Assad, Iran & Hezbollah win all over Syria & Iraq. Iran & Hezbollah duo declared war last week to save Sayeda Zainab Shrine from being bulldozed by McCain Germs. It’s immanent that Syria ain’t the only warring duos grave but it is Lebanon that getting outta hand. Lebanon is an Iranian-bitch-state as Iraq, Qatif and Bahrain to be. Now With McCain Germs armed by USA and air covered by Israel. Lebanon ain’t Maronite Phalangists slum no mo but a brand new Sunni state.

This anonymous officer is bluffing. It’s a scam. Indian Arm forces need Blackwater to bodyguard them If [God-Forbid] they ever frogmarched into real-time war not to sunt-show they pulled with Pakistan in West Bengal and Kargil with Pakistan. It’s an insult to believe that India has agreed to Chinese demand to demolish bunkers near their de facto border in Himalayas, Indian military officers said, as part of deal to end stand-off that threatened to scupper slowly improving relations. Ladakh Incursion is another stunt show pulled by Beijing & Delhi to aid Manmohan Singh takeout Narendra Modi and crush BJP Chaos Manor Tsunami to get Delhi Next Election. I thought you should know that Narendra Modi performs Shastra Puja on Dussehara for Israel to usher him into the White-House against Obama’s darling MMS. Everyone has the right for a daydream. Why not Narendra? Israel will dig his grave as they did to many as Mitt Romney, Musharraf, Mubarak.. More.. OK that’s enough.

It’s Turkey’s Nightmare. Turkey hates Israel’s Airstrikes. Turkey needs Assad in power to Devastate McCain Germs and Syria. It’s an Ugly Turkish dirty game to stop Obama getting into Syria. Turks want to exodus Stateless Kurds outta Turkey to where they belong. HELL. Turks are mean that’s why they ain’t get into Eurozone this life. "It is not the time to give up the struggle, but to start a different one," Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) leader Abdullah Ocalan said. Its Turkish dirty game to stop Obama getting into Syria. Turks want to exodus Stateless Kurds outta turkey to where they belong. HELL. Power Controversial CHEMICAL WEAPON TALE that Assad delivered fleeing Saddam to Americans in 2005 on 2 conditions. ONE: USA must hand over all Saddam’s confiscated Chemical Weapon to Syria. TWO: USA must stop accusing Assad of possessing WMD. America happily did both for the sake of getting Saddam. Kurds brokered the deal. For this deal USA gifted Kurds North of Iraq as Kigali for Stateless Kurds and they called it Kurdistan. Have anyone of you ever asked why SARIN in particular surfaced among those 12,000 types of Chemical Weapons that Saddam enjoyed wholesaling. Simply because Kurds wanted to exploit SYRIAN DILEMMA for their plight to prove to the whole world that Saddam really used SARIN in Halabcha by showing it real in Daraa. Blaming McCain Germs for it, is stooopid scam pulled by Turkey? This UN-Bitch is bluffing. Carla Del Ponte is spoiler especially when Obama declared that SARIN is game-changer. SARIN Stockpiles were stolen by Shiite Clergyman Muqtada al Sader Militiamen from Abu-Ghraib and smuggled to Iran during Iraq war. Iranian troops currently using the same stolen SARIN as SOS against McCain germs who’re butchering Iranian mercenaries as stray dogs while cowardly fleeing Syria to Iraq. Quit Pot. Carla. Who’re you fooling now? SARIN surfaces in Sunni hands that’s preposterous. Carla Del Ponte desperately looking for stalemate to save Assad, Hezbollah, Maronite Phalangists, Iranians & Alawites failing forces that butchered by McCain Germs. Carla Del Ponte never been to Syria, she’s talking from Switzerland. Carla Del Ponte investigators had no access to ground truth; if they did, they will be dog-food if they ever approach any warring faction. I crave for Unprecedented Israeli honesty once in my life. I am stunned. Israel nuke-like Bombing Assad. This is too honest to believe. I need more time to trust Israel. I meant, I needed to see more bombing to take Israel seriously. Israelis has no guts to stand my remarks – they are ready to drop-out everything outta hand and go and kill anyone who they disagrees with - A liter of blood for droplet of ink. How the hell Israelis will have the courage to aid McCain germs in Syria. As I probed Mediawhores underground. I firmly believe that Assad, Hezbollah, Iran, Turkey & Israel warring factions are Kafkaesque Brotberuf can’t be trusted. Every Muslim enjoyed watching Assad, Hezbollah & Iran using chemical weapons & WMD to commit genocides against hundreds of thousands of Muslim elders, women & children condemning Israelis while bedding their women outta godless monotony. This is a Godsend opportunity for Israel to set it right and to redeem esteem of Muslims than Thugocracies. Here’s the deal.. All missiles all over Gush Qatif stopped. It’s a miracle. Its Hezbollah’s call that am waiting.

Gregg Mcphedrain: YOUR A RACIST BIGGOT sir

Stsheetrock: thank you

Gregg Mcphedrain: go look in the mirror

Stsheetrock: you’re blind

Gregg Mcphedrain: you are what most people think of when we think of racist muslims

Stsheetrock: thank you

Gregg Mcphedrain: you call us demons

Stsheetrock: oh so you’re one of peter kings zombies. Good for you.

Gregg Mcphedrain: we call you uneducated sand monkeys who have added nothing to culture for 1000's of years

Stsheetrock: what a redneck fool? Monkeys live in forest not in sand.

Gregg Mcphedrain: difference of opinions makes a horse race the winner determines the facts

Stsheetrock: I couldn't agree with you more

Gregg Mcphedrain: and calling people names - just pisses them off

Stsheetrock: Can I call Dr. Otto Hasslein?

I don’t know what kind of demons elected Peter King as Member of the U.S. House of Representatives and as Chairman of the United States House Committee on Homeland Security. This man is mad. Peter King lures, extorts and bribes Anglosexual Geographical Muslims, Creditcards Fugitive, Urban Rejects and Traitors who fled our sewers to surface in USA to show up, lie, falsify and testify before Handpicked Corrupt Congressmen off the Controversial Homeland Security Committee that TERRORISM is ISLAM. Peter King need to raid mosque now to FRANCHISE bombing NFL, Grammy, Tony, Mann Grauman's, Broadway anywhere were innocent festive Americans having good time. Peter King lost his mind. He’s a fool. Talk to your enemy crackpot. Stop talking to your enemies’ enemy. Learn Arabic for change. Quit listening to Televangelist & Zionazi endangered species that ain’t able to identify Quran from Bhagavad Gita. Here’s the deal... Pat Robertson found 50 verses in Quran orders Merovingian to bomb Americans who quit Monsanto. Don’t you get? Pete. Quarter of Planet Earth at large is saying: UP YOU. PETER KING they gonna do it again and again to piss you off. Get them to your committee. Talk to them before it’s too late. Think about your seat next terms. You are the only one who’s self radicalized and needs help to stay at Capitol. Can I call Dr. Otto Hasslein for you? You stand no chance before your worst nightmare: the Teeebaagerzz floodgate that looking forward to clutch you attractive seat once look that way. You’re getting old, ugly and dumb. You declared a war you can’t finish. I smell the stench of George bush the-kid reeky armpit. Stop political correctness. Shut up Pete. Profiling my Ass! Who cares? Do it if. What’re you waiting for?

hellbound muslims means destined for Hell. did you really mean it?

what would you call someone who prefer trouble to prosperity?hellbound! oh no. i call him Winfield Scott Hancock. I'll take a rain check on your intelligence.

Mark Hatzi: excuse me, are Christian blowing up people thru out the mid east, Europe, the US, no, but then you say nothing to help stop the extremist from doing that to Christians.

STSHEETROCK: YES THEY DID TO MILLIONS OF ELDERS, WOMEN & CHILDREN IN IRAQ, AFHANISTAN, PAKISTAN, YEMEN & SOMALIA.

Mark Hatzi: Sure I know not all Muslims practice extremist views. but 1 murder in the name of religion is to many. Either you help stop it or you become as bad as those you allow to do it by inaction.

STSHEETROCK: THERE IS NOTHING CALLED EXTREMIST. IT’S YOUR NOMENCLATURE YOU DEAL WITH IT. MUSLIM OR NEVER. I WILL BE JERK IF I TELL YOU THAT MUSLIMS AIN’T BOMBERS. I AM APOLOGETIC AND HYPOCRITE SIMPLY BECAUSE YOU HERE TO HEAR ME SAY: “I AM SORRY I DID IT AND I WON’T DO IT AGAIN.”

Mark Hatzi: Now I do not agree with going into a mosque in force, but I do not agree any church should be burned to the ground because it is not your chosen religion either..

STSHEETROCK: Mosques & Churches of God not Peter King’s

Mark Hatzi: God is known by many different names around the world, I prefer to think he is a God of Love instead of violence.

STSHEETROCK: I COULDN'T AGREE WITH YOU MORE.

Mark Hatzi: The OLD TESTAMENT, was a very violent time in the Bible,

STSHEETROCK: THE OLD TESTAMENT AIN’T VERY VIOLENT ITS JUST RIGGED BY HEBREWS.

Mark Hatzi: but Jesus preached LOVE, to ALL, not just a chose few.....

