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Many people look at college as the most thrilling period of their lives. However, many things can make that time into a real nightmare. This article will give you some idea on how you can make your college life experience a great one.

 

Pack plenty of toiletries for yourself as you head away and off to college. This is an area that you may not think a great deal about, but you will find toiletries run out quickly. Buying toiletries in bulk saves you time and money.

 

Create a list of items that you are going to need to bring along to college. It is better to go school prepared instead of having to call your folks for things you need every week. This is even more important if you will be attending a college that is far away.

 

Always have a bottle of water with you in class. Staying properly hydrated throughout the course of the day is very important. If you have a full schedule and have to skip meals, you should at least make sure you get enough water. You will be more focused when you stay hydrated. Lots of water fountains allow for quick refills.

 

You should always take time out everyday to study. The more time you devote to college, the more you can get from it. While you can still socialize you should treat college like a full time job. If you do well with your college career, you can expect a happier and more fulfilling life.

 

Make sure to pay off your credit card balance every month if you have one. By doing this, you avoid the potential risk of late dues or unnecessary fees. Generally, you should attempt and just make use of your credit card for emergencies. Though you may be inclined to utilize it for eating out or any other fun outings, remember that you are in class to learn. Having problems with your finances can distract you quite a bit.

 

Try to avoid using a credit card, but when you must, pay it off every month if at all possible. If you don't, you will incur debt. Generally, you should attempt and just make use of your credit card for emergencies. While you may find it tempting to get entertainment items with a credit card, you must remember that college is approximately learning. You don't desire to add any further than required to your college-related debts.

 

As mentioned earlier, college should be a fantastic, joyful experience. With work and dedication, college life can be both fruitful and fun. Make sure to implement the recommendation given in this article and you are sure to take pleasure from your time in college. www.cnatraininginmichigan.net/

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Ca fait longtemps que je voulais créer une telle image, je suis assez contente d'avoir enfin pu le faire! ;)

 

J'ai commencé à m'intéresser aux ombres depuis que l'équipe de youmeandcharlie a organisé un shadow and light creative challenge. Je voulais créer des ombres amusantes et étranges... des ombres qui raconteraient des histoires...! Cette photo est particulière à mes yeux, car c'est ma première photo sur le thème Ombre et Lumière, peut-être la première d'une nouvelle série..?

 

Il se dégage de cette photo (enfin, je l'espère) comme une ambiance de conte de fées. Elle raconte l'histoire de cette fille (qui pourrait être n'importe qui..! J'ai voulu cacher le visage du modèle - moi - pour que l'on puisse facilement s'identifier au personnage!) qui lit tranquillement un livre. Elle semble parfaitement normale, mais on peut voir que son ombre a des ailes, ce que ajoute un peu de mystère!

 

J'ai pris cette photo un dimanche après-midi relax (c'est fou ce qu'on aime les dimanches après-midi, n'est-ce pas?!), dans la chambre d'amis. Une chambre d'amis, c'est plutôt pratique: pas besoin de ranger sa propre chambre avant de faire des photos, il suffit de s'installer dans la chambre d'amis!

 

Photo prise avec mon Nikon D3100 et son objectif 18-55 ;)

 

(wings by mississippi)

 

*****

I have wanted to create this picture for sooooo long, I'm glad I finally managed to do it! ;)

 

I've been interested in shadows ever since a shadow and light creative challenge has been organized by the youmeandcharlie team. I wanted to create funny and strange shadows... shadows that would tell a story...! This picture is special to me because this is my first Shadow and Light picture, maybe the first one of a new series..?

 

This picture is (I hope) fairy-tale-ish. It tells the story of this girl (who could be anybody..! I wanted the model - me - to be faceless so you can easily identify with her!) who's quietly reading a book. She seems to be perfectly normal, but you can see that her shadow has wings, which adds a little bit of mystery!

 

I took this picture on a lazy Sunday afternoon (thanks God for Sunday afternoons!), in the guest room. Having a guest room is pretty convenient: you don't have to clean up and tidy your own room before starting shooting, you can just use the guest room!

 

I used my Nikon D3100, with its 18-55 lens ;)

 

(wings by mississippi)

THE "GREAT MAN" WOULD EVIDENTLY BE ALL THINGS....TO ALL PEOPLE.....ALL OF THE TIME.......HE LIED OF COURSE

 

Barack Obama's Campaign Promises.... made at various times and to various groups 2008 this is only a partial list............the full list is here......... conventions.nationaljournal.com/campaigns/2008/wh08/promi...

 

HEALTH CARE

Prevent insurance companies from discriminating

"And as someone who watched his own mother spend the final months of her life arguing with insurance companies because they claimed her cancer was a pre-existing condition and didn't want to pay for treatment, I will stop insurance companies from discriminating against those who are sick and need care most."—11/3/08, Jacksonville, Fla.

Provide universal health care

"I have made a solemn pledge that I will sign a universal health care bill into law by the end of my first term as president that will cover every American and cut the cost of a typical family's premium by up to $2,500 a year."—6/23/07, Hartford, Conn.

Prosecute insurance monopolies

"We'll investigate and prosecute the monopolization of the insurance industry. And where we do find places where insurance companies aren't competitive, we will make them pay a reasonable share of their profits on the patients they should be caring for in the first place."—5/29/07, Iowa City, Iowa

Spend $10 billion a year on implementing electronic health system

"Barack Obama and Joe Biden will invest $10 billion a year over the next five years to move the U.S. health care system to broad adoption of standards-based electronic health information systems, including electronic health records."—BarackObama.com

Expand nurse-family partnership program

"Obama will expand the highly successful Nurse-Family Partnership to all 570,000 low-income, first-time mothers each year."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Help individuals purchase private health insurance

"The Obama plan will create a National Health Insurance Exchange to help individuals who wish to purchase a private insurance plan."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Require children to be insured

"Obama will require that all children have health care coverage."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Expand eligibility for Medicaid and SCHIP

"Obama will expand eligibility for the Medicaid and SCHIP programs and ensure that these programs continue to serve as a critical safety net."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Address women's health issues

"Obama will invest in research to examine gender and health disparities. Obama will also establish community-outreach programs in underserved areas to help make sure women have health care and maintain healthy lifestyles."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Appoint adviser to address violence against women

"Obama will appoint a special adviser who will report to him regularly on issues related to violence against women. Obama will also pass legislation that provides job security to victims of domestic violence and sexual assault."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Establish loan forgiveness program for rural doctors and nurses

"He will attract providers to rural America by creating a loan forgiveness program for doctors and nurses who work in underserved rural areas."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

 

AGRICULTURE

Improve rural schools and availability of doctors

"He will improve rural schools and attract more doctors to rural areas."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Try to toughen rules on animal feeding operations

"Barack Obama will work for tougher regulations on concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to prevent air and water pollution."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Implement payment limitation to help family farmers

"Obama will implement a $250,000 [farm commodity] payment limitation so that we help family farmers, not large corporate agribusiness. Obama will close the loopholes that allow megafarms to get around the limits by subdividing their operations into multiple paper corporations."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Strengthen anti-monopoly laws

"Obama will strengthen anti-monopoly laws and strengthen producer protections to ensure independent farmers have fair access to markets, control over their production decisions, and fair prices for their goods."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Help organic farmers and promote regional food systems

"Obama will help organic farmers afford to certify their crops and reform crop insurance to not penalize organic farmers. He also will promote regional food systems."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Give new farmers tax incentives

"[Obama] will also provide tax incentives to make it easier for new farmers to afford their first farm. Obama will increase incentives for farmers and private landowners to conduct sustainable agriculture and protect wetlands, grasslands and forests."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Provide farmers capital and help rural small businesses

"Obama will provide capital for farmers to create value-added enterprises, like cooperative marketing initiatives and farmer-owned processing plants. He also will establish a small-business and micro-enterprise initiative for rural America."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Create rural revitalization program

"Obama will create a rural revitalization program to attract and retain young people to rural America."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

 

CIVIL RIGHTS

Clean up the Justice Department

"I will rid the department of ideologues and political cronies…the Civil Rights Division will actually be staffed with civil rights lawyers who prosecute civil rights violations, and employment discrimination, and hate crimes."—09/28/07, Washington, D.C.

Toughen hate crime laws

"Obama will strengthen federal hate crimes legislation and reinvigorate enforcement at the Department of Justice's Criminal Section."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Work to lift ban on gays serving openly in the military

"Obama will work with military leaders to repeal the current [Don't Ask, Don't Tell] policy and ensure we accomplish our national defense goals."—Barackobama.com

Push to outlaw job discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity

"I will place the weight of my administration behind the enactment of the Matthew Shepard Act to outlaw hate crimes and a fully inclusive Employment Non-Discrimination Act to outlaw workplace discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity."—02/28/08, Obama letter to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) Americans

Advocate equal treatment of same sex couples

"As your president, I will use the bully pulpit to urge states to treat same-sex couples with full equality in their family and adoption laws."—02/28/08, Obama letter to LGBT Americans

Keep commitment to gay rights

"I will never compromise on my commitment to equal rights for all LGBT Americans."—02/28/08, Obama letter to LGBT Americans

Remove discriminatory obstacles to voting

"Obama will remove discriminatory barriers to the right to vote."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Penalize vote fraud

"Obama will sign into law his legislation that establishes harsh penalties for those who have engaged in voter fraud and provides voters who have been misinformed with accurate and full information so they can vote."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Work to overturn Supreme Court's ruling in Ledbetter v. Goodyear

"Obama will work to overturn the Supreme Court's recent ruling that curtails racial minorities' and women's ability to challenge pay discrimination."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Fight age discrimination

"Obama will fight job discrimination for aging employees by strengthening the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and empowering the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to prevent all forms of discrimination."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Ensure equal pay for women

"Obama will also pass the Fair Pay Act to ensure that women receive equal pay for equal work."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

 

CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Create prison-to-work program

"I will create a prison-to-work incentive program modeled on the successful Welfare-to-Work program."—6/5/07, Hampton, Va.

Make criminal justice system trustworthy

"As president, I will also work every day to ensure that this country has a criminal justice system that inspires trust and confidence in every American, regardless of race or background."—9/28/07, Washington, D.C.

Forgive school loans of public defenders

"We'll recruit more public defenders to the profession by forgiving college and law school loans."—9/28/07, Washington, D.C.

End disparity in crack versus powdered cocaine sentencing

"That will end when I am president."—9/28/07, Washington, D.C.

Steer nonviolent offenders into rehab

"We will give first-time, nonviolent drug offenders a chance to serve their sentence, where appropriate, in the type of drug-rehabilitation programs that have proven to work better than a prison term in changing bad behavior."—9/28/07, Washington, D.C.

Not pardon real estate developer Tony Rezko

Attributed to Obama spokesman Ben LaBolt,—6/5/08, Chicago Sun-Times

Fully fund community policing and development programs

"That's why I'll fully fund the COPS [Community Oriented Policing Services] program, restore funding for the Community Development Block Grant program, and recruit more teachers to our cities, pay them more, and give them more support."—6/21/08, Miami

Combat methamphetamine use

"As president, he will continue the fight to rid our communities of meth and offer support to help addicts heal."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Ban racial profiling

"Obama will ban racial profiling by federal law enforcement agencies and provide federal incentives to state and local police departments to prohibit the practice."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

 

DEFENSE

Safeguard all nuclear material within four years

"I will lead a global effort to secure all nuclear weapons and material at vulnerable sites within four years."—4/23/07, Chicago

Keep nonproliferation commitment

"We will not pursue unilateral disarmament. As long as nuclear weapons exist, we'll retain a strong nuclear deterrent. But we'll keep our commitment under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on the long road towards eliminating nuclear weapons."—10/2/07, Chicago

Strengthen nonproliferation treaty

"Obama will crack down on nuclear proliferation by strengthening the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty so that countries like North Korea and Iran that break the rules will automatically face strong international sanctions."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Stop development of new nuclear weapons

"He will stop the development of new nuclear weapons; work with Russia to take U.S. and Russian ballistic missiles off hair-trigger alert; seek dramatic reductions in U.S. and Russian stockpiles of nuclear weapons and material; and set a goal to expand the U.S.-Russian ban on intermediate-range missiles so that the agreement is global."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Open "America Houses" in Islamic countries

"We will open 'America Houses' in cities across the Islamic world, with Internet, libraries, English lessons, stories of America's Muslims and the strength they add to our country, and vocational programs."—8/1/07, Washington, D.C.

Support a global education fund

"I will support a $2 billion global education fund to counter the radical madrassas."—8/1/07, Washington, D.C.

Ban torture

"When I am president, America will reject torture, without exception."—8/1/07, Washington, D.C.

Close Guantanamo Bay detention center

"As president, I will close Guantanamo, reject the Military Commissions Act and adhere to the Geneva Conventions."—8/10/07, Washington, D.C.

Establish quadrennial review of homeland security threats

"I will establish a Quadrennial Review at the Department of Homeland Security—just like at the Pentagon—to undertake a top-to-bottom review of the threats we face and our ability to confront them."—8/10/07, Washington, D.C.

Increase funding to train police to gather intelligence

"I will increase funding to help train police to gather information and connect it to the intelligence they receive from the federal government."—8/1/07, Washington, D.C.

Address al Qaeda prison recruitment efforts

"I will address the problem in our prisons, where the most disaffected and disconnected Americans are being explicitly targeted for conversion by al Qaeda and its ideological allies."—8/1/07, Washington, D.C.

Expand Army and Marine Corps

"I will add 65,000 soldiers and 27,000 Marines to relieve the strain on our ground forces."—8/21/07, Kansas City, Mo.

Provide soldiers with necessary equipment

"As president, I will ensure that every service member has what they need to do the job safely and successfully."—8/21/07, Kansas City, Mo.

"Obama will give our troops new equipment, armor, training, and skills like language training."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Set fixed term for director of national intelligence

"I will make the director of national intelligence an official with a fixed term, like the chairman of the Federal Reserve."—10/2/07, Chicago

Consult national security experts in Congress

"I will call for a standing, bipartisan consultative group of congressional leaders on national security. I will meet with this consultative group every month and consult with them before taking major military action."—10/2/07, Chicago

Consult military commanders

"When I am commander in chief, I will seek out, listen to and respect the views of military commanders."—3/12/08, Chicago

Target every source of fear in the Americas

"That is why there will never be true security unless we focus our efforts on targeting every source of fear in the Americas. That's what I'll do as president of the United States."—5/23/08, Miami

Create information declassification center

"He will institute a national declassification center to make declassification secure but routine, efficient and cost-effective."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Ensure military has enough training

"Obama will rebuild trust with those who serve by ensuring that soldiers and Marines have sufficient training time before they are sent into battle."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Strengthen civilian agencies

"He will also strengthen our civilian capacity, so that our civilian agencies have the critical skills and equipment they need to integrate their efforts with our military."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Give National Guard appropriate equipment, rest

"He will permit them adequate time to train and rest between deployments and provide the National Guard with the equipment they need for foreign and domestic emergencies."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Add National Guard chief to Joint Chiefs

"[Obama] will also give the Guard a seat at the table by making the chief of the National Guard a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Combat terrorism

"Obama will fight terrorism and protect America with a comprehensive strategy that finishes the fight in Afghanistan, cracks down on the al Qaeda safe haven in Pakistan, develops new capabilities and international partnerships, engages the world to dry up support for extremism and reaffirms American values."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Require national security officials to hold broadband town halls

"Obama will bring foreign policy decisions directly to the people by requiring his national security officials to have periodic national broadband town hall meetings to discuss foreign policy."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Create international anti-terrorism network

"As president, I will launch an effort across our government to stay ahead of this threat [bio-terrorism].… I've proposed a Shared Security Partnership that invests $5 billion over three years to forge an international intelligence and law enforcement infrastructure to take down terrorist networks." —7/16/08 West Lafayette, Ind.

Make cyber-security a federal priority

"As president, I'll make cyber-security the top priority that it should be in the 21st century. I'll declare our cyber-infrastructure a strategic asset, and appoint a National Cyber Advisor who will report directly to me." —7/16/08 West Lafayette, Ind.

 

DIVERSITY (this one cracks me up...ss&ss)

Have a senior Native American policy adviser

"I'll appoint an American Indian policy adviser to my senior White House staff to work with tribes. I'll host an annual summit at the White House with tribal leaders to come up with an agenda that works for tribal communities." —5/19/08, Crow Agency, Mont.

 

ECONOMY

Improve options for displaced workers

"Obama and Biden will also modernize and expand the existing system of trade adjustment assistance to include workers hurt by changing trade patterns. They will also create flexible education accounts that workers can use to retrain. And they will fully fund apprenticeship programs to help workers get credentials and skills in crafts that reward that investment with a middle class income and benefits."—BarackObama.com

Increase regulation of financial industry

"I'll put in place the common-sense regulations and rules of the road I've been calling for since March -- rules that will keep our market free, fair, and honest; rules that will restore accountability and responsibility in our corporate boardrooms."—10/9/08, Dayton, Ohio

Advocate free market

"I will always be a strong advocate for a market that is free and open."—9/17/07, New York City

Add consumer credit protections

"I'll institute a five-star rating system to inform consumers about the level of risk involved in every credit card. And we'll establish a credit card bill of rights that will ban unilateral changes to a credit card agreement, ban rate changes to debt that's already incurred and ban interest fees on late fees."—11/7/07, Bettendorf, Iowa

Reform bankruptcy laws

"Obama will reform our bankruptcy laws to protect working people, ban executive bonuses for bankrupt companies and require disclosure of all pension investments."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

"We'll make sure that if you can demonstrate that you went bankrupt because of medical expenses, then you can relieve that debt and get back on your feet."—2/13/07, Janesville, Wis.

"Obama will work to eliminate the provision that prevents bankruptcy courts from modifying an individual's mortgage payments."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Help community and small business development agencies

"Obama will provide additional resources to the federal Community Development Financial Institution Fund, the Small Business Administration and other federal agencies, especially to their local branch offices, to address community needs."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

 

GOVERNMENT SPENDING

Restore earmark spending to pre-1994 levels

"Barack Obama is committed to returning earmarks to less than $7.8 billion a year, the level they were at before 1994."—Obama's "The Change We Need In Washington"

Cut federal contract spending by at least 10 percent

"Barack Obama will reform federal contracting and reduce the number of contractors, saving $40 billion a year."—Obama's "The Change We Need In Washington"

Improve contracting operations

"Barack Obama will hire more contract managers and improve training."—Obama's "The Change We Need In Washington"

Cut waste in federal budget

"I will also go through the federal budget, line by line, eliminating programs that no longer work and making the ones we do need work better and cost less..."—8/28/08, Denver

Pay for job programs by cutting spending elsewhere

"I'll pay for every part of this job-creation agenda by ending this war in Iraq that's costing us billions, closing tax loopholes for corporations, putting a price on carbon pollution, and ending George Bush's tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans."—2/24/08, Lorain, Ohio

Reinstate PAYGO

"Obama will reinstate pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) budget rules, so that new spending or tax cuts are paid for by spending cuts or new revenue

 

ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT

End American dependence on foreign oil in ten years

"And that's why if I am president, I will put the full resources of the federal government and the full energy of the private sector behind a single, overarching goal -- in ten years, we will eliminate the need for oil from the entire Middle East and Venezuela."—8/6/08, Elkhart, Ind.

Increase number of plug-in hybrid cars

"First, we'll commit ourselves to getting one million 150 mile-per-gallon plug-in hybrid cars on our roads within six years."—8/6/08, Elkhart, Ind.

Double renewable energy within four years

"Second, we'll double the amount of energy that comes from renewable sources by the end of my first term."—8/6/08, Elkhart, Ind.

Reduce electricity demand by 15 percent in ten years

"Third, I will call on businesses, government, and the American people to meet the goal of reducing our demand for electricity by 15 percent by the end of the next decade."—8/6/08, Elkhart, Ind.

Cap carbon emissions

"As president, I will set a hard cap on all carbon emissions at a level that scientists say is necessary to curb global warming -- an 80 percent reduction by 2050."—10/8/07, Portsmouth, N.H.

Require government vehicles to have flexible-fuel tanks

"When I'm president, I will make sure that every vehicle purchased by the federal government does [have a flexible-fuel tank]."—5/7/07, Detroit

Give annual energy speech

"I will report to the American people every year on the state of our energy future."—10/8/07, Portsmouth, N.H.

Sign law to phase out incandescent light bulbs

"I will immediately sign a law that begins to phase out all incandescent light bulbs."—10/8/07, Portsmouth, N.H.

Create new green-collar jobs

"My energy plan will put $150 billion over 10 years into establishing a green energy sector that will create up to 5 million new jobs over the next two decades, including jobs right here in Ohio that pay well and can't be outsourced. We'll also provide funding to help manufacturers convert to green technology and help workers learn the skills they need for these jobs."—2/24/08, Lorain, Ohio

Consider Al Gore for Cabinet-level climate change position

"Not only will I, but I will make a commitment that Al Gore will be at the table and play a central part in us figuring out how we solve this problem."—4/2/08, Philadelphia

(In response to question)

Take steps to lower oil prices

"We'll also take steps to reduce the price of oil and increase transparency in how prices are set so we can ensure that energy companies aren't bending the rules."—4/25/08, Indianapolis

Work to solve energy crisis

"As president, I'll work to solve this energy crisis once and for all." —4/25/08, Indianapolis

Help U.S. automaker adapt

"I'll be a president who finally keeps the promise that's made year after year after year by providing domestic automakers with the funding they need to retool their factories and make fuel-efficient and alternative fuel cars."—5/14/08, Warren, Mich.

Foster international relationships to protect the environment

"We'll establish a program for the Department of Energy and our laboratories to share technology with countries across the region."—5/23/08, Miami

Reduce oil consumption

"Obama will reduce oil consumption overall by at least 35 percent, or 10 million barrels of oil, by 2030."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Help manufacturers go green

"Obama will establish a federal investment program to help manufacturing centers modernize and Americans learn the new skills they need to produce green products."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Double clean-energy funding

"Obama will double science and research funding for clean-energy projects, including those that make use of our biomass, solar and wind resources."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Create Green Jobs Corps

"Obama will also create an energy-focused Green Jobs Corps to connect disconnected and disadvantaged youth with job skills for a high-growth industry."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Invest $10 billion per year in clean technologies fund

"Obama will create a Clean Technologies Venture Capital Fund to fill a critical gap in U.S. technology development. Obama will invest $10 billion per year into this fund for five years."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Require 25 percent of electricity to come from renewable resources

"Obama will establish a 25 percent federal renewable portfolio standard (RPS) to require that 25 percent of electricity consumed in the U.S. is derived from clean, sustainable energy sources, like solar, wind and geothermal by 2025."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Increase money for low-carbon coal technologies

"Obama will significantly increase the resources devoted to the commercialization and deployment of low-carbon coal technologies."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Push cellulosic ethanol

"Obama will invest federal resources, including tax incentives, cash prizes and government contracts into developing the most promising technologies with the goal of getting the first 2 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol into the system by 2013."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Boost renewable fuel requirements

"Obama will require 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels to be included in the fuel supply by 2022 and will increase that to at least 60 billion gallons of advanced biofuels like cellulosic ethanol by 2030."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Double fuel economy standards

"Obama will double fuel economy standards within 18 years."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Set goal of making new buildings carbon neutral

"Barack Obama will establish a goal of making all new buildings carbon neutral (that is, producing zero emissions) by 2030."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Create energy-efficiency grant program

"Obama will create a competitive grant program to award those states and localities that take the first steps to implement new building codes that prioritize energy efficiency."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Create Global Energy Forum

"Obama will create a Global Energy Forum that includes all G-8 members, plus Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

 

ETHICS REFORM

Increase protections for whistleblowers

"Barack Obama will strengthen whistleblower laws to protect federal workers who expose waste, fraud, and abuse of authority in government."—Obama's The Change We Need In Washington"

Ban executive employees from taking gifts from lobbyists

"Barack Obama will issue an executive order banning registered lobbyists or lobbying firms from giving gifts in any amount or any form to executive branch employees."—Obama's The Change We Need In Washington"

Stop misuse of no-bid contracts

"I will end the abuse of no-bid contracts in my administration."—6/22/07, Manchester, N.H.

Be open with American people

"But I can promise you this: I will always tell you what I think and where I stand."—9/3/07, Manchester, N.H.

Restrict lobbyists

"When you walk into my administration, you will not be able to work on regulations or contracts directly related to your former employer for two years. And when you leave, you will not be able to lobby the administration throughout the remainder of my term in office."—6/22/07, Manchester, N.H.

Put agency meetings with lobbyists online

"When there are meetings between lobbyists and a government agency, we won't be going to the Supreme Court to keep it secret like Dick Cheney and his energy task force. We'll be putting them up on the Internet for every American to watch. And instead of allowing lobbyists to slip big corporate tax breaks into bills during the dead of night, we will make sure every single tax break and earmark is available to every American online."—6/22/07, Manchester, N.H.

Disclose contractor lobbying

"Obama will create a 'contracts and influence' database that will disclose how much federal contractors spend on lobbying, and what contracts they are getting and how well they complete them."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Put federal spending information online

"We'll put government data online and use technology to shine a light on spending."—6/16/08, Flint, Mich.

Post bills online before signing them

"When there is a bill that ends up on my desk as president, you will have five days to look online and find out what's in it before I sign it."—6/22/07, Manchester, N.H.

Fight for independent oversight of congressional ethics violations

"Obama will use the power of the presidency to fight for an independent watchdog agency to oversee the investigation of congressional ethics violations so that the public can be assured that ethics complaints will be investigated."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Require Cabinet members to hold broadband town hall meetings

"Obama will bring democracy and public policy directly to the people by requiring his Cabinet officials to have periodic national broadband town hall meetings to discuss issues before their agencies."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Disclose regulatory conversations between officials and outsiders

"Obama will amend executive orders to ensure that communications about regulatory policymaking between persons outside government and all White House staff are disclosed to the public."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Require public meetings

"Obama will require his appointees who lead the executive branch departments and rulemaking agencies to conduct the significant business of the agency in public, so that any citizen can watch these debates in person or on the Internet."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

 

FOREIGN POLICY

Withdraw U.S. combat troops from Iraq

"I will begin to remove our troops from Iraq immediately. I will remove one or two brigades a month and get all of our combat troops out of Iraq within 16 months. The only troops I will keep in Iraq will perform the limited missions of protecting our diplomats and carrying out targeted strikes on al-Qaida."—10/02/07, Chicago

Not build permanent bases in Iraq

"Obama will make it clear that we will not build any permanent bases in Iraq."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Expand Iraq refugee services

"He will provide at least $2 billion to expand services to Iraqi refugees in neighboring countries, and ensure that Iraqis inside their own country can find a safe haven."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Expand U.S. forces in Afghanistan

"As president, I would deploy at least two additional brigades to Afghanistan to reinforce our counterterrorism operations and support NATO's efforts against the Taliban."—8/1/07, Washington

Provide more non-military aid to Afghanistan

"We will start with an additional $1 billion in non-military assistance each year, aid that is focused on reaching ordinary Afghans."—3/19/08, Fayetteville, N.C.

Expand diplomatic relations

"I will challenge the conventional thinking that we can't conduct diplomacy with leaders we don't like."—1/13/08, Denver "Obama will set up an America's Voice Initiative to send Americans who are fluent speakers of local languages to expand our public diplomacy."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Tie strings to aid to Pakistan

"As president, I would make the hundreds of millions of dollars in U.S. military aid to Pakistan conditional. And I would make our conditions clear: Pakistan must make substantial progress in closing down the training camps, evicting foreign fighters, and preventing the Taliban from using Pakistan as a staging area for attacks in Afghanistan."—8/1/07, Washington

Give "State of the World" addresses

"I'll give an annual 'State of the World' address to the American people in which I lay out our national security policy."—10/2/07, Chicago

Boost U.S. humanitarian efforts

"I will invest in our civilian capacity to operate alongside our troops in post-conflict zones and on humanitarian and stabilization missions."—3/19/08, Fayetteville, N.C.

Increase aid to the Americas

"I will substantially increase our aid to the Americas and embrace the Millennium Development Goals of halving global poverty by 2015. We'll target support to bottom-up growth through micro-financing, vocational training and small enterprise development."—5/23/08, Miami

Reinstate special envoy for Americas

"I will reinstate a special envoy for the Americas in my White House who will work with my full support."—5/23/08, Miami

End restrictions on Cuban-Americans

"I will immediately allow unlimited family travel and remittances to the island [of Cuba]."—5/23/08, Miami

Maintain Cuban embargo

"I will maintain the embargo."—5/23/08, Miami

Continue anti-drug efforts abroad

"When I am president, we will continue the Andean Counter-Drug Program and update it to meet evolving challenges. We will fully support Colombia's fight against the FARC. We'll work with the government to end the reign of terror from right-wing paramilitaries. We will support Colombia's right to strike terrorists who seek safe haven across its borders."—5/23/08, Miami

Defend Israel

"Let there be no doubt: I will always keep the threat of military action on the table to defend our security and our ally Israel."—6/4/08, Washington, D.C.

Provide $30 billion to Israel

"As president, I will implement a memorandum of understanding that provides $30 billion in assistance to Israel over the next decade, investments to Israel's security that will not be tied to any other nation."—6/4/08, Washington, D.C.

Pursue diplomacy with Iran

"He will lead tough diplomacy with the Iranian regime and offer Iran the choice of increased international pressure or incentives if it stops its disturbing behavior."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Work for two-state solution to Israeli-Palestinian conflict

"He will make a sustained push -- working with Israelis and Palestinians -- to achieve the goal of two states, a Jewish state in Israel and a Palestinian state, living side by side in peace and security."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Open new consulates in challenging places

"To make diplomacy a priority, Obama will stop shuttering consulates and start opening them in the tough and hopeless corners of the world, particularly in Africa. He will expand our Foreign Service and develop the capacity of our civilian aid workers to work alongside the military."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Work to halve poverty worldwide

"Obama will embrace the Millennium Development Goal of cutting extreme poverty around the world in half by 2015, and he will double our foreign assistance to $50 billion to achieve that goal."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Push for NATO changes

"Obama will rally NATO members to contribute troops to collective security operations, urging them to invest more in reconstruction and stabilization operations, streamlining the decision-making processes and giving NATO commanders in the field more flexibility."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Work to make China play by the rules

"He will maintain strong ties with allies like Japan, South Korea and Australia; work to build an infrastructure with countries in East Asia that can promote stability and prosperity; and work to ensure that China plays by international rules."—Obama's Blueprint for Change

Encourage investment relationships between American and Africa

"Obama will also strengthen the African Growth and Opportunity Act to ensure that African producers can access the U.S. market and will encourage more American companies to invest on the continent."—BarackObama.com

Help African countries access green technology

"He will launch the Global Energy and Environment Initiative to ensure African counties have access to low carbon energy technology and can profitably participate in the new global carbon market..."—BarackObama.com

Stop genocide in Darfur

"As president, Obama will take immediate steps to end the genocide in Darfur by increasing pressure on the Sudanese and pressure the government to halt the killing and stop impeding the deployment of a robust international force."—BarackObama.com

Launch agriculture initiative and reform the World Bank and International Monetary Fund

"Obama will expand prosperity by establishing an Add Value to Agriculture Initiative, creating a fund that will extend seed capital and technical assistance to small and medium enterprises, and reforming the World Bank and International Monetary Fund."—BarackObama.com

If you would like to set up a new MLM business or expand the one you have, an vital part is learning the best way to generate new mlm network marketing leads consistently. Trying to source the right information on powerful strategies can be overwhelming and confusing. This article can give you what you need to succeed.

 

When people try out MLM Network marketing for the very first time it is very easy to find yourself at "information overload". Once people get to this point, a lot just give up. What you must have is clear direction so you are not wasting hours if not days trawling the net trying to do it alone. Believe me when I say, I went through this experience also but the day I come accross MLSP, I stopped looking into other opportunities and took the time to to the initial training, followed a couple of experts then started to implement the strategies I had learnt.

 

I have seen a lot of programs on the web but nothing that gives you such value. The company specializes in training|developing people in all aspects of internet marketing and how to generate fresh new leads consistently. Whether your a newbie or you already have a business and want to take it to the next level then this worth checking out.

 

Tell Me Who This Company Is, I Think It's Time To Bring In The Experts

 

Several years ago, a few marketers experiencing some good results joined forces to launch MLSP, otherwise known as My Lead System Pro.

They have developed a lead generation platform which gives you the added advantage over your competitors by getting quality training from 6-7 figure leaders in this industry. All you have to do is follow in their footsteps.

 

This Is What A Few People Have To Say About MLSP

 

The Training In The Back Office Is Worth Millions

Ever since I found MLSP I have been learning so much. The value that you offer does not equal how much you charge for access to the system. It's ridiculous what you give away. No other system can top yours because everyone involved does free trainings, free webinars, and live prospecting calls. The training in the back office is worth millions.

I've been an online college student for 3 years, and now I am an online student of MLSP University. LOL

 

David Walker

Colorado Springs, CO

 

Over 30 Leads For My Business The First 10 Days!

MLSP is the fastest lead generation system on the planet. I have only started implementing the article marketing strategy and in the first 10 days have generated over 30 double opt in leads. My best day so far was on day 9 when I pulled 15 people into my system in one day. I'm excited about putting the other strategies into place. This is the first thing that has ever worked for me online. Congratulations MLSP on putting together an awesome lead generation system.

 

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There is a small monthly investment but, the value that you have at your fingertips totally outweighs the monthly fee. So if you want to make mlm network marketing leads the easy way, then My Lead System Pro is definately worth looking at. From time to time they also have a promotional period where you can test drive the program. I recommend you defenately check it out. sharongrahamblog.com/easy-mlm-network-marketing-leads/

First photo in b&w after 4 years.. :D

  

Sangkhlaburi - Thailand.

  

The Karen and Mon people are persecuted by the government of Burma and not recognized as Thai citizens.

 

The high hospital fees for non-Thai citizens means most Karen and Mon are effectively denied all access to health care. With diseases like malaria, dengue fever and tuberculosis, this denial can prove fatal.

 

Children of the Forest is a project aimed at providing protection, assistance and education to the Karen and Mon children and families in most urgent need in the area of Sangkhlaburi and across the border. Focusing on the critical issues of education, health care, land and children in distress we strive to remove obstacles to happiness and create routes to hope and opportunity.

 

With the generous support of a sponsor they began the implementation of a basic child health care program.

 

Children of the Forest Project now employs 2 qualified medical staff. Their Thai registered nurse adds legitimacy to their program and their medics years of experience in border zone clinics and ability to communicate in several local languages makes their in-house and outreach medical work highly effective.

 

In the clinic, thanks to a parternship with a farmaceutical corporate, they also introduced the use of natural medicines for minor complaints such as stomach aches, coughs and colds, mild fevers, aches and pains, flesh wounds etc.

 

In the health program a local health care worker visits the villages and settlements of Sangkhlaburi. On finding sick children she assesses the seriousness and, if necessary, takes the child to hospital and covers their medical bills. Their free school also serves as a valuable means to locate sick children and they often find children coming to our school with serious illnesses such as malaria, tuberculosis and dengue fever.

 

To ensure all children can develop physically and mentally, the health care program tries to provide rice and milk for some of the neediest families. With the growing HIV problem in Sangkhlaburi they have also been required to support HIV children.

 

In 2009 they also opened a Mother & Child Protection program that allows them to support the mothers and the children, keeping them together, well and on the road to new hope and opportunity. Single mothers are particularly vulnerable in this border area. With no social welfare, the death or departure of their husband leaves them in a critical struggle to provide their children with the most basic necessities. They have invited several single mothers to join us and work with the community. On arrival mothers are physically and emotionally exhausted, yet with time and support in this positive environment, they can heal and reach their potential as caring and loving mothers.

 

Recently they opened 2 "safe houses", one in Thailand and one in Burma territory. They're simple bamboo houses in which "Children of the forest" provides protection to people (mostly women) who suffered violences or are abandoned by the family or don't have a job and place to stay.

 

Today Children of the Forest’s clinic provides first line medical assistance, advice and in serious cases referrals to around 400 children per month.

 

More info -> www.childrenoftheforest.com

 

Follow me on: My facebook page & My blog - Punto14 & My Twitter

Are you looking for a way to take control of your debt? Has the amount of debt incurred become too overwhelming when all the bills keep mounting up each month? If so, consolidating debts could be the answer you seek. This piece provides wonderful tips to use when consolidating debt.

 

Research any consolidating debts company that interests you and also try reading various customer feedback for them. When you do that, you can make a smarter decision, because you are more sure your finances are being taken care of by a reputable company.

 

Never borrow money from a company or person you know little about. Loan sharks prey on people in financial trouble. When choosing a debt consolidator, take the time to learn about their reputation and all about their interest, fees and other charged which can quickly add up.

 

Find out whether you can use a tiny amount of money from your retirement fund to get a grip on your credit cards that have high interest rates. However, you should only do this if you are certain you will pay back the money. Unless you pay for the amount back, you will be charged a penalty and will be required to pay income taxes on the amount.

 

You might access your retirement funds to repay high interest debts. Do not consider this unless you know for sure you can pay back the amount withdrawn. Penalties and taxes will be required unless you pay in time.

 

Consider filing for bankruptcy. Whether Chapter 13 or Chapter 7, it could be a bad mark for your credit. But, if you have no way to pay down your debts and you're missing payments, your credit could be irreparable already. Bankruptcy allows you to lower your debt and put you back on the path towards financial health.

 

Look for a debt consolidating company has counselors that are certified. You can contact NFCC for a list of businesses that adhere to certification standards. In this manner, you can be sure of getting solid advice and assistance.

 

Lots of consolidating debts information is available. It can be tough to go through, but easier than having the heavy burden of debt. Use the things this article has taught you and also get yourself back to where you were financially before all the debt. thedebtadvice.net/advice-about-debt-paying-it-back-strate...

The swinging sixties were in full flow, but in some corners of the world the peace and love mantra of the flower-power generation could not be heard.

 

Even as hippies in London and San Francisco were weaving daisies into their hair, in China Mao Tse-Tung launched the Cultural Revolution, a 10-year political campaign aimed at rekindling revolutionary Communist fervour. Brandishing their copies of Mao's Little Red Book of quotations, students of the Communist Party - the so-called Red Guards - pursued an ideological cleansing campaign in which they renounced and attacked anyone suspected of being an intellectual, or a member of the bourgeoisie. Thousands of Chinese citizens were executed, and millions more were yoked into manual labour in the decade that followed.

 

Meanwhile, the US government, under president Lyndon B Johnson, was escalating its military presence in Vietnam. By the year's end, American troop levels had reached 389,000, with more than 5,000 combat deaths and over 30,000 wounded. The war was a brutal and dirty one, with many US casualties caused by sniper fire, booby traps and mines.

 

The Americans responded by sending B-52 bombers over North Vietnam, and by launching the infamous Search and Destroy policy on the ground.

 

"To know war," Johnson said in his State of the Union address before Congress, in January 1966, "is to know that there is still madness in this world".

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=InRDF_0lfHk

 

There was bloodshed on the streets of London too, when Ronnie Kray, brother of Reggie, shot George Cornell dead in the Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel in March.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-rhr8Vjzy8E

 

Two years after his proclamations about the "white heat of technology" Harold Wilson was prime minister of a Labour government that included technology minister Tony Benn. If Benn was pleased to witness the introduction of the first homegrown UK credit card - The Barclaycard - in 1966, he was in the minority. The card was met with "a tidal wave of indifference", according to a Barclays executive.

 

Perhaps the UK public simply had other things on their minds.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRuVVqn63co

 

This was, after all, the year in which Bobby Moore's England beat the Germans 4-2 to lift the World Cup at Wembley.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=3T6IY2fz_Mc

 

Musically, 1966 was a vintage year. Jim Reeves' Distant Drums knocked the Small Faces' All or Nothing off the top spot. Other number ones in the year included Frank Sinatra's Strangers in the Night, Good Vibrations by the Beach Boys, the Walker Brothers' The Sun Ain't Gonna Shine Anymore and The Green, Green Grass of Home by Tom Jones.

 

The Beatles and the Rolling Stones also continued their dominance of the music scene, with Yellow Submarine, Eleanor Rigby, Paperback Writer and Paint it Black all topping the charts.

 

A Man for all Seasons won Best Picture at the 1966 Oscars, and its star Paul Scofield won Best Actor. Other films released this year included Georgy Girl, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Alfie and the Good, the Bad and the Ugly.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SzQTF--oQ-U

 

On the small screen, viewers were subjected to the rants of Alf Garnet in Till Death us do Part; while US audiences were introduced to the delights of the Monkees and Star Trek. And the dynamic duo, Batman and Robin, thwarted lute-playing electronics genius the Minstrel as he tried to sabotage the computer systems at the Gotham City Stock Exchange.

 

"Batman heads off new corporate IT disaster" - now there's a headline to conjure with.

 

The Queen opens the £10 million Severn Bridge on September 8. The Severn Bridge was opened in 1966 to replace the ferry service crossing from Aust to Beachley. The new bridge provided a direct link for the M4 motorway into Wales.

 

The Severn Bridge has now carried more than 300,000,000 vehicles since it was opened in 1966. Between 1980 and 1990 traffic flows increased by 63% and there were severe congestion problems in the summer and at peak times each day. Further increases in traffic flows were expected in the years ahead. The problems encountered on the Severn Bridge were made worse by the occasional high winds, accidents and breakdowns. It is for these reasons that the Second Severn Crossing was constructed as without it congestion would become more serious and frequent on the M4, M5 and the local road network.

 

Bristol's Mecca Centre opens

 

1966 - Thursday May 19 is a glittering night in Bristol when 800 of the West Country’s VIPs are invited to the opening of the city centre’s brand new £32 million leisure complex on Frogmore Street With a dozen licensed bars, a casino, a cinema, a night club, an ice rink and a thousand plastic palm trees, this is the biggest entertainment palace anywhere in Europe and somewhere to rival the West End of London. There are girls! In bikinis! There’s even pineapple! On sticks! Drivers park their Hillman Imps in the multi-story car park!

 

And, amazingly enough, the venue has been an entertainment centre ever since. Bristol . . . entertainments capital of the South West, and one of the entertainments attractions of Europe. That was the talk of the town when Mecca moved into Bristol, splashed out a fortune and began building the New Entertainments Centre in Frogmore Street, towering over the ancient Hatchet Inn and the Georgian and Regency streets nearby.

 

The New Entertainments Centre wasn't just big, it was enormous and it was what 60s leisure and fun-time were all about, Mecca promised. Here, slap bang in the middle of Bristol, the company was creating the largest entertainment centre in the whole of Europe. A dozen licensed bars, an ice rink, bowling lanes, a casino, a night club, a grand cinema, asumptuous ballroom and, naturally, a multi-storey car park to accommodate all those Zephyr Zodiacs, Anglias, Westminsters, Minis, Victors and Imps etc which would come pouring into town bringing the 5,000 or so customers who would flock to the centre every day.

 

London might have its famous West End. Bristol had its Frogmore Street palace of fun and the opening night of the biggest attraction of all, the Locarno Ballroom, on May 19th was the Night To Crown All First Nights, the Post proudly announced. Sparkling lights, plastic palm trees in shadily-lit bars, a revolving stage, dolly birds in fishnet tights and grass skirts . . . this was glamour a la mid-60s and Bristol loved it.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNk8yuZ4lbI

 

Horace Batchelor K-E-Y-N-S-H-A-M

 

1966 - KEYNSHAM became a familiar household name to millions of Radio Luxembourg listeners across Europe in the 1950s and 1960s — thanks to a local betting expert.

 

Self-styled 'football pools king' Horace Batchelor helped punters win a total of more than £12 million between 1948 and 1971 at a time when £75,000 was a fortune and his series of radio ads always mentioned mentioned Keynsham, which Horace would then spell out.

 

Customers followed his unique 'infra draw' tip system, which forecast which matches would be drawn in the pools. He put the otherwise little-known town on the map by spelling out its name letter by letter so listeners would address their applications correctly when ordering tips by post.

 

His ads included genial patter such as: 'Hello, friends — this is Horace Batchelor, the inventor of the fabulous Infra-Draw system. You too can start to win really worthwhile dividends using my method.'

 

Members of the system clubbed together to enter very large permutations with a good chance of winning the pools and then sharing the takings — though each individual only received a small fraction of each big windfall. Horace himself set a world record by personally netting more than 30 first dividends and thousands of second and third dividends.

 

During his heyday up to 5.000 orders a day were delivered via Keynsham to his office in Old Market, Bristol. His first major pools win came in 1948 when he was presented with £11,321 at Bedminster’s Rex Cinema —part of the biggest dividend then paid by Sherman’s Pools.

 

It also included £45,000 which he shared with syndicate members. - By 1955 he had won enough to live in luxury, running three cars and puffing cigars in an 18-room house. He later retired to a 27-bedroom ‘Batchelor pad’ in Bath Road, Saltford, a small village just outside of Keynsham, which he named 'Infra -Grange' after his system.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=FU7MMdlATZQ

 

Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966

 

Pickles, the mongrel dog who found the World Cup in a London street after it had been stolen three months before the 1966 finals, became a bigger story than that year's general election.

 

In March 1966, a few months before the start of the World Cup finals in England, a mongrel dog named Pickles found the missing Jules Rimet trophy in a London street.

 

One week before Pickles came to the rescue, the priceless trophy had been stolen from the Westminster's Methodist Central Hall where it was being displayed, albeit in a glass cabinet.

 

And this despite the presence of no less than five security guards. On that fateful Sunday, however, the guard stationed next to the trophy had taken the day off. The thieves stole in through a back door and snatched away the World Cup.

 

For his winning role in the tale, Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966 and awarded a year's free supply of dog food. His owner, a Thames lighterman named David Corbett, was a prime suspect in the case and police questioned him for hours before he was cleared.

 

With a dramatic goal in the final moments of what was a nail-biting match, England finally became soccer World Cup champions, securing a 4-2 win over West Germany at London’s Wembley Stadium. It was just one of the many highlights of 1966 that are etched on my memory from a year that had its fair share of controversy and tragedy as well as producing some outstanding music.

 

'more popular than Jesus’

 

Controversy come in the wake of John Lennon’s quip in a newspaper interview that The Beatles were ‘more popular than Jesus now’. It caused a furor and led to thousands of the group’s records being burned on bonfires in protest in some parts of America. I recall seeing the news coverage on TV showing angry groups of people tossing piles of vinyl in to the flames. It was far cry from the outpourings of adoration and admiration that the Liverpool lads usually enjoyed. And for a while threatened to damage their reputation.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZ6NL3iNNMs

 

The anti-Beatles outcry did however subside following an apology from Lennon and things eventually got back to normal on the Fab Four front. The catchy Paperback Writer topped the charts and their imaginative album Revolver reinstated their popularity.

 

Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales

 

One of the most tragic events that year In Britain was the Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales that claimed 144 lives, including 116 children. I was at work on a weekly newspaper on the October morning it happened. My colleagues and I had a radio on and listened to updates on and off throughout the day as rescuers dug through the tons of slurry that had roared down the hillside, desperately trying to find survivors in the mangled remains of the school building. I’ll always remember that it was a very dark period, particularly as so many young lives had been lost in what was later shown to have been an avoidable tragedy.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lzJLww3DvM

 

On the music front, 1966 threw up several gems, not least some groundbreaking offerings from The Beach Boys. It was, of course, the year that the magical singles Good Vibrations and God Only Knows and the grandiose album Pet Sounds set new standards in rock recording. Indeed, such was the excellence of the band at that time that it spurred The Beatles on to experiment and push their own musical boundaries still further.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOMyS78o5YI

 

Motown was in its glory too, and The Four Tops epitomized all that was great about the sounds made under the guidance of Berry Gordy in the bustling, vibrant city that was Detroit. Reach Out I’ll Be There.

 

Other memorable songs, were Dusty Springfield’s You Don’t Have To Say You Love Me, the Spencer Davis Group’s Somebody Help Me, the Rolling Stones Paint It Black, The Walker Brothers’ operatic The Sun Ain’t `Gonna Shine Anymore, and Chris Farlowe’s cover version of the Stones’ Out Of Time. All of them are classics of rock.

 

Tom Jones’ Green, Green Grass of Home was the biggest selling single. Way before The Voice!

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=hSajFnkUxQY

 

George Harrison married Patti Boyd.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=pm8oTkuIJgs

 

Sergio Leone created the spaghetti western with The Good, The Bad and The Ugly starring Clint Eastwood. Due to the striking height difference between Clint Eastwood and Eli Wallach of over 9 inches, it was sometimes difficult to include them in the same frame.

 

Because Sergio Leone spoke barely any English and Eli Wallach spoke barely any Italian, the two communicated in French.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PgAKzmWmuk

 

In the 1960s Michael Caine was a cocky young British movie star with a Cockney accent. He played a caddish womanizer in Alfie (1966) "Not a lot of people know that"

 

Adam Sandler, Halle Berry, David Schwimmer, David Cameron, Cindy Crawford, Helena Bonham Carter were all born in 1966.

 

The first episode of Star Trek aired.

 

Walt Disney died.

 

The Beatles achieved their 10th number 1!

 

The Sound of Music won Best Picture at the Oscars.

 

Twiggy was named the face of ’66 by Daily Express.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ncuD39xi-7M

 

1966 was also the year that the term Swinging London was coined by Time magazine, and as they say the rest is history

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDIxIqc0Qkw

 

For a few years in the 1960s, London was the world capital of cool. When Time magazine dedicated its 15 April 1966 issue to London: the Swinging City, it cemented the association between London and all things hip and fashionable that had been growing in the popular imagination throughout the decade.

 

London’s remarkable metamorphosis from a gloomy, grimy post-War capital into a bright, shining epicentre of style was largely down to two factors: youth and money. The baby boom of the 1950s meant that the urban population was younger than it had been since Roman times.

 

By the mid-60s, 40% of the population at large was under 25. With the abolition of National Service for men in 1960, these young people had more freedom and fewer responsibilities than their parents’ generation. They rebelled against the limitations and restrictions of post-War society. In short, they wanted to shake things up… Added to this, Londoners had more disposable income than ever before – and were looking for ways to spend it. Nationally, weekly earnings in the ‘60s outstripped the cost of living by a staggering 183%: in London, where earnings were generally higher than the national average, the figure was probably even greater.

 

This heady combination of affluence and youth led to a flourishing of music, fashion, design and anything else that would banish the post-War gloom. Fashion boutiques sprang up willy-nilly.

 

Men flocked to Carnaby St, near Soho, for the latest ‘Mod’ fashions. While women were lured to the King’s Rd, where Mary Quant’s radical mini skirts flew off the rails of her iconic store, Bazaar.

 

Even the most shocking or downright barmy fashions were popularised by models who, for the first time, became superstars. Jean Shrimpton was considered the symbol of Swinging London, while Twiggy was named The Face of 1966. Mary Quant herself was the undisputed queen of the group known as The Chelsea Set, a hard-partying, socially eclectic mix of largely idle ‘toffs’ and talented working-class movers and shakers.

 

Music was also a huge part of London’s swing. While Liverpool had the Beatles, the London sound was a mix of bands who went on to worldwide success, including The Who, The Kinks, The Small Faces and The Rolling Stones. Their music was the mainstay of pirate radio stations like Radio Caroline and Radio Swinging England. Creative types of all kinds gravitated to the capital, from artists and writers to magazine publishers, photographers, advertisers, film-makers and product designers.

 

But not everything in London’s garden was rosy. Immigration was a political hot potato: by 1961, there were over 100,000 West Indians in London, and not everyone welcomed them with open arms. The biggest problem of all was a huge shortage of housing to replace bombed buildings and unfit slums and cope with a booming urban population. The badly-conceived solution – huge estates of tower blocks – and the social problems they created, changed the face of London for ever. By the 1970s, with industry declining and unemployment rising,

 

Swinging London seemed a very dim and distant memory.

 

1966 in British music

 

14 January – Young singer David Jones changes his last name to Bowie to avoid confusion with Davy Jones (later of the Monkees).

 

19 January - Michael Tippett conducts the performance of his cantata The Vision of St Augustine in London.

 

6 February – The Animals appear a fifth time on The Ed Sullivan Show to perform their iconic Vietnam-anthem hit "We Gotta Get Out of this Place".

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=D88vc_GWw-g

 

4 March – The Beatles' John Lennon is quoted in The Evening Standard as saying that the band was now more popular than Jesus. In August, following publication of this remark in Datebook, there are Beatles protests and record burnings in the Southern US's Bible Belt.

 

5 March – The UK's Kenneth McKellar, singing "A Man Without Love", finishes 9th in the 11th Eurovision Song Contest, which is won by Udo Jürgens of Austria.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SH8BQmfhUgo

 

6 March – In the UK, 5,000 fans of the Beatles sign a petition urging British Prime minister Harold Wilson to reopen Liverpool's Cavern Club.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=J1SQ99AYudo

 

16 April - Disc Weekly is incormporated with Music Echo magazine.

 

1 May – The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and the Who perform at the New Musical Express' poll winners' show in London. The show is televised, but The Beatles' and The Stones' segments are omitted because of union conflicts.

 

13 May - The Rolling Stones release "Paint It, Black", which becomes the first number one hit single in the US and UK to feature a sitar (in this case played by Brian Jones).

 

17 May – American singer Bob Dylan and the Hawks (later The Band) perform at the Free Trade Hall, Manchester. Dylan is booed by the audience because of his decision to tour with an

electric band, the boos culminating in the famous "Judas" shout.

 

2 July – The Beatles become the first musical group to perform at the Nippon Budokan Hall in Tokyo. The performance ignites protests from local citizens who felt that it was inappropriate for a rock and roll band to play at Budokan, a place – until then – designated to the practice of martial arts.

 

11 August – John Lennon holds a press conference in Chicago, Illinois to apologize for his remarks the previous March. "I suppose if I had said television was more popular than Jesus, I would have gotten away with it. I'm sorry I opened my mouth. I'm not anti-God, anti-Christ, or anti-religion. I was not knocking it. I was not saying we are greater or better."

 

29 August – The Beatles perform their last official concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

 

16 September - Eric Burdon records a solo album after leaving The Animals and appears on "Ready, Steady, Go", singing "Help Me Girl", a UK #14 solo hit. Also on the show are Otis Redding and Chris Farlowe.

 

9 November – John Lennon meets Yoko Ono when he attends a preview of her art exhibition at the Indica Gallery in London.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhJIiEeMeF0

 

9 December – The Who release their second album A Quick One with a nine-minute "mini-opera" A Quick One While He's Away.

 

16 December – The Jimi Hendrix Experience release their first single in the UK, "Hey Joe".

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=W3JsuWz4xWc

 

1966 in British television

 

3 January – Camberwick Green is the first BBC television programme to be shot in colour.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWUu-LTFJjE

 

3 March – The BBC announces plans to begin broadcasting television programmes in colour from next year.

 

5 April – The Money Programme debuts on BBC2. It continued to air until 2010.

 

23 May – Julie Goodyear makes her Coronation Street debut as Bet Lynch. She did not become a regular character until 1970.

 

6 June – BBC1 sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNSbMNl9K7Q

 

30 July – England beat West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley.

 

Summer – Patrick McGoohan quits the popular spy series Danger Man after filming only two episodes of the fourth season, in order to produce and star in The Prisoner, which begins filming in September.

 

2 October – The four-part serial Talking to a Stranger, acclaimed as one of the finest British television dramas of the 1960s, begins transmission in the Theatre 625 strand on BBC2.

 

29 October – Actor William Hartnell makes his last regular appearance as the First Doctor in the concluding moments of Episode 4 of the Doctor Who serial The Tenth Planet. Actor Patrick Troughton briefly appears as the Second Doctor at the conclusion of the serial.

 

5 November – Actor Patrick Troughton appears in his first full Doctor Who serial The Power of the Daleks as the Second Doctor.

 

16 November – Cathy Come Home, possibly the best-known play ever to be broadcast on British television, is presented in BBC1's The Wednesday Play anthology strand.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMR8KYDkRqk

 

BBC1

 

3 January – The Trumptonshire Trilogy: Camberwick Green

5 January – Softly, Softly (1966–1969)

10 March – The Frost Report (1966)

7 May – Quick Before They Catch Us (1966)

17 May – All Gas and Gaiters (1966–1971)

24 May – Beggar My Neighbour (1966–1968)

7 August – It's a Knockout (BBC1 1966–1982

17 November – The Illustrated Weekly Hudd (1966–1967)

 

BBC2

 

5 April – The Money Programme (1966–2010)

 

ITV

 

22 March – How (1966–1981)

 

1966 Events

 

3 January - British Rail begins full electric passenger train services over the West Coast Main Line from Euston to Manchester and Liverpool with 100 mph (160 km/h) operation from London to Rugby. Services officially inaugurated 18 April.

 

Stop-motion children's television series Camberwick Green first shown on BBC1.

 

4 January – More than 4,000 people attend a memorial service at Westminster Abbey for the broadcaster Richard Dimbleby, who died last month aged 52.

 

12 January – Three British MPs visiting Rhodesia (Christopher Rowland, Jeremy Bray and David Ennals) are assaulted by supporters of Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith.

 

20 January - The Queen commutes the death sentence on a black prisoner in Rhodesia, two months after its abolition in Britain.

 

Radio Caroline South pirate radio ship MV Mi Amigo runs aground on the beach at Frinton.

 

21 January – The Smith regime in Rhodesia rejects the Royal Prerogative commuting death sentences on two Africans.

 

31 January – United Kingdom ceases all trade with Rhodesia.

 

9 February – A prototype Fast Reactor nuclear reactor opens at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland.

 

17 February – Britain protests to South Africa over its supplying of petrol to Rhodesia.

 

19 February – Naval minister Christopher Mayhew resigns.

 

28 February – Harold Wilson calls a general election for 31 March, in hope of increasing his single-seat majority.

 

1 March – Chancellor of the Exchequer James Callaghan announces the decision to embrace decimalisation of the pound (which will be effected on 15 February 1971).

 

4 March - In an interview published in The Evening Standard, John Lennon of The Beatles comments, "We're more popular than Jesus now".

 

Britain recognized the new regime in Ghana.

 

5 March – BOAC Flight 911 crashes in severe clear-air turbulence over Mount Fuji soon after taking off from Tokyo International Airport in Japan, killing all 124 on board.

 

9 March – Ronnie, one of the Kray twins, shoots George Cornell (an associate of rivals The Richardson Gang) dead at The Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel, east London, a crime for which he is finally convicted in 1969.

 

11 March – Chi-Chi, the London Zoo's giant panda, is flown to Moscow for a union with An-An of the Moscow Zoo.

 

20 March – Theft of football's FIFA World Cup Trophy whilst on exhibition in London.

 

23 March – Pope Paul VI and Michael Ramsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, meet in Rome.

 

27 March – Pickles, a mongrel dog, finds the FIFA World Cup Trophy wrapped in newspaper in a south London garden.

 

30 March - Opinion polls show that the Labour government is on course to win a comfortable majority in the general election tomorrow.

 

31 March – The Labour Party under Harold Wilson win the general election with a majority of 96 seats. At the 1964 election they had a majority of five but subsequent by-election defeats had led to that being reduced to just one seat before this election. The Birmingham Edgbaston seat is retained for the Conservatives by Jill Knight in succession to Edith Pitt, the first time two women MPs have followed each other in the same constituency.

 

6 April – Hoverlloyd inaugurate the first Cross-Channel hovercraft service, from Ramsgate harbour to Calais using passenger-carrying SR.N6 craft.

 

7 April – The United Kingdom asks the UN Security Council authority to use force to stop oil tankers that violate the oil embargo against Rhodesia. Authority is given on 10 April.

 

11 April – The Marquess of Bath, in conjunction with Jimmy Chipperfield, opens Longleat Safari Park, with "the lions of Longleat", at his Longleat House, the first such drive-through park outside Africa.

 

15 April – Time magazine uses the phrase "Swinging London".

 

19 April – Ian Brady and Myra Hindley go on trial at Chester Crown Court, charged with three so-called Moors Murders.

 

30 April - Regular hovercraft service begins over the English Channel (discontinued in 2000 due to competition with the Channel Tunnel.)

 

Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for the second time in three seasons.

 

3 May – Swinging Radio England and Britain Radio commence broadcasting on AM with a combined potential 100,000 watts from the same ship anchored off the south coast of England in international waters.

 

6 May – The Moors Murderers Ian Brady and Myra Hindley are sentenced to life imprisonment for three child murders committed between November 1963 and October 1965. Brady is guilty of all three murders and receives three concurrent terms of life imprisonment, while Hindley is found guilty of two murder charges and an accessory charge which receives two concurrent life sentences alongside a seven-year fixed term.

 

12 May – African members of the UN Security Council say that the British army should blockade Rhodesia.

 

14 May – Everton defeat Sheffield Wednesday 3-2 in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium, overturning a 2-0 Sheffield Wednesday lead during the final 16 minutes of the game.