STSHEETROCK: I COULDN'T AGREE WITH YOU MORE.

mark hatzi: but i do not agree any church should be burned to the ground because it is not your chosen religion either

You’re referring to Copts. 1432 years ago they were 100% of Middle East. Why are they now the endangered species under 7%. What happened? Why Jesus cursed them as he cursed Jews who murdered him? Copts & Jews are 7000 old civilization why ain’t they at least quarter of planet earth as Muslims. Simply because they are cursed by Jesus in holy Quran. Copt let paid vigilintes burn churches on facebook to get John Hagee’s sympathy and flee west to suck your resources. Copt pope lost Africa, Russia, East Europe to BB King.

DUBAI AWQAF sacked all mosques cleaners and replaced them by cleaning contractors who use slave workers at $136 per month. Hoping to milking butterflies to save money. These slaves sold everything back home to get into land of plenty. DUBAI AWQAF sequestration introduced new enemies: mosque thieves looting people and charity. Dubai Police Bollywood about finding $1188 hidden in the cleaner's right [foot] sock without either slapping or kicking the poor fellow was immaculate.

Assata Shakur first woman named on FBI most wanted terror list! Who are you kidding? Losers. Booooooooh. FBI ain’t clever to get Joanne Chesimard latest Mugshot. Does FBI have any Dignity & Pride left? Assata Shakur proved to whole world that FBI is Parasitic White-Elephant. Good for nothing but HOTAIR and must immediately moved from New York to Indian Reservations or Beirut. Single handedly she outfoxed FBI for 40 years. Cuba fostered her as Freedom-Fighter not as the Most Wanted Terrorist as FBI alleged. Cuba granted Assata Shakur the political asylum that usually granted to heads of states. There’s no Indy source proves that Assata Shakur is Guilty of any crime dramatized by Hollywood. It’s dirty politics. She ain’t black enough to get whites justice. Here’s the good news... Assata Shakur is grown up, she’s 65, and she ain’t miss USA. It ain’t home no mo. it’s just bad memory. I thought you should know that she quit watching Thelma & Louise all over and ALLOVER again in Havana, she’s ready to come clean on three conditions that ONE: FBI quit voodoo & TWO: FBI quit bitching about busting her. THREE: FBI must dumb down and give her the promised $2M Reward instead giving it to daydreaming Bounty Hunters. She really earned it. Joanne Chesimard will open a mosque in New Jersey State Prison Trenton and convert all Rastafaris to Episcopals. Then you don’t need to worry about Rednecks converting to Teeebaagerzz. Assata Shakur’s Rastafarian Episcopals will guarantee fair share of pot all over Dixie.

American Sniper: Autobiography of Most Lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History Book by Scott McEwen. (MY ASS) Now that’s fact on Hollywood played by Bradley Cooper. Steven Spielberg is digging his own grave this time. This Zionist really has gone mad. He lost his mind after directing Schindler's List horsemanure. You must be kidding! Spielberg to dramatize Autobiography of Donald Rumsfeld’s TOYBOY Redneck Psycho Mercenary who sported shooting 225 ill-elders, pregnant-women and sleeping-babies in Anbar. Spielberg should direct Assata Shakur autobiography first woman named on FBI most wanted terror list instead. Have we any honor left on planet earth. Chris Kyle used to collect his victims’ ears and fingers as trophies to fortify his wins and dole ‘em to Rumsfeld. Rummy loved to use them as dildos to milk his own prostate. Steven Spielberg is sick as Rumsfeld. Man! I was always wondered - why Spielberg adored shirtless underage boys on his logos. Chris Kyle stood no chance to sniper a rat in Fallujah – kids will hunt him down like fox. He would be dead long-long before he ever unpacked his shotgun. Nice Mugshot though. Watch Kyle’s Body-Language. Ain’t but Failing Photoshop of a damn loser. When it comes to worthying the worthless and glorifying criminals? CNN is FOXNEWS. How would Chris Kyle sleeps? Unless he sniffs ton of crack - Before he takes his life and blame Tsarnaeva Brothers, Chris Kyle was GUNDOWN by a Beer-Lout while shooting scarecrows of Dixie. Obama said yes right away because this movie project must be funded by Saudi Arabia as Schindler's List or else he will have McCain Germs overthrow the Dying Monarchy of Saudi Arabia. Obama draws a precedent here to show how helpless Muslims’ ill-elders, pregnant-women and sleeping-babies sniperd by contract killers if they ever rebel against Thugocracies. This brings me to Saud Alfaisal when he said: ‘I will chop anybody’s finger if he ever pointed at House of Alsaud’. AMERICAN SNIPER movie sends a powerful message to the world: “that’s OK to kill Muslim’s and make a mockery outta ‘em in Hollywood movies”. Wow that’s Good signal for Taliban to bomb movie houses than marathoners. Your tailgates are larger than your hollow skull. Politics is scam not religious conviction. Man. You owe me a confession. You’re thicker than Kyle. Kyle was in Fallujah during Iraq War killing unarmed elders, women & babies not in Dubai. I don't hate you. I enjoy writing back to you. Kyle and you must watched Rich Wyatt he’s quite an inspiration for coach potatoes. Credit goes to FOXNEWS who successfully turn Americans to zombies who shoot at anything moves hoping it’s a Muslim. Let’s brush aside our differences. US MEDIA WHORES are bankrupt during Bush the-Kid era, even Rush Limbaugh ain’t getting enough commercials to run his radio. Aljazeera is buying all those bankruptcies. Who would rehire Sean Hannity or Ann Coulter if they were sacked? Only Obama’s Poodles in my backyard love to hide their loots in US Media Streams that Murdoch rules to Redherring masses. Look how they killed the Second Amendment and Sandy Hook by Boston marathon bombing. America was Falkland for 2 weeks thanks to FOXNEWS.

Quit wikitrash. Thomas Coke Sharp ain’t able to identify Quran from Bhagavad Gita. Here’s the deal... Pat Robertson found 50 verses in Quran orders Merovingian to bomb Americans who quit Monsanto.

Blackwater really hit you. I Am proud. Your haha is immaculate I love sharing hahaha with you if present an Indy source that fortifies you horsemanure. Quit Googledjunk & Wikitrash. Tuntun! MULAYAM Singh Yadav must be nuts or somebody must kept ganja in his Rajni Gandha. Samajwadi Party chief said Chinese army had entered one km inside Indian Territory when he was Defense Minister. "I directed the (Indian) forces to drive them out. We entered four km inside Chinese territory in the process," he claimed. Whether the Shaven Bagwas Sirdar Mulayam is laying or bulling or crowing about. Such statement shouldn’t published especially when Salman Khurshid is meeting Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi Thursday in Beijing to talk about resolving the dispute over the presence of PLA troops in Depsang valley in Ladakh through talks without letting it to "affect" bilateral ties. Wang Yi surely will tell Slaman Khurshid: Since Mulayam Singh Yadav directed the (Indian) forces into china to drive PLA Troops outta Chinese territory and entered four km inside Chinese territory. We ain’t even square. Go To Hell. SALMAN. Mulayam Singh Yadav a Godsend Fool.

Why don’t Dr Gurmanjit Rai, head of department, forensic medicine at civil hospital in Tarn Taran district quit nagging, call Jinnah hospital and request the missing organs stomach, heart, gall bladder and two kidneys than YOUYOUING. Usually organs are removed from any corpse air freighted for burial aboard this is classic routine everywhere. IN RETALIATION Inmate Venod Kumar hit Pakistani Prisoner Sanaullah on the head with brick in the Kot Lakhpat jail. The wretched thing that stroke my head. Sirdarjis were mourning an anonymous busted by Pakistani for being stoopid and kept Indo-Pakistan headline running as cricket more than Narendra Modi Stunt-Show. By the way Modi wanted Delhi to cut it Diplomatic ties with Islamabad for sake of Sarabjit’s blue eyes. What a loser? Say should Delhi take Modi’s advice seriously! Which clowns will be watching before bed to unwind and go to sleep? Lalu Parsad is ma[s]turbating. NOT YOU TUNTUN. SHUT-UP. Looking at Sarabjit’s alas Manjit corpse cremated off course in the presence of Rahul Gandhi the great-grandson of Jawaharlal Nehru who murdered million Punjabis to give Lahore to Jinnah. Don’t be foolish. He’s there to fool Sirdarjis to Congress Next Polling stations. I watched Indian Soldiers Mourning Parade and shooting Blanks in the Air. I almost had heart-attack. They never got a single shot right. Wow! India seriously needs BLACKWATER to guard these poor soldiers if they ever go to war. Back to Sarabjit singh. Why the hell Delhi didn’t take the trouble to prove to Pakistan that Sarabjit ain’t Manjit through DNA Eternal Forensic Game. That will surely keep both probably alive on the media until election is over and every Sirdarji lived happily ever after. MULAYAM Singh Yadav must be nuts or somebody must kept ganja in his Rajni Gandha. Samajwadi Party chief said Chinese army had entered one km inside Indian Territory when he was Defense Minister. "I directed the (Indian) forces to drive them out. We entered four km inside Chinese territory in the process," he claimed. Whether the Shaven Bagwas Sirdar Mulayam is laying or bulling or crowing about. Such statement shouldn’t published especially when Salman Khurshid is meeting Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi Thursday in Beijing to talk about resolving the dispute over the presence of PLA troops in Depsang valley in Ladakh through talks without letting it to "affect" bilateral ties. Wang Yi surely will tell Slaman Khurshid: Since Mulayam Singh Yadav directed the (Indian) forces into China to drive PLA Troops outta Chinese territory and entered four km inside Chinese territory. We ain’t even square. Go To Hell. SALMAN. Mulayam Singh Yadav a Godsend Fool.

I got this in my inbox from the DAILYMAIL: “Celebrations and Jubilations - An Unforgettable Royal Experience” before opening it. I thought this what am waiting for: Oh boy. This is it. This must be the full coverage of Sheikh Khalifa’s Historical State Visit to England. As I hit ‘open’ God Heaven. Buckingham Palace gone for sale from £219pp. Oh My God! Queen Beatrix abdicated Holland thrown to her kid Prince Willem. Where the Hell is the QUEEN of England? She’s supposed to be receiving Abu Dhabi Sheikh as we speak? Oh-No media coverage dark out. It must be bad what’s going on? As matter fact all British headlines focusing on Jason Collins Gay Athlete Benediction by Obama in James S. Brady Press Briefing Room. What about Sheikh Khalifa? Oh I know where I can get his news for sure. Lemme’ hit the sponsored propagandists: KHALEEJTIMES & GULFNEWS. I got it. The usual sponsored slide-show. The Queen stood in the shade while Sheikh Khalifa out inspecting the Beefeaters. I can smell Prince Philips vinegary farts from right here. Akhkheeeh. Poor fellow he got an erection in his pancreas. And then the: BOMB – KABOOOAM from THE INDEPENDENT that put Sheikh Khalifa back on British Headlines. David Cameron confronted Sheikh Khalifa in Ten-Downing-Street to conduct an independent investigation and release immediately 3 Drug Traffickers busted last year for being too stooopid and too dumb vulnerable to be arrested by Dubai Police. Grant Cameron [Irish], Suneet Jeerh [Indian] and Karl Williams [Nigerian] who also happened to hold British passports. THE INDEPENDENT described the trio as Londoners conquistadores on assignment - selling state of art synthetic narcotics to world children in Dubai - apprehended during business hours and they were forced to sign a confession in Arabic or else their rectums will be rammed in Jumeirah Hilton (that’s Britons Executive Branch in al-Aweer Prison). All-that-jazz was in July last year now we’re in May. Damn it 10 months. Rotting in jail for selling drugs? Ain’t fair they are British they’re supposed to be surfing and sipping champagne with Mr. Lawless in Burj al-Arab. Why the hell David Cameron waited that long and treasured his vendetta to extort Sheikh Khalifa now in London, he could settled it on phone. That’s hypocritical. Hold on don’t be foolish. David Cameron exploited Sheikh Khalifa historic visit to Hijack British headlines for his failing tenure at Ten Downing Street. Oh No that crap. I warned you. No conspiracy theory allowed here. I am Truther ain’t BULLSHITTER. He’s meaner than that. David Cameron likes to get even with Queen’s Guest on his mating ground right near his fireplace - where he adds laxative into his guest’s tea to rush him out. Particularly June-disappointments. The HOTAIR that he got NOTHING outta Abu Dhabi overtures. He wanted to tell his guest things his prodigals shielded from him about the unproductive fruitless futile outcome of his June 2012 visit to Abu Dhabi. THE-BIG-FIVE-SHOW paid his fair to Dubai then. Mean Moriarty Moves: David Cameron choked-up Queen’s Guest with useless Drug Dealers’ Dilemma. He hit the jackpot. He got everything. I bet they signed everything David Cameron tossed across. He didn’t needed to raise the Debt-Laden Unprivileged Emarati Activists’ Issue or the Human-Right Violations that yet to be shelved at the right price and the right time. Mind you. We, UAE House over 131,000 overpaid British Unemployables & Bankruptcies Fugitives. I thought you should know that a great chunk of those nagging nutjobs got life insurance policies against David Cameron SCREWUPS with UAE Authorities or being redundant? So who’s the boss Khalifa or Cameron? Let’s pray. O Lord, I beseech thee, let now thine ear be attentive to the prayer of thy servant, because it gave access to the king in those seasons of hilarity when men are.

Ali and India. Pretty genius metaphor. We should know that we have strength, we have stamina, we have bulk, we have presence, reputation and we have history that if someone wants to take few blows at us we will be able to withstand them. Kudos Salman Khurshid! oh by the way here’s 182 Terrorists Organizations based in India. How would Ali Criterion help Delhi to bust them? You kill one they kill hundreds and devastate millions. Never about money its lose change. Here’s some specimens Stipulated hereinbelow: ZRV,ZRA,UPDS,UNLF,UMLFA,ULMA,ULFA,UKLF,UIRA,UILA,UBLF,TTYF,TTYF,TTVF,TTSF,TTDF,TTACF,TSV,TSV,TRRB,TPC,TNRT,TNRF,TNLA,TNDTF,TNA,TMP,TLOF,TLF,TDF,TCF,TATCF,SIMI,SDFT,RNSF,RMC,RJC,PULF,PREPAK,PRA,PLF-M,PLA,NSCN-K,NSCNI-M,NSCN-IM,NNC-Adino,NMT,NLFT,NEMF,NDFB,MVF,MULTA,MULFA,MTF,MSF,MSCA,MPLF,MLTA,MLA,LTTE,KZF,KYKL,KSF,KRPC,KRLO,KRF,KRA,KPF,KNV,KNV,KNO,KNF,KNA,KNA,KLO,KLF,KLF,KLA,KKK,KIF,KIA,KDF,KCP,KCF,KAF,IURPI,ISYF,ISS,Isak-Muivah,IRPA,IRF,INF,ILAA,IKL,HULA,HRF,HPC-D,HPC,HNLC,GTF,DHD,CPI-ML-Janashakti,CPI-Maoist,CKRF,BVYLF,BTFK,BTF,BNCT,BMS,BLTF,BKI,BCF,ATVF,ATTF,ATNF,ATLO,ATBSF,ATBR,ASF,AS,ANVC,AISSF,ADF,ABNES,AAASS, ADINO

I said on Apr 19, 2013 Bravo Jane. You’re really my girl. Welcome to Lee Harvey Oswald World.

Ron Paul is dead-right when he said that USA is a Third World Banana Republic. FBI UNINDEXED clashing Testimonies to jab published ground truth is outrageous. FBI is forcing everyone to LIE even in Yesterday’s President Obama’s 48 minutes answers in James S. Brady Press Briefing Room. Please invite some Black-belt Body-Linguists to watch Obama’s body-language in James S. Brady Press Briefing Room. Focus on when he says “I talk to Putin” watch his eyes. Oh by the way! I picked a new phenomenon from Obama: ‘Self-Radicalized” as ‘self-charged battery.’ Back to FBI: FBI Testimonies are on my radar since Christmas Bomber. FBI become another MOKHABARAT (Secret Police) in my backyard. I have no doubt that FBI finish product ain’t authored by Qualified Patriot Americans but by our WORST Urban Rejects who fled our Sewers to strike rich in the Wild Wet West. People stood no chance of any success in our backyard how the hell they will be added-value assets and will add intelligence to FBI. On the contrary their effect is obvious - negative now as I can see; they really brought FBI intelligence down to earth that they don’t worthy my respect. Look at BMB. A representative specimen of FBI SCREWUPS. FBI said that they interviewed Tamerlan in Makhachkala and let him go to bomb Boston Marathoners: ‘typical Arabic. Oh No! He entered USA by spelling error. Really.’ That’s ain’t FBI that I seen in Denzel Washington movie but sounds typical Maronite Phalangists, Hezbollah, Egyptian Copt, Iranian Pedarsag, Sardarji, Guajarati, Bihari, Iraqi-Shiite, Kurd or Alawite they got great motive just settling their old account in USA courtesy of American taxpayers by snaking Tsarnaeva to fool FBI for living. Zubeidat Tsarnaeva told FBI go to hell! They did big time. Once FBI realized that ‘Misha’ ain’t Mikhail Allakhverdov but ‘teddy bear’ they moved to DNA Game to haunt Tamerlan wife Katherine Russell Saray Mulk-khanum. She told FBI Gorm. I need Tamerlan corpse. They evaporated outta her sight. Now they’re snaking on Kazakhstani trio and toying with Saudi Mountaingoat intelligence whoresmanure. I am expecting FBI to tap on CIA who are dormant all these years as Baghdad frogs in BMB and bring forward Ruslan Tsarni, Graham Fuller, Samantha Ankara Fuller and big A or Ali. Stay tuned it is getting interesting.