 

16 May – A strike is called by the National Union of Seamen, ending on 16 July.

 

18 May – Home Secretary Roy Jenkins announces that the number of police forces in England and Wales will be cut to 68.

 

26 May – Guyana achieves independence from the United Kingdom.

 

6 June – BBC1 television sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.

 

23 June – The Beatles go on top of the British singles charts for the 10th time with Paperback Writer.

 

29 June – Barclays Bank introduces the Barclaycard, the first British credit card.

 

3 July – 31 arrests made after a protest against the Vietnam War outside the US embassy turns violent.

 

12 July – Zambia threatens to leave the Commonwealth because of British peace overtures to Rhodesia.

 

14 July – Gwynfor Evans becomes member of Parliament for Carmarthen, the first ever Plaid Cymru MP, after his victory at a by-election.

 

15 July – A ban on black workers at Euston railway station is overturned.

 

16 July – Prime Minister Harold Wilson flies to Moscow to try to start peace negotiations over the Vietnam War. The Soviet Government rejects his ideas.

 

20 July – Start of 6-month wage and price freeze.

 

26 July – Lord Gardiner issues the Practice Statement in the House of Lords stating that the House is not bound to follow its own previous precedent.

 

30 July – England beats West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley. Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick and Martin Peters scores the other English goal in a game which attracts an all-time record UK television audience of more than 32,000,000.

 

1 August – Everton sign Blackpool's World Cup winning midfield player Alan Ball, Jr. for a national record fee of £110,000.

 

2 August – Spanish government forbids overflights of British military aircraft.

 

4 August – The Kray Twins are questioned in connection with a murder in London.

 

5 August – The Beatles release the album Revolver.

 

10 August – George Brown succeeds Michael Stewart as Foreign Secretary.

 

12 August – Three policemen are shot dead in Shepherd's Bush, West London, while sitting in their patrol car in Braybrook Street.

 

15 August – John Whitney is arrested and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.

 

17 August – John Duddy is arrested in Glasgow and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.

 

18 August – Tay Road Bridge opens.

 

24 August – Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is first staged, at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe.

 

29 August – The Beatles play their very last concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

 

3 September – Barely five months after the death of Barry Butler, a second Football League player this year dies in a car crash; 30-year-old John Nicholson, a Doncaster Rovers centre-half who previously played for Port Vale and Liverpool.

 

5 September – Selective Employment Tax imposed.

 

15 September – Britain's first Polaris submarine, HMS Resolution, launched at Barrow-in-Furness.

 

17 September – Oberon-class submarine HMCS Okanagan launched at Chatham Dockyard, the last warship to be built there.

 

19 September – Scotland Yard arrests Ronald "Buster" Edwards, suspected of being involved in the Great Train Robbery (1963).

 

27 September – BMC makes 7,000 workers redundant.

 

30 September – The Bechuanaland Protectorate in Africa achieves independence from the U.K. as Botswana.

 

4 October – Basutoland becomes independent and takes the name Lesotho.

 

18 October – The Ford Cortina MK2 is launched.

 

20 October – In economic news, 437,229 people are reported to be unemployed in Britain – a rise of some 100,000 on last month's figures.

 

21 October – Aberfan disaster in South Wales, 144 (including 116 children) killed by collapsing coal spoil tip.

 

22 October - British spy George Blake escapes from Wormwood Scrubs prison; he is next seen in Moscow.

 

Spain demands that United Kingdom stop military flights to Gibraltar – Britain says "no" the next day.

 

25 October – Spain closes its Gibraltar border against vehicular traffic.

 

5 November – Thirty-eight African states demand that the United Kingdom use force against Rhodesian government.

 

9 November – The Rootes Group launches the Hillman Hunter, a four-door family saloon to compete with the Austin 1800, Ford Cortina and Vauxhall Victor.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6aTt-zFlo4

 

15 November – Harry Roberts is arrested near London and charged with the murder of three policemen in August.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXp36IUpDkU

 

16 November – The BBC television drama Cathy Come Home, filmed in a docudrama style, is broadcast on BBC1. Viewed by a quarter of the British population, it is considered influential on public attitudes to homelessness and the related social issues it deals with.

 

24 November – Unemployment sees another short rise, now standing at 531,585.

 

30 November – Barbados achieves independence.

 

1 December – Prime Minister Harold Wilson and Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith negotiate on HMS Tiger in the Mediterranean.

 

12 December – Harry Roberts, John Whitney and John Duddy are sentenced to life imprisonment (each with a recommended minimum of thirty years) for the murder of three West London policemen in August.

 

20 December – Harold Wilson withdraws all his previous offers to Rhodesian government and announces that he agrees to independence only after the founding of black majority government.

 

22 December – Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith declares that he considers that Rhodesia is already a republic.

 

31 December – Thieves steal millions of pounds worth of paintings from Dulwich Art Gallery in London.

 

Undated

 

Centre Point, a 32-floor office building at St Giles Circus in London, designed by Richard Seifert for property speculator Harry Hyams, is completed. It remains empty for around a decade.

 

London School of Contemporary Dance founded.

 

Mathematician Michael Atiyah wins a Fields Medal.

 

The motorway network continues to grow as the existing M1, M4 (including the Severn Bridge on the border of England and Wales) and M6 motorways are expanded and new motorways emerge in the shape of the M32 linking the M4 with Bristol, and the M74 near Hamilton in Scotland.

 

Japanese manufacturer Nissan begins importing its range of Datsun branded cars to the United Kingdom.

 

The 1966 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Brands Hatch on 16 July 1966. It was the fourth round of the 1966 World Championship. It was the 21st British Grand Prix and the second to be held at Brands Hatch. It was held over 80 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 341 kilometres.

 

The race, the first of the new three-litre engine regulation era where starters reached 20 cars,

 

was won for the third time by Australian driver Jack Brabham in his Brabham BT19, his second win in succession after winning the French Grand Prix two weeks earlier. New Zealand driver Denny Hulme finished second in his Brabham BT20, a first 1–2 win for the Brabham team. The pair finished a lap ahead of third placed British driver Graham Hill in his BRM P261. Brabham's win ended a streak of 4 consecutive wins by Jim Clark at the British Grand Prix. Brabham's win put him ten points clear in the championship chase over Austrian Cooper racer Jochen Rindt with Hulme and Ferrari's Lorenzo Bandini a point further back.

 

1965–66 in English football

 

7 October 1965: An experiment to broadcast a live game to another ground takes place. Cardiff City play Coventry City and the match is broadcast to a crowd of 10,000 at Coventry's ground Highfield Road.

 

20 March 1966: The World Cup is stolen from an exhibition at Central Hall, Westminster, where it was on show in the run-up to this summer's World Cup in England.

 

27 March 1966: The World Cup is recovered by Pickles, a mongrel dog, in South London.

 

16 April 1966: Liverpool seal the First Division title for the seventh time in their history with a 2–0 home win over Stoke City.

 

14 May 1966: Everton win the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday in the final at Wembley Stadium, despite going 2–0 down in the 57th minute.

 

11 July 1966: England, as the host nation, begin their World Cup campaign with a goalless draw against Uruguay at Wembley Stadium.

 

16 July 1966: England's World Cup campaign continues with a 2–0 win over Mexico (goals coming from Bobby Charlton and Roger Hunt) that moves them closes to qualifying for the next

stage of the competition.

 

20 July 1966: England qualify for the next stage of the World Cup with a 2–0 win over France in their final group game. Roger Hunt scores both of England's goals.

 

23 July 1966: England beat Argentina 1–0 in the World Cup quarter-final thanks to a goal by Geoff Hurst.

 

26 July 1966: England reach the World Cup final by beating Portugal 2–1 in the semi-final.

 

Bobby Charlton scores both of England's goals.

 

30 July 1966: England win the World Cup with a 4–2 win over West Germany in extra time.

 

Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick, with Martin Peters scoring the other goal.

 

Honours

 

Competition Winners

First Division Liverpool

Second Division Manchester City

Third Division Hull City

Fourth Division Doncaster Rovers

FA Cup Everton

League Cup West Bromwich Albion

Charity Shield Manchester United and Liverpool (shared)

Home Championship England

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Career

Name: RMS Olympic

Owner: White Star flag NEW.svg White Star Line 1911–1934

Cunard White Star Line Logo.JPG Cunard White Star Line 1934–1935

Port of registry: United Kingdom Liverpool, United Kingdom

Route: Southampton to New York

Ordered: 1906

Builder: Harland and Wolff, Belfast

Yard number: 400

Laid down: 16 December 1908

Launched: 20 October 1910

Completed: May 1911

Maiden voyage: 14 June 1911

In service: 1911

Out of service: 1935

Identification: Official Number 131346

Code Letters HSRP

ICS Hotel.svgICS Sierra.svgICS Romeo.svgICS Papa.svg

Radio callsign "MKC"

Fate: Retired at Southampton after 24 years service & scrapped. Superstructure dismantled at Jarrow, England, and the hull at Inverkeithing, Scotland.

Status: scrapped (besides the Second Class Lounge)

General characteristics

Class & type: Olympic-class ocean liner

Tonnage: 45,324 gross register tons; 46,358 after 1913; 46,439 after 1920

Displacement: 52,067 tons

Length: 882 ft 6 in (269.0 m)

Beam: 92 ft 6 in (28.2 m)

Height: 175 ft (53.3 m) (keel to top of funnels)

Draught: 34 ft 7 in (10.5 m)

Decks: 10 decks (1 crew deck)

Installed power: 24 double-ended (six furnace) and 5 single-ended (three furnace) Scotch boilers. Two four-cylinder triple-expansion reciprocating engines each producing 15,000 hp for the two outboard wing propellers at 75 revolutions per minute. One low-pressure turbine producing 16,000 h. 59,000 hp produced at maximum revolutions.[1]

Propulsion: Two bronze triple-blade wing propellers. One bronze quadruple-blade centre propeller.

Speed:

 

21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph)

23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph) (maximum)

 

Capacity: 2,435 passengers

Crew: 950

 

RMS Olympic was a transatlantic ocean liner, the lead ship of the White Star Line's trio of Olympic-class liners. Unlike her younger sister ships, the Olympic enjoyed a long and illustrious career, spanning 24 years from 1911 to 1935. This included service as a troopship during World War I, which gained her the nickname "Old Reliable". Olympic returned to civilian service after the war and served successfully as an ocean liner throughout the 1920s and into the first half of the 1930s, although increased competition, and the slump in trade during the Great Depression after 1930, made her operation increasingly unprofitable.

 

She was the largest ocean liner in the world for two periods during 1911–13, interrupted only by the brief tenure of the slightly larger Titanic (which had the same dimensions but higher gross tonnage due to revised interior configurations), and then outsized by the SS Imperator. Olympic also retained the title of the largest British-built liner until the RMS Queen Mary was launched in 1934, interrupted only by the short careers of her slightly larger sister ships.[2][3]

 

By contrast with Olympic, the other ships in the class, Titanic and Britannic, did not have long service lives. On the night of 14/15 April 1912, Titanic collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic and sank, claiming 1,500 lives; Britannic struck a mine and sank in the Kea Channel in the Mediterranean on 21 November 1916, killing 30 people.

 

Background

 

Built in Belfast, Ireland, the RMS Olympic was the first of the three Olympic-class ocean liners – the others were the RMS Titanic and the HMHS Britannic.[4] They were by far the largest vessels of the British shipping company White Star Line's fleet, which comprised 29 steamers and tenders in 1912.[5] The three ships had their genesis in a discussion in mid-1907 between the White Star Line's chairman, J. Bruce Ismay, and the American financier J. Pierpont Morgan, who controlled the White Star Line's parent corporation, the International Mercantile Marine Co. The White Star Line faced a growing challenge from its main rivals Cunard, which had just launched Lusitania and Mauretania – the fastest passenger ships then in service – and the German lines Hamburg America and Norddeutscher Lloyd. Ismay preferred to compete on size rather than speed and proposed to commission a new class of liners that would be bigger than anything that had gone before as well as being the last word in comfort and luxury.[6] The company sought an upgrade in their fleet primarily in response to the Cunard giants but also to replace their largest and now outclassed ships from 1890, the SS Teutonic and SS Majestic. The former was replaced by Olympic while Majestic was replaced by Titanic. Majestic would be brought back into her old spot on White Star's New York service after Titanic's loss.

 

The ships were constructed by the Belfast shipbuilders Harland and Wolff, who had a long-established relationship with the White Star Line dating back to 1867.[7] Harland and Wolff were given a great deal of latitude in designing ships for the White Star Line; the usual approach was for the latter to sketch out a general concept which the former would take away and turn into a ship design. Cost considerations were relatively low on the agenda and Harland and Wolff was authorised to spend what it needed on the ships, plus a five percent profit margin.[7] In the case of the Olympic-class ships, a cost of £3 million for the first two ships was agreed plus "extras to contract" and the usual five percent fee.[8]

The launch of Olympic on 20 October 1910

 

Harland and Wolff put their leading designers to work designing the Olympic-class vessels. It was overseen by Lord Pirrie, a director of both Harland and Wolff and the White Star Line; naval architect Thomas Andrews, the managing director of Harland and Wolff's design department; Edward Wilding, Andrews' deputy and responsible for calculating the ship's design, stability and trim; and Alexander Carlisle, the shipyard's chief draughtsman and general manager.[9] Carlisle's responsibilities included the decorations, equipment and all general arrangements, including the implementation of an efficient lifeboat davit design.[10]

 

On 29 July 1908, Harland and Wolff presented the drawings to J. Bruce Ismay and other White Star Line executives. Ismay approved the design and signed three "letters of agreement" two days later authorising the start of construction.[11] At this point the first ship – which was later to become Olympic – had no name, but was referred to simply as "Number 400", as it was Harland and Wolff's four hundredth hull. Titanic was based on a revised version of the same design and was given the number 401.[12] Bruce Ismay's father Thomas Henry Ismay had previously planned to build a ship named Olympic as a sister ship to the Oceanic. The senior Ismay died in 1899 and the order for the ship was cancelled.[13]

 

Construction of the Olympic began three months before Titanic to ease pressures on the shipyard. Several years would pass before Britannic would be launched. In order to accommodate the construction of the class, Harland and Wolff upgraded their facility in Belfast; the most dramatic change was the combining of three slipways into two larger ones. Olympic's keel was laid in December 1908 and she was launched on 20 October 1910.[4] For her launch, the hull was painted in a light grey colour for photographic purposes; a common practice of the day for the first ship in a new class, as it made the lines of the ship clearer in the black and white photographs. Her hull was repainted black following the launch.[3]

 

Features

 

The Grand Staircase of Olympic.

 

The Olympic was designed as a luxury ship; her passenger facilities, fittings, deck plans and technical facilities were largely identical to those of her more famous sister Titanic, although with some small variations.[14] The first-class passengers enjoyed luxurious cabins, and some were equipped with private bathrooms. First-class passengers could have meals in the ship's large and luxurious dining room or in the more intimate A La Carte Restaurant. There was a lavish Grand Staircase, built only for the Olympic-class ships, along with three elevators that ran behind the staircase down to E deck,[15] a Georgian-style smoking room, a Veranda Café decorated with palm trees,[16] a swimming pool, Turkish bath,[17] gymnasium,[18] and several other places for meals and entertainment.

 

The second-class facilities included a smoking room, a library, a spacious dining room, and an elevator.[3][19]

 

Finally, the third-class passengers enjoyed reasonable accommodation compared to other ships, if not up to the second and first classes. Instead of large dormitories offered by most ships of the time, the third-class passengers of the Olympic travelled in cabins containing two to ten bunks. Facilities for the third class included a smoking room, a common area, and a dining room.[3][19]

 

Olympic had a cleaner, sleeker look than other ships of the day: rather than fitting her with bulky exterior air vents, Harland and Wolff used smaller air vents with electric fans, with a "dummy" fourth funnel used for additional ventilation. For the power plant Harland and Wolff employed a combination of reciprocating engines with a centre low-pressure turbine, as opposed to the steam turbines used on Cunard's Lusitania and Mauretania.[20] White Star had successfully tested this engine set up on an earlier liner SS Laurentic, where it was found to be more economical than expansion engines or turbines alone. Olympic consumed 650 tons of coal per 24 hours with an average speed of 21.7 knots on her maiden voyage, compared to 1000 tons of coal per 24 hours for both the Lusitania and Mauretania.[21]

 

Although Olympic and Titanic were nearly identical, and were based on the same design, a few alterations were made to Titanic (and later on Britannic) based on experience gained from Olympic's first year in service. The most noticeable of these was that the forward half of the Titanic's A Deck promenade was enclosed by a steel screen with sliding windows, to provide additional shelter, whereas the Olympic's promenade deck remained open along its whole length. Also the promenades on the Titanic's B Deck were reduced in size, and the space used for additional cabins and public rooms, including two luxury suites with private promenades. A number of other variations existed between the two ships layouts and fittings. These differences meant that Titanic had a slightly higher gross tonnage of 46,328 tons, compared to Olympic's 45,324 tons.[22]

Olympic on her sea trials in Belfast in 1911

Career

 

Following completion, Olympic started her sea trials on 29 May 1911, which she successfully completed; Olympic then left Belfast bound for Liverpool, her port of registration, on 31 May 1911. As a publicity stunt the White Star Line deliberately timed the start of this first voyage to coincide with the launch of Titanic. After spending a day in Liverpool, open to the public, Olympic sailed to Southampton, where she arrived on 3 June, to be made ready for her maiden voyage.[23] The deep-water dock at Southampton, then known as the "White Star Dock" had been specially constructed to accommodate the new Olympic-class liners, and had opened in 1911.[24]

 

Her maiden voyage commenced on 14 June 1911 from Southampton, calling at Cherbourg and Queenstown, reaching New York on 21 June.[25] The maiden voyage was captained by Edward Smith who would lose his life the following year in the Titanic disaster.[26] Designer Thomas Andrews was present for the passage to New York and return, along with a number of engineers, as part of Harland and Wolff's "Guarantee Group" to spot any problems or areas for improvement. Andrews would also lose his life in the Titanic disaster.[27]

 

As the largest ship in the world, and the first in a new class of superliners. Olympic's maiden voyage attracted considerable worldwide attention from the press and public. Following her arrival in New York, Olympic was opened up to the public and received over 8,000 visitors. More than 10,000 spectators watched her depart from New York harbour, for her first return trip.[28]

Hawke collision

Photographs documenting the damage to the Olympic (left) and the Hawke (right) following their collision (alternate view)

 

Olympic's first major mishap occurred on her fifth voyage on 20 September 1911, when she collided with a British warship, HMS Hawke off the Isle of Wight. The collision took place as Olympic and Hawke were running parallel to each other through the Solent. As Olympic turned to starboard, the wide radius of her turn took the commander of the Hawke by surprise, and he was unable to take sufficient avoiding action.[29] The Hawke's bow, which had been designed to sink ships by ramming them, collided with Olympic's starboard side near the stern, tearing two large holes in Olympic's hull, below and above the waterline respectively, resulting in the flooding of two of her watertight compartments and a twisted propeller shaft. HMS Hawke suffered severe damage to her bow and nearly capsized. Despite this, Olympic was able to return to Southampton under her own power, and no-one was seriously injured or killed.[14][30]

 

Captain Edward Smith was still in command of Olympic at the time of the incident. One crew member, Violet Jessop, survived not only the collision with the Hawke but also the later sinking of Titanic and the 1916 sinking of Britannic, the third ship of the class.[31]

 

At the subsequent inquiry the Royal Navy blamed Olympic for the incident, alleging that her large displacement generated a suction that pulled Hawke into her side.[32][33] The Hawke incident was a financial disaster for Olympic's operator. A legal argument ensued which decided that the blame for the incident lay with Olympic, and although the ship was technically under the control of the pilot, the White Star Line was faced with large legal bills and the cost of repairing the ship, and keeping her out of revenue service made matters worse.[29] However, the fact that Olympic endured such a serious collision and stayed afloat, appeared to vindicate the design of the Olympic-class liners and reinforced their "unsinkable" reputation.[29]

Olympic (left) returning to Belfast for repairs in March 1912, and Titanic (right) This was the last time the two sister ships would be seen together

 

It took two weeks for the damage to Olympic to be patched up sufficiently to allow her to return to Belfast for permanent repairs, which took just over six weeks to complete. To speed up the repairs, Harland and Wolff was forced to delay Titanic's completion in order to use her propeller shaft for Olympic. By 29 November she was back in service, however in February 1912, Olympic suffered another setback when she lost a propeller blade on an eastbound voyage from New York, and once again returned to her builder for repairs. To get her back to service as soon as possible, Harland & Wolff again had to pull resources from Titanic, delaying her maiden voyage from 20 March 1912 to 10 April 1912.[34]

Titanic disaster

Main article: Sinking of the RMS Titanic

 

On 14 April 1912, Olympic, now under the command of Herbert James Haddock, was on a return trip from New York. Wireless operator Ernest James Moore[35] received the distress call from her sister Titanic, when she was approximately 500 nautical miles (930 km; 580 mi) west by south of Titanic's location.[36] Haddock calculated a new course, ordered the ship's engines to be set to full power and headed to assist in the rescue.[37]

 

When Olympic was about 100 nautical miles (190 km; 120 mi) away from Titanic's last known position, she received a message from Captain Rostron captain of Cunard Liner RMS Carpathia, explaining that continuing on course to Titanic would gain nothing, as "All boats accounted for. About 675 souls saved [...] Titanic foundered about 2.20 am."[36] Rostron requested that the message be forwarded to White Star and Cunard. He said that he was returning to harbour in New York.[36] Subsequently, the wireless room aboard the Olympic operated as a clearing room for radio messages.[36]

 

When Olympic offered to take on the survivors, she was heatedly turned down by an appalled Rostron, who was concerned that it would cause panic amongst the survivors of the disaster to see a virtual mirror-image of the Titanic appear and ask them to board. Olympic then resumed her voyage to Southampton, with all concerts cancelled as a mark of respect, arriving on 21 April.[3]

 

Over the next few months, Olympic assisted with both the American and British inquiries into the disaster. Deputations from both inquiries inspected Olympic's lifeboats, watertight doors and bulkheads and other equipment which were identical to those on Titanic.[38] Sea tests were performed for the British enquiry in May 1912, to establish how quickly the ship could turn two points at various speeds, to approximate how long it would have taken the Titanic to turn when it sighted the iceberg.[39]

1912 "mutiny"

 

Olympic, like Titanic, did not carry enough lifeboats for everyone on board, and was hurriedly equipped with additional, second-hand collapsible lifeboats following her return to Britain. Toward the end of April 1912, as she was about to sail from Southampton to New York, 284 of the ship's firemen went on strike because of fears that the ship's new collapsible lifeboats were not seaworthy. 100 non-union crew were hastily hired from Southampton as replacements, with more being hired from Liverpool.[40]

 

The 40 collapsible lifeboats were secondhand, having been transferred from troopships, and many were rotten and could not open. The crewmen instead sent a request to the Southampton manager of the White Star Line that the collapsible boats be replaced by wooden lifeboats; the manager replied that this was impossible and that the collapsible boats had been passed as seaworthy by a Board of Trade inspector. The men were not satisfied and ceased work in protest.[41]

 

On 25 April a deputation of strikers witnessed a test of four of the collapsible boats. Only one was unseaworthy and they said that they were prepared to recommend the men return to work if it was replaced. However the strikers now objected to the non-union strikebreaker crew which had come on board, and demanded that they be dismissed, which the White Star Line refused. 54 sailors then left the ship, objecting to the non-union crew who they claimed were unqualified and therefore dangerous, and refused to sail with them. This led to the scheduled sailing being cancelled.[40][42]

 

All 54 sailors were arrested on a charge of mutiny when they went ashore. On 4 May 1912 Portsmouth magistrates found the charges against the mutineers were proven, but discharged them without imprisonment or fine due to the special circumstances of the case.[43] Fearing that public opinion would be on the side of the strikers, the White Star Line let them return to work and the Olympic sailed on 15 May.[39]

Refit

Olympic as she appeared after her refit following the Titanic disaster, with a full complement of lifeboats

 

On 9 October 1912 White Star withdrew Olympic from service and returned her to her builders at Belfast to be refitted to incorporate lessons learned from the Titanic disaster 6 months prior, and improve safety.[44] The number of lifeboats carried by Olympic was increased from twenty to sixty four (per Carlisle's original number), and extra davits were installed along the boat deck to accommodate them. Also, an inner watertight skin was constructed in the boiler and engine rooms, to create a double hull. Five of the watertight bulkheads were extended up to B-Deck, extending to the entire height of the hull. This corrected a flaw in the original design, in which the bulkheads only rose up as far as E or D-Deck, a short distance above the waterline. This flaw had been exposed during Titanic's sinking, where water spilled over the top of the bulkheads as the ship sank and flooded subsequent compartments. In addition, an extra bulkhead was added to subdivide the electrical dynamo room, bringing the total number of watertight compartments to seventeen. Improvements were also made to the ship's pumping apparatus. These modifications meant that Olympic could survive a collision similar to that of Titanic, in that her first six compartments could be breached and the ship could remain afloat.[45][46]

 

At the same time, Olympic's B-Deck underwent a refit, which necessitated eliminating her B-Deck promenades – one of the few features that separated her from her sister ship. The refit included extra cabins (the parlour suites which proved popular on the Titanic were added to the Olympic), more cabins were fitted with private bathing facilities, and a Cafe Parisian (another addition that had proved popular on the Titanic) was added, offering another dining option to first class passengers. With these changes, Olympic's gross tonnage rose to 46,359 tons, 31 tons more than Titanic's.[47]

 

In March 1913, Olympic returned to service and briefly regained the title of largest ocean liner in the world, until the German liner SS Imperator entered passenger service in June 1913. Following her refit, Olympic was marketed as the "new" Olympic and her improved safety features were featured prominently in advertisements. [48][3]

World War I

 

In August 1914 World War I began. Olympic initially remained in commercial service under Captain Herbert James Haddock. As a wartime measure, Olympic was painted in a grey colour scheme, portholes were blocked, and lights on deck were turned off to make the ship less visible. The schedule was hastily altered to terminate at Liverpool rather than Southampton, and this was later altered again to Glasgow.[3][49]

 

The first few wartime voyages were packed with Americans trapped in Europe, eager to return home, although the eastbound journeys carried few passengers. By mid-October, bookings had fallen sharply as the threat from German U-boats became increasingly serious, and White Star Line decided to withdraw Olympic from commercial service. On 21 October 1914, she left New York for Glasgow on her last commercial voyage of the war, though carrying only 153 passengers.[50][49]

Audacious incident

 

On the sixth day of her voyage, 27 October, as the Olympic passed near Lough Swilly off the north coast of Ireland, she received distress signals from the battleship HMS Audacious, which had struck a mine off Tory Island and was taking on water.[51]

The crew of the stricken Audacious take to lifeboats to be rescued by Olympic

 

The Olympic took off 250 of the Audacious' crew, then the destroyer HMS Fury managed to attach a tow cable between Audacious and Olympic and they headed west for Lough Swilly. However, the cable parted after the Audacious' steering gear failed. A second attempt was made to tow the warship, but the cable became tangled in HMS Liverpool's propellers and was severed. A third attempt was tried but also failed when the cable gave way. By 17:00 the Audacious' quarterdeck was awash and it was decided to evacuate the remaining crew members to Olympic and Liverpool, and at 20:55 there was an explosion aboard the Audacious and she sank.[52]

 

Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, Commander of the Home Fleet, was anxious to suppress the news of the sinking of Audacious, for fear of the demoralising effect it could have on the British public, so ordered Olympic to be held in custody at Lough Swilly. No communications were permitted and passengers were not allowed to leave the ship. The only people departing her were the crew of the Audacious and Chief Surgeon John Beaumont, who was transferring to RMS Celtic. Steel tycoon Charles M. Schwab, who was travelling aboard the liner, sent word to Jellicoe that he had urgent business in London with the Admiralty, and Jellicoe agreed to release Schwab if he remained silent about the fate of Audacious. Finally, on 2 November, Olympic was allowed to go to Belfast where the passengers disembarked.[53]

HMT Olympic in dazzle camouflage while in service as a troopship during World War I

Naval service

 

Following Olympic's return to Britain, the White Star Line intended to lay her up in Belfast until the war was over, but in May 1915 she was requisitioned by the Admiralty, to be used as a troop transport, along with the Cunard liners Mauretania and Aquitania. The Admiralty had initially been reluctant to use large ocean liners as troop transports because of their vulnerability to enemy attack, however a shortage of ships gave them little choice. At the same time, Olympic's other sister ship Britannic, which had not yet been completed, was requisitioned as a hospital ship. In that role she would strike a mine and sink the following year.[54]

 

Stripped of her peacetime fittings, and armed with 12-pounders and 4.7-inch guns, Olympic was converted to a troopship, with the capacity to transport up to 6,000 troops. On 24 September 1915 the newly designated HMT (Hired Military Transport) 2810, now under the command of Bertram Fox Hayes left Liverpool carrying 6,000 soldiers to Mudros, Greece for the Gallipoli Campaign. On 1 October she sighted lifeboats from the French ship Provincia which had been sunk by a U-boat that morning off Cape Matapan and picked up 34 survivors. Hayes was heavily criticised for this action by the British Admiralty, who accused him of putting the ship in danger by stopping it in waters where enemy U-boats were active. The ship's speed was considered to be its best defence against U-boat attack, and such a large ship stopped would have made an unmissable target. However the French Vice-Admiral Louis Dartige du Fournet took a different view, and awarded Hayes with the Gold Medal of Honour. Olympic made several more trooping journeys to the Mediterranean until early 1916, when the Gallipoli Campaign was abandoned.[55]

Olympic in dazzle at Halifax, Nova Scotia painted by Arthur Lismer

 

In 1916, considerations were made to use Olympic to transport troops to India via the Cape of Good Hope. However on investigation it turned out she was unsuitable for this role, because her coal bunkers, which had been designed for transatlantic runs, lacked the capacity for such a long journey at a reasonable speed.[56] Instead, from 1916 to 1917, Olympic was chartered by the Canadian Government to transport troops from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Britain.[57] In 1917 she gained 6-inch guns and was painted with a "dazzle" camouflage scheme to make it more difficult for observers to estimate her speed and heading. Her dazzle colours were brown, dark blue, light blue, and white. Her many visits to Halifax Harbour carrying Canadian troops safely overseas, and back home after the war, made her a favourite symbol in the City of Halifax. Noted Group of Seven artist Arthur Lismer made several paintings of her in Halifax. A large dance hall, "Olympic Gardens" was also named in her honour. After the United States declared war on Germany in 1917, Olympic also transported thousands of U.S. troops to Britain.[58]

 

In the early hours of 12 May 1918, while en route for France with US troops under the command of Captain Hayes, Olympic sighted a surfaced U-boat 500 m (1,600 ft) ahead.[59] Her gunners opened fire at once, and she turned to ram the submarine, which immediately crash dived to 30 m (98 ft) and turned to a parallel course. Almost immediately afterwards Olympic struck the submarine just aft of her conning tower and her port propeller sliced through U-103's pressure hull. The crew of U-103 blew her ballast tanks, scuttled and abandoned the submarine. Olympic returned to Southampton with at least two hull plates dented and her prow twisted to one side, but not breached.[60]

 

Olympic did not stop to pick up survivors, but continued on to Cherbourg. The USS Davis sighted a distress flare and picked up 31 survivors from U-103. It was discovered that U-103 had been preparing to torpedo the Olympic when she was sighted, but the crew could not flood the two stern torpedo tubes.[61] For this service, Captain Hayes was awarded the DSO.[62] Some American soldiers on board paid for a plaque to be placed in one of Olympic's lounges to commemorate the event, it read:

 

This tablet presented by the 59th Regiment United States Infantry commemorates the sinking of the German submarine U103 by the Olympic on May 12th 1918 in latitude 49 degrees 16 minutes north longitude 4 degrees 51 minutes west on the voyage from New York to Southampton with American troops...[63]

 

During the war, Olympic is reported to have carried up to 201,000 troops and other personnel, burning 347,000 tons of coal and travelling about 184,000 miles.[64] Her impressive World War I service earned her the nickname Old Reliable.[65] Her captain was knighted in 1919 for "valuable services in connection with the transport of troops".[66]

Post-war

 

In August 1919 Olympic returned to Belfast for restoration to civilian service. Her interior was modernised and her boilers were converted to burn oil rather than coal. Oil was cheaper than coal, it lowered the refuelling time from days to hours, and allowed the engine room personnel to be reduced from 350 to 60 people.[67] During the conversion work and drydocking, a dent with a crack at the centre was discovered below her waterline which was later concluded to have been caused by a torpedo that had failed to detonate.[68]

Olympic at Southampton in 1929

 

Olympic emerged from her refit with an increased tonnage of 46,439, allowing her to retain her claim to the title of largest British built liner afloat, although the Cunard Line's Aquitania was slightly longer. In 1920 she returned to passenger service, on one voyage that year carrying 2,249 passengers.[69] Olympic transported a record 38,000 passengers during 1921, which proved to be the peak year of her career. From 1922 she was joined for an express service by Majestic and Homeric; two former German liners which had been ceded to Britain as war reparations, operating successfully until the Great Depression reduced demand after 1930.[70]

 

During the 1920s, Olympic remained a popular and fashionable ship, and often attracted the rich and famous of the day; Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks, and Prince Edward, then Prince of Wales, were among the celebrities that she carried.[71] Prince Edward and Captain Howarth were filmed on the bridge of the Olympic for Pathé News.[72] One of the attractions of the Olympic was the fact that she was nearly identical to the Titanic, and many passengers sailed on the Olympic as a way of vicariously experiencing the voyage of the Olympic's ill-fated sister ship.[73]

 

On 22 March 1924, Olympic was involved in another collision with a ship, this time at New York. As Olympic was reversing from her berth at New York harbour, her stern collided with the smaller liner Fort St George, which had crossed into her path. The collision caused extensive damage to the smaller ship. At first it appeared that Olympic had sustained only minor damage, but it was later revealed that her sternpost had been fractured, necessitating the replacement of her entire stern frame.[74]

 

Changes in immigration laws in the United States in the 1920s greatly restricted the number of immigrants allowed to enter. This led to a major reduction in the immigrant trade for the shipping lines, forcing them to cater to the tourist trade to survive.[3] At the turn of 1927–28, Olympic was converted to carry tourist third cabin passengers as well as first, second and third class.[75] Tourist third cabin was an attempt to attract travellers who desired comfort without the accompanying high ticket price. New public rooms were constructed for this class, although tourist third cabin and second class would merge to become 'tourist' by late 1931.