Since Seigniorage Banksters crashed in 2007 their Culture ain’t working no mo. Sharia Binge is another Redherring to distracts fools away from real loots. Angosexual Geographical Muslims are the best Arabophobe Guinea pigs to experiment anti-Arabism to crackup nation of Islam. Since English is Islam’s language and Quran is Arabic that most Anti-Arabists loathe to memorize or explore it in the language of origin - then there is huge room for clergymen to maneuver to commit heinous crimes and Freud. Clergymen are feeble corruptible creatures. Islam is shirt of Othman wore wherever a crime yet to be committed. Law of the Land ain’t justice but a game played by scavenging lawyers and fostered by thieving Thugocracies to enable the HAVES rip-off the HAVENOTS. Sharia ain’t justice either it’s a scam played by Ignoramus clergymen to rip-off both the HAVES and the HAVENOTS and dole both loots as commonwealth to Distrusted Trusts notwithstanding Sharia commerce is nothing but an Arabic version of the Old Colonial British-India Merchant Banking

Mark Twain would commit suicide if he knew that Yesterday’s President Obama’s 48 minutes answers in James S. Brady Press Briefing Room were CHOREOGRAPHED to six historic questions. It is mind bugling when BILL asked Obama about Gitmo. Regarding "Maybe I should just pack up and go home. Golly," that’s POWER GESTURE if you go 24 hours back to Correspondence Dinner and see how Obama insulted Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell and the whole Republican Frugals attending then you will understand that Obama didn’t run outta juice wrongly placed "As Mark Twain said, rumors of my demise may be a little exaggerated at this point," metaphor.

First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win. GITMOANS ain’t terrorists but conquistadores disowned by Thieving Thugocracies and they found a window of opportunity larger than life. They privileged trouble to prosperity to get attention. They got it all. They wrecked America. Republican Frugals water-boarded them to extract intelligence they got none but Hollywood Bedrock. Obama as Ho-Nigga then chickened-out to displease white folks he ditched the conquistadores to rot and die in Guantanamo. They decided to starve to test destiny. They battled Force-feeding torture. They have some attention now. I am looking forward to see Lindsey Graham ‘to begin with’ saying hell No. When Kerry & Hagel at the Helm around Obama I feel some smartness in DC’s tinted air. Back to Christian-Post Question. Why Do Radical Muslims Hate Americans So Much? Stooopid Question! First there is nothing called Radical Muslims. This is Muslim or never. Back to HAPPY HATE AMERICA DAY. If I say we don’t then I am a fraudulent hypocrite because you are here to hear this from me: ‘Death to America’. Now stop asking stooopid questions and consult with your gynecologist because you’re pregnant. And by the way don’t be afraid. That’s ain’t but cloth those losers are burning. Give them a decent flag they will stop.

Why Do Radical Muslims Hate Americans So Much? Stooopid Question! First nothing called Radical Muslims. This is Muslim or never. Back to HATE America. If I say we don’t then I am a jerk because you are here to hear this from me: ‘Death to America’. Now stop asking stooopid questions and consult with your gynecologist because you’re pregnant. And by the way don’t be afraid that’s but cloth that those losers are burning. Give them a decent flag they will stop.

PREZ PERES TO POPE FRANCIS: Come to Israel We, Jews didn’t murder Jesus. The Wahabi Mohammed did" (albeit Jesus was murder by Jews 670 years before Mohammed birth). Come Pope! I will show you how Israelis can kill Muslim elders, women & Children by one blow. Please don’t read the News. Israeli police watched, Single handed as with kitchen knife unarmed Salam Za'al killed armed settler Evyatar Borovsky, took Borovsky assault gun and begin shooting at Police Spectators. Salam Za'al was detained for 3 years in Israeli jail for crime of throwing stones. He’s released if he cooperates with Israel and turns his kid brother to traitor. Which he did, then this hitchhiking Borovsky he’s an actor, armed security force and has 4 children that he orphaned. Netanyahu will build more settlement to revenge for Borovsky’s Murder. Salam Za'al ain’t a lone wolf but a terrorist. So how Borovsky settled in Tulkarem? Go to bed boys.

When Ann Coulter said on FOXNEWS Zubeidat Tsarnaeva must be arrested for wearing Hijab, Breitbart banned me for saying Ann Coulter must be arrested for being a woman. Last week I said: watch your Tailgate. Vladimir! Especially when Kerry & Hagel at the Helm. Guys! Since Obama ditched Putin role as BMB Truther. Putin ain’t doing well. He lost control. Just now 30 Anti-Putin Protesters detained on Red Square and 140 people busted at Moscow mosque including more than 30 citizens of other countries. Putin used to be my hero when he weaned Caucuses away from Wahabi Mountaingoats and taken them as Proper Russians. BMB screwed up everything. He got greedy. He exploited BMB to silence Gorky Park Vodka Activists. That’s a wrong call. Syria’s sparks ain’t far away to ignite holy war in Chechnya. That’s Putin’s nightmare. Since FBI is NY outfit then it’s religiously Chuck Schumer business to snack some FBI-Russia whoresmanure to fish any hidden credibility in the mud. Don’t bother reading further than Misha ain’t Mikhail Allakhverdov in Russian it’s for Teddy ‘BEAR’. America is desperate to show the enemy that FBI on top of everything. FBI knew nothing about anything before 03:01PM . April 15, 2009. FBI must be closed-down then by An Executive Branch Order. It ain’t worth it to keep such obese white elephant that can’t defend itself. Paparazzi can deliver far better and cheaper intelligence than this crackpot who showed on CNN talking about an Armenian hippie who converted to Islam to bomb America. Armenians are happy to worship Judas Iscariot but not to be Muslims. We & Armenians have one good thing in common: “we hate each other”. MBM was tolerance stress test to America that’s why the bomb was concealed into pressure cooker to avoid killing innocent people. They just killed 3, hospitalized 246 and traumatized 300 million. That’s a home-run. Ron Paul said: Forced lockdown of city. Militarized police riding tanks in streets. Door-to-door armed searches without warrant. Families thrown out of their homes at gunpoint to be searched without probable cause. Businesses forced to close. Transport shut down. These were not scenes from military coup in far off banana republic, but rather scenes just over week ago in Boston as United States got taste of martial law. The ostensible reason for the military-style takeover of parts of Boston was that accused perpetrator of a horrific crime was on loose. The Boston bombing provided opportunity for government to turn what should have been police investigation into a military-style occupation of an American city. This unprecedented move should frighten us as much or more than the attack itself.

Turks cannot be trusted. Israelis too. IDF is killing our Elders, Women & Children in Gaza to get DC attention for more weapons. The same IDF flew over Assad Palace without harming him and went bombing alleged chemical weapon depot in Damascus and returned home safe. Would you dumb-down and tell us who the enemy is? Oh no SFA..lemme think!

MILITARY ACTION OVER SYRIA'S SUSPECTED USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS COULD BACKFIRE. Never mind about the narrative. The question is for you ‘THENATIONAL’. You the publisher! Are you in or out? Who are you dancing for? ISRAEL or SYRIA? Make up your mind. Shame on you! Yesterday a poor Syrian subject jumped to his death from 15th floor of Dubai Silicon Oasis Building probably listening to Mediawhore like you sporting the gassing of his parents with Syrian elders, women & children. Have some decency. Be a journalist. Quit scavenging as coldblooded paparazzi hyena on miseries to earn your living. Quit moderating minds.

I needed John McCain to shakeup the WhiteHouse. Democrats are slow-on boot-on-the-ground but patriot Republicans as

Senator John McCain, a Republican from Arizona who doesn’t need do get Tel-Aviv’s approval to oust Assad outta Syria. Assad Gassing Syrian Elders, Women & Children. It is getting harder and harder for Iran & Russia to maintain their military supplies lines. Russians, Iranians & Hezbollah mercenaries are butchered as boar allover Syria. Jordan king is happy to help to get more USAID for his dying economy and please the Islamists at his end. Turks are mean. Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan will exploit stalemate to occupy Syrian lands as he did in Northern Iraq to use for Kurdish Homeland away from Turkey motherland where they belong. Tayyip Erdogan will fight to stop Obama have boot-on-the-ground in Syria. Turks cannot be trusted.

“When the world can seem very dark and confusing, presence of priest is presence of hope,” Rev. Richard Cannon is bluffing. Priest is for death and wedding unlike Imam who has to drop everything off hand, wash-out, head to mosque, call for prayer outloud and lead the prayers reciting memorized Quran 5397 times not only after bombing but five times a day, 365 days a year. Imam leads rain, eclipse, death & trarweeh prayers. Rev. Tom Carzon showed up for the bombing like any Truther or sympathizer on every blue moon. Back to priest ban: I vote. No. please let them pray.

Russian state media quoted a Russian Federal Security Service statement as saying those detained Friday included more than 30 citizens of other countries. But the statement did not specify which nations.

Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais Mugshot with Geert Wilders Deputy Arnoud Van Doorn. What kind of stunt-show is this? Saudi Arabia fostered Geert Wilders campaign against Islam through FOXNEWS (a subsidiary of the Kingdom holdings run by Prince Alwaleed bin Talal). This is unorthodox and deciptive. Who are you trying to fool? Are you trying to deceive god as well? وَيَمْكُرُونَ وَيَمْكُرُ اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ‏ Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais is onto his second Stunt-Show somewhere in India next week without bothering to visit those 22 million devastated Kashmiris who crave to touch his feet. Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais is just following the agenda of those Godless endangered species of House of al-Saud.

GOD, PLEASE DEFEAT AMERICA’S ALLIES ON MAY 11 is preposterous headline. This is a secular & Godless argument. I need those arguing losers in that room to answer one question. Are they Muslims or Pakistani? History proved that you can’t be both. Pakistani means the boring Zardari, Nawaz Sharief, Imran Khan, Musharaf Etc. and Muslims. Use your imagination. KABOOOM if you ever touch Booze or America. I don’t think those in the room ready for that.

This comment is awaiting moderation. This is the harvest of Foreign Office seeds sown. Watching Thugocracies around the Globe committing heinous crimes against their own. All that is necessary for triumph of evil is that good men do nothing. Edmund Burke. Richard Branson devastated by ban on British tourists to Israel, Kenya, South Africa & Turkey due domestic unrest & al-Qaida and yet Thailand went unnoticed where conned British and sedated European tourists are butchered like wild boar in Phuket, Pattaya and those Schizophrenic Islands. Read Pattaya Daily & Phuket Gazette for body count. Ricardo. Mama Teresa killed more infants in her convents than al-Qaida.

Buddhist Monks beat Muslims to death in Burma watch video..Misinformation is act of crime. beforeitsnews contributors trying to draw attention gain mileage. That’s ain't right. Burmese Muslims are butchered while police watching.

Would you guys dumb down and Google how many millions been in Shanghai tower before getting into ranking Burj Khalifa. Bruno said: achievements build nations and ranks kill it.

Quit Googledjunk. What welfare? USA ain't afford foostamp them. They u hauled millions of petrodollars to America to survive in your hostile cities. They’re fooled by the American Dream Propaganda that deranged them to drop everything back home and rush to America and now headhunted as rabids. When Ann Coulter said on FOXNEWS Zubeidat Tsarnaeva must be arrested for wearing Hijab, Breitbart banned me for saying Ann Coulter must be arrested for being a woman.

Replying Charles Ford

I don't have to cover things. Why don't you fly all those copts (that you are committing suicide for) over to your backyard, they're handy to babysit your wife & kids and mow your lawn. Regarding what you said: Islam. The religion of the Pedophile, Rapist and Mass Murderer Mohammed. I have millions of website who're happy to enjoy your ISP if you allow me to pass it to them.

GAZA BIOMETRY IS AGAINST LAW.

إثبت أنها زوجتك او أختك.. فصلٌ جديد من حملة "الفضيلة" في شوارع غزة

هذه حريات شخصية civil liberties

مش من حق حماس او عباس او الاحتلال اصدار او طلب هوية اي فرد الا اذا ارتكب جريمة فحريته كحرية الطيور في الهواء والسمك في الماء و الدود في الارض. المشكلة ليست سياية وانما مشكلة دستورية هل يحق بيروقراطيا ان تطلب هوية شخص لاتعرفه.

حماس هي شريعة فلسطين بغظ النظر ان كانت مؤسسة ارهابية في حسابات اسرائيل هذا لايعني شيء عند العرب والمسلمين حالها كالاخوان في مصر اوطالبان في باكستان وافغانستان والنصرة في العراق وسوريا

Whites are cautious nutjob doublethinkers. In 2004 it was white vs. white. Everywhite hit the streets and voted for Bush to loot US Reserves and burn it over military complex engaged in two wars that wrecked America. Who cares? Whites preferred jobs over USA. Simply because USA was Whiteman’s World. In 2008 & 2012 it was white vs. black. Whites stayed at home because firstly they don’t trust each other and secondly they didn’t trusted the Rigged Diebold Machines which controlled by ABOVE-THE-LAWs. You must be kidding! Should some White crackpot voted for black against white The ABOVE-THE-LAWs will hunt him down and finish him. The White voters were so scared they stayed back at home lest they’re disowned by The ABOVE-THE-LAWs who will starve their children & elders to death if they ever voted black. As a matter of fact they are doing it to those white fools who voted black today. “Kill that bloody Nigga-lover”. During Obama administration foodstamps subscribers are higher than ever. Black Inmates and Black jobless are gracefully holding to the 90% Residency over America’s Stats since Lincoln. Black voters turnout ain’t perspective here. If a Ho-Nigga spotted singing and crying at the mall during Obama inauguration. That ain’t black enough. That’s Rupert Murdoch in his natural habitat minting money outta zombie’s turnout. This percussion is over Joe Biden’s tactical allegation to MSNBC that if McCain pushed harder on saving American economy he probably won 2008 Presidency.

Fountain of jihad that's nice. I Am a Muslim I love to sip some amrit to ram your rectum. would you pass zip code of this fountain to me so I can franchise it and open a bottling factory around to sell its water to all thousands of Hindu terrorist groups whoever love to devastate Delhi to get their birthrights here’s specimens of them: ZRV,ZRA,UPDS,UNLF,UMLFA,ULMA,ULFA,UKLF,UIRA,UILA,UBLF,TTYF,TTYF,TTVF,TTSF,TTDF,TTACF,TSV,TSV,TRRB,TPC,TNRT,TNRF,TNLA,TNDTF,TNA,TMP,TLOF,TLF,TDF,TCF,TATCF,SIMI,SDFT,RNSF,RMC,RJC,PULF,PREPAK,PRA,PLF-M,PLA,NSCN-K,NSCNI-M,NSCN-IM,NNC-Adino,NMT,NLFT,NEMF,NDFB,MVF,MULTA,MULFA,MTF,MSF,MSCA,MPLF,MLTA,MLA,LTTE,KZF,KYKL,KSF,KRPC,KRLO,KRF,KRA,KPF,KNV,KNV,KNO,KNF,KNA,KNA,KLO,KLF,KLF,KLA,KKK,KIF,KIA,KDF,KCP,KCF,KAF,IURPI,ISYF,ISS,Isak-Muivah,IRPA,IRF,INF,ILAA,IKL,HULA,HRF,HPC-D,HPC,HNLC,GTF,DHD,CPI-ML-Janashakti,CPI-Maoist,CKRF,BVYLF,BTFK,BTF,BNCT,BMS,BLTF,BKI,BCF,ATVF,ATTF,ATNF,ATLO,ATBSF,ATBR,ASF,AS,ANVC,AISSF,ADF,ABNES,AAASS, ADINO,

That’s ain’t Zionist problem. Unless you won’t to fool the whole world that: “Guys! We, Jews didn’t murder Jesus. The Wahabi Mohammed did. Go get him" (albeit Jesus was murder by Jews 670 years before Mohammed birth). Have some decency be journalist don’t be paparazzi. Try blind and quit scavenging on miseries as hyena to get noticed. On the contrary you’re getting condemned day by day.

Retailing religion in the military was during Former US Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld accused of using quotes from Bible underneath a passage from Book of Isaiah: "Their arrows are sharp, all their bows are strung; their horses' hoofs seem like flint, their chariot wheels are like a whirlwind." Another briefing showed a picture of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein beneath a quotation from the First Epistle of Peter: "It is God's will that by doing good you should silence the ignorant talk of foolish men." risked giving Muslims impression that war was a clash between Christianity and Islam. "taking a risk with national security,"

Obama t o Emir of Qatar: Hire 800 Unemployable Us Journalists or I will have McCain Germs overthrow you and dole Aljazeera to Iran. You hear me.

TheLegend33: It seems you know some English in order to input slang

Stsheetrock: THANK YOU

TheLegend33: plus you sound like a smart-arse who thinks he's smarter than everyone else. …

Stsheetrock: NO I AM NO THAT SICK THAT’S CALLED INFERIORITY COMPLEX DO YOU

TheLegend33: Which leads me to believe you’re just another follower with some sort of identity crisis

Stsheetrock: I DON NEED AN IDENTITY I HAVE ONE. I AM MUSLIM.

TheLegend33: You sound like a cross between a mis-informed misfit and an Alex Jones wannabe.

Stsheetrock: PSST: IT’S MISINFORMED! NO AM NEITHER AM NOT UNEMPLOYABLE. AM RICH

TheLegend33: You really hate America

Stsheetrock: GOD HEAVEN NO

TheLegend33: but your here because daddy sent you to get an education.

Stsheetrock: NO HE DIDN’T AM AN AUTOMATH. I DON’T NEED THAT ABUSE

TheLegend33: Your either very rich or from the "sewer" and receiving living assistance from the people you actually hate.

Stsheetrock: NO AM A BANK THIEF I DON’T USE FIAT I CAN CLONE YOUR CREDIT FOR FUN AND TOY YOUR ISP

TheLegend33: If you don't like us,

Stsheetrock: YOU’RE JUST NOBODY WHY SHOULD I DISLIKE YOU

TheLegend33: why do you stay?

Stsheetrock: I DON’T STAY THERE. I LOATHE THAT

TheLegend33: If I went to your country and I didn't like it, I would leave.

Stsheetrock: PLEASE DON’T COME YOU’RE NOT WELCOME PLEASE LEAVE IF YOU DID

TheLegend33: If your here for an education,

Stsheetrock: GOD FORBID NO

TheLegend33: appreciate it

Stsheetrock: YOU MEAN WASTE TIME & MONEY STUDY JUCKSCEINCE Of HARVARD, MIT, BOSTON, PRINCETON, COLUMBIA And YALE WHO TURN SMART HUMAN TO STOOOPID CORPORATE FRUGAL ZOMBIES.

TheLegend33: Try and be respectful to others and you'll find people here (real Americans) will treat you with respect.

Stsheetrock: I RESPECT MYSELF AND I CAN BUY MY OTHERS RESPECT. I DON’T NEED FOXNEWS AMERICAN VERSION RESPECT

KiddingMe: Why should India need to prove Sarabjit is Sarabjit?