 

A year later, Olympic's first class cabins were again improved by adding more bathrooms, a dance floor was fitted in the enlarged first class dining saloon, and a number of new suites with private facilities were installed forward on B-deck.[76] More improvements would follow in a later refit, but 1929 saw Olympic's best average passenger lists since 1925.

 

On 18 November 1929, as the Olympic was travelling westbound near to Titanic's last known position, the ship suddenly started to vibrate violently, and the vibrations continued for two minutes. It was later determined that this had been caused by the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake.[77]

Last years

 

The shipping trade was badly affected by the Great Depression. Until 1930 there had generally been around one million passengers a year on the transatlantic route, but by 1934 this had dropped by more than half. Furthermore, by the early 1930s, increased competition emerged, in the form of a new generation of larger and faster liners such as Germany's SS Bremen and SS Europa, Italy's SS Rex and France's SS Île de France, and the remaining passengers tended to prefer the more up to date ships. Olympic had averaged around 1,000 passengers per journey until 1930, but this declined by more than half by 1932.[78]

 

Olympic's running mate Homeric was withdrawn from the transatlantic route as early as 1932, leaving only Olympic and Majestic maintaining White Star Line's Southampton-New York service, although this was occasionally augmented during the summer months by either the MV Britannic or MV Georgic. [79]

 

At the end of 1932, with passenger traffic in decline, Olympic went for an overhaul and refit that took four months. She returned to service in March 1933 described by her owners as "looking like new." Her engines were performing at their best and she repeatedly recorded speeds in excess of 23 knots, despite averaging less than that in regular transatlantic service. Passenger capacities were given as 618 first class, 447 tourist class and only 382 third class after the decline of the immigrant trade.[80]

 

Despite this, during 1933 and 1934, Olympic ran at a net operating loss for the first time. 1933 was Olympic's worst year of business – carrying just over 9,000 passengers in total.[81] Passenger numbers rose slightly in 1934, but many crossings still lost money.[79]

Olympic in 1934, passing the lightvessel she struck and sank a few months later

Lightship collision

 

In 1934, Olympic again struck a ship. The approaches to New York were marked by lightships and Olympic, like other liners, had been known to pass close by these vessels. On 15 May 1934, Olympic, inbound in heavy fog, was homing in on the radio beacon of Nantucket Lightship LV-117.[82] Now under the command of Captain John Binks, the ship failed to turn in time and sliced through the smaller vessel, which broke apart and sank.[83] Four of the lightship's crew went down with the vessel and seven were rescued, of whom three died of their injuries – thus there were seven fatalities out of a crew of eleven.[84] The lightship's surviving crew and the Olympic's captain were interviewed soon after reaching shore. One crewman said it all happened so quickly that they didn't know how it happened. The captain was very sorry it happened but said the Olympic reacted very quickly lowering boats to rescue the crew, which was confirmed by an injured crewman.[85]

Retirement

Olympic (left) and Mauretania laid up in Southampton prior to their scrapping.

 

In 1934, the White Star Line merged with the Cunard Line at the instigation of the British government, to form Cunard White Star.[86] This merger allowed funds to be granted for the completion of the future RMS Queen Mary and RMS Queen Elizabeth. When completed, these two new ships would handle Cunard White Star's transatlantic business, and so their fleet of older liners became redundant and were gradually retired.

 

Olympic was withdrawn from the transatlantic service, and left New York for the last time on 5 April 1935, returning to Britain to be laid up.[when?] Her new owners considered using her for summer cruises for a short while, but this idea was abandoned and she was put up for sale. Among the potential buyers was a syndicate who proposed to turn her into a floating hotel off the south coast of France, but this came to nothing.[87] After being laid up for five months alongside her former rival Mauretania, she was sold to Sir John Jarvis – Member of Parliament for £97,500, to be partially demolished at Jarrow to provide work for the depressed region.[88] Her superstructure was demolished in 1936, and in 1937, Olympic's hull was towed to Inverkeithing to T.W. Ward's yard for final demolition.[89]

 

By the time of her retirement, Olympic had completed 257 round trips across the Atlantic, transporting 430,000 passengers on her commercial voyages, travelling 1.8 million miles.[87][90]

Olympic artefacts

Fittings from the ship installed in the Olympic Suite at the White Swan Hotel, Alnwick

The marble fireplace from the Olympic now at the White Swan, Alnwick

 

The Olympic's fittings were auctioned off immediately before she was scrapped; some of her fittings, namely those of the first-class lounge and part of the aft grand staircase, can be found in the White Swan Hotel, in Alnwick, Northumberland, England. The rest of her fittings found homes in scattered places throughout Great Britain.[91]

 

In 2000, Celebrity Cruises purchased some of Olympic's original wooden panels to create the RMS Olympic restaurant on board their new cruise ship, Millennium. According to Celebrity Cruise Line, this wood panelling once lined Olympic's à la carte restaurant.[91]

 

The clock depicting "Honour and Glory Crowning Time" from Olympic's grand staircase is on display at Southampton's SeaCity Museum.[92][93]

I love when designers texture sexy shoes in sweet colors. There's just something about that combination! These hot heels are the Norma Pumps by G&D exclusively for the upcoming 21Shoe event.

 

Snakeskin-like texture with a gradient pastel rainbow, these shoes along with another style will be available for one price on the 21st. If you haven't already joined the 21Shoe inworld group, you're going to want to before month's end. A new exciting element has been added: group gifts! Right now it's free to join, and the first gift has been sent, however there will be a small joining fee starting April 1st.

 

Check out www.21shoe.net for all the details.

 

One of my favorite styles, this gorgeous hair called Windsong by Little Bones is at Uber. It's so delicate with the beaded and texture change headband. I'm wearing one of the lavender colors in the Hot Mess pack.

  

________________________________

 

Hair + Headband: Little Bones Windsong (@ Uber)

Hairbase: Just Magnetized

Skin + Appliers: EGOZY Vilda in Nougat (@ Skin Fair)

Body: Slink Physique Mesh Body V2.3.1

Eyes: adored bodyshop Siren Eyes in Coconut

Eyeliner: [XCW] Alexandra Eyeshadows 1

Lashes: Mon Cheri Falsies

Lips: EGOZY Anjali Lips in 18 Soft / Lotus

Earrings: Maxi Gossamer Electra Unicorn Horn

Nails: Beauty by Alaskametro

Hands: Slink Av Enhancement Hands V2 in Bag (L) and Flat (R)

Handbag: Jinis Designs Hobo Bag in Mint Green

Snack: Tentacio Friter (@ The Arcade)

Top: -tres blah- Angora Sweater in Yellow (@ Collabor88)

Skirt: Bueno Denim Skirt in Faded Grey (@ Collabor88)

Shoes: G&D Norma Pumps (coming soon for 21Shoe)

Feet: Slink Av Enhancement Feet High V2.1

Poses: ZZANG Delicious

Cupcake Wall Art: Willow Cupcake Signs (gacha @ Kawaii Project)

________________________________

( location landmarks/slurls available soon at my tumblr)

Bristol & West Country Bands - Music of the 60's

 

In the heady days of the early 1960’s, a time of massive change and innovation in the world of popular music. Fuelled by the excitement and electricity surrounding the new sounds of the time.

 

Merseybeat stars head down south - With the Merseyside inspired "Beat Boom" in full swing, the big stars in Bristol this week in 1963 had to be from up north.

 

Topping the bill at the Colston Hall were Billy J Kramer and the Dakotas who had just had a couple of massive hits with Do You Want to Know a Secret (No.2) - a Beatles' written ditty - and Bad to Me (No.1).

 

You certainly got your money's worth in those days. Also on the twice-nightly bill was Tommy Roe, an American who had shot up the charts with Sheila and the Folk Singer, plus a string of lesser acts. Tickets ranged from four shillings and sixpence to 10 shillings and sixpence (average wages were then about £10 a week).

 

The end of the month would see Freddie and the Dreamers, the Searchers and Brian Poole and the Tremeloes (who were riding high in the charts with Do You Love Me) invading the city. The Tremeloes had previously reached No.4 with that "oldie, but goodie" Twist and Shout - a raucous number recorded by the Beatles on their first album.

 

Topping the bill was Roy Orbison, who had just made the top 10 with In Dreams and Falling. His Blue Bayou would reach the No.3 spot on September 19. Top tickets, in the balcony, would set you back 12 shillings and sixpence.

 

In 1963, the smallish, local venues were still torn between promoting beat music or jazz. Local bands Johnny Slade and the Vikings plus Dean Prince and the Dukes were on stage at Clifton's Victoria Rooms, with the Chinese Jazz Club at the Corn Exchange booking the Alan Elsdon Jazz Band.

 

"Thomas Alstone", the man with his finger on the pulse, tells us that local instrumental band the Eagles (and stars of the Bristol-made film Some People) were about to try their hand at vocals as well.

 

The result, on the Pye label, was an updated version of the Helston floral dance called Come on Baby, to the Floral Dance. I don't think it made the charts. If you really wanted to know what was going on in the city in 1963 then the newly published Bristol Beat was the thing to read. Billed as "Young Bristol's entertainment paper", it cost six pence.

 

This magazine informed us that the best- selling single in the city was She Loves You by the Beatles. Runner-up was Billy J Kramer's Bad to Me. Other top sellers were Wishing by Buddy Holly and I'm Telling You Now by Freddie and the Dreamers.

 

If classical guitar was you thing then Julian Bream was playing at Stourhead gardens on the Sunday evening. The two guinea tickets included soup, cheese, French bread and a glass of wine.

 

Back in the city - the Centre to be precise - comedian Jimmy Edwards was getting astride a horse to promote his autumn spectacular at the Hippodrome. If none of this was your cup of tea then how about a trip to the movies to see some really big stars - a trio in fact.

 

At the ABC you could join the queue to see Marlon Brando, Trevor Howard and Richard Harris in Mutiny on the Bounty. And in September 1963, Bristol Zoo had its very own stars on show to the public - the only pair of white tigers in the world (outside India).

 

Bristolians were huge fans of Billy J Kramer and the Dakotas.

 

Recommended Link

 

bristolrock.net/c.aspx

 

www.bristolarchiverecords.com/people/people_Tony_Dodd.html

 

Johnny Carr and the Cadillacs

 

The original Bristol Comets and special guest star Sandra McCann. Formed in 1958 and playing Hamburg’s Kaiser Keller Club alongside The Beatles, Johnny Carr and the Cadillacs are the authentic sound of the ’60s. It was said that The Cadillacs were performing Twist and Shout, You’ll Never Walk Alone and Shoutlong before they became hits for The Beatles, Gerry and the Pacemakers and Lulu.

 

Formed in 1958. Lineup: Vocalist; Lead guitar; Rythm Guitar; Bass guitar; Drums Dave Purslow. For many years considered by most to be the most popular 'pop group' in Bristol. Every teenager knew of them. A very polished group fronted by the stong vocals of Johny Carr (Con Sullivan), they had a solid style and had that certain charisma that got them noticed. This was what took them to Hamburg's Kaiser Club and playing alongside The Beatles, Johnny Carr and the Cadillacs became the authentic Bristol sound of the 60s.

 

The Cadillacs were performing songs like Twist and Shout, Youll Never Walk Alone and Shout before they became hits for The Beatles, Gerry and the Pacemakers and Lulu. In the early 1960s the drummer was Dave Purslow, a very large gentleman. John rennie writes: Downend had a very popular R & R club which was every Wednesday I think. Knowle had serious Saturday evening dances at the community centre featuring top local groups. Speedwell TA hall had some big dances, one easter I remember starring Johnny kidd and the Pirates with Johnny Carr and the Cadillacs supporting. There was a memmorable local group R & R concert at the old Cabot cinema (before it closed down) in Filton along the same lines as the ones at the Colston hall. What about the rag week mersey versus avon beat shows at the Vic rooms in the early 60,s I hope this stirs some memories. Regards John Rennie.

 

See photo link below

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2050007986/

 

Chet And The Triumphs

 

This Bristol band once supported The Beatles at The Bath Pavilion in the early sixties. The drummer was Graham Nicholson, who lived in West Park Road, Downend. His practice sessions could often be heard when you passed by on the pavement outside. His father was an inspector on the buses, based at nearby Staple Hill Depot.

 

John Coldrick lived a few doors away, also in West Park Road. He often passed by when we children were playing in the street outside our house on the corner of West Park Road and North Street. He always had a cheery word for us and took it in good spirit when we called out cheeky things about teddy boys and suchlike. A thoroughly nice young man. Regards Fray Bentos

 

Email to the webmaster: Hi, just looked through your website,brilliant! i saw a picture of Johnny Coldrick, with his band The Triumphs. I knew john in the early 60s and would love to get in touch with him.can you help? Regards Paul Newman....would be good to hear from anyone with contact details.

 

Email to the webmaster: I have great memories of the Glen ballroom and the club next door called Cupids Bar. Also the bouncer at the door of the Glen being David Prouse (of Darth Vader fame)I often would have a quick dance with him which looked strange as I was barely five feet tall and he was probably at least six seven. I now live in Australia but have great memories of Bristol, which I return to on a regular basis. I was also married for nineteen years to a member of the rock band Chet & The Triumphs. Regards Pam and Gary O'keefe

 

See photo link below

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2975315707/

 

Fred Wedlock

 

Once described as a 'West Country Billy Connolly, although he probably came first', Bristolian singer and raconteur Fred Wedlock has been performing in folk clubs and concerts since the late 1960s. He was born in Bristol, England, on 23rd May 1942 and had various jobs, including being a teacher, before turning professional in the early 1970s. He is related to 'Fatty Wedlock of Bristol City FC fame. Fred had various albums on small labels issued in the 1970s, and became widely known early in 1981 when his single The Oldest Swinger In Town hit the UK charts, rising to no. 6. Unfortunately he has never maintained that success, but the song is almost guaranteed to be played at family gatherings such as wedding receptions, as the middle-aged uncles and aunts take to the floor to gyrate after a few drinks.

 

Acker Bilk

 

The chances are that if you were asked to name a clarinet player, the first name that would spring to mind is Acker Bilk. Somerset-born Acker became world famous in May 1962 when he became the first British artist to top the US pop music charts, paving the way for other acts from the UK, such as a then still unknown band who were to have a fair amount of success on both sides of the pond a year or so after Acker's trailblazing hit - The Beatles!

 

Acker's US chart-topper Stranger On The Shore had topped the British chart some six months earlier, following its use as the theme tune of the eponymous BBC children's TV series. The record, which would nowadays be described as easy listening, perhaps seems an unlikely double number one on both sides of the Atlantic, but in those pre-Beatle days the charts contained a fairly eclectic mixture of ballads, rock 'n' roll and Dixieland-style 'trad' (short for traditional) jazz.

 

See photo link below

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2080583036/in/se...

 

Pete Budd and the Rebels

 

Pete Budd and the Rebels Line up: Lead guitar/vocals, Rythym Guitar, Saxophone, Bass and Drums. Pete Budd, then apparently voted as the 'best guitarist in the West' (according to the local pop music magazine 'The Western Scene') succeeded Les Watts as the lead vocalist and guitarist. Ivor Newick played drums and there was also had a saxophinist.

 

'Somerset Born And Proud' Pete later replaced Reg Quantrill as the Wurzels' guitar and banjo player. One of the trio who continued after Adge Cutler's death, he was the only member of the 1970s Wurzels who actually comes from Somerset. His is the distinctive lead voice on all of their 1970s chart hits, including their number one smash Combine Harvester and the follow-up hits I Am A Cider Drinker, Farmer Bill's Cowman, etc. Pete is still with the band today, and therefore the second longest serving current Wurzel after Tommy Banner. Pete started out in the band Pete Budd and the Rebels and also made a few records in the 1960s in a band called The Rainbow People. Pete was running a pub/restaurant in the West Country for a while. A keen fisherman, Pete emigrated to Devon a while back. His voice has been heard in recent years singing on the TV commercials for Ambrosia Creamed Rice.

 

Adge Cutler

 

The original and indisputably the greatest Wurzel of all time, and the brains behind the whole concept. Born 1930 in Nailsea, north Somerset. Held a series of jobs before becoming a Wurzel, including working as road manager for famous clarinet player Acker Bilk (who is also from Zummerzet) and his Paramount Jazz Band, working in a cider mill (Coates of Nailsea), and working on building a power station in North Wales. Spent a year in Spain working as an agent looking for property. During his time there he grew to love the country and the Spanish way of life, as well as becoming fluent in Spanish. Formed the Wurzels in 1966 and continued to gig and record with the band until his career was sadly cut short by his untimely death in 1974, when he overturned his MGB sports car at a roundabout while driving himself home from a gig. Buried in Christchurch, Nailsea.

 

The Comets

 

One of Bristol's own first-generation rock 'n' roll bands the Comets they had supported such acts as Gene Vincent and Billy Fury. The Comets were almost certainly the first Bristol based band to make the enormous leap from Skiffle to amplified music, and thus paving the way for countless other local bands in the late fifties - early sixties.

 

A talent contest at the Glen Ballroom in 1958 in which the Sapphires, a vocal group, and the Comets were competing. Their sound blew everyone away that night. They not only sounded great, they looked great as well, dressed like quintessential rockers of that era.

 

In 1960 a unique show took place at The major concert venue in the city of Bristol, England....The Colston Hall. 2000 fans packed the place on December 16th to witness the best of the cities young Rock,n,roll bands & singers, even though not one of them had a recording contract, and some of the musicians were still in school ! Such was the popularity of local bands, when there was no such thing as a disco. let alone MTV, and when there was very little "pop music" on the then austere stiif upper lip Radio.

 

Andy Perrott (acoustic guitar and vocals) started out as half of the 'Antones' with Tony Sweet and has featured in several local rock'n'roll bands including the 'Echoes' and the legendary 'Bristol Comets'. Andy left the music business for a twenty year sabbatical but returned in 1984 as front man with the reformed 'Comets'.

 

Tony Dodd (electric guitar and vocals) started his career in music at about the same time, as guitarist for 'Mike Tobin and the Magnets'. Unlike Andy, Tony has been playing continually since those heady days with the Magnets, including a band in the USA where he lived for three years. Locally Tony held down a residency at the renowned 'Dug Out' club and his bands include 'Hugget' and 'Dodds Army', and he is now a member of the Bristol Comets'.

 

See photo link below

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2050007986/

 

The Eagles

 

The Eagles were formed by Terry Clarke www.terryclarke.com/ (lead guitar), Johnny Payne (rhythm guitar), Michael Brice (bass), and Rod Meacham (drums), all students at Connaught Road School in Bristol. Their name came from the youth organization, the Eagle House Youth Club, to which they all belonged. The quartet played local dances, parties, and bingo halls, performing during the intervals between the sessions at the latter, often for whatever was in the hat that was passed around.

 

The Eagles were a Bristol music quartet active from 1958 through the mid 1960s.

 

Led by guitarist Terry Clarke, who used a homebuilt custom instrument, the group included drummer Rod Meacham, bassist Michael Brice, and Johnny Payne on rhythm guitar. Playing primarily instrumental rock, they began their career in Bristol playing local venues such as dance halls.

 

They were launched into the world of professional music in 1962 upon being noticed by composer Ron Grainer, probably best remembered for his theme to Doctor Who. Grainer was interested in The Eagles for a film project he was working on, Some People, about a fictional Bristol band not unlike themselves. The Eagles contributed to the Some People soundtrack, and became Grainer's protegees, recording new versions of some of his film score work like the theme of the Maigret television series. The Some People soundtrack reached No.2 on the EP charts, and remained on the charts for a stay of 21 weeks.

 

The Eagles were awarded the Duke of Edinburgh Trophy for their work on the film, and soon after were signed to Pye Records, at the time among the top three labels in Britain. After releasing the singles 'Bristol Express' and 'Exodus', The Eagles embarked on a major tour of England along with more established acts Del Shannon, Stevie Wonder, Johnny Tillotson, and Dionne Warwick.

 

The tour world lasted much of 1963, during which their debut album, Smash Hits From The Eagles was released in the UK and the United States. The following year brought their most successful single and the one for which they are best remembered today, a vocal rendition of 'Wishin' And Hopin'' backed with 'Write Me A Letter'. Unfortunately, 1964 also brought a pair of tragedies which ultimately led to the end of the group: Grainer went blind, and Meachum suffered a nervous breakdown. Soon after, in late 1964, the band went their separate ways.

 

After The Eagles Clarke continued in the music business, with the band Pickettywitch and later as a session musician and solo artist, working with such artists as Michael Messer, Willie Nelson, Joe Ely, The Band, and Johnny Cash. He released nine solo albums between 1990 and 2006, on Transatlantic Records and various labels. Payne returned to Bristol and continued to play with local bands.

 

The Eagles' music is available on many compilations of the era, and in 1998 Sanctuary Records released a massive 61-track two-disc compilation set Smash Hits from The Eagles and The Kestrels, by far the most accessible overview of the Eagles' music today.

 

See photo link below

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2094324558/

 

Teach the world to sing - Rogers Cook and Greenaway

 

Britain's best ever song-writers hail from Bristol, well Fishponds/Kingswood namely Rogers Cook and Greenaway. They used to be David and Jonathan in the sixties, wrote 'If you like alot of chocolate on your biscuit join our club' and Cookie formed Blue Mink. Later he went to Nashville where he become the only Briton ever to be inducted into the Country Hall of Fame.

 

Bristol’s Rolling Stones

 

Mick and Keith, Brian and Bill and, of course, Charlie were already world-famous as the Rolling Stones, pop music’s favourite rebels, by the autumn of 1965. They’d just celebrated their biggest hit of all, ‘(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction’ when word came through that a Bristol band were claiming that they, not Jagger, Richards, Jones, Wyman and Watts, were the original Rolling Stones.

 

And it was all too true. Bristol’s Rolling Stones were the three Stone brothers who’d formed their own skiffle band at the height of the Lonnie Donegan era and played gigs like the Bristol Press Ball in 1957. Skiffle came from American blues music which often featured light travelling heroes described as rolling stones, so it was a good title.

 

The washboard group had changed their name to the Stone Brothers to avoid confusion when Mick, Keith and co. sprang to fame after taking their name from bluesman Muddy Waters’ classic ‘Rolling Stone’, but the matter still rankled. ‘We have no desire for the Jagger Stones to change their name. We only want to establish that the Bristol Stones are entitled to the name and were the first Rolling Stones,’ the group announced.

 

Top rock promoter/agent Tito Bums, then representing Mick, Keith and the rest chortled, ‘This would make a wonderful film.’ The Bristol Stones even consulted lawyers, but the matter ended quietly and amicably. . . and almost no one remembers the original Rolling Stones.

 

In the 1950s, Bill, his brother Ken and an unrelated Stone (Brian) formed a skiffle group. Their father was Moss Stone; not surprisingly, they called themselves The Rolling Stones. On the demise of the skiffle boom, they broadened their repertoire to include country and western . In 1965, there was a legal battle with the other 'Stones' which resulted in them being unable to continue with their name. A publicity leaflet for the Bristol Stones band at the time said 'Bill Stone plays a very fine banjo and can perform equally well Liszt's Liebestraum or Bye Bye Blues. Bill is a devotee of the great Eddie Peabody' (an American plectrum style player)

 

The Pigsty Hill Light Orchestra

 

The bands who put our city on the map THE Pigsty Hill Light Orchestra, so the story goes, first got together after Fred Wedlock's 1968 New Year party at Clifton's much lauded Troubadour Folk Club in Waterloo Street. The "Piggies" as they were affectionally known, derived their unusual name from a specific location up the Gloucester Road - the section that goes uphill from the old Bristol North swimming baths to the turning just before Horfield prison.

 

Composed of musicians from other local groups the band weren't in fact an orchestra at all but comparable to Viv Stanshall's Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band or the zany Temperance Seven. John Turner (yes, the radio presenter and newspaper columnist) came from the Downsiders, Barry Back and Andy Leggett from the Alligator Jug Thumpers and Dave Creech from the Elastic Band.

 

Their music, which has been described as 1920s jazz and blues, actually sounded more jug band. Unbelievable sounds emanated from a collection of hot water bottles, plumbing pipes and the like. With a good dose of comedy thrown in, it all seemed to go down well. A music paper even labelled the "Piggies" the band "most likely to succeed". Things were looking up. With the Plastic Dog agency handling their gigs, a well received album, PHLOP, was released in 1970 on the Village Thing label. This was the year that John Turner left to be replaced by bass player Wild Bill Cole.

 

The band's next album, Piggery Jokers, was recorded in Cornwall in 1973, had its distinctive cover put together by artist Rodney Matthews in a unique, self designed font. Now it was Barry Back's time to call it a day being replaced by Jon "Wash" Hays on washboard. Then Andy Leggett left, too. But the "Piggies" weren't ready to call it a day just yet. Dave Paskett, Richie Gould, Pat Small and Henry Davies, plus guitarists Chris Newman and Robert Greenfield came on board (plus, on occasion, a fine guitarist called Diz Disley who had tasted fame with folkie guitarist and singer Martin Carthy and legendary fiddler Dave Swarbrick).

 

All these musicians featured on the next album, imaginatively called The Pigsty Hill Light Orchestra, 1976. The music press were very kind. A Melody Maker hack wrote: "The Pigsty Hill Light Orchestra must be one of the most popular acts on the folk scene. Their spontaneous humour and good time songs have held many an audience anchored to the floor in wonder."

 

Three years later, despite a loyal following and much touring, the "Piggies" decided to throw in the towel. But still it wasn't the end. In 1988, the band reformed, by request, to play at Trowbridge's popular Village Pump Festival.

 

The gang were so well received and had so much fun that they decided to stay together, add Pat Small and singer Hannah Wedlock (Fred's daughter) to the line-up and go on tour again. Out of it came yet another album, Back On The Road Again. This was in 1991, the year Jim Reynolds and Dave Griffiths joined the band. The following year, Musical History, a compilation album consisting of a selection of tracks taken from 1968 to 1992, was released.

 

Barry Back, who had been the driving force behind the "Piggies" reunion, sadly died in 1992 and, shortly after, the band decided to pack up for good. Al Read, in his excellent book about the Granary Club, says that the band's first single on the Village Thing label, Shake That Thing/ Cut Across Shorty, can be bought for 47p.

 

The Retreads

 

One of the better bands was the Retreads, and were constantly booked to play most of the big venues, and played together with some of the bigger names of the time, Hollies, Searchers, Gene Vincent etc etc.

 

Jim Durcan, rythm guitar, Derek Martin lead guitar and Ron Chappell on bass guitar, John Watson on drums. The band was soon signed up for Germany and spent a couple of years working the clubs there and under the management of the Star Palast owner Manfred Woitala, but returning every so often to play the Bristol scene.

 

While in Germany Jim had an accident and left the band, returning to his hometown Dursley in Glos, in the lineup at that time was a brilliant German pianist Jerry B, (Barthold Dunker) who made a great hit with the fans when the band once more returned to Bristol and on a longer tour covering the whole of the south of England.

 

After years in Germany and a few gigs in Sweden the Retreads returned to Bristol where eventually the band broke up. ( late 1966 ) Ron and Derek stayed in England and John Watson decided to go back to Sweden.