Obaid Karki: WE HAVE 2 INDIAN SUBJECTS: SARABJIT+MANJIT

KiddingMe: It is responsibility of Pakistan police and government that they punish the real culprit(s) who did the bomb blast.

Obaid Karki: TRUE

KiddingMe: They needed to prove to the Pakistani people that the actual culprit is not at large and they punished a scapegoat.

Obaid Karki: TRUE

KiddingMe: If they killed a scapegoat then it is a big disservice to their own people.

Obaid Karki: TRUE

KiddingMe: You decide in your heart if you can trust that Pakistani police caught the culprit the very next day of blast! Are they that efficient?

Obaid Karki: I DON’T TRUST ANY

KiddingMe: Do you see such quick action in other daily bomb blasts now or was it just one of case when they were so quick?

Obaid Karki: YOU KILL ONE THEY KILL TEN

PSST: its brick ain't bomb

Man. Your tailgate is larger than your hollow skull. It’s painful politics. You owe me a confession. I bet on another loser Greyhound. My fault. I overpriced you I should snubbed you at the beginning of this clever conversation.

If the White House has no power to find a gravesite for its subject how would the white house will be able to protect them. Its Saudi solemn responsibility to fly Tamerlan Tsarnaev's body to the holy land to be buried.

Its lethally boring gooooogledjunk. Try Jimmy Fallon trash, me be you get lucky and don't forget to stuff some Methylenedioxymethamphetamine into your tailgate to aid you laugh at yourself. You’re psychoactive

Michele backman behind mr thomas

Gowdy rep Islamic extremist why Susan rice call hick

Maloney: Issa accused Hillary

Chafftez Rep: diplomats has more balls than army

Norton Dem: not allowed to talk to Dems kicked out Thomson counter-terrorism

Lankford rep: OSPV standards. Hilary converts Benghazi become permanent

Tierney Dem: accuse Potus misleading

Jordan Rep: demonstration question lawyer instruct hicks don’t to talk to congressional delegation Sherman called hick

Clay Dem: budget cuts who caused death ARB a validity of funding republican screwup saving is problem

Mica rep: nobody interviewed Thomas, interviewed hicks, Nordstrom

Lynch Dem: saving

Turner Rep: Colonel Gibson dropped out stay in Tripoli transfer their authority to training general ham reduces team because shooting at people.

Issa: all civilian under hicks. Security under general ham

Connolly Dem: Patrick Kennedy was on top of everything. Thomson Mr. Betjeman contradicts.

Duncan Rep: Nordstrom not interviewed.

Speier dem: hicks retelling. Lawyer told hick not to be interviewed not to be isolated with Chafftez

Mchenry rep: YouTube video no protest hicks 17 days fbi arrived.

I didn't know that Japanese are eugenics also. Someone must dropped this granite slab into the ocean to confuse Atlantis Truthers. Hitler established Nazi phenomenon based on such Junk Science. Stop pouring money into oceans. Please spend it on living Atlantis beings. Gaucho Children of Southern Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, eastern and southern Bolivia and Southern Chile. You will never miss it. it’s around your discovery site.

WOW. Dow Jones closes above 15,000 for first time today and Japan’s Nikkei tops 14,000 for 1st time since 2008 yesterday. Is that a joke? Warren Buffett bragged about recovering thanks Gutsy Bernanke. Warren Buffett was thrilled about us growth because he’s giving away money to his fellow billionaire to buy/lease his own NetJets. Can we share some Hebrew with you guys? 90 millions American on foodstamps. Oh what a terrible junk bonds? Oh really! Who’re you gonna rate & rob now? Warren.

 

RIP Tamerlan. You did what you have suspected to do. The rest is history.

And none will bind [as severely] as His binding [of the evildoers].

89:27 [To the righteous it will be said], "O reassured soul,

89:28 Return to your Lord, well-pleased and pleasing [to Him],

89:29 And enter among My [righteous] servants And enter My Paradise."

Every loser has the birthright for a daydream Tamerlan has none he didn’t know that greatest nations on earth is devastated for a month. Americans are in FOXNEWS Zombie Mode, they took the streets to gun-down anything moving in their way hoping it’s a Muslim. America ain’t for Muslims no mo. Flee to Canada or swim to Greenland if you can. Tamerlan left us an enigma in his pressure cooker that dropped gold price to 50 years low. Mama nature was so mean & coward to take back her son and then something went wrong. We have a home-run. We have a tomb that saved America for the time being. Here’s the deal... he’s still a suspect. RIP Tamerlan.

 

Americans are in FOXNEWS Zombie Mode, they took the streets to gun-down anything moving in their way hoping it’s a Muslim. America ain’t for Muslims no mo. Flee to Canada or swim to Greenland if you can.

 

I was devastated and I felted insulted when I received this notice "You do not have permission to post on this thread" from Gateway Pundit the Beacon of Freedom of Speech. stsheetrock alias my name is Obaid Karki a Sexagenarian UAE Paleoconservative Provocateur Arabspringer of Picassoic Attitude, Blackbelt Diehard Paulite Constitutionalist Libertarian Wordsmith. I am too old to be deceptive, spammer or offensive. Good men only use the second amendment when the 1st amendment is deprived. All that is necessary for triumph of evil is that good men do nothing... Edmund Burke. If we can’t stand disagreements how we will enjoy our concord. Please revise your decision and unblock me. Let me breathe. We, here in the Arab World we need your help, we’re in the Dark Ages. Don’t radicalize us. Please.

Truly yours,

Obaid

 

I have quite an expressive face. It has gotten me into trouble - I remember at school my teacher dragging me into the office for rolling my eyes at something he said. I didn't realise I'd done it. I'm not so good at disguising my reactions to things sometimes.

 

There are times when I give myself away, when sometimes I want privacy, to be left alone with my thoughts. But people who know me will say "what are you thinking about" - sometimes it catches me unawares and at the point I forget what I was thinking about. It's hard to explain sometimes what I'm thinking about. I get taken away on a stream of consciousness, and I can't pin it down to anyone thing.

 

Well people, It's usually about some aspect of the future. Unfortunately, it's pretty symptomatic of modern life to be so focused on the future, to the detriment of living in the here and now. There are so few times when I actually am captured in a moment.

 

I am a person who blocks out a lot of the stimuli surrounding me. I can't remember names of shops, or restaurants, a good bottle of wine, or streets nearby. I kind of block it out, taking notice on a need to know basis, relying on those around me who notice such things to fill me in on the details. I have always been more aware of colours or textures or smells - getting general impressions of my surroundings rather than taking in specifics.

 

anyway, Flickr has been great for helping me to focus on the moment. It helps me focus on particular things for longer and give it thought, when I'm thinking about what to photograph and how to.

 

so here, is a small example of what I'm thinking about when if you ever catch me deep in thought..... there you go. not so mysterious, or even interesting. You might as well not bother asking!!

  

365 Days

cameraphone+photoshop

   

Check out where I am - in my NEW OFFICE!!! Well, new to ME. This is Dave's office. If you actually read my ramblings you may recall this office was a total sty, then he cleaned it up as incentive to get this awesome piece of art.

 

My 'office' was out of an armoire in the family room. Besides being as ergonomically INcorrect as possible, I had ZERO privacy. As in, I take naked pictures and I want to edit them or I am trying to write an email or do Christmas shopping or browse Flickr but I have one or two 5-year olds over my shoulder asking me what I am doing, trying to watch, wanting me to read it to them, and not leaving when I kindly suggest they may want to continue what they were doing before :) While I have knowingly and willingly and happily given up some privacy, I am not giving up my photo editing or computer time, as little as it is nowadays! :D

 

Dave has 2 desks in his office but about a zillion computers and all sorts of stuff. But today, as a surprise and VERY SWEET thing for me, he cleaned up the 2 desks and moved my computer in! So now I share the office with him! YAY! There is a DOOR I can shut, and if nothing else, I am positioned so if a little one walks in I can hide the boobies before they get to my screen!

 

We are sharing the same desk but facing each other. He still has the awesome view out the picture window; I would have to turn around as my back is to it. But I DO have the other window to my left, so it is nice to look out and have a view.

 

I am SO grateful he shared his space with me. This is going to be SO GREAT!

 

And yes, even though we will be sitting about 3 feet from each other, we may very well gchat each other, WITH SOUNDS ON, just to be asshats ;-)

6.24.2012

 

I am getting ready to leave my job and go onto a new one. This has been a great experience but I am excited about new ones. I am going to miss my office and not miss it. I had a lot of student art in it--much of it was on loan from students who couldn't take it home with them and need a place to store it. I loved having artwork in my office and am looking forward to having some in my new office. The new place where I'm going is more science/technology geared and I think it will be a good thing for me to have some art around me.

The parts of my office I won't miss: it was an open office so I had no privacy, no door, and often people came in and went through my things. That part sucked.

www.photosfromonhigh.com TOLL FREE 888-589-2871

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321 W. Katella Ave., Suite 81

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(Located on Level One in the Travel Center)

   

View All Terminal Maps About Lux Bus America - Luxury Bus Service

Since July 7, 2003, Lux Bus America has been the superior transportation alternative for those traveling between the cities of Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego and Las Vegas. Our Daily Las Vegas Service provides daily transportation to and from Las Vegas. This “airline on the ground” (as many of the Lux Bus passengers refer to the Las Vegas Service) is an enjoyable ride from the Los Angeles, Orange County and San Diego, CA markets.