 

The Corvettes by Dark Haloun

 

I joined the corvettes as lead guitarist after Dave Fahy and Ray Truscott left for richer rewards. Steve Thynne had taken over as singer and rhythm guitarist. Geoff Fothergill played bass and Dave " Bocker" Box was on drums. We played most of the halls round Bristol and the villages within a fifty mile radius. Didn't do much for my uni studies but it was fun.

 

Strictly a covers band, but weren't they all back then. Alan B Williams drove the van and acted as roadie. He was chronically late, and we always told him that we were starting an hour before we really were. Geoff tried to teach me to drive in his Morris Minor, though without much success. When Steve moved on we got Alan Dale in as singer and Mike Morley( I think, memory is not what it used to be) on rhythm guitar. We discovered that Alan could sing a strong falsetto and started to do three part harmonies: Beach boys, Four seasons. It was a point of difference given that there were so many bands doing the same stuff. I was transferred to London and left the band in the mid-sixties.

 

Kinda lost touch with the guys after that. In 1973 I moved to Perth in Western Australia with my Aussie wife. Played in several bands over the years. For the last four years I've played lead in a sequenced trio, still doing the old fifties and sixties stuff. At 75 years of age it gives me an interest and keeps me off the sreets. Sorry I have nether photos nor memorabilia of the band but the memories remain undiminished. Dark Haloun

 

Anyone out there name any more ?

 

Email bristolhistory@googlemail.com

 

Can you Help ?

 

Does anyone remember the Glen Ballroom, Locarno, Dug Out, The Granary Club, Town's Talk, Corn Exchange or any 1960s clubs or dance halls in Bristol?

 

The Glen

 

I've tried to find info & Pictures of it but no luck so far. We used to go ballroom dancing there back in the 60's. There was a club attached to it but you had to be 18 to get in, they played rock 'n'Roll their as apposed to the 'Proper' dancing in the ballroom.

 

Does anyone know if any of the Discs a gogo programmes were kept by the old TWW company.I would love to see us doing the Bristol Stomp again!

 

Anyone have any memories of the Mods & Rockers era and the coffee bars or the local West Coast Hells Angels in Bristol back to a time when British built motorcycles ruled the road ?

 

As a 51-year old Brisolian stuck in a 1960s timewarp, how many people recall the Monday night sessions between 1966 and 1968 at the then New Bristol Centre in the Locarno ballroom? (sadly now demolished) As I recall, this was THE place in Bristol at the time for 14-18-year-olds, with the entrance fee being 3s 6d for a session from 7pm to 10.30pm.

 

Records were provided via DJ (anyone recall names?) and there were two bars, The Bali Hai, where if you could stand tiptoe and lower your voice, you might get served with a half of cider by a waitress in a mock grass skirt!

 

Music was generally Top 30 stuff with a sprinkling of rarer Stax, Atlantic and Motown items which kept the Mods happy, and I am sure many a long-term relationship was started on the dance-floor.

 

Luckily, prior to demolition I was allowed in, and now am the proud owner of the Bali Hai mock Totem Poles which adorned the entrance to the bar, and also the sign from the Gents Stag Room - my partner thinks I'm crazy!

 

Chris Powell, Bradley Stoke

 

Danny Clarke and the Jaguars, Dean Prince and the Dukes, Jonny Slade and the Vikings, Mel Taylor and the Trek a beats, Dee Stars Predictions, A J and the others. The Road Runners.

 

The Quad. Mark Roman and the Javelins , Franklin big six, The Exiles, Mike Starr and the Citizens. The Blue Sound. The Lincolns, The Travellers The Concords The Ramrods. Dale Martin and the Mysteries. The Retreads The Strange Fruits The Burlington Berties. Venues the Vic rooms Carwadines Cool for cats (Yate) Bath pavilion the Corn Exchange the all nighter and all the church halls.

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/5165126654/

 

Mods and Rockers

 

Email from Chris Powell to me: I was a 17 year old Mod living in St George/ Hanham at the time (1968/9). Most of us rode Lambrettas or Vespas, and The Rockers (or Greasers as we called them) rode old Vincents or Triumphs.

 

Generally there wasn't any problems although it did kick off big time in the Summer of 1969 around the Centre- there were running battles for 2 or 3 nights and anyone on either a scooter or motorbike was considered "fair game"

 

A meeting was arranged on College Green between the Pascoe brothers (Willie and Angellino?) who were the "Ace Faces" in the Bristol Mod movement, and the leaders of the Rockers (names N/K)- there was the customary handshake and peace reigned thereafter. In all honesty, most of the "trouble" was built up by the media, as mainly Mods and Rockers were good friends. Indeed, I still have Lambrettas to this day and occaisionally meet Rockers of that era whilst out and about and chinwag over the good old days!

 

Main "Mod" places were- The Locarno; The Top Rank; The Never on a Sunday Cafe in Fairfax Street: Aunt Gemimas; Coke and Clobber; Beau Brummels on The Centre; The Weigh Inn (spelling) on College Green.

 

The Rockers used to hang out at The Starsreach Cafe in Staple Hill.

:: BJD WIGS REVIEW ::

 

NATURAL ANIMAL FIBERS VERSUS SYNTHETIC MOHAIR:

____

 

NOTE: see updated review here: www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/15986356772/

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Hi everyone,

 

I keep getting messages on my Flickr mail from people who want to know where do I buy my wigs. Usually they can’t decide between purchasing natural angora mohair wigs, Tibetan lambskin wigs, or synthetic mohair wigs, so they ask me what are the differences between them (since I own both kinds).

 

I just wrote a very long text in reply to a message that I just got, and thought I’d post it here in order to help some of you that may have the same questions:

 

_________________________________________________________________

 

• WIGS MADE OF NATURAL ANGORA MOHAIR GOAT LOCKS:

 

I have 2 angora mohair wigs, they are very beautiful, but they were veryyyyy expensive, and it’s very hard to find someone who makes them well enough.

If you ever decide to get an angora mohair wig - here's a piece of advice - don’t buy a hard cap glued wig - I got one and the hair keeps falling off, it’s a mess.

Sewn wigs are a much better option in my opinion - when made by the right person.

 

- SEWN WIGS:

 

if you ever decide to buy an angora mohair wig, I recommend getting it from FRAGILEDOLLS. In my opinion this Russian girl (who also makes porcelain dolls) is the best angora mohair wig maker out there:

 

www.facebook.com/pages/FragileDolls/277321945622679

 

For information requests and commissions, please send her an email to: fragiledolls.inquiries@gmail.com

 

You can also visit her website at www.fragiledolls.com

 

She made one especially for my soom idealian and it´s really beautiful, honestly one of the most beautiful wigs I ever got, you can’t beat the softness and realness of angora locks:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/9035776706/sizes/h/in/…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/8024877638/in/set-7215…

 

However, these kind of wigs are VERY expensive - I payed 100 USD for this wig (mohair suppliers charge about 70 USD only for the hair so it’s only natural the the wig maker will charge at least 100 in order to have some profit).

 

- IMPORTANT NOTE:

 

I recently found out about 100% natural mohair SEWN wigs from KEMPERDOLLS. Honestly I’m not sure what kind of mohair their wigs are made of (I’m inclined to believe that it’s Suri Aplaca, but it also looks a lot like Angora - only not as soft and shiny). I bought one of their wigs and was VERY happy and pleasantly surprised by the quality AND PRICE of their mohair wigs. For natural animal fiber wigs, their prices are extremely competitive and very very reasonable - in fact you can purchase one of their mohair wigs for the price of a regular modacrylic wig - which lets face it- is amazing. I do recommend their wigs if you like natural mohair wigs and you won’t find better prices.

Sure, wigs made of natural angora hair (when coming from young goats) are much softer, shiny and much more pleasant to the touch but the prices are 10x higher, so Kemperdolls is definitely a great option if you don’t plan to spend a lot of money. I also have to add that they shipped my order very fast (i got the package less than 2 weeks after ordering it - i live In Portugal, so that’s pretty fast)

 

Here are some photos of the wig I bought from them

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/12418985033/

 

fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/t31/159758…

 

- HARD CAP GLUED WIGS

 

- This is the hard cap glued wig that I got from a Spanish girl:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/8565626967/in/set-7215…

 

Despite the fact that it looks good on the photos, there are several issues with this wig that I really don’t like - one of them is that this wig will only fit the doll for which it was made for. Then if you lift a lock of hair, you can see the wig cap and looks terrible, glue everywhere, it’s kind of gross. The worse part is that the hair keeps falling off - it’s the kind of wig you only use to take photos, you should really avoid touching the hair, and don’t even think about brushing it or styling it.

If you still decide to purchase a custom made hard cap glued wig, I’ve read nice feedback about Eclipse21 (Olesya Kleymenova), however I never bought a wig from her so I can’t testify for the quality of her work myself, but others have:

 

www.denofangels.com/forums/showthread.php?268476-Feedback…

 

___

 

• NOTE: Besides the obscene prices, the con about angora mohair wigs is that if the hair has been hand dyed, every time you wash it, the color will fade a little bit more. Eventually it’ll fade away completely and it’s original color will show (usually white, or brown).

Every-time you wash it, you should be careful not to use the wig on your doll’s head while it’s still wet because like I said, the color bleeds with the washing and may stain your doll.

Angora mohair needs special care in order to stay healthy and shinny. Such as using human hair shampoo for dry hair, applying moisturizer and hair serum.Also, another thing that is a problem for me is that it is very hard to find very long angora mohair locks (most suppliers won’t grow the locks longer than 7 inches due to the goat’s welfare issues), and the longer the hair, the higher is the price.

• You can use straightening/curling Iron or blowdryer in angora mohair wigs (but be careful because like human hair, it may get burnt if the temperature is too hight. I recommend using a heat protector spray before styling the hair). Like human hair, if you wash it, the hair will get back to it’s natural shape.

• Whenever you wash your natural mohair wigs, always use COLD water. If you use hot water the color is more likely to bleed out. Also, using shampoo for dyed/chemically treated hair is advisable as well as using a good conditioner. You can also apply leave in conditioner or dry hair serum (the kind you use on split ends) to keep the hair soft and shiny. However be careful not to apply too much hair serum - products with oil/silicone in it’s composition may stain the resin.

 

_________________________________________________________________

 

• TIBETAN LAMBSKIN

 

Despite the fact that they are made of animal fiber, these wigs are way less expensive than Angora mohair wigs.

 

The first thing you need to know about this kind of wig is that most of them are made of lamb pelt (the hair is attached to the lamb’s skin that is used to make a wig cap). Obviously the lamb isn’t killed just for it’s hair - when a lamb goes for slaughter to provide meat, each part of the animal is used for profit, including the skin/hair.

However if you have issues with the fact that the hair is still attached to the skin, this probably isn’t the right kind of wig for you. Also, some people are allergic to this kind of material (remember, it’s animal fur)

 

One of the cons of tibetan lambskin wigs is that usually the wig caps are very loose, the wig maker won’t be able to assure that it would hold perfectly on your doll’s head even if you use a silicone wig cap underneath. Some wig makers sew an elastic to the wig cap so that it will hold better. Always check first if that is the case.

 

Tibetan lambskin fibers are very fluffy and frizzy and usually have a lot of volume - it’s perfect for some kinds of looks but if you like controlled, defined hair, this probably isn’t the right kind of wig for you. However it’s perfect for a wild look or an ethereal, elfic look.

 

Another thing you should know is that it’s not possible to find tibetan lambskin longer than 5 to 6 inches, so if you’re looking for a very long wig, this is not an option.

 

Like Angora mohair wigs, tibetan lambkin can be dyed, and in most cases, the color bleeds out with every wash - especially if the hair has been hand dyed.

 

It’s also possible to use heat on this kind of material (careful not to use very high temperatures)

 

• For this kind of wig I recommend BECKY ELIASON (chattybratty on Ebay).

 

For commissions here is her email:

 

BeckyEDesigns@Gmail.com

 

Here are the wigs she made for me:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/8255815797/sizes/l/in/…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/8104081438/sizes/o/in/…

 

_________________________________________________________________

 

• SYNTHETIC MOHAIR WIGS (from Monique)

 

Synthetic mohair wigs, in theory are pretty much the same as modacrylic wigs (it’s plastic) however synthetic mohair wigs are made of a very soft and thin japanese fiber called kanekolan, which really makes a lot of difference because they look much more natural than modacrylic wigs, the hair flows gracefully in the wind and it’s not stiff.

You can use human hair shampoo and conditioner to wash this kind of wigs. Unlike real mohair wigs, synthetic mohair won’t loose color every time you wash it and it won’t stain your doll. Another good think about synthetic mohair is that it’s very close in softness to real mohair but won’t cause allergies because it’s made of synthetic fibers, while some people are allergic to animal fur.

 

The thing you REALLY need to know about synthetic mohair wigs is that you CANNOT use direct heat to style them because these fibers are NOT heat resistant. if you use a straightening/curling iron or a blowdryer on this kind of hair, it will melt.

The only safe way to style synthetic mohair wigs is using hot water both to straighten the hair or add waves or curls. After styling the hair using hot water, the new style will be permanent, if you wash it, it won’t go back to it’s original form.

 

Since I found out about Monique’s synthetic mohair wigs I only purchase wigs from that brand.

 

In my opinion, the best Monique dealer is Marcia, from Facets by Marcia:

 

www.facetsbymarcia.com/wigshop.htm

 

This is her email if you have any questions about shipping fees to your country or would like to combine orders (she will send you a Paypal invoice):

 

applefrien@aol.com

 

I think that the photos from the website are very bad, so I recommend searching on Flickr for owner photos of the wig you want - that will give you a better idea of how the wig actually looks like.

 

On my flickr gallery you can find several photos of Synthetic mohair wigs from Monique:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/sets/72157627739919507/

 

Usually I always style them using the hot/cold water system in order to make them look the way I want. Sometimes I explain the process that I use in the description.

 

___

 

• For instructions on HOW TO STYLE SYNTHETIC MOHAIR please visit:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/9615943451/in/set-7215…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/12037358363/in/set-721…

 

___

 

Here are some photos of my synthetic mohair wigs:

 

• This is a PARIS wig in Ginger Brown color. initially it was very different, I changed the style:

 

fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/t31/160637…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/12109222246/

 

This is how the wig looked before I styled it:

 

fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/1502363_10…

__

 

This is a GINGER wig in Honey Ash Blonde color (I straightened the hair):

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/9641228986/sizes/o/in/…

 

This is the same wig but I added some light waves:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/10144874415

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/10657706446/in/set-721…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/9624605292/in/set-7215…

___

 

This is also a GINGER wig in Reddish Brown color (I straightened the fibers, then added waves):

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/12547148055/

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/12212132875/

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/10717206735/in/set-721…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/9692732541/in/set-7215…

_____

 

This is a PARIS wig in Carrot Red color ( I gave it a hair cut and added very light waving):

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/10501655254/in/set-721…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/10106423833/

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/10391269854/in/set-721…

 

This is the wig’s original style before I added waves:

 

fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/t31/126689...

_______

 

This is another GINGER wig in Golden Strawberry color (this time I just relaxed the curls a little bit, but didn’t change the wig’s original essence):

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/12684806334/

_________

 

This is a TAYLOR wig in Golden Glaze color (I also changed the style)

 

fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/1233053_10...

 

The original style of this wig looked like this:

 

fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/1264094_10...

 

fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/t31/127404...

_________

 

I also have a very curly synthetic mohair wig but It’s not as soft and if you are looking for something soft and flyaway like angora mohair wigs, I recommend getting something more straight or just wavy.

 

This a MALLORY wig in Double Red color:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/8154696652/in/set-7215…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/8600477584/in/set-7215…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/8024878310/in/set-7215…

_________

 

As you can see Synthetic mohair wigs are very thin and flyaway - the fibers flow gracefully in the wind like human hair does:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/10861097564/in/set-721…

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/9704062664/in/set-7215…

 

Sometimes I find it hard to tell how the hair colors actually look like just by looking at their color chart, so I took this picture of all my wigs from Monique. maybe it will help some of you to better understand how some of their colors really look like:

 

fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/t31/194132...

 

_________________________________________________________________

 

• MODACRYLIC WIGS:

 

I have to confess - I’m not a fan of modacrylic wigs - AT ALL.

I find them to be stiff and not as natural looking as the other materials I have refereed to in this review.

However, If you’re going to buy a modacrylic wig, I can recommend Peak’s Woods and Iplehouse’s wigs. From all the modacrylic wigs I have, their wigs are definitely the best. Although I must say that I don’t have many terms of comparison - I have bought modacrylic wigs from Leekeworld, Soom and from several Ebay stores but none was as good as the ones I have from Peak’s Woods or Iplehouse, and they were very stiff.

The pros about modacrylic wigs is that most of them are heat resistant and you can use hair iron of blowdryer in heat model to style them (you cannot do that with synthetic mohair as I explained above).

Anyway, I really don’t like this kind of material, the fibers are too thick for a doll scale and that shows on the photos. The part area is never as natural looking as animal or synthetic mohair wigs, the fibers are much stiffer and by far not as soft. Just doesn’t work for me. But hey, I know many people who like them so…

 

_________________________________________________________________

 

• FAUX FUR WIGS

 

I use these for boy dolls whenever I want to get a short manly hairstyle. However I always cut them in order to get a more modern look. It’s super easy to style them and and they are very versatile… you can use the hair up like in a mohawk, create a messed up bed head look or use it in a classic side part. You don’t even need to use any products because the hair is very easy to style. Plus, the prices for this kind of wigs are very accessible (around 10-13 USD). you can find them on Ebay, Etsy and other online stores.

 

- Here are some examples of my fur wigs:

 

fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/t31/189042...

 

- For instructions on how to style/cut faux fur wigs please visit:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/63744461@N05/12553559463/

 

_________________________________________________________________

 

CONCLUDING, for my taste I would rather purchase sewn Angora Mohair wigs all the time (when made by the right person) if they weren’t so expensive.

 

However, for the price/quality relation I believe that Monique’s synthetic mohair wigs are the next best thing and the closest you’ll ever get to the softness of natural angora goat locks.

 

Also, with the right styling it is possible to make synthetic mohair look quite a lot like angora mohair.

 

Here's a photo showing the texture difference between modacrylig, natural angora mohair and synthetic mohair:

fbcdn-sphotos-a-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/t31/192100...

  

There are all sorts of materials that I didn’t mention (such as vegetal fibers for example) because I don’t own any wigs made of materials other that the ones I wrote about, so I cannot form an objective opinion or give advice about them.

 

I’m sorry for such a longgggggggg review and hope that this information is helpful :)

 

Francisco Martins

www.behance.net/FrancMartins

www.martinsfrancisco.tumblr.com

www.xikomartins.wix.com/franciscomartins

www.facebook.com/FranciscoMartinsPhotography

www.facebook.com/franciscomartinsillustration

Title: A key into the language of America: or, An help to the language of the natives in that part of America, called New-England. : Together, with briefe observations of the customes, manners and worships, &c. of the aforesaid natives, in peace and warre, in life and death. On all which are added spirituall observations, generall and particular by the authour, of chiefe and speciall use (upon all occasions,) to all the English inhabiting those parts; yet pleasant and profitable to the view of all men:

Identifier: keyintolanguageo04will

Year: 1643 (1640s)

Authors: Williams, Roger, 1604?-1683 Indigenous Languages Digitization Project (John Carter Brown Library) RPJCB

Subjects: Indians of North America Indians of North America Indians of North America Indians of North America Narragansett Indians Narragansett Indians Narragansett language Indian linguistics Imprint 1643

Publisher: London : Printed by Gregory Dexter

  

View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book

 

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

  

Text Appearing Before Image:

afheare*Heave out the water*LMakgfaft the Bo*t9 T$e it faff. Tie it hard. Tfywthey got off.Thej ate gam already*, General! Obfervatlotis efthe Sea* How unfearchable are the depth of theWifedome and Power of God in feparatingfrom Europe, Afm and Africa fuch i mightievaft continent as Amerk® is ? and that for fo many Of Tijh and Fifi: n5 hmy ages ? as alfo, by fuch a Wefternc Ck*~an of about three thoufandof Engli/b milesbreadch in pafiage over ? More particular:They fee gods mnders that are caltd Through dreadful! Seas to pajfe,In tearing winds and roaring feas9 And calmes as fmooth at glajje*ihavetnEmopesfbips, oft been In King of terrors hand5When all havecrid, Now, now we finck* ret godbronghtfafe to land.Alone mongfi Indians in Canoes^ Sometime ore-turndt I have beenBalfe inch from deaths in Ocean deepe^ Gods wonders I have feene. Chap. Xi;x. Of Fifo and Fijbing. KjAmaus.-fuck. \FiJh,Fifies.1 Pauganaiit, tarn- C^which is the firftrwock. ^ J that comes a little be- fore the Spring.

 

Text Appearing After Image:

ii4 0StieSeil&i2 Quftnamaiig-fucfc, f Lamfrmt The firftthat com? m die Spring into the frefh Rivers.Aumsuog^Muana- j ^Ftjh pmmm Uk? * whatceaug* \ Herring. Mifsuckeke»kequock.e | Bafe. The Indiansfand the Emgltfb too) make a daintie difh ofthe Vfpdfp*ont*p9 0t head of ffaisFifh; 4ndwell they may, the brainesand fat of it be*ing very much* and iweet as inarrbw.Kaupofh* fl>auogv j Sturgeon* Obf. Divers part of the Countrey aboundwith this Fifh; yet the Natives for the good-neffe and greatneile of it, much prize it andwill neither furnilh the SngUfk with fo many^nor fo cheape, that any great trade is like tobe made of it, ttotfll tb? Englijh themfelvei arefit to follow the fifhing. \ , r\ The Natives venture one or two in a Ca-qtow»and with an harping Iron, orfuchlikeInftrument fticke this tifb, and fo hale it intotheir Canow; fometimes they take them bytheir netsi which they make ftrong of Hejnp.A&op* J Their Nets. Which they will fet thwart fome little River or Covewherein

  

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Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

1. "Do you know what it's about? Jealousy". No, Sir Anthony Steen, we're afraid, it isn't.

 

2. Maybe a decent moat to keep commoners out didn't seem such a bad idea to Douglas Hogg after he was chased down the street by a mob of reporters.

  

3. Sir John Butterfill simply didn't have time to dig out the figures on how much his servants' quarters cost the taxpayer before his big Newsnight interview.

 

4. Speaker Michael Martin berates the hapless Kate Hoey in front of the entire Commons, and of course, the nation...

 

5. ... which turned out to be less than wise when Mr Martin was forced to resign a few days later.

 

6. Salford's pocket rocket Hazel Blears brandishes THAT cheque in a desperate bid for survival.

 

7. In one of the expenses saga's most excruciating moments Andrew MacKay and one of his constituents have a difference of opinion in front of the cameras.

 

8. Justice minister Shahid Malik makes a strident defence of his claims for a home entertainment system just hours before announcing his resignation.

 

9. David Cameron names and shames the Tories who will be paying a visit to the fees office to hand back the thousands they claimed.

 

10. Presenters of Radio 4's Today Programme are expected to keep a straight face even in the face of the most ridiculous duck-related stories. Pity nobody told Evan Davis.

 

11. At number 11 in our list of top ten MPs' expenses moments - yes, we know that doesn't make sense - is Alan Duncan thinking on his fees - sorry, that should read 'feet' - when confronted in the street.

 

What TV or radio moment sums up the expenses scandal for you?

 

Share this article

 

www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/mps-expenses/5435376/...

 

Tom Thumb

said "I think its quite rum

that when I say I fancy Hazel Blears,

everyone jeers".

(acknowledgements to E C Bentley)

 

Clive

on July 11, 2009

at 04:35 PM

 

Did "that" cheque ever get cashed by the Inland revenue?

 

David

on July 05, 2009

at 10:57 PM

 

thankyou telegraph,

 

england needs another cromwell but i think it could be to late.

 

john tonking

on July 04, 2009

at 06:39 AM

 

I for one am jealous of the british people having a great newspaper like the Telegraph.

Can you send one of the reporters to do an 'expo' on the Vancouver Olympic scandal??

PLEASE! our local newspapers are 'owned' by the government. Something nobody can say about the Telegraph.cheers.

 

teresa

on June 24, 2009

at 08:29 AM

 

I don't think we will be seeing much more of the Salford Cabbage Patch doll,the fact that a few of her friends backed her,will not override the fact of New Labour polling less than 6% of the electorate,if that cannot be overturned in a general election,and those people who sat on their butts do so again,then there really is no hope.A vote against this rabble is much more valuable than not voting at all.

  

Mike J

on June 22, 2009

at 11:12 PM

 

that fact that hazel blears was let off the hook by her constituency party shows just how stupid they are. what does she have to do wrong to be thrown out if cheating the tax man means nothing to these people

 

barry chang

on June 22, 2009

at 06:01 PM

 

I thoroughly agree with the sentiment that ALL MPs who have been caught with their "hands in the till" should suffer the consequences and be prosecuted! However, as "we" have reimbursed the said politicians for the items they have purchased, using public money, the items in question belong to US!!! Therefore, the items should be returned to us and, maybe, we could distribut them to the needy of this country. If the MPs don't like it, they can purchase the items for themselves and the proceeds returned to the public purse!!!

 

Allan D Cox

on June 22, 2009

at 10:37 AM

 

Anybody who has been involved in the abuse of the expenses system should not have been allowed to stand as the Speaker.

 

Lorraine Smith

on June 22, 2009

at 08:51 AM

 

The video is really funny and I enjoyed watching it. All I can see is the funny side. It hides how furious I am that MPs who made these ridiculous expense claims couldn't see how crazy they where at the time of submission. I still can't help imagining that some MPs will feel "hard done by" and "misunderstood" by the general public and can't understandthe opinion of the general public. I think somewhere down the line they forgot who they serve. The question is can we trust them again to make decisions that effect real peoples lives.

 

Shame on the MPs involved I genuinely don't think they realise how much this event has changed politics for the worst.

 

Andy

on June 22, 2009

at 05:55 AM

 

Why do members of the public who owe the Inland Revenue tax have to not only repay the outstanding tax, but have the possibility of paying interest and also a penalty which can amount to doubling the bill. In addition, whereas the general public can be referrred to as long ago as 20 years, whereby the MP's are only going back four years.I believe that this could amount to discrimination

 

mike_gould@talktalk.net

on June 21, 2009

at 09:11 PM

 

Very well done Telegraph!!!

Don't think any more need be said !!!

 

George A.A. Horne

on June 21, 2009

at 06:20 PM

 

Every single M.P or Lord who has mis-claimed should be open for prosecution. If in ordinary life one was caught DEFRAUDING the government, one would be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. For example, evading taxes, claiming un-employment benefit whilst working, avoiding road tax, motor insurance & a host of other "crimes" the police would invade your home, harrass your family & generally act in a very aggresive way. Why should these people, who we have voted in, escape the punishment of the common man.

They should be above all such behaviour.

 

Nick Medhurst

Nicholas Medhurst

on June 21, 2009

at 06:06 PM

 

I feel that the more money people are paid, the more money they are able to extract.

 

In my early nursing days, a doctor was able to claim from the hospital accounts desk a tax-free 27.00 for every death certificate he signed. He didn't have to have been looking after that particular patient either.

 

This was called "Ash Cash".

 

I wonder what Ash Cash is nowadays? Nice monent

 

miss amaryllis

on June 21, 2009

at 06:06 PM

 

Telegraph

 

Many thanks for a job well done !

 

Sadly, I do not think it will be enough. Many of the culprits seem able to paper over the cracks and I fear that in 6 months it will just be business as usual.

 

R Preston

on June 21, 2009

at 04:57 PM

 

Please, please, please, now set your investigative journalists on to the waste and greed in the European Parliament. It might be a good idea to start with the Kinnocks.

 

Frank

on June 21, 2009

at 09:05 AM

 

Please folks, do not vote for ANY sitting M.P. at the next election. A complete change is what is needed. Maybe then they will all get the message that they are servants of us, the public, and accountable to us.

 

Frank

on June 21, 2009

at 09:04 AM

 

I believe the depth of this fraud upon the public to be much deeper than these dodgy expenses.

 

The salaries should be all they're entitled to, if they really want to serve and do well then it can never be about how much the job is worth. We need representatives not selected by some shadowy committee, nor hand picked from the university draft of political studies.

 

I'm just fed up with the delays in the police getting involved. Now that they cannot ignore the evidence I reckon there will be no charges, therefore no justice; no change there then.

 

robert

on June 21, 2009

at 06:31 AM

 

Patricia Hewitt is standing down at the next election "in order to spend more time with her family"

 

Two days ago it was announced that she would become the senior none executive director of BT after BTs agm on 15 July 2009.

 

The senior none excutive director usually chairs the renummeration committee.

 

Oh to be on the BT board of directors....please

 

DJMer

on June 20, 2009

at 10:04 PM

 

Now it's time for the prosecutions!!!

 

Charlie Stone

on June 20, 2009

at 03:21 PM

 

I have been following closely the Parliamentary Expenses Scandal that you have so diligently exposed since your first front page article in The Daily Telegraph several weeks ago.

 

I would like to thank you for the thorough and impartial way in which you have conducted this public campaign, bringing to the attention of the voters in this country the scandalous way in which our MPs have been milking an ill- regulated and indulgent system of provision of compensation for expenses.

 

In also now exposing how even the publication of expenses ( redacted!!!) confirmed the venality of many of those who are supposed to be representing us, you make it clear that the public has got to continue to be vigilant, and to press for the same rules to apply to MPs as apply to the rest of the population in terms of taxation and expenses.

 

You show us the value of a free press, and the need to maintain the rights of reporters not to have to expose their sources.

 

Norma Brewer

on June 20, 2009

at 09:01 AM

 

Good on the Telegraph for such fantastic work. Could the whole lot of them, MP's and possibly Lords too now by the looks of things, resign en-masse please.

 

You'd like to think the prisons would be overflowing with MP's and Bankers awaiting their day in court....but alas they aren't and probably won't

 

What a shame the ordinary hard working folk of this country have been so betrayed and let down by those who have, historically, been held in high esteem for so long.

 

Well if nothing else - that's all changed and that can't be a bad thing.

 

A disgraceful example for our kids but a good lesson learnt.

 

Peter Matthews

on June 20, 2009

at 08:00 AM

 

I have noticed that the women involved in stand downs from the goverment have used the excuse that parlimentary work does not fit into family life and they want to spend more time with thair families, are they saying to other would be female polititians that this is not a job for women with a family?

 

Mr J C Adams

on June 20, 2009

at 06:19 AM

 

Make this a 1 hour show and get the political swine to answer the questions not like the BBC or other broadcaster who let the swine off the hook.

 

Great show looking forward to the rest.

 

Glenn

on June 19, 2009

at 10:42 PM

 

WE HAD THE RUMP . THE LONG AND NOW THE FIDDLERS PARLIAMENT. THANK YOU TELEGRAPH FOR LETTING US KNOW HOW OUR HONOURABLE MEMBERS ACT WHILST RUNNING OUR COUNTRY FOR THERE BENEFIT ONLY

 

LWA LUCAS

on June 19, 2009

at 08:51 PM

 

personally i will never trust our government again, just a set of greedy fat cats lining their own pockets while people struggle to make ends meet,its outrageous to think that my taxes as well as everyone elses in britain have been squandered on nothing that will help this country, truly disgraceful they should be on fraud charges, if it were average joe out there spending other peoples money on whatever they fancy they would be locked up by now!

 

Gary C

on June 19, 2009

at 05:22 PM

 

personally i will never trust our government again, just a set of greedy fat cats lining their own pockets while people struggle to make ends meet,its outrageous to think that my taxes as well as everyone elses in britain have been squandered on nothing that will help this country, truly disgraceful they should be on fraud charges, if it were average joe out there spending other peoples money on whatever they fancy they would be locked up by now!

 

What a dodgy bunch of self-serving shysters.We deserve better.If anyone there thinks that this expenses scandal is only a British thing,please watch this on You Tube 'MEPs expenses scandal." And pass it on.

 

Peter Appleby

on June 19, 2009

at 02:31 PM

 

Bless the Daily Telegraph, these exposures have just proved to me why we need a press and not just a news service.

Now - aside from the expenses, I thought that tax evasion (flipping houses to avoid capital gains) was simply a criminal offence. So lets not hear any more talk of lack of evidence, its in the public domain, lets have a prosecution (or two).

 

Bill Harmer

on June 19, 2009

at 12:08 PM

 

I wonder what the 'Applicable Amount' is for Housing Benefit in these areas? I live in Manchester. Single parent= 2 bed flat = 109 per week maximum rent allowance.

First and only home. All beings are born equal and should be treated equally before they die equal

 

Helen

on June 19, 2009

at 10:30 AM

 

Ihave tried to come up with the most relevant description of the current MPs expenses"racket" for that what it is.

Who was it who taght lads to pick pocket skillfuly.

The nations benefit people especially the cheats and scroungers will feel quite justified after the "flipping" behavior of the so called public representatives.

It is a Fagins Den.

 

Shame on them ..compounded by the cover up of censorship.

 

Thank heaven or Freedom of the Press and the Daily Telegraph.

Even Gordon Brown and David Cameron were "at it".

 

Robet Kennedy

on June 19, 2009

at 09:29 AM

 

People must realise that MP's & Politicians are like Nappies...

They need changing from time to time and for the same reason !!!

 

Tom Clode

on June 19, 2009

at 09:18 AM

 

I assume there is some department or office that receives and checks these claims or do they just hand over any amount that is requested? There must be guidelines against which the claims were checked - or were they? I know an Englishman's home is his castle but cleaning the moat? Good grief! That claim should have jumped off the paper had hit the civil servants in the eye! Many of the claims are outrageous but there is also the question of how they got to be approved for payment.

 

Paul

on June 19, 2009

at 08:33 AM

 

'Let them eat cake'.

 

Michael Kennedy

on June 19, 2009

at 06:37 AM

 

i have just retired i worked all my life from 15 apart from 8 years when i had my children i have paid all my dues and demands but if i had done what any of this lot had i would be in prison on a fraud charge and made to pay it back are they a law unto themselves i am thoroughly disgusted

 

christine travis

on June 18, 2009

at 09:55 PM

 

Surely that should read "why is it that so many people lack the ability to spell correctly..." Oh, and nobody likes a Pedant...

 

Andrew Grimes

on June 18, 2009

at 09:13 PM

 

We don't hear much about the two IRA politicians who don't attend parliament at all.

I understand they still draw their salary. Are they also drawing their parliamentary as well.

 

Derek Duly

on June 18, 2009

at 07:29 PM

·

Will O the Wisp

 

Will Brown stumble?

 

Will he fall?

 

Will he reform politics?

 

Will he save us all?

 

Will the Labour daggers sink into his back?

 

Will he hire Sir Alan for gumptions that he lacks?

 

Will he have the ire to nick Sir Alans, Fired!

 

Will this SOAP continue until the end of year?

 

Will its blooming likely and something we should fear

 

Boom, Boom

  

Bob

on June 05, 2009

at 09:03 AM

 

I have just been fined 3500:00 for errors amounting to 7,000 in the last five years by the Inland Revenue.

 

The fines were for for lunches, sundrie items and the like.

 

I did not get the choice to appeal, they wanted their money and slapped a hefty fine on top.

 

What is the interest rate for this I wonder??

 

I also wonder if our glorious MP's will be fined for their false accounting and other errors, or are they above the law of the land.

 

Bill Whyte

on June 04, 2009

at 03:44 PM

 

Whilst accepting that the Daily Express is a Tory supporting newspaper I cannot help but notice that there is a biase regarding the blame for the MP's expenses row.

 

I agree we should be looking at Tony Blairs expenses but what about those of the previous Government before New Labour came to power. We need to know who we can trust out of all of the party's.

 

The last thing we need at present is another general election without knowing all of the details otherwise we will get another cabinet full of dishonest and maniplitive MP's.

 

After all the shadow cabinet do not come out of this covered in glory, David Cameron has issues regarding his expenses.

 

Come on get real what this country needs is an honest government that looks after the poorer people of this country at the expense of the richer, not as we have had for years the rich getting richer whilst the poor get poorer.

 

Roger David Newman

on June 04, 2009

at 11:15 AM

 

All of her shortcomings (pun intended) have been aired and her Nuevo -elitist attitude is plain to see but I feel her and her he-mail colleagues Smith et al real crime is that they were given a leg up with affirmative action and wimmin only lists and the like to bring balance and to represent the other half of the UK population to wit the ladies.

 

Did they do it, no they didnt.

 

Did they line up to give those awful single mothers as good a kicking as the male members.

 

Did they bring improvements into the areas you would expect an empathic, good women to have a special interest in, housing, education, welfare, childcare, did they buggery.

 

Instead they lorded around with that arrogant swagger and sickening look on their faces.

 

That my friend is the face of Feminism and the Fabians and even with make up on its dammed ugly.

 

Ken the POM

on June 04, 2009

at 06:56 AM

 

Blears walks away with a smile on her face, remains in employment and no doubt remains financially secure.

 

Do we or will we ever know how much she/they have claimed "mistakenly" during their "reign" in politics.

 

WILL SHE/THEY ever be prosecuted to the full extent of the law or be dismissed with a slap on the wrist ( oops, of course not, that would be considered as "grievious bodily harm"

 

Sue Hatliff

on June 03, 2009

at 08:30 PM

 

Your section on MP's expenses

 

"The moments we'll never forget"

Can you forward the titles of the sound track that accompanies it.

Many thanks.

 

Bob Crabtree

on June 03, 2009

at 07:12 PM

 

I have a question-there is a law proposed and carried by the 'members' that anyone who causes racial hatred should have the full weight of the law brought to bear upon them. Surely

 

the INVASION of Iraq has done that very thing, why are we not asking for the implementation of that law?

 

A.Howes

on June 03, 2009

at 06:28 PM

 

To Henry and Danny

 

Ode to be so precise

Oh to be so very nice

You only focus on the dots and commas

Whilst MPs frolic with no morals

Well, its really pretty petty

But please correct my spelling,

Un-necessary

 

Bob

on June 03, 2009

at 05:28 PM

 

I believe that the MPs have behaved disgracefully,and it takes ones breath away to hear them saying they have done nothing wrong,however they choose to interpret the expenses rules, conscience alone,if they had one, would not allow the disgusting use of expenses that they have sunk to.

 

Also the rot has been in place for a long time and why are not the Blairs being scrutinised for they were most blatant in their total greed for anything they could squeeze out of the system.

 

SHEILA THOMPSON

on June 03, 2009

at 04:16 PM

 

James Kirkup ably describes a worrying and uncertain situation, but the country's economic recovery comes first.

 

We should accept the fact the elections tomorrow will be very difficult, that's a given, and it would show initiative and leadership to announce the composition of the new cabinet as early as Friday.

 

Perhaps it would not be effective or appropriate to alter all three positions of Home Secretary, Chancellor and Foreign Secretary at one time.

 

Margaret Bowker

on June 03, 2009

at 04:16 PM

 

Danny Sapiano's comment is absolutely spot on. Why do so few people have the ability to spell correctly, let alone write coherently with the correct use of grammar? If you are too idle to contribute in a literate fashion, don't bother.

 

Henry Keswick

on June 03, 2009

at 02:47 PM

 

In the 1970's MP's received a salary but no pension.

 

The salary was not excessive in relation to the average wage of the day.

 

They could also claim expenses incurred inthe course of their duties.

 

Not getting re-elected was part of the job.

 

Today not only do they get a salary which is three times the average wage but they have voted themselves an expenses system which gives opportunity to 'milk the system' for their own benefit, they have a better pension than any other citizen and now if they fail to get elected they have voted themselves an unbelievable severance pay.

 

Is this like feathering your own nest?

 

Colin Paddon

on June 03, 2009

at 02:36 PM

 

Not only are we paying 400 a month for their food they don't have to submit receipts. As an O.A.P I'd love to spend 100 aweek on mars bars. crisps, spicy sausage and other non-essentials. I also resnt having to pay for their families travel expenses.

 

kat

on June 03, 2009

at 02:36 PM

 

A Westminster Ditty

 

There once was a House of MPs

And terribly grand you could see

All the fat cats in hilarious vignettes

Made out they were poor, do you see?

 

Along came The Telegraph,

With words and some photographs

And al-legations of sleaze,

 

So these poor old MPs

All fell to their knees,

To plead and plead and plead,

Dont sack us they said

Promote us instead

Its all been a terrible mistake

 

Were not blinking fools

And we stuck to our rules

Even though we wriggled like snakes

 

And so my dear reader,

Dont vote for them ever

Next time the election arises,

We need honest MPs

Not asses like these,

And without the expense sheet surprises!

 

Boom, Boom

 

Bob

on June 03, 2009

at 09:18 AM

 

it is one section of our trusted society after another,it seem's that the working class,the people who roll there sleeves up and work hard for there living,have been targeted by the greedy trusted minority,in the space of one year,I have seen a life time of hard work by my wife and myself lost,(without any compensation or golden handshake)and we have to watch these people,all of a sudden paying back money,hand over fist,(need they need it then in the first place)it beggers belief,they should be sacked,not polietly resign in order to extract even more money from the ever decreasing workin man

 

colin fletcher

on June 03, 2009

at 08:11 AM

 

I just hope these scroungers would be made to pay everything they owe with full interest, just like we have to the demands of the inland revenue.

 

Also why not go back to the past years eg 5-10 years?

 

Hope you'd publish the Lords' expenses too: this will certainly reveal quite a few 'mysteries', not excluding the remaining lord of Blackburn!

 

S khan

on June 03, 2009

at 06:51 AM

 

What never ceases to amaze me is how so many morons(for that's what they are if they can't fill in a simple form like the rest of us do for tax etc) managed to get themselves elected?,it also appears that to qualify as being a moron,politics don't matter!

 

Geoff Crimes

on June 03, 2009

at 12:00 AM

 

The challenge for our elected representatives is by entering government, they are suddenly propelled from modest environs into a world where they are surrounded by Heads of State and Captains of Industry of unparelled riches (think of the Hamilton's and El Fayed).

 

Their every foreign trip involves rubbing shoulders with individuals literally dripping with gold.

 

The Blairs were not the first to be seduced by this different world, and once entering this Narnia and sampling its delights, its not easy to go back to the hair shirt local consituency.

 

Mandleson cannot wait to get into the Foreign Secretary chair so he can join the international jet set. It comes as no surprise that our MP's were so easily tempted by the trappings of other peoples success, that they sought to mirror this by effectively stealing from the public.

 

Ethics were quickly forgotten and laws changed to excuse the fraud.

 

I blame Tony and Cherie Blair , who more than any other serving politician and consort, changed the role from selfless public servant to self serving Head of State.

 

It was their example of chiselling greed that set the tone for the current administration and which encouraged followers from all parties to drink from the same well.

 

I am delighted that the lying Jacqui Smith has gone - but she should be facing criminal charges along with her conniving husband.

 

Roddy

on June 02, 2009

at 05:52 PM

 

I can barely think of the right words to express my despair and shame after reading the comments above. Have we, as a nation, allowed our standards to fall so low that foreigners now have a better command of the English language than ourselves?

 

The grammar, spelling and punctuation on this page make the MP's expenses scandal look almost trivial in comparison.

 

Please get a grip.

 

Danny Sapiano

on June 02, 2009

at 12:58 PM

 

This is not new....it's just New Labour.Never did we have people in government more vulgarly greedy for luxury than the Blairs and their "Ites".The truth is that they didn't give a damn for their electors.They were sold to foreign governments and did what they were told to do by those foreign governments....and then reaped the material rewards.

 

The fact that the corruption and distortion of public life and democratic processes which this caused did not concern them in the least.

 

Thet had done "THE RIGHT THING TO DO". This is a phrase which will haunt us forever.One can only hope that it will lead us to take more seriously and examine more carefully the decisions of those who lead us (even into evil wars of aggression) while bleating that they know "the right thing to do"

 

THEY DON'T.If they had,then we wouldn't be witnessing this appalling and shameful spectacle of the results of their doings: the worst recession in over half a century:our young men and our innocent victims in Iraq and Afghanistan stlii dying;and the horribly shameful sight of British politicians behaving like vulgar money-grubbing corrupt third world dictators.

 

A Macmillan

on June 02, 2009

at 12:01 PM

 

You forget Eric Pickles on Question Time explaining that the lot of an MP is so hard and generous allowances are needed because the place runs "like clockwork" and you have to turn up on time.

 

Like a normal job then as Dimblebee helpfully pointed out.

 

Will

on June 02, 2009

at 11:48 AM

 

Hear, hear Steve -

 

Such an apt Cromwell quote re the Long Parliment, but who is there to take Cromwell's place to-day?

 

The whole nation!

 

This text should be printed on the front page of every newspaper in the land

 

jwd

on June 02, 2009

at 08:19 AM

 

What a beutiful reflection of the British hiearchy at it its finest...conniving, greedy and talking from both sides of their mouths.

 

These are the same people with their high ideals that concocted the war in Iraq and called Saddam a liar.

 

What a bunch of shameless twits.

 

Not one deserves to be in the public service for they are not there for any service except what is good for their own pockets

 

mashoud

on June 02, 2009

at 06:17 AM

 

will somebody,anybody please explain we are paying up to 400 a month for mp's food?

 

crasterman

on June 01, 2009

at 11:50 PM

 

Is it true that the evidence of Tony Blair's expenses were shredded, by accident?

 

Brian Gargate

on June 01, 2009

at 08:03 PM

 

Just make them pay back all they have taken, they should not be able to resign and take their ill gotten gains with them. Their pensions should be reduced and they should be made to go now with a byelection.

 

g.doman

on June 01, 2009

at 05:34 PM

 

I have written to my MP, Robert Walter, querying various aspects of his Summary of Expenses.

 

He seems reluctant to reply and now I've heard the story about his Indian carpets and snacks from Morrisons, I can understand why.

 

David

on June 01, 2009

at 04:17 PM

 

Jacqui Smith and the separate one of her husband 'apologising' for his porn films.

 

John Green

on June 01, 2009

at 03:33 PM

 

How about the MP who claimed for the 5 he put into the collection at a church service?

 

But how much has the Fees Office contributed to this scandal? Should they not have been keeping some sort of control? Are they to blame for letting all this happen?

 

Ian - Chester

on June 01, 2009

at 03:29 PM

 

"Jim Fitzpatrick: as an MP in the capital, claims the London supplement rather than the additional costs allowance for second homes. Has claimed the maximum for past eight years " - ANOTHER WORKING-CLASS HERO ?

 

Michael Freeman, E1

on June 01, 2009

at 03:14 PM

 

I'm reminded of the words of Oliver Cromwell who said:

 

Oliver Cromwell's Speech on the Dissolution of the Long Parliament

Given to the House of Commons

 

20 April 1653

 

It is high time for me to put an end to your sitting in this place, which you have dishonoured by your contempt of all virtue, and defiled by your practice of every vice;

 

Ye are a factious crew, and enemies to all good government;

 

Ye are a pack of mercenary wretches, and would like Esau sell your country for a mess of pottage, and like Judas betray your God for a few pieces of money.

 

Is there a single virtue now remaining amongst you?

 

Is there one vice you do not possess?

 

Ye have no more religion than my horse; gold is your God; which of you have not barter'd your conscience for bribes?

 

Is there a man amongst you that has the least care for the good of the Commonwealth?

 

Ye sordid prostitutes have you not defil'd this sacred place, and turn'd the Lord's temple into a den of thieves, by your immoral principles and wicked practices?

 

Ye are grown intolerably odious to the whole nation; you were deputed here by the people to get grievances redress'd, are yourselves gone!

 

So! Take away that shining bauble there, and lock up the doors.

 

In the name of God, go!

 

Times don't change huh?

 

Steve

on June 01, 2009

at 02:00 PM

 

I will shortly be receiving a pension rise,as I will be 80.

 

That rise is 25 pence!

 

These cheats must be required to go at once without any payout,as is usual in industry.They have proved themselves unfit for the job

 

joyce foulger

on June 01, 2009

at 01:49 PM

 

When will the police or the revenue be looking into this?

 

Or is it that the superior politicians and civil service have threatened them to layoff?

If it was any of us we would have been held guilty unless proven innocent.

 

griff

on June 01, 2009

at 01:44 PM

 

It is shameful that our armed forces are virtually forgotten and struggling in Afghanistan with insufficient resources yet most of our MP's seem to be preoccupied with filling their own pockets at the expense of the common man as they refer to us all.

 

Richard Stainthorp

on June 01, 2009

at 01:09 PM

 

I am concerned about the way you are reporting this.

 

Although I can read between the lines and see why some MPs are being shown up but how do we make sure that the others are held accountable in the future, at election time, WHEN IT COUNTS! I don't trust those that have said they will stand down, will they, in a years time when you media types move on to your next bone.

 

And how can we make sure that the rest understand that this behaviour is wrong, not the latest headline, not the current hit out at prominent people, it is wrong.

 

And by the way, Who is watching you media types, particularly your owners and their family members working in your offices. Don't tell me you're doing this out of the goodness of your hearts!!

 

Bruce Nelson

on June 01, 2009

at 12:56 PM

 

It's time for them all to go,what they cost the taxpayer every year and what they actually do doesn't add up.

 

We need another form of managing the country, shouldn't be too difficult to work out, a budget of let's say, one million should cover it, tops. All good things come to an end my daddy used to say.

 

Kenneth McMullan.

on June 01, 2009

at 12:33 PM

 

As a long time Expat I have alway's held the UK Parlimentary System in the highest esteem , Now I'm uterly ashamed off my birthright.

 

Les DeVine - Portugal

on June 01, 2009

at 12:26 PM

 

I'd like to see the video of Jacqui Smith (my sisters back bedroom is my main home so my family can all their living costs paid by the taxpayer).

 

In my view certainly one of the top sinners.

 

M Hartmann

on June 01, 2009

at 11:52 AM

 

I was not surprised at the revelations of MP expenses.

 

Britain has become a greed and selfish Nation

 

Bankers

Credit Card Companies

Credit Card users

et al

 

so why should the MP s be any different. What I find galling is their list of lame excuses especially " I made and error"

 

The House of Commns should be re labelled the House of Errors.

 

If they cant get their expenses rightthen why should we believe that can get anything else right.

 

Like the way they behaved sheep like for Mr Blair when it came to the Iraq invasion.

 

The Nation should be ashamed of our MPs and the MPs should be thoroughly ashamed of themselves.

 

One MP said he was far too busy to monitor his expenses but was paid thousands to run his office administration. Pah!!

 

Denis Findlay

on June 01, 2009

at 11:07 AM

 

# www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/mps-expenses/5435376/...

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Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Cod

 

Cape Cod

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about the area of Massachusetts. For other uses, see Cape Cod (disambiguation).

For other uses, see Cod (disambiguation).

 

Coordinates: 41°41′20″N 70°17′49″W / 41.68889°N 70.29694°W / 41.68889; -70.29694

Map of Massachusetts, with Cape Cod (Barnstable County) indicated in red

Dunes on Sandy Neck are part of the Cape's barrier beach which helps to prevent erosion

 

Cape Cod, often referred to locally as simply the Cape, is an island and a cape in the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. It is coextensive with Barnstable County. Several small islands right off Cape Cod, including Monomoy Island, Monomoscoy Island, Popponesset Island, and Seconsett Island, are also in Barnstable County, being part of municipalities with land on the Cape. The Cape's small-town character and large beachfront attract heavy tourism during the summer months.

 

Cape Cod was formed as the terminal moraine of a glacier, resulting in a peninsula in the Atlantic Ocean. In 1914, the Cape Cod Canal was cut through the base or isthmus of the peninsula, forming an island. The Cape Cod Commission refers to the resultant landmass as an island; as does the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in regards to disaster preparedness.[1] It is still identified as a peninsula by geographers, who do not change landform designations based on man-made canal construction.[citation needed]

 

Unofficially, it is one of the biggest barrier islands in the world, shielding much of the Massachusetts coastline from North Atlantic storm waves. This protection helps to erode the Cape shoreline at the expense of cliffs, while protecting towns from Fairhaven to Marshfield.

 

Road vehicles from the mainland cross over the Cape Cod Canal via the Sagamore Bridge and the Bourne Bridge. The two bridges are parallel, with the Bourne Bridge located slightly farther southwest. In addition, the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge carries railway freight as well as tourist passenger services.

Contents

[hide]

 

* 1 Geography and political divisions

o 1.1 "Upper" and "Lower"

* 2 Geology

* 3 Climate

* 4 Native population

* 5 History

* 6 Lighthouses of Cape Cod

* 7 Transportation

o 7.1 Bus

o 7.2 Rail

o 7.3 Taxi

* 8 Tourism

* 9 Sport fishing

* 10 Sports

* 11 Education

* 12 Islands off Cape Cod

* 13 See also

* 14 References

o 14.1 Notes

o 14.2 Sources

o 14.3 Further reading

* 15 External links

 

[edit] Geography and political divisions

Towns of Barnstable County

historical map of 1890

 

The highest elevation on Cape Cod is 306 feet (93 m), at the top of Pine Hill, in the Bourne portion of the Massachusetts Military Reservation. The lowest point is sea level.

 

The body of water located between Cape Cod and the mainland, bordered to the north by Massachusetts Bay, is Cape Cod Bay; west of Cape Cod is Buzzards Bay. The Cape Cod Canal, completed in 1916, connects Buzzards Bay to Cape Cod Bay; it shortened the trade route between New York and Boston by 62 miles.[2] To the south of Cape Cod lie Nantucket Sound; Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, both large islands, and the mostly privately owned Elizabeth Islands.

 

Cape Cod incorporates all of Barnstable County, which comprises 15 towns: Bourne, Sandwich, Falmouth, and Mashpee, Barnstable, Yarmouth, Dennis, Harwich, Brewster, Chatham, Orleans, Eastham, Wellfleet, Truro, and Provincetown. Two of the county's fifteen towns (Bourne and Sandwich) include land on the mainland side of the Cape Cod Canal. The towns of Plymouth and Wareham, in adjacent Plymouth County, are sometimes considered to be part of Cape Cod but are not located on the island.

 

In the 17th century the designation Cape Cod applied only to the tip of the peninsula, essentially present-day Provincetown. Over the ensuing decades, the name came to mean all the land east of the Manomet and Scussett rivers - essentially the line of the 20th century Cape Cod Canal. Now, the complete towns of Bourne and Sandwich are widely considered to incorporate the full perimeter of Cape Cod, even though small parts of these towns are located on the west side of the canal. The canal divides the largest part of the peninsula from the mainland and the resultant landmass is sometimes referred to as an island.[3][4] Additionally some "Cape Codders" – residents of "The Cape" – refer to all land on the mainland side of the canal as "off-Cape."

 

For most of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, Cape Cod was considered to consist of three sections:

 

* The Upper Cape is the part of Cape Cod closest to the mainland, comprising the towns of Bourne, Sandwich, Falmouth, and Mashpee. Falmouth is the home of the famous Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and several other research organizations, and is also the most-used ferry connection to Martha's Vineyard. Falmouth is composed of several separate villages, including East Falmouth, Falmouth Village, Hatchville, North Falmouth, Teaticket, Waquoit, West Falmouth, and Woods Hole, as well as several smaller hamlets that are incorporated into their larger neighbors (e.g., Davisville, Falmouth Heights, Quissett, Sippewissett, and others).[5]

 

* The Mid-Cape includes the towns of Barnstable, Yarmouth and Dennis. The Mid-Cape area features many beautiful beaches, including warm-water beaches along Nantucket Sound, e.g., Kalmus Beach in Hyannis, which gets its name from one of the inventors of Technicolor, Herbert Kalmus. This popular windsurfing destination was bequeathed to the town of Barnstable by Dr. Kalmus on condition that it not be developed, possibly one of the first instances of open-space preservation in the US. The Mid-Cape is also the commercial and industrial center of the region. There are seven villages in Barnstable, including Barnstable Village, Centerville, Cotuit, Hyannis, Marstons Mills, Osterville, and West Barnstable, as well as several smaller hamlets that are incorporated into their larger neighbors (e.g., Craigville, Cummaquid, Hyannisport, Santuit, Wianno, and others).[6] There are three villages in Yarmouth: South Yarmouth, West Yarmouth and Yarmouthport. There are five villages in Dennis including, Dennis Village(North Dennis), East Dennis, West Dennis, South Dennis and Dennisport.[7]

 

* The Lower Cape traditionally included all of the rest of the Cape,or the towns of Harwich, Brewster, Chatham, Orleans, Eastham, Wellfleet, Truro, and Provincetown. This area includes the Cape Cod National Seashore, a national park comprising much of the outer Cape, including the entire east-facing coast, and is home to some of the most popular beaches in America, such as Coast Guard Beach and Nauset Light Beach in Eastham. Stephen Leatherman, aka "Dr. Beach", named Coast Guard Beach the 5th best beach in America for 2007.[8]

 

[edit] "Upper" and "Lower"

 

The terms "Upper" and "Lower" as applied to the Cape have nothing to do with north and south. Instead, they derive from maritime convention at the time when the principal means of transportation involved watercraft, and the prevailing westerly winds meant that a boat with sails traveling northeast in Cape Cod Bay would have the wind at its back and thus be going downwind, while a craft sailing southwest would be going against the wind, or upwind.[9] Similarly, on nearby Martha's Vineyard, "Up Island" still is the western section and "Down Island" is to the east, and in Maine, "Down East" is similarly defined by the winds and currents.

 

Over time, the reasons for the traditional nomenclature became unfamiliar and their meaning obscure. Late in the 1900s, new arrivals began calling towns from Eastham to Provincetown the "Outer Cape", yet another geographic descriptor which is still in use, as is the "Inner Cape."

[edit] Geology

Cape Cod and Cape Cod Bay from space.[10]

 

East of America, there stands in the open Atlantic the last fragment of an ancient and vanished land. Worn by the breakers and the rains, and disintegrated by the wind, it still stands bold.

Henry Beston, The Outermost House

 

Cape Cod forms a continuous archipelagic region with a thin line of islands stretching toward New York, historically known by naturalists as the Outer Lands. This continuity is due to the fact that the islands and Cape are all terminal glacial moraines laid down some 16,000 to 20,000 years ago.

 

Most of Cape Cod's geological history involves the advance and retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet in the late Pleistocene geological era and the subsequent changes in sea level. Using radiocarbon dating techniques, researchers have determined that around 23,000 years ago, the ice sheet reached its maximum southward advance over North America, and then started to retreat. Many "kettle ponds" — clear, cold lakes — were formed and remain on Cape Cod as a result of the receding glacier. By about 18,000 years ago, the ice sheet had retreated past Cape Cod. By roughly 15,000 years ago, it had retreated past southern New England. When so much of Earth's water was locked up in massive ice sheets, the sea level was lower. Truro's bayside beaches used to be a petrified forest, before it became a beach.

 

As the ice began to melt, the sea began to rise. Initially, sea level rose quickly, about 15 meters (50 ft) per 1,000 years, but then the rate declined. On Cape Cod, sea level rose roughly 3 meters (11 ft) per millennium between 6,000 and 2,000 years ago. After that, it continued to rise at about 1 meter (3 ft) per millennium. By 6,000 years ago, the sea level was high enough to start eroding the glacial deposits that the vanished continental ice sheet had left on Cape Cod. The water transported the eroded deposits north and south along the outer Cape's shoreline. Those reworked sediments that moved north went to the tip of Cape Cod.

 

Provincetown Spit, at the northern end of the Cape, consists largely of marine deposits, transported from farther up the shore. Sediments that moved south created the islands and shoals of Monomoy. So while other parts of the Cape have dwindled from the action of the waves, these parts of the Cape have grown.

Cape Cod National Seashore

 

This process continues today. Due to their position jutting out into the Atlantic Ocean, the Cape and islands are subject to massive coastal erosion. Geologists say that, due to erosion, the Cape will be completely submerged by the sea in thousands of years.[11] This erosion causes the washout of beaches and the destruction of the barrier islands; for example, the ocean broke through the barrier island at Chatham during Hurricane Bob in 1991, allowing waves and storm surges to hit the coast with no obstruction. Consequently, the sediment and sand from the beaches is being washed away and deposited elsewhere. While this destroys land in some places, it creates land elsewhere, most noticeably in marshes where sediment is deposited by waters running through them.

[edit] Climate

 

Although Cape Cod's weather[12] is typically more moderate than inland locations, there have been occasions where Cape Cod has dealt with the brunt of extreme weather situations (such as the Blizzard of 1954 and Hurricane of 1938). Because of the influence of the Atlantic Ocean, temperatures are typically a few degrees cooler in the summer and a few degrees warmer in the winter. A common misconception is that the climate is influenced largely by the warm Gulf Stream current, however that current turns eastward off the coast of Virginia and the waters off the Cape are more influenced by the cold Canadian Labrador Current. As a result, the ocean temperature rarely gets above 65 °F (18 °C), except along the shallow west coast of the Upper Cape.