 

Lux Bus America has a passion for service and thrives on exceeding our clients’ expectations. Passengers travel in luxury aboard Lux Bus’ state-of-the-art motor coaches appointed with leather seating, seat back audio, and feature films. Our onboard coach attendant caters to our passengers needs with complimentary beverages, snacks, pillows and blankets. Sit back, relax, and allow the professional Lux Bus America staff escort you safely, peacefully, and well rested to your next destination.

 

Benefits of Traveling with Lux Bus America

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Lux Bus America, Co. operates under the Interstate authority and rules of the Federal Motor Carrier DOT.

Your safety and comfort is our first concern. We employ only highly trained, professional drivers.

Copyright ©2009 Lux Bus America, Co. Prevost unveils strikingly redesigned H Series coach at UMA 2009

Sainte-Claire, Quebec, January 22, 2009—Prevost will take advantage of the 2009 UMA Expo to introduce the industry to the eye-catching new front end designed for its H-Series motorcoaches.

 

As part of its focus on offering the best products and best service, Prevost is committed to differentiating itself via distinctively designed premium coaches. Its designers have given the H series’ front end a remarkable new look by introducing a host of functional improvements, such as distinctive proprietary headlamps delivering the highest halogen output ever. Special polycarbonate lenses broaden the range of vision for better visibility in rain or fog, and are coupled with high-contrast LED directional signals to make driver intentions clear. Better yet, headlight maintenance is now easier than ever, with both standard halogen and optional Xenon headlight clusters hinged for easy bulb replacement.

  

But that’s not all: a full-size 365 tire can be stored in easily accessed extra space behind the sharply-restyled front bumper.

  

“The H-Series is the ultimate touring coach, a favorite with passengers and drivers alike,” said Dann Wiltgen, Vice President Coach Sales. “This redesign, which illustrates our passion for continuous improvement, has produced a vehicle that is unmatched for quality and reliability. The new front end design clearly retains the ‘purebred Prevost’ look, with attitude, style, and technology a cut above the rest.”

  

Prevost is also proud to be introducing a new safety feature in 2009. Its coaches are now equipped with a new welded rail system that can accommodate any kind of installation, depending on the seat standard selected.

  

Inside, the redesigned H-Series coach features a luxurious interior, new entertainment system, and individual passenger and driver environmental controls. The ergonomically designed driver cockpit has key function controls moved from the dashboard to the steering wheel; multiplexed architecture; plus GPS and backup camera systems. A front kneeling suspension lowers the coach for easier boarding, and the H-Series can also accommodate Prevost’s exclusive Swap&Plug wheelchair lift unit. As the tallest high-decker in the industry, it provides the best panoramic view on the market, as well as the largest luggage capacity.

  

With a stainless steel upper frame, high tensile low alloy steel subframe, and outer shell of reinforced composite, the H-Series is built for maximum resistance to stress, bending, and buckling. Independent front suspension improves road handling and other state-of-the-art safety features include improved tire pressure monitoring and fire suppression systems; ABS braking system; and the Prevost Electronic Stability Program (ESP) to help drivers in hazardous driving conditions.

  

H-Series coaches can be equipped with Volvo D13 or Detroit Diesel Series 60 engines, and Allison Generation IV World Transmission or ZF-AS Tronic 12 speed transmissions.

  

Prevost’s proprietary space-saving multiplex technology offers outstanding reliability and performance, and its innovative vertical installation of the Diesel Particulate Filter and rooftop diffuser helps improve safety, serviceability, and efficiency. As a result, maintenance and repair are easier. Like all Prevost coaches, H-Series models are backed by a comprehensive warranty program that includes 2 years’ membership in Prevost’s exclusive PASS emergency roadside assistance program.

 

About Prevost

 

Prevost is a leading manufacturer of premium intercity touring coaches and the world leader in the production of bus shells for high-end motorhome and specialty conversion. Owned by Volvo Bus Corporation, Prevost has access to the financial strength, research capability, and manufacturing expertise of the group. Volvo Bus Corporation is part of the Volvo Group, the world’s largest manufacturer of heavy-duty diesel engines. Prevost has its main manufacturing facilities in Sainte-Claire, Quebec, Canada, and has six Parts and Service Centers located in Canada and the United States. www.prevostcar.com

 

-30-

 

For information:

Prevost | Communications Department

Anne-Véronique Viel | 418-654-0174, ext. 225

  

Back

Privacy Policy | © copyright Prevost, a division of Volvo Group Canada Inc. 2005 Nova Bus | Volvo

 

I slept in about a half hour, maybe forty five minutes this morning. That was a good thing. Then I spent an hour taking down all of the curtains, blinds and miscellanea that has gotten stuck on and around the windows in my house. Then I showered and wet to work. That put me about two hours behind the eight ball at the office. No worries, eh?

 

I got home and about two thirds of the windows are in. Not trimmed and finished, mind you, just in. No major hang-ups. All is well and right on track.

 

The most amazing windows are the bathroom window, the dining room window, the garage window and the window by the front door. All of the windows are triple pane but these window have "rain patterned" privacy glass as the center pane.

 

Ooh and aah with me. That's what I did.

 

PS - The weather man (the one I listen to anyway) said we're in for a week plus stretch of sunshine. I think the rest of the world, er, northern hemisphere, calls this summertime.

You daren't publish this but I'll take a rain check.

Military action over Syria's suspected use of chemical weapons could backfire. Never mind about the narrative. The question is for you ‘THENATIONAL’. You the publisher! Are you in or out? Who are you dancing for? ISRAEL or SYRIA? Make up your mind. Shame on you. Yesterday a poor Syrian subject jumped to his death from 15th floor of Dubai Silicon Oasis Building probably listening to Mediawhore like you sporting the gassing of his parents with Syrian elders, women & children. Have some decency. Be a journalist. Quit scavenging as coldblooded paparazzi hyena on others miseries to earn your living. Quit moderating minds.

    

I needed John McCain to shakeup the WhiteHouse. Democrats are slow-on boot-on-the-ground but patriot Republicans as

Senator John McCain, a Republican from Arizona who doesn’t need do get Tel-Aviv’s approval to oust Assad outta Syria. Assad Gassing Syrian Elders, Women & Children. It is getting harder and harder for Iran & Russia to maintain their military supplies lines. Russians, Iranians & Hezbollah mercenaries are butchered as boar allover Syria. Jordan king is happy to help to get more USAID for his dying economy and please the Islamists at his end. Turks are mean. Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan will exploit stalemate to occupy Syrian lands as he did in Northern Iraq to use for Kurdish Homeland away from Turkey motherland where they belong. Tayyip Erdogan will fight to stop Obama have boot-on-the-ground in Syria. Turks cannot be trusted.

    

“When the world can seem very dark and confusing, presence of priest is presence of hope,” Rev. Richard Cannon is bluffing. Priest is for death and wedding unlike Imam who has to drop everything off hand, wash-out, head to mosque, call for prayer outloud and lead the prayers reciting memorized Quran 5397 times not only after bombing but five times a day, 365 days a year. Imam leads rain, eclipse, death & trarweeh prayers. Rev. Tom Carzon showed up for the bombing like any Truther or sympathizer on every blue moon. Back to priest ban: I vote. No. please let them pray.

Last week I said: watch your Tailgate. Vladimir! Especially when Kerry & Hagel at the Helm. Guys! Since Obama ditched Putin role as BMB Truther. Putin ain’t doing well. He lost control. Just now 30 Anti-Putin Protesters detained on Red Square and 140 people busted at Moscow mosque including more than 30 citizens of other countries. Putin used to be my hero when he weaned Caucuses away from Wahabi Mountaingoats and taken them as Proper Russians. BMB screwed up everything. He got greedy. He exploited BMB to silence Gorky Park Vodka Activists. That’s a wrong call. Syria’s sparks ain’t far away to ignite holy war in Chechnya. That’s Putin’s nightmare.

Russian state media quoted a Russian Federal Security Service statement as saying those detained Friday included more than 30 citizens of other countries. But the statement did not specify which nations.

Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais Mugshot with Geert Wilders Deputy Arnoud Van Doorn. What kind of stunt-show is this? Saudi Arabia fostered Geert Wilders campaign against Islam through FOXNEWS (a subsidiary of the Kingdom holdings run by Prince Alwaleed bin Talal). This is unorthodox and deciptive. Who are you trying to fool? Are you trying to deceive god as well? وَيَمْكُرُونَ وَيَمْكُرُ اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ‏ Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais is onto his second Stunt-Show somewhere in India next week without bothering to visit those 22 million devastated Kashmiris who crave to touch his feet. Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais is just following the agenda of those Godless endangered species of House of al-Saud.

GOD, PLEASE DEFEAT AMERICA’S ALLIES ON MAY 11 is preposterous headline. This is a secular & Godless argument. I need those arguing losers in that room to answer one question. Are they Muslims or Pakistani? History proved that you can’t be both. Pakistani means the boring Zardari, Nawaz Sharief, Imran Khan, Musharaf Etc. and Muslims. Use your imagination. KABOOOM if you ever touch Booze or America. I don’t think those in the room ready for that.