 

The Cape's climate is also notorious for a delayed spring season, being surrounded by an ocean which is still cold from the winter; however, it is also known for an exceptionally mild fall season (Indian summer), thanks to the ocean remaining warm from the summer. The highest temperature ever recorded on Cape Cod was 104 °F (40 °C) in Provincetown[13], and the lowest temperature ever was −12 °F (−24.4 °C) in Barnstable.[14]

 

The water surrounding Cape Cod moderates winter temperatures enough to extend the USDA hardiness zone 7a to its northernmost limit in eastern North America.[15] Even though zone 7a (annual low = 0–5 degrees Fahrenheit) signifies no sub-zero temperatures annually, there have been several instances of temperatures reaching a few degrees below zero across the Cape (although it is rare, usually 1–5 times a year, typically depending on locale, sometimes not at all). Consequently, many plant species typically found in more southerly latitudes grow there, including Camellias, Ilex opaca, Magnolia grandiflora and Albizia julibrissin.

 

Precipitation on Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket is the lowest in the New England region, averaging slightly less than 40 inches (1,000 mm) a year (most parts of New England average 42–46 inches). This is due to storm systems which move across western areas, building up in mountainous regions, and dissipating before reaching the coast where the land has leveled out. The region does not experience a greater number of sunny days however, as the number of cloudy days is the same as inland locales, in addition to increased fog. Snowfall is annual, but a lot less common than the rest of Massachusetts. On average, 30 inches of snow, which is a foot less than Boston, falls in an average winter. Snow is usually light, and comes in squalls on cold days. Storms that bring blizzard conditions and snow emergencies to the mainland, bring devastating ice storms or just heavy rains more frequently than large snow storms.

[hide]Climate data for Cape Cod

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 2.06

(35.7) 2.5

(36.5) 6.22

(43.2) 11.72

(53.1) 16.94

(62.5) 23.5

(74.3) 26.39

(79.5) 26.67

(80.0) 25.06

(77.1) 18.39

(65.1) 12.56

(54.6) 5.44

(41.8) 26.67

(80.0)

Average low °C (°F) -5.33

(22.4) -5

(23.0) -1.33

(29.6) 2.72

(36.9) 8.72

(47.7) 14.61

(58.3) 19.22

(66.6) 20.28

(68.5) 15.56

(60.0) 9.94

(49.9) 3.94

(39.1) -2.22

(28.0) -5.33

(22.4)

Precipitation mm (inches) 98

(3.86) 75.4

(2.97) 95

(3.74) 92.5

(3.64) 83.6

(3.29) 76.7

(3.02) 62.2

(2.45) 65

(2.56) 74.7

(2.94) 84.8

(3.34) 90.7

(3.57) 92.7

(3.65) 990.9

(39.01)

Source: World Meteorological Organisation (United Nations) [16]

[edit] Native population

 

Cape Cod has been the home of the Wampanoag tribe of Native American people for many centuries. They survived off the sea and were accomplished farmers. They understood the principles of sustainable forest management, and were known to light controlled fires to keep the underbrush in check. They helped the Pilgrims, who arrived in the fall of 1620, survive at their new Plymouth Colony. At the time, the dominant group was the Kakopee, known for their abilities at fishing. They were the first Native Americans to use large casting nets. Early colonial settlers recorded that the Kakopee numbered nearly 7,000.

 

Shortly after the Pilgrims arrived, the chief of the Kakopee, Mogauhok, attempted to make a treaty limiting colonial settlements. The effort failed after he succumbed to smallpox in 1625. Infectious diseases such as smallpox, measles and influenza caused the deaths of many other Kakopee and Wampanoag. They had no natural immunity to Eurasian diseases by then endemic among the English and other Europeans. Today, the only reminder of the Kakopee is a small public recreation area in Barnstable named for them. A historic marker notes the burial site of Mogauhok near Truro, although the location is conjecture.

 

While contractors were digging test wells in the eastern Massachusetts Military Reservation area, they discovered an archeological find.[citation needed] Excavation revealed the remains of a Kakopee village in Forestdale, a location in Sandwich. Researchers found a totem with a painted image of Mogauhok, portrayed in his chief's cape and brooch. The totem was discovered on property on Grand Oak Road. It is the first evidence other than colonial accounts of his role as an important Kakopee leader.

 

The Indians lost their lands through continued purchase and expropriation by the English colonists. The documentary Natives of the Narrowland (1993), narrated by actress Julie Harris, shows the history of the Wampanoag people through Cape Cod archaeological sites.

 

In 1974, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Council was formed to articulate the concerns of those with Native American ancestry. They petitioned the federal government in 1975 and again in 1990 for official recognition of the Mashpee Wampanoag as a tribe. In May 2007, the Wampanoag tribe was finally federally recognized as a tribe.[17]

[edit] History

Cranberry picking in 1906

 

Cape Cod was a landmark for early explorers. It may have been the "Promontory of Vinland" mentioned by the Norse voyagers (985-1025). Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 approached it from the south. He named Martha's Vineyard Claudia, after the mother of the King of France.[18] The next year the explorer Esteban Gómez called it Cape St. James.

 

In 1602 Bartholomew Gosnold named it Cape Cod, the surviving term and the ninth oldest English place-name in the U.S.[19] Samuel de Champlain charted its sand-silted harbors in 1606 and Henry Hudson landed there in 1609. Captain John Smith noted it on his map of 1614 and at last the Pilgrims entered the "Cape Harbor" and – contrary to the popular myth of Plymouth Rock – made their first landing near present-day Provincetown on November 11, 1620. Nearby, in what is now Eastham, they had their first encounter with Native Americans.

 

Cape Cod was among the first places settled by the English in North America. Aside from Barnstable (1639), Sandwich (1637) and Yarmouth (1639), the Cape's fifteen towns developed slowly. The final town to be established on the Cape was Bourne in 1884.[20] Provincetown was a group of huts until the 18th century. A channel from Massachusetts Bay to Buzzards Bay is shown on Southack's map of 1717. The present Cape Cod Canal was slowly developed from 1870 to 1914. The Federal government purchased it in 1928.

 

Thanks to early colonial settlement and intensive land use, by the time Henry Thoreau saw Cape Cod during his four visits over 1849 to 1857[21], its vegetation was depauperate and trees were scarce. As the settlers heated by fires, and it took 10 to 20 cords (40 to 80 m³) of wood to heat a home, they cleared most of Cape Cod of timber early on. They planted familiar crops, but these were unsuited to Cape Cod's thin, glacially derived soils. For instance, much of Eastham was planted to wheat. The settlers practiced burning of woodlands to release nutrients into the soil. Improper and intensive farming led to erosion and the loss of topsoil. Farmers grazed their cattle on the grassy dunes of coastal Massachusetts, only to watch "in horror as the denuded sands `walked' over richer lands, burying cultivated fields and fences." Dunes on the outer Cape became more common and many harbors filled in with eroded soils.[22]

 

By 1800, most of Cape Cod's firewood had to be transported by boat from Maine. The paucity of vegetation was worsened by the raising of merino sheep that reached its peak in New England around 1840. The early industrial revolution, which occurred through much of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, mostly bypassed Cape Cod due to a lack of significant water power in the area. As a result, and also because of its geographic position, the Cape developed as a large fishing and whaling center. After 1860 and the opening of the American West, farmers abandoned agriculture on the Cape. By 1950 forests had recovered to an extent not seen since the 18th century.

 

Cape Cod became a summer haven for city dwellers beginning at the end of the 19th century. Improved rail transportation made the towns of the Upper Cape, such as Bourne and Falmouth, accessible to Bostonians. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Northeastern mercantile elite built many large, shingled "cottages" along Buzzards Bay. The relaxed summer environment offered by Cape Cod was highlighted by writers including Joseph C. Lincoln, who published novels and countless short stories about Cape Cod folks in popular magazines such as the Saturday Evening Post and the Delineator.

 

Guglielmo Marconi made the first transatlantic wireless transmission originating in the United States from Cape Cod, at Wellfleet. The beach from which he transmitted has since been called Marconi Beach. In 1914 he opened the maritime wireless station WCC in Chatham. It supported the communications of Amelia Earhart, Howard Hughes, Admiral Byrd, and the Hindenburg. Marconi chose Chatham due to its vantage point on the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded on three sides by water. Walter Cronkite narrated a 17-minute documentary in 2005 about the history of the Chatham Station.

 

Much of the East-facing Atlantic seacoast of Cape Cod consists of wide, sandy beaches. In 1961, a significant portion of this coastline, already slated for housing subdivisions, was made a part of the Cape Cod National Seashore by President John F. Kennedy. It was protected from private development and preserved for public use. Large portions are open to the public, including the Marconi Site in Wellfleet. This is a park encompassing the site of the first two-way transoceanic radio transmission from the United States. (Theodore Roosevelt used Marconi's equipment for this transmission).

 

The Kennedy Compound in Hyannisport was President Kennedy's summer White House during his presidency. The Kennedy family continues to maintain residences on the compound. Other notable residents of Cape Cod have included actress Julie Harris, US Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis, figure skater Todd Eldredge, and novelists Norman Mailer and Kurt Vonnegut. Influential natives included the patriot James Otis, historian and writer Mercy Otis Warren, jurist Lemuel Shaw, and naval officer John Percival.

[edit] Lighthouses of Cape Cod

Race Point Lighthouse in Provincetown (1876)

 

Lighthouses, from ancient times, have fascinated members of the human race. There is something about a lighted beacon that suggests hope and trust and appeals to the better instincts of mankind.

Edward Rowe Snow

 

Due to its dangerous constantly moving shoals, Cape Cod's shores have featured beacons which warn ships of the danger since very early in its history. There are numerous working lighthouses on Cape Cod and the Islands, including Highland Light, Nauset Light, Chatham Light, Race Point Light, and Nobska Light, mostly operated by the U.S. Coast Guard. The exception is Nauset Light, which was decommissioned in 1996 and is now maintained by the Nauset Light Preservation Society under the auspices of Cape Cod National Seashore. These lighthouses are frequently photographed symbols of Cape Cod.

 

Others include:

 

Upper Cape: Wings Neck

 

Mid Cape: Sandy Neck, South Hyannis, Lewis Bay, Bishop and Clerks, Bass River

 

Lower Cape: Wood End, Long Point, Monomoy, Stage Harbor, Pamet, Mayo Beach, Billingsgate, Three Sisters, Nauset, Highland

[edit] Transportation

 

Cape Cod is connected to the mainland by a pair of canal-spanning highway bridges from Bourne and Sagamore that were constructed in the 1930s, and a vertical-lift railroad bridge. The limited number of access points to the peninsula can result in large traffic backups during the tourist season.

 

The entire Cape is roughly bisected lengthwise by U.S. Route 6, locally known as the Mid-Cape Highway and officially as the Grand Army of the Republic Highway.

 

Commercial air service to Cape Cod operates out of Barnstable Municipal Airport and Provincetown Municipal Airport. Several bus lines service the Cape. There are ferry connections from Boston to Provincetown, as well as from Hyannis and Woods Hole to the islands.

 

Cape Cod has a public transportation network comprising buses operated by three different companies, a rail line, taxis and paratransit services.

The Bourne Bridge over the Cape Cod Canal, with the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge in the background

[edit] Bus

 

Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority operates a year-round public bus system comprising three long distance routes and a local bus in Hyannis and Barnstable Village. From mid June until October, additional local routes are added in Falmouth and Provincetown. CCRTA also operates Barnstable County's ADA required paratransit (dial-a-ride) service, under the name "B-Bus."

 

Long distance bus service is available through Plymouth and Brockton Street Railway, with regular service to Boston and Logan Airport, as well as less frequent service to Provincetown. Peter Pan Bus Lines also runs long distance service to Providence T.F. Green Airport and New York City.

[edit] Rail

 

Regular passenger rail service through Cape Cod ended in 1959, quite possibly on June 30 of that year. In 1978, the tracks east of South Dennis were abandoned and replaced with the very popular bicycle path, known as the Cape Cod Rail Trail. Another bike path, the Shining Sea Bikeway, was built over tracks between Woods Hole and Falmouth in 1975; construction to extend this path to North Falmouth over 6.3 miles (10.1 km) of inactive rail bed began in April 2008[23] and ended in early 2009. Active freight service remains in the Upper Cape area in Sandwich and in Bourne, largely due to a trash transfer station located at Massachusetts Military Reservation along the Bourne-Falmouth rail line. In 1986, Amtrak ran a seasonal service in the summer from New York City to Hyannis called the Cape Codder. From 1988, Amtrak and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation increased service to a daily frequency.[24] Since its demise in 1996, there have been periodic discussions about reinstating passenger rail service from Boston to reduce car traffic to and from the Cape, with officials in Bourne seeking to re-extend MBTA Commuter Rail service from Middleboro to Buzzards Bay[25], despite a reluctant Beacon Hill legislature.

 

Cape Cod Central Railroad operates passenger train service on Cape Cod. The service is primarily tourist oriented and includes a dinner train. The scenic route between Downtown Hyannis and the Cape Cod Canal is about 2½ hours round trip. Massachusetts Coastal Railroad is also planning to return passenger railroad services eventually to the Bourne-Falmouth rail line in the future. An August 5, 2009 article on the New England Cable News channel, entitled South Coast rail project a priority for Mass. lawmakers, mentions a $1.4-billion railroad reconstruction plan by Governor Deval Patrick, and could mean rebuilding of old rail lines on the Cape. On November 21, 2009, the town of Falmouth saw its first passenger train in 12 years, a set of dinner train cars from Cape Cod Central. And a trip from the Mass Bay Railroad Enthusiasts on May 15, 2010 revealed a second trip along the Falmouth line.

[edit] Taxi

 

Taxicabs are plentiful, with several different companies operating out of different parts of the Cape. Except at the airport and some bus terminals with taxi stands, cabs must be booked ahead of time, with most operators preferring two to three hours notice. Cabs cannot be "hailed" anywhere in Barnstable County, this was outlawed in the early nineties after several robbery attempts on drivers.

 

Most companies utilize a New York City-style taximeter and charge based on distance plus an initial fee of $2 to $3. In Provincetown, cabs charge a flat fare per person anywhere in the town.

[edit] Tourism

Hyannis Harbor on Nantucket Sound

 

Although Cape Cod has a year-round population of about 230,000, it experiences a tourist season each summer, the beginning and end of which can be roughly approximated as Memorial Day and Labor Day, respectively. Many businesses are specifically targeted to summer visitors, and close during the eight to nine months of the "off season" (although the "on season" has been expanding somewhat in recent years due to Indian Summer, reduced lodging rates, and the number of people visiting the Cape after Labor Day who either have no school-age children, and the elderly, reducing the true "off season" to six or seven months). In the late 20th century, tourists and owners of second homes began visiting the Cape more and more in the spring and fall, softening the definition of the high season and expanding it somewhat (see above). Some particularly well-known Cape products and industries include cranberries, shellfish (particularly oysters and clams) and lobstering.

 

Provincetown, at the tip of Cape Cod, also berths several whale watching fleets who patrol the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Most fleets guarantee a whale sighting (mostly humpback whale, fin whale, minke whale, sei whale, and critically endangered, the North Atlantic Right Whale), and one is the only federally certified operation qualified to rescue whales. Provincetown has also long been known as an art colony, attracting writers and artists. The town is home to the Cape's most attended art museum, the Provincetown Art Association and Museum. Many hotels and resorts are friendly to or cater to gay and lesbian tourists and it is known as a gay mecca in the summer.[26]

 

Cape Cod is a popular destination for beachgoers from all over. With 559.6 miles (900.6 km) of coastline, beaches, both public and private, are easily accessible. The Cape has upwards of sixty public beaches, many of which offer parking for non-residents for a daily fee (in summer). The Cape Cod National Seashore has 40 miles (64 km) of sandy beach and many walking paths.

 

Cape Cod is also popular for its outdoor activities like beach walking, biking, boating, fishing, go-karts, golfing, kayaking, miniature golf, and unique shopping. There are 27 public, daily-fee golf courses and 15 private courses on Cape Cod.[27] Bed and breakfasts or vacation houses are often used for lodging.

 

Each summer the Naukabout Music Festival is held at the Barnstable County Fair Grounds located in East Falmouth,(typically) during the first weekend of August. This Music festival features local, regional and national talent along with food, arts and family friendly activities.

[edit] Sport fishing

 

Cape Cod is known around the world as a spring-to-fall destination for sport anglers. Among the species most widely pursued are striped bass, bluefish, bluefin tuna, false albacore (little tunny), bonito, tautog, flounder and fluke. The Cape Cod Bay side of the Cape, from Sandwich to Provincetown, has several harbors, saltwater creeks, and shoals that hold bait fish and attract the larger game fish, such as striped bass, bluefish and bluefin tuna.

 

The outer edge of the Cape, from Provincetown to Falmouth, faces the open Atlantic from Provincetown to Chatham, and then the more protected water of Nantucket and Vineyard Sounds, from Chatham to Falmouth. The bays, harbors and shoals along this coastline also provide a robust habitat for game species, and during the late summer months warm-water species such as mahi-mahi and marlin will also appear on the southern edge of Cape Cod's waters. Nearly every harbor on Cape Cod hosts sport fishing charter boats, which run from May through October.[28]

[edit] Sports

 

The Cape has nine amateur baseball franchises playing within Barnstable County in the Cape Cod Baseball League. The Wareham Gatemen also play in the Cape Cod Baseball League in nearby Wareham, Massachusetts in Plymouth County. The league originated 1923, although intertown competition traces to 1866. Teams in the league are the Bourne Braves, Brewster Whitecaps, Chatham Anglers (formerly the Chatham Athletics), Cotuit Kettleers, Falmouth Commodores, Harwich Mariners, Hyannis Harbor Hawks (formerly the Hyannis Mets), Orleans Firebirds (formerly the Orleans Cardinals), Wareham Gatemen and the Yarmouth-Dennis Red Sox. Pro ball scouts frequent the games in the summer, looking for stars of the future.

 

Cape Cod is also a national hot bed for baseball and hockey. Along with the Cape Cod Baseball League and the new Junior Hockey League team, the Cape Cod Cubs, many high school players are being seriously recruited as well. Barnstable and Harwich have each sent multiple players to Division 1 colleges for baseball, Harwich has also won three State titles in the past 12 years (1996, 2006, 2007). Bourne and Sandwich, known rivals in hockey have won state championships recently. Bourne in 2004, and Sandwich in 2007. Nauset, Barnstable, and Martha's Vineyard are also state hockey powerhouses. Barnstable and Falmouth also hold the title of having one of the longest Thanksgiving football rivalries in the country. The teams have played each other every year on the Thanksgiving since 1895. The Bourne and Barnstable girl's volleyball teams are two of the best teams in the state and Barnstable in the country. With Bourne winning the State title in 2003 and 2007. In the past 15 years, Barnstable has won 12 Division 1 State titles and has won the state title the past two years.

 

The Cape also is home to the Cape Cod Frenzy, a team in the American Basketball Association.

 

Soccer on Cape Cod is represented by the Cape Cod Crusaders, playing in the USL Premier Development League (PDL) soccer based in Hyannis. In addition, a summer Cape Cod Adult Soccer League (CCASL) is active in several towns on the Cape.

 

Cape Cod is also the home of the Cape Cod Cubs, a new junior league hockey team that is based out of Hyannis at the new communtiy center being built of Bearses Way.

 

The end of each summer is marked with the running of the world famous Falmouth Road Race which is held on the 3rd Saturday in August. It draws about 10,000 runners to the Cape and showcases the finest runners in the world (mainly for the large purse that the race is able to offer). The race is 7.2 miles (11.6 km) long, which is a non-standard distance. The reason for the unusual distance is that the man who thought the race up (Tommy Leonard) was a bartender who wanted a race along the coast from one bar (The Cap'n Kidd in Woods Hole) to another (The Brothers Four in Falmouth Heights). While the bar in Falmouth Heights is no longer there, the race still starts at the front door of the Cap'n Kidd in Woods Hole and now finishes at the beach in Falmouth Heights. Prior to the Falmouth race is an annual 5-mile (8.0 km) race through Brewster called the Brew Run, held early in August.

[edit] Education

 

Each town usually consists of a few elementary schools, one or two middle schools and one large public high school that services the entire town. Exceptions to this include Dennis-Yarmouth Regional High School located in Yarmouth which services both the town of Yarmouth as well as Dennis and Nauset Regional High School located in Eastham which services the town of Brewster, Orleans, Eastham, Wellfleet, Truro, and Provincetown (optional). Bourne High School is the public school for students residing in the town of Bourne, which is gathered from villages in Bourne, including Sagamore, Sagamore Beach, and Buzzards Bay. Barnstable High School is the largest high school and is known for its girls' volleyball team which have been state champions a total of 12 times. Barnstable High School also boasts one of the country's best high school drama clubs which were awarded with a contract by Warner Brothers to created a documentary in webisode format based on their production of Wizard of Oz. Sturgis Charter Public School is a public school in Hyannis which was featured in Newsweek's Magazine's "Best High Schools" ranking. It ranked 28th in the country and 1st in the state of Massachusetts in the 2009 edition and ranked 43rd and 55th in the 2008 and 2007 edition, respectively. Sturgis offers the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in their junior and senior year and is open to students as far as Plymouth. The Cape also contains two vocational high schools. One is the Cape Cod Regional Technical High School in Harwich and the other is Upper Cape Cod Regional Technical High School located in Bourne. Lastly, Mashpee High School is home to the Mashpee Chapter of (SMPTE,) the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. This chapter is the first and only high school chapter in the world to be a part of this organization and has received much recognition within the Los Angeles broadcasting industry as a result. The officers of this group who have made history are listed below:

 

* President: Ryan D. Stanley '11

* Vice-President Kenneth J. Peters '13

* Treasurer Eric N. Bergquist '11

* Secretary Andrew L. Medlar '11

 

In addition to public schools, Cape Cod has a wide range of private schools. The town of Barnstable has Trinity Christian Academy, Cape Cod Academy, St. Francis Xavier Preparatory School, and Pope John Paul II High School. Bourne offers the Waldorf School of Cape Cod, Orleans offers the Lighthouse Charter School for elementary and middle school students, and Falmouth offers Falmouth Academy. Riverview School is located in East Sandwich and is a special co-ed boarding school which services students as old as 22 who have learning disabilities. Another specialized school is the Penikese Island School located on Penikese Island, part of the Elizabeth Islands off southwestern Cape Cod, which services struggling and troubled teenage boys.

 

Cape Cod also contains two institutions of higher education. One is the Cape Cod Community College located in West Barnstable, Barnstable. The other is Massachusetts Maritime Academy in Buzzards Bay, Bourne. Massachusetts Maritime Academy is the oldest continuously operating maritime college in the United States.

[edit] Islands off Cape Cod

 

Like Cape Cod itself, the islands south of the Cape have evolved from whaling and trading areas to resort destinations, attracting wealthy families, celebrities, and other tourists. The islands include Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, as well as Forbes family-owned Naushon Island, which was purchased by John Murray Forbes with profits from opium dealing in the China trade during the Opium War. Naushon is one of the Elizabeth Islands, many of which are privately owned. One of the publicly accessible Elizabeths is the southernmost island in the chain, Cuttyhunk, with a year-round population of 52 people. Several prominent families have established compounds or estates on the larger islands, making these islands some of the wealthiest resorts in the Northeast, yet they retain much of the early merchant trading and whaling culture.

This incisive article was written on April 30, 2003, by historian and political scientist Jacques Pauwels:

 

Why America Needs (worships, schedules, promotes, starts, profits and lives for) War

 

Wars are a terrible waste of lives and resources, and for that reason most people are in principle opposed to wars. The American President, on the other hand, seems to love war. Why? Many commentators have sought the answer in psychological factors. Some opined that George W. Bush considered it his duty to finish the job started, but for some obscure reason not completed, by his father at the time of the Gulf War; others believe that Bush Junior expected a short and triumphant war which would guarantee him a second term in the White House.

 

I believe that we must look elsewhere for an explanation for the attitude of the American President.

 

The fact that Bush is keen on war has little or nothing to do with his psyche, but a great deal with the American economic system. This system – America’s brand of capitalism – functions first and foremost to make extremely rich Americans like the Bush “money dynasty” even richer. Without warm or cold wars, however, this system can no longer produce the expected result in the form of the ever-higher profits the moneyed and powerful of America consider as their birthright.

 

The great strength of American capitalism is also its great weakness, namely, its extremely high productivity. In the historical development of the international economic system that we call capitalism, a number of factors have produced enormous increases in productivity, for example, the mechanization of the production process that got under way in England as early as the 18th century. In the early 20th century, then, American industrialists made a crucial contribution in the form of the automatization of work by means of new techniques such as the assembly line. The latter was an innovation introduced by Henry Ford, and those techniques have therefore become collectively known as “Fordism.” The productivity of the great American enterprises rose spectacularly.

 

For example, already in the 1920s, countless vehicles rolled off the assembly lines of the automobile factories of Michigan every single day. But who was supposed to buy all those cars? Most Americans at the time did not have sufficiently robust pocket books for such a purchase. Other industrial products similarly flooded the market, and the result was the emergence of a chronic disharmony between the ever-increasing economic supply and the lagging demand. Thus arose the economic crisis generally known as the Great Depression. It was essentially a crisis of overproduction. Warehouses were bursting with unsold commodities, factories laid off workers, unemployment exploded, and so the purchasing power of the American people shrunk even more, making the crisis even worse.

 

It cannot be denied that in America the Great Depression only ended during, and because of, the Second World War. (Even the greatest admirers of President Roosevelt admit that his much-publicized New Deal policies brought little or no relief.) Economic demand rose spectacularly when the war which had started in Europe, and in which the USA itself was not an active participant before 1942, allowed American industry to produce unlimited amounts of war equipment. Between 1940 and 1945, the American state would spend no less than 185 billion dollar on such equipment, and the military expenditures’ share of the GNP thus rose between 1939 and 1945 from an insignificant 1,5 per cent to approximately 40 per cent. In addition, American industry also supplied gargantuan amounts of equipment to the British and even the Soviets via Lend-Lease. (In Germany, meanwhile, the subsidiaries of American corporations such as Ford, GM, and ITT produced all sorts of planes and tanks and other martial toys for the Nazi’s, also after Pearl Harbor, but that is a different story.) The key problem of the Great Depression – the disequilibrium between supply and demand – was thus resolved because the state “primed the pump” of economic demand by means of huge orders of a military nature.

 

As far as ordinary Americans were concerned, Washington’s military spending orgy brought not only virtually full employment but also much higher wages than ever before; it was during the Second World War that the widespread misery associated with the Great Depression came to an end and that a majority of the American people achieved an unprecedented degree of prosperity. However, the greatest beneficiaries by far of the wartime economic boom were the country’s businesspeople and corporations, who realized extraordinary profits. Between 1942 and 1945, writes the historian Stuart D. Brandes, the net profits of America’s 2,000 biggest firms were more than 40 per cent higher than during the period 1936-1939. Such a “profit boom” was possible, he explains, because the state ordered billions of dollars of military equipment, failed to institute price controls, and taxed profits little if at all. This largesse benefited the American business world in general, but in particular that relatively restricted elite of big corporations known as “big business” or “corporate America.” During the war, a total of less than 60 firms obtained 75 per cent of all lucrative military and other state orders. The big corporations – Ford, IBM, etc. – revealed themselves to be the “war hogs,” writes Brandes, that gormandized at the plentiful trough of the state’s military expenditures. IBM, for example, increased its annual sales between 1940 and 1945 from 46 to 140 million dollar thanks to war-related orders, and its profits skyrocketed accordingly.

 

America’s big corporations exploited their Fordist expertise to the fullest in order to boost production, but even that was not sufficient to meet the wartime needs of the American state. Much more equipment was needed, and in order to produce it, America needed new factories and even more efficient technology. These new assets were duly stamped out of the ground, and on account of this the total value of all productive facilities of the nation increased between 1939 and 1945 from 40 to 66 billion dollar. However, it was not the private sector that undertook all these new investments; on account of its disagreeable experiences with overproduction during the thirties, America’s businesspeople found this task too risky. So the state did the job by investing 17 billion dollar in more than 2,000 defense-related projects. In return for a nominal fee, privately owned corporations were permitted to rent these brand-new factories in order to produce…and to make money by selling the output back to the state. Moreover, when the war was over and Washington decided to divest itself of these investments, the nation’s big corporations purchased them for half, and in many cases only one third, of the real value.

 

How did America finance the war, how did Washington pay the lofty bills presented by GM, ITT, and the other corporate suppliers of war equipment? The answer is: partly by means of taxation – about 45 per cent -, but much more through loans – approximately 55 per cent. On account of this, the public debt increased dramatically, namely, from 3 billion dollar in 1939 to no less than 45 billion dollar in 1945. In theory, this debt should have been reduced, or wiped out altogether, by levying taxes on the huge profits pocketed during the war by America’s big corporations, but the reality was different. As already noted, the American state failed to meaningfully tax corporate America’s windfall profits, allowed the public debt to mushroom, and paid its bills, and the interest on its loans, with its general revenues, that is, by means of the income generated by direct and indirect taxes. Particularly on account of the regressive Revenue Act introduced in October 1942, these taxes were paid increasingly by workers and other low-income Americans, rather than by the super-rich and the corporations of which the latter were the owners, major shareholders, and/or top managers. “The burden of financing the war,” observes the American historian Sean Dennis Cashman, “[was] sloughed firmly upon the shoulders of the poorer members of society.”

 

However, the American public, preoccupied by the war and blinded by the bright sun of full employment and high wages, failed to notice this. Affluent Americans, on the other hand, were keenly aware of the wonderful way in which the war generated money for themselves and for their corporations. Incidentally, it was also from the rich businesspeople, bankers, insurers and other big investors that Washington borrowed the money needed to finance the war; corporate America thus also profited from the war by pocketing the lion’s share of the interests generated by the purchase of the famous war bonds. In theory, at least, the rich and powerful of America are the great champions of so-called free enterprise, and they oppose any form of state intervention in the economy. During the war, however, they never raised any objections to the way in which the American state managed and financed the economy, because without this large-scale dirigist violation of the rules of free enterprise, their collective wealth could never have proliferated as it did during those years.

 

During the Second World War, the wealthy owners and top managers of the big corporations learned a very important lesson: during a war there is money to be made, lots of money. In other words, the arduous task of maximizing profits – the key activity within the capitalist American economy – can be absolved much more efficiently through war than through peace; however, the benevolent cooperation of the state is required. Ever since the Second World War, the rich and powerful of America have remained keenly conscious of this. So is their man in the White House today [2003, i.e. George W. Bush], the scion of a “money dynasty” who was parachuted into the White House in order to promote the interests of his wealthy family members, friends, and associates in corporate America, the interests of money, privilege, and power.