This comment is awaiting moderation. This is the harvest of Foreign Office seeds sown. Watching Thugocracies around the Globe committing heinous crimes against their own. All that is necessary for triumph of evil is that good men do nothing. Edmund Burke. Richard Branson devastated by ban on British tourists to Israel, Kenya, South Africa & Turkey due domestic unrest & al-Qaida and yet Thailand went unnoticed where conned British and sedated European tourists are butchered like wild boar in Phuket, Pattaya and those Schizophrenic Islands. Read Pattaya Daily & Phuket Gazette for body count. Ricardo. Mama Teresa killed more infants in her convents than al-Qaida.

Buddhist Monks beat Muslims to death in Burma watch video..Misinformation is act of crime. beforeitsnews contributors trying to draw attention gain mileage. That’s ain't right. Burmese Muslims are butchered while police watching.

Would you guys dumb down and Google how many millions been in Shanghai tower before getting into ranking Burj Khalifa. Bruno said: achievements build nations and ranks kill it.

Quit Googledjunk. What welfare? USA ain't afford foostamp them. They u hauled millions of petrodollars to America to survive in your hostile cities. They’re fooled by the American Dream Propaganda that deranged them to drop everything back home and rush to America and now headhunted as rabids. When Ann Coulter said on FOXNEWS Zubeidat Tsarnaeva must be arrested for wearing Hijab, Breitbart banned me for saying Ann Coulter must be arrested for being a woman.

    

Replying Charles Ford

I don't have to cover things. Why don't you fly all those copts (that you are committing suicide for) over to your backyard, they're handy to babysit your wife & kids and mow your lawn. Regarding what you said: Islam. The religion of the Pedophile, Rapist and Mass Murderer Mohammed. I have millions of website who're happy to enjoy your ISP if you allow me to pass it to them.

    

Live from iPoo!

 

365 days - year 2 - day 345

 

I moved to a new workspace today. Instead of a nice window seat in a big office, I'm sharing a super-cube with 3 other people in the middle of a cube farm. There's no natural light. I don't really have any privacy. And there's a lot more noise out here. Not the best location, but I guess I'll deal with it. At least I'm closer to the people I work with every day.

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All I want for Christmas is...

 

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This evening, I sent out the late run of the Variate Dot Net shirts that I had printed. While I did run kind of late on these anyways, the issue was exacerbated largely due to the fact that the printer had some measure of difficulty in printing the shirts. It took three more tries, all due to complex instructions (really, not that complex as the instructions were: "look at this picture and do exactly what you did last time") and a not entirely common printing process (read: discharge printing (see also: resist printing, reduction printing, sublimation printing).

 

Anyways. I used the auto-pnuematic high-speed postal deliver-o-tron to get these last ten packages out. What a fascinating device. I'm so glad it's there, as I wouldn't have had the chance to hit the post office during the day and... well... Who the fuck wants to stand in line at the post office?

 

NOT ME. THAT'S FOR SURE.

 

Please note that the addresses which were visible in the pic have been obscured for privacy reasons. So, no guff on this, please.

  

( Taken w/ indespensible, invincible, incredible iPhone! )

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Administrative Template, FileTypes. Set licensing options and the display level

of the setup UI., Microsoft Office 2013, Privacy - Trust Center, Disable Opt-in

Wizard on first run, Enabled, Enabling App-V & UE-V in Windows 10 Enterprise

14316 · An Intel2 Aug 2013, Microsoft PowerPoint 2013 15.0.4420.1017 free download., the software usage

and the file-type mean that businesses, conferences, and clients, With such a

massive worldwide consumer base, PowerPoint , along with the other Microsoft

Office products, is really a necessity, . Microsoft Office EnterpriseProvide an overview of Office 2013 options for enterprise, . Must download and

use Office Deployment Kit to enable licensing activation, Only one version of

Office can own file-type associations (based on last version installed or published

).Get the future of productivity.Mar 2015, Volume license editions of Office 2013 client products require activation.Download Microsoft Office 2013 Working Keygen.Download Direct microsoft office 2007 enterprise Download 2396 kbs.Classic Menu for Office Enterprise 2010 and 2013.File Size, and 2013.Type: Exe, Download, File type. Locate the downloaded .exe file in folder.Dec 2012, This Microsoft Office 2013 guide explains and illustrates everything you, Enterprise: Unlimited number of maximum users, 5 devices per user.C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office15.Roaming\Microsoft\Word\STARTUP.MICROSOFT EXCEL. File Type.Sep 2015, Microsoft Word 2013 is maybe one of the most worldwide used text processors.The latest functions added to this new MS Word program may need, .Standard and, .Visio 2003 and, .Administrative Template, Wizard on first run, Enabled, Aug 2013, Microsoft PowerPoint 2013 15.0.4420.1017 free download.Office products, is really a necessity, .Provide an overview of Office 2013 options for enterprise, .Office Deployment Kit to enable licensing activation,

So I ran into Mario Lopez at the doctor's office this morning, but seeing as he was a little pissed off about a nasty Page 6 article I didn't dare take a photo. And, you know, even A.C. Slater should have privacy while getting blood taken.

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istorage.serveftp.com/?r=microsoft-office-download-center...

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Full-featured Office Pro Plus 2013 product evaluation software available for IMG

download.Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack for Word, Excel, and PowerPoint File Formats

This download requires Windows Installer version 3.1 or higher., SharePoint

Designer 2013 is the tool of choice for the rapid development of SharePoint26 Mar 2015, Volume license editions of Office 2013 client products require activation. This

download enables IT administrators to set up a Key Management11 Mar 2016, document are taken from Microsoft Office 2013; some slight differences, Once

downloaded, the ADMX and associated ADML files can be placed in, Options\

Security\Trust Center\Trusted Locations, . Always match file type.If you are using Microsoft Office 2013 or Office 2010 versions, you might have,

Editing this file type is not allowed due to your policy settings; Editing this file type

is, File Block settings in the Trust Center; Office has detected a problem with this

file., It was designed to provide better security as the files downloaded fromMicrosoft OneNote is a computer program for free-form information gathering and

multi-user, OneNote is available as a part of Microsoft Office and Windows 10.

. On July 1, 2013, Microsoft release version 2 of its app for iPad, containing, It

is compatible with Mac OS X 10.9 and above and can be downloaded for freeTo create an Office Setup Customization, download the Office 2013, FileTypes.

Set licensing options and the display level of the setup UI., Microsoft Office

2013, Privacy - Trust Center, Disable Opt-in Wizard on first run, Enabled.

MicrosoftObtaining the Microsoft Office Download (for Windows or Mac), window so you

can examine the file type, the location on your computer, and other information.25 Mar 2014, Download the Office 2013 Administrative template files from the Microsoft,

locate: Microsoft Word 2013\Word Options\Security\Trust Center\File Block,

Block: Both opening and saving of the file type will be blocked, and the7 results, MS Office 2013 Product Key very easy to use you just need to read about it

before using it Microsoft Office 2013 Keygen - Center Hack Free downloadYou can download these video tutorials or watch them online., out-of-office

messages for different groups, with or without a Microsoft Exchange account.Whether or not youve completed a Microsoft Office 2013 install, you should be

aware of, Microsoft Office Trust Center settings that help stop malware · What

are some, Download: Expert guide to managing desktops in modern IT

environments, A side-by-side installation can also cause broken file type

associations andOffice 365 is a way to use Microsoft Office products both in the cloud and at your

workstation., How do I download free Microsoft Office software through Office

365?, Is Office 365 the same thing as Office 2013?, it will open the Office

software or web application that you need for that particular file type; e.g.,, Call

Center.4 Apr 2016, Dell support article tagged with: Office, 2013, ISO, Windows, 7, USB/DVD, USB,,

Monitors · Support Videos · Printer Support · Enterprise Resource Center, . How

to use the Windows 7 USB/DVD Download Tool to install Microsoft Office ISOs,

Windows isn able to open and read this file type natively.If your browser supports restricting downloads by file type, you should, The

software can be retrieved from the Download Center., Microsoft Office 2007,

Microsoft Office 2010 (32-Bit, or 64-Bit in FP4.0), Microsoft Office 2013; Microsoft .This download requires Windows Installer version 3.1 or higher.Mar 2015, Volume license editions of Office 2013 client products require activation.Mar 2016, document are taken from Microsoft Office 2013; some slight differences, ADMX and associated ADML files can be placed in, Security\Trust Center\Trusted Locations, .If you are using Microsoft Office 2013 or Office 2010 versions, you might have, OneNote is available as a part of Microsoft Office and Windows 10.On July 1, 2013, Microsoft release version 2 of its app for iPad, containing, To create an Office Setup Customization, download the Office 2013, Set licensing options and the display level of the setup UI.Privacy - Trust Center, Disable Opt-in Wizard on first run, Enabled.Obtaining the Microsoft Office Download (for Windows or Mac), Mar 2014, Download the Office 2013 Administrative template files from the Microsoft, Microsoft Word 2013\Word Options\Security\Trust Center\File Block, You can download these video tutorials or watch them online.Is Office 365 the same thing as Office 2013?Apr 2016, Dell support article tagged with: Office, 2013, ISO, Windows, 7, USB/DVD, USB,, Monitors · Support Videos · Printer Support · Enterprise Resource Center, .Windows 7 USB/DVD Download Tool to install Microsoft Office ISOs, If your browser supports restricting downloads by file type, you should, Download Center.