 

In the spring of 1945 it was obvious that the war, fountainhead of fabulous profits, would soon be over. What would happen then? Among the economists, many Cassandras conjured up scenarios that loomed extremely unpleasant for America’s political and industrial leaders. During the war, Washington’s purchases of military equipment, and nothing else, had restored the economic demand and thus made possible not only full employment but also unprecedented profits. With the return of peace, the ghost of disharmony between supply and demand threatened to return to haunt America again, and the resulting crisis might well be even more acute than the Great Depression of the “dirty thirties,” because during the war years the productive capacity of the nation had increased considerably, as we have seen. Workers would have to be laid off precisely at the moment when millions of war veterans would come home looking for a civilian job, and the resulting unemployment and decline in purchasing power would aggravate the demand deficit. Seen from the perspective of America’s rich and powerful, the coming unemployment was not a problem; what did matter was that the golden age of gargantuan profits would come to an end. Such a catastrophe had to be prevented, but how?

 

Military state expenditures were the source of high profits. In order to keep the profits gushing forth generously, new enemies and new war threats were urgently needed now that Germany and Japan were defeated. How fortunate that the Soviet Union existed, a country which during the war had been a particularly useful partner who had pulled the chestnuts out of the fire for the Allies in Stalingrad and elsewhere, but also a partner whose communist ideas and practices allowed it to be easily transformed into the new bogeyman of the United States. Most American historians now admit that in 1945 the Soviet Union, a country that had suffered enormously during the war, did not constitute a threat at all to the economically and militarily far superior USA, and that Washington itself did not perceive the Soviets as a threat. These historians also acknowledge that Moscow was very keen to work closely together with Washington in the postwar era.

 

Indeed, Moscow had nothing to gain, and everything to lose, from a conflict with superpower America, which was brimming with confidence thanks to its monopoly of the atom bomb. However, America – corporate America, the America of the super-rich – urgently needed a new enemy in order to justify the titanic expenditures for “defense” which were needed to keep the wheels of the nation’s economy spinning at full speed also after the end of the war, thus keeping profit margins at the required – or rather, desired – high levels, or even to increase them. It is for this reason that the Cold War was unleashed in 1945, not by the Soviets but by the American “military-industrial” complex, as President Eisenhower would call that elite of wealthy individuals and corporations that knew how to profit from the “warfare economy.”

 

In this respect, the Cold War exceeded their fondest expectations. More and more martial equipment had to be cranked out, because the allies within the so-called “free world”, which actually included plenty of nasty dictatorships, had to be armed to the teeth with US equipment. In addition, America’s own armed forces never ceased demanding bigger, better, and more sophisticated tanks, planes, rockets, and, yes, chemical and bacteriological weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. For these goods, the Pentagon was always ready to pay huge sums without asking difficult questions. As had been the case during the Second World War, it was again primarily the large corporations who were allowed to fill the orders. The Cold War generated unprecedented profits, and they flowed into the coffers of those extremely wealthy individuals who happened to be the owners, top managers, and/or major shareholders of these corporations. (Does it come as a surprise that in the United States newly retired Pentagon generals are routinely offered jobs as consultants by large corporations involved in military production, and that businessmen linked with those corporations are regularly appointed as high-ranking officials of the Department of Defense, as advisors of the President, etc.?)

 

During the Cold War too, the American state financed its skyrocketing military expenditures by means of loans, and this caused the public debt to rise to dizzying heights. In 1945 the public debt stood at “only” 258 billion dollar, but in 1990 – when the Cold War ground to an end – it amounted to no less than 3.2 trillion dollar! This was a stupendous increase, also when one takes the inflation rate into account, and it caused the American state to become the world’s greatest debtor. (Incidentally, in July 2002 the American public debt had reached 6.1 trillion dollar.) Washington could and should have covered the cost of the Cold War by taxing the huge profits achieved by the corporations involved in the armament orgy, but there was never any question of such a thing. In 1945, when the Second World War come to an end and the Cold War picked up the slack, corporations still paid 50 per cent of all taxes, but during the course of the Cold War this share shrunk consistently, and today it only amounts to approximately 1 per cent.

 

This was possible because the nation’s big corporations largely determine what the government in Washington may or may not do, also in the field of fiscal policy. In addition, lowering the tax burden of corporations was made easier because after the Second World War these corporations transformed themselves into multinationals, “at home everywhere and nowhere,” as an American author has written in connection with ITT, and therefore find it easy to avoid paying meaningful taxes anywhere. Stateside, where they pocket the biggest profits, 37 per cent of all American multinationals – and more than 70 per cent of all foreign multinationals – paid not a single dollar of taxes in 1991, while the remaining multinationals remitted less than 1 per cent of their profits in taxes.

 

The sky-high costs of the Cold War were thus not borne by those who profited from it and who, incidentally, also continued to pocket the lion’s share of the dividends paid on government bonds, but by the American workers and the American middle class. These low- and middle-income Americans did not receive a penny from the profits yielded so profusely by the Cold War, but they did receive their share of the enormous public debt for which that conflict was largely responsible. It is they, therefore, who were really saddled with the costs of the Cold War, and it is they who continue to pay with their taxes for a disproportionate share of the burden of the public debt.

 

In other words, while the profits generated by the Cold War were privatized to the advantage of an extremely wealthy elite, its costs were ruthlessly socialized to the great detriment of all other Americans. During the Cold War, the American economy degenerated into a gigantic swindle, into a perverse redistribution of the nation’s wealth to the advantage of the rich and to the disadvantage not only of the poor and of the working class but also of the middle class, whose members tend to subscribe to the myth that the American capitalist system serves their interests. Indeed, while the wealthy and powerful of America accumulated ever-greater riches, the prosperity achieved by many other Americans during the Second World War was gradually eroded, and the general standard of living declined slowly but steadily.

 

During the Second World War America had witnessed a modest redistribution of the collective wealth of the nation to the advantage of the less privileged members of society. During the Cold War, however, the rich Americans became richer while the non-wealthy – and certainly not only the poor – became poorer. In 1989, the year the Cold War petered out, more than 13 per cent of all Americans – approximately 31 million individuals – were poor according to the official criteria of poverty, which definitely understate the problem. Conversely, today 1 per cent of all Americans own no less than 34 per cent of the nation’s aggregate wealth. In no major “Western” country is the wealth distributed more unevenly.

 

The minuscule percentage of super-rich Americans found this development extremely satisfactory. They loved the idea of accumulating more and more wealth, of aggrandizing their already huge assets, at the expense of the less privileged. They wanted to keep things that way or, if at all possible, make this sublime scheme even more efficient. However, all good things must come to an end, and in 1989/90 the bountiful Cold War elapsed. That presented a serious problem. Ordinary Americans, who knew that they had borne the costs of this war, expected a “peace dividend.”

 

They thought that the money the state had spent on military expenditures might now be used to produce benefits for themselves, for example in the form of a national health insurance and other social benefits which Americans in contrast to most Europeans have never enjoyed. In 1992, Bill Clinton would actually win the presidential election by dangling out the prospect of a national health plan, which of course never materialized. A “peace dividend” was of no interest whatsoever to the nation’s wealthy elite, because the provision of social services by the state does not yield profits for entrepreneurs and corporations, and certainly not the lofty kind of profits generated by military state expenditures. Something had to be done, and had to be done fast, to prevent the threatening implosion of the state’s military spending.

 

America, or rather, corporate America, was orphaned of its useful Soviet enemy, and urgently needed to conjure up new enemies and new threats in order to justify a high level of military spending. It is in this context that in 1990 Saddam Hussein appeared on the scene like a kind of deus ex machina. This tin-pot dictator had previously been perceived and treated by the Americans as a good friend, and he had been armed to the teeth so that he could wage a nasty war against Iran; it was the USA – and allies such as Germany – who originally supplied him with all sorts of weapons. However, Washington was desperately in need of a new enemy, and suddenly fingered him as a terribly dangerous “new Hitler,” against whom war needed to be waged urgently, even though it was clear that a negotiated settlement of the issue of Iraq’s occupation of Kuwait was not out of the question.

 

George Bush Senior was the casting agent who discovered this useful new nemesis of America, and who unleashed the Gulf War, during which Baghdad was showered with bombs and Saddam’s hapless recruits were slaughtered in the desert. The road to the Iraqi capital lay wide-open, but the Marines’ triumphant entry into Baghdad was suddenly scrapped. Saddam Hussein was left in power so that the threat he was supposed to form might be invoked again in order to justify keeping America in arms. After all, the sudden collapse of the Soviet Union had shown how inconvenient it can be when one loses a useful foe.

 

And so Mars could remain the patron saint of the American economy or, more accurately, the godfather of the corporate Mafia that manipulates this war-driven economy and reaps its huge profits without bearing its costs. The despised project of a peace dividend could be unceremoniously buried, and military expenditures could remain the dynamo of the economy and the wellspring of sufficiently high profits. Those expenditures increased relentlessly during the 1990s. In 1996, for example, they amounted to no less than 265 billion dollars, but when one adds the unofficial and/or indirect military expenditures, such as the interests paid on loans used to finance past wars, the 1996 total came to approximately 494 billion dollar, amounting to an outlay of 1.3 billion dollar per day! However, with only a considerably chastened Saddam as bogeyman, Washington found it expedient also to look elsewhere for new enemies and threats. Somalia temporarily looked promising, but in due course another “new Hitler” was identified in the Balkan Peninsula in the person of the Serbian leader, Milosevic. During much of the nineties, then, conflicts in the former Yugoslavia provided the required pretexts for military interventions, large-scale bombing operations, and the purchase of more and newer weapons.

 

The “warfare economy” could thus continue to run on all cylinders also after the Gulf War. However, in view of occasional public pressure such as the demand for a peace dividend, it is not easy to keep this system going. (The media present no problem, as newspapers, magazines, TV stations, etc. are either owned by big corporations or rely on them for advertising revenue.) As mentioned earlier, the state has to cooperate, so in Washington one needs men and women one can count upon, preferably individuals from the very own corporate ranks, individuals totally committed to use the instrument of military expenditures in order to provide the high profits that are needed to make the very rich of America even richer. In this respect, Bill Clinton had fallen short of expectations, and corporate America could never forgive his original sin, namely, that he had managed to have himself elected by promising the American people a “peace dividend” in the form of a system of health insurance.

 

On account of this, in 2000 it was arranged that not the Clinton-clone Al Gore moved into the White House but a team of militarist hardliners, virtually without exception representatives of wealthy, corporate America, such as Cheney, Rumsfeld, and Rice, and of course George W. Bush himself, son of the man who had shown with his Gulf War how it could be done; the Pentagon, too, was directly represented in the Bush Cabinet in the person of the allegedly peace-loving Powell, in reality yet another angel of death. Rambo moved into the White House, and it did not take long for the results to show.

 

After Bush Junior had been catapulted into the presidency, it looked for some time as if he was going to proclaim China as the new nemesis of America. However, a conflict with that giant loomed somewhat risky; furthermore, all too many big corporations make good money by trading with the People’s Republic. Another threat, preferably less dangerous and more credible, was required to keep the military expenditures at a sufficiently high level. For this purpose, Bush and Rumsfeld and company could have wished for nothing more convenient than the events of September 11, 2001; it is extremely likely that they were aware of the preparations for these monstrous attacks, but that they did nothing to prevent them because they knew that they would be able to benefit from them. In any event, they did take full advantage of this opportunity in order to militarize America more than ever before, to shower bombs on people who had nothing to do with 9/11, to wage war to their hearts’ content, and thus for corporations that do business with the Pentagon to ring up unprecedented sales. Bush declared war not on a country but on terrorism, an abstract concept against which one cannot really wage war and against which a definitive victory can never be achieved. However, in practice the slogan “war against terrorism” meant that Washington now reserves the right to wage war worldwide and permanently against whomever the White House defines as a terrorist.

 

And so the problem of the end of the Cold War was definitively resolved, as there was henceforth a justification for ever-increasing military expenditures. The statistics speak for themselves. The 1996 total of 265 billion dollar in military expenditures had already been astronomical, but thanks to Bush Junior the Pentagon was allowed to spend 350 billion in 2002, and for 2003 the President has promised approximately 390 billion; however, it is now virtually certain that the cape of 400 billion dollar will be rounded this year. (In order to finance this military spending orgy, money has to be saved elsewhere, for example by cancelling free lunches for poor children; every little bit helps.) No wonder that George W. struts around beaming with happiness and pride, for he – essentially a spoiled rich kid of very limited talent and intellect – has surpassed the boldest expectations not only of his wealthy family and friends but of corporate America as a whole, to which he owes his job.

 

9/11 provided Bush with carte blanche to wage war wherever and against whomever he chose, and as this essay has purported to make clear, it does not matter all that much who happens to be fingered as enemy du jour. Last year, Bush showered bombs on Afghanistan, presumably because the leaders of that country sheltered Bin Laden, but recently the latter went out of fashion and it was once again Saddam Hussein who allegedly threatened America. We cannot deal here in detail with the specific reasons why Bush’s America absolutely wanted war with the Iraq of Saddam Hussein and not with, say, North Korea. A major reason for fighting this particular war was that Iraq’s large reserves of oil are lusted after by the US oil trusts with whom the Bushes themselves – and Bushites such as Cheney and Rice, after whom an oil tanker happens to be named – are so intimately linked. The war in Iraq is also useful as a lesson to other Third World countries who fail to dance to Washington’s tune, and as an instrument for emasculating domestic opposition and ramming the extreme right-wing program of an unelected president down the throats of Americans themselves.

 

The America of wealth and privilege is hooked on war, without regular and ever-stronger doses of war it can no longer function properly, that is, yield the desired profits. Right now, this addiction, this craving is being satisfied by means of a conflict against Iraq, which also happens to be dear to the hearts of the oil barons. However, does anybody believe that the warmongering will stop once Saddam’ scalp will join the Taliban turbans in the trophy display case of George W. Bush? The President has already pointed his finger at those whose turn will soon come, namely, the “axis of evil” countries: Iran, Syria, Lybia, Somalia, North Korea, and of course that old thorn in the side of America, Cuba. Welcome to the 21st century, welcome to George W. Bush’s brave new era of permanent war!

 

Jacques R. Pauwels is historian and political scientist, author of ‘The Myth of the Good War: America in the Second World War’ (James Lorimer, Toronto, 2002). His book is published in different languages: in English, Dutch, German, Spanish, Italian and French. Together with personalities like Ramsey Clark, Michael Parenti, William Blum, Robert Weil, Michel Collon, Peter Franssen and many others… he signed “The International Appeal against US-War”.

Eritrean refugee Lyia Hiele (in striped shirt), and Eritrean asylum seeker Yordanos Heyabu exchange mutual thanks for the support they provide to each other on their way to Kampala's police station, where Yordanos needs to register her presence in the country. The two women are bound by a common story of exile.

UNHCR / M. Senelle / 6 February 2013

 

A web of love and solidarity keeps Eritrean refugees afloat in Kampala

 

KAMPALA, Uganda, April 11 (UNHCR) – The way their heads touch when they speak, their silent camaraderie, the ease with which the little boy passes from one pair of arms to the other, Liya and Yordanos look and act like mother and daughter. In fact, they only met five weeks ago.

 

Outside a government refugee registration office in the Ugandan capital, the two Eritrean women are sitting on wooden benches under a tarpaulin roof in a crowd of patient asylum-seekers. "The best thing Eritrean people do here is help each other," says Liya, looking fondly at her protégé's two-year-old son Noah, who's chasing chickens in the stuffy yard.

 

"They're with you when you are alive, and also after death," Liya adds. "The last thing they will do, when one of us dies, is collect money to send our bodies back to Eritrea."

 

Being supported by total strangers is – perhaps surprisingly – commonplace in a city undergoing intense urbanization and facing a parallel upsurge in the numbers of asylum-seekers and refugees. Peer support from the community has become a vital safety net. This is why Liya came to the registration centre, with Yordanos, Noah and another Eritrean family of four – to provide the same support she once received, and to help them navigate administrative procedures.

 

"In crowded bus stations, people recognize each other by their features," says Maria Mangeni, UNHCR's senior community services assistant in Kampala. "Bus drivers, vendors, any fellow citizens will help them find a relative," she explains. "They are introduced to someone, who introduces them to someone else and soon they have a place to stay."

 

This is what happened to Liya when she fled Eritrea five years ago with her two youngest children. She said she was persecuted by the government for helping her oldest son avoid forced conscription at the age of 16, two years younger than the law permits. She fled first to Juba in South Sudan, a place she found harsh and unsafe. She has no idea what happened to that boy or the husband she left behind in Eritrea.

 

"I had absolutely nothing," she recalls of her time in Juba. "Some Eritreans I knew there gathered money to pay the bus fare to Uganda for me and the children; they told me it was a peaceful place, with good schools. Then they called friends to come and welcome me."

 

Since 2006, Uganda has allowed refugees to live anywhere they want in Kampala, as long as they can support themselves.

 

"To be allowed to remain in the city, refugees need to prove they can afford to buy food, pay rent and provide an education to their children," says Apollo Kazungu, Uganda's commissioner for refugees.

 

This also means they get less humanitarian aid than if they choose to live in refugee settlements in other parts of Uganda. And although cities often provide more job opportunities, achieving economic security remains very challenging. Under such circumstances, social networks have become the cornerstone of coping strategies for displaced people.

 

"All I have right now is what is given to me," Yordanos says in perfect English. "When I arrived, a friend in Kampala gave me Liya's contact, told her I needed a roof. I've been living in Liya's room with Noah ever since."

 

Liya's second son found a job at an Internet café and is providing for all of them, paying the rent, buying the food and covering his sister's school fees. Yordanos hopes she can soon find work also and repay her neighbour's generosity. In the meantime, she is doing whatever she can in her precarious situation. Her language skills are a great asset in the registration office where she goes around discreetly, offering to act as an interpreter for other Eritrean families.

 

"Ethiopians and Eritreans, probably because of the barriers of language and the dreadful circumstances they have gone through, tend to struggle more when they arrive," observes UNHCR's Mangeni. "But they very rarely come to us for help. Whenever they do, I'm sure it's because they're between a rock and a hard place. They are that strong, they never give up. Even if they're left with one piece of bread they will share it."

 

And so, through the harshness of daily survival, Liya finds strength amongst her neighbours. Exchanging another knowing glance with Yordanos, she says quietly in her mother tongue: "Yfetwom, yfetweni. [I love them, they love me.]"

 

By Melanie Senelle in Kampala, Uganda

  

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Cod

 

Cape Cod

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This article is about the area of Massachusetts. For other uses, see Cape Cod (disambiguation).

For other uses, see Cod (disambiguation).

 

Coordinates: 41°41′20″N 70°17′49″W / 41.68889°N 70.29694°W / 41.68889; -70.29694

Map of Massachusetts, with Cape Cod (Barnstable County) indicated in red

Dunes on Sandy Neck are part of the Cape's barrier beach which helps to prevent erosion

 

Cape Cod, often referred to locally as simply the Cape, is an island and a cape in the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. It is coextensive with Barnstable County. Several small islands right off Cape Cod, including Monomoy Island, Monomoscoy Island, Popponesset Island, and Seconsett Island, are also in Barnstable County, being part of municipalities with land on the Cape. The Cape's small-town character and large beachfront attract heavy tourism during the summer months.

 

Cape Cod was formed as the terminal moraine of a glacier, resulting in a peninsula in the Atlantic Ocean. In 1914, the Cape Cod Canal was cut through the base or isthmus of the peninsula, forming an island. The Cape Cod Commission refers to the resultant landmass as an island; as does the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in regards to disaster preparedness.[1] It is still identified as a peninsula by geographers, who do not change landform designations based on man-made canal construction.[citation needed]

 

Unofficially, it is one of the biggest barrier islands in the world, shielding much of the Massachusetts coastline from North Atlantic storm waves. This protection helps to erode the Cape shoreline at the expense of cliffs, while protecting towns from Fairhaven to Marshfield.

 

Road vehicles from the mainland cross over the Cape Cod Canal via the Sagamore Bridge and the Bourne Bridge. The two bridges are parallel, with the Bourne Bridge located slightly farther southwest. In addition, the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge carries railway freight as well as tourist passenger services.

Contents

[hide]

 

* 1 Geography and political divisions

o 1.1 "Upper" and "Lower"

* 2 Geology

* 3 Climate

* 4 Native population

* 5 History

* 6 Lighthouses of Cape Cod

* 7 Transportation

o 7.1 Bus

o 7.2 Rail

o 7.3 Taxi

* 8 Tourism

* 9 Sport fishing

* 10 Sports

* 11 Education

* 12 Islands off Cape Cod

* 13 See also

* 14 References

o 14.1 Notes

o 14.2 Sources

o 14.3 Further reading

* 15 External links

 

[edit] Geography and political divisions

Towns of Barnstable County

historical map of 1890

 

The highest elevation on Cape Cod is 306 feet (93 m), at the top of Pine Hill, in the Bourne portion of the Massachusetts Military Reservation. The lowest point is sea level.

 

The body of water located between Cape Cod and the mainland, bordered to the north by Massachusetts Bay, is Cape Cod Bay; west of Cape Cod is Buzzards Bay. The Cape Cod Canal, completed in 1916, connects Buzzards Bay to Cape Cod Bay; it shortened the trade route between New York and Boston by 62 miles.[2] To the south of Cape Cod lie Nantucket Sound; Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, both large islands, and the mostly privately owned Elizabeth Islands.

 

Cape Cod incorporates all of Barnstable County, which comprises 15 towns: Bourne, Sandwich, Falmouth, and Mashpee, Barnstable, Yarmouth, Dennis, Harwich, Brewster, Chatham, Orleans, Eastham, Wellfleet, Truro, and Provincetown. Two of the county's fifteen towns (Bourne and Sandwich) include land on the mainland side of the Cape Cod Canal. The towns of Plymouth and Wareham, in adjacent Plymouth County, are sometimes considered to be part of Cape Cod but are not located on the island.

 

In the 17th century the designation Cape Cod applied only to the tip of the peninsula, essentially present-day Provincetown. Over the ensuing decades, the name came to mean all the land east of the Manomet and Scussett rivers - essentially the line of the 20th century Cape Cod Canal. Now, the complete towns of Bourne and Sandwich are widely considered to incorporate the full perimeter of Cape Cod, even though small parts of these towns are located on the west side of the canal. The canal divides the largest part of the peninsula from the mainland and the resultant landmass is sometimes referred to as an island.[3][4] Additionally some "Cape Codders" – residents of "The Cape" – refer to all land on the mainland side of the canal as "off-Cape."

 

For most of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, Cape Cod was considered to consist of three sections:

 

* The Upper Cape is the part of Cape Cod closest to the mainland, comprising the towns of Bourne, Sandwich, Falmouth, and Mashpee. Falmouth is the home of the famous Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and several other research organizations, and is also the most-used ferry connection to Martha's Vineyard. Falmouth is composed of several separate villages, including East Falmouth, Falmouth Village, Hatchville, North Falmouth, Teaticket, Waquoit, West Falmouth, and Woods Hole, as well as several smaller hamlets that are incorporated into their larger neighbors (e.g., Davisville, Falmouth Heights, Quissett, Sippewissett, and others).[5]

 

* The Mid-Cape includes the towns of Barnstable, Yarmouth and Dennis. The Mid-Cape area features many beautiful beaches, including warm-water beaches along Nantucket Sound, e.g., Kalmus Beach in Hyannis, which gets its name from one of the inventors of Technicolor, Herbert Kalmus. This popular windsurfing destination was bequeathed to the town of Barnstable by Dr. Kalmus on condition that it not be developed, possibly one of the first instances of open-space preservation in the US. The Mid-Cape is also the commercial and industrial center of the region. There are seven villages in Barnstable, including Barnstable Village, Centerville, Cotuit, Hyannis, Marstons Mills, Osterville, and West Barnstable, as well as several smaller hamlets that are incorporated into their larger neighbors (e.g., Craigville, Cummaquid, Hyannisport, Santuit, Wianno, and others).[6] There are three villages in Yarmouth: South Yarmouth, West Yarmouth and Yarmouthport. There are five villages in Dennis including, Dennis Village(North Dennis), East Dennis, West Dennis, South Dennis and Dennisport.[7]

 

* The Lower Cape traditionally included all of the rest of the Cape,or the towns of Harwich, Brewster, Chatham, Orleans, Eastham, Wellfleet, Truro, and Provincetown. This area includes the Cape Cod National Seashore, a national park comprising much of the outer Cape, including the entire east-facing coast, and is home to some of the most popular beaches in America, such as Coast Guard Beach and Nauset Light Beach in Eastham. Stephen Leatherman, aka "Dr. Beach", named Coast Guard Beach the 5th best beach in America for 2007.[8]

 

[edit] "Upper" and "Lower"

 

The terms "Upper" and "Lower" as applied to the Cape have nothing to do with north and south. Instead, they derive from maritime convention at the time when the principal means of transportation involved watercraft, and the prevailing westerly winds meant that a boat with sails traveling northeast in Cape Cod Bay would have the wind at its back and thus be going downwind, while a craft sailing southwest would be going against the wind, or upwind.[9] Similarly, on nearby Martha's Vineyard, "Up Island" still is the western section and "Down Island" is to the east, and in Maine, "Down East" is similarly defined by the winds and currents.

 

Over time, the reasons for the traditional nomenclature became unfamiliar and their meaning obscure. Late in the 1900s, new arrivals began calling towns from Eastham to Provincetown the "Outer Cape", yet another geographic descriptor which is still in use, as is the "Inner Cape."

[edit] Geology

Cape Cod and Cape Cod Bay from space.[10]

 

East of America, there stands in the open Atlantic the last fragment of an ancient and vanished land. Worn by the breakers and the rains, and disintegrated by the wind, it still stands bold.

Henry Beston, The Outermost House

 

Cape Cod forms a continuous archipelagic region with a thin line of islands stretching toward New York, historically known by naturalists as the Outer Lands. This continuity is due to the fact that the islands and Cape are all terminal glacial moraines laid down some 16,000 to 20,000 years ago.

 

Most of Cape Cod's geological history involves the advance and retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet in the late Pleistocene geological era and the subsequent changes in sea level. Using radiocarbon dating techniques, researchers have determined that around 23,000 years ago, the ice sheet reached its maximum southward advance over North America, and then started to retreat. Many "kettle ponds" — clear, cold lakes — were formed and remain on Cape Cod as a result of the receding glacier. By about 18,000 years ago, the ice sheet had retreated past Cape Cod. By roughly 15,000 years ago, it had retreated past southern New England. When so much of Earth's water was locked up in massive ice sheets, the sea level was lower. Truro's bayside beaches used to be a petrified forest, before it became a beach.

 

As the ice began to melt, the sea began to rise. Initially, sea level rose quickly, about 15 meters (50 ft) per 1,000 years, but then the rate declined. On Cape Cod, sea level rose roughly 3 meters (11 ft) per millennium between 6,000 and 2,000 years ago. After that, it continued to rise at about 1 meter (3 ft) per millennium. By 6,000 years ago, the sea level was high enough to start eroding the glacial deposits that the vanished continental ice sheet had left on Cape Cod. The water transported the eroded deposits north and south along the outer Cape's shoreline. Those reworked sediments that moved north went to the tip of Cape Cod.

 

Provincetown Spit, at the northern end of the Cape, consists largely of marine deposits, transported from farther up the shore. Sediments that moved south created the islands and shoals of Monomoy. So while other parts of the Cape have dwindled from the action of the waves, these parts of the Cape have grown.

Cape Cod National Seashore

 

This process continues today. Due to their position jutting out into the Atlantic Ocean, the Cape and islands are subject to massive coastal erosion. Geologists say that, due to erosion, the Cape will be completely submerged by the sea in thousands of years.[11] This erosion causes the washout of beaches and the destruction of the barrier islands; for example, the ocean broke through the barrier island at Chatham during Hurricane Bob in 1991, allowing waves and storm surges to hit the coast with no obstruction. Consequently, the sediment and sand from the beaches is being washed away and deposited elsewhere. While this destroys land in some places, it creates land elsewhere, most noticeably in marshes where sediment is deposited by waters running through them.

[edit] Climate

 

Although Cape Cod's weather[12] is typically more moderate than inland locations, there have been occasions where Cape Cod has dealt with the brunt of extreme weather situations (such as the Blizzard of 1954 and Hurricane of 1938). Because of the influence of the Atlantic Ocean, temperatures are typically a few degrees cooler in the summer and a few degrees warmer in the winter. A common misconception is that the climate is influenced largely by the warm Gulf Stream current, however that current turns eastward off the coast of Virginia and the waters off the Cape are more influenced by the cold Canadian Labrador Current. As a result, the ocean temperature rarely gets above 65 °F (18 °C), except along the shallow west coast of the Upper Cape.

 

The Cape's climate is also notorious for a delayed spring season, being surrounded by an ocean which is still cold from the winter; however, it is also known for an exceptionally mild fall season (Indian summer), thanks to the ocean remaining warm from the summer. The highest temperature ever recorded on Cape Cod was 104 °F (40 °C) in Provincetown[13], and the lowest temperature ever was −12 °F (−24.4 °C) in Barnstable.[14]

 

The water surrounding Cape Cod moderates winter temperatures enough to extend the USDA hardiness zone 7a to its northernmost limit in eastern North America.[15] Even though zone 7a (annual low = 0–5 degrees Fahrenheit) signifies no sub-zero temperatures annually, there have been several instances of temperatures reaching a few degrees below zero across the Cape (although it is rare, usually 1–5 times a year, typically depending on locale, sometimes not at all). Consequently, many plant species typically found in more southerly latitudes grow there, including Camellias, Ilex opaca, Magnolia grandiflora and Albizia julibrissin.

 

Precipitation on Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket is the lowest in the New England region, averaging slightly less than 40 inches (1,000 mm) a year (most parts of New England average 42–46 inches). This is due to storm systems which move across western areas, building up in mountainous regions, and dissipating before reaching the coast where the land has leveled out. The region does not experience a greater number of sunny days however, as the number of cloudy days is the same as inland locales, in addition to increased fog. Snowfall is annual, but a lot less common than the rest of Massachusetts. On average, 30 inches of snow, which is a foot less than Boston, falls in an average winter. Snow is usually light, and comes in squalls on cold days. Storms that bring blizzard conditions and snow emergencies to the mainland, bring devastating ice storms or just heavy rains more frequently than large snow storms.

[hide]Climate data for Cape Cod

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 2.06

(35.7) 2.5

(36.5) 6.22

(43.2) 11.72

(53.1) 16.94

(62.5) 23.5

(74.3) 26.39

(79.5) 26.67

(80.0) 25.06

(77.1) 18.39

(65.1) 12.56

(54.6) 5.44

(41.8) 26.67

(80.0)

Average low °C (°F) -5.33

(22.4) -5

(23.0) -1.33

(29.6) 2.72

(36.9) 8.72

(47.7) 14.61

(58.3) 19.22

(66.6) 20.28

(68.5) 15.56

(60.0) 9.94

(49.9) 3.94

(39.1) -2.22

(28.0) -5.33

(22.4)

Precipitation mm (inches) 98

(3.86) 75.4

(2.97) 95

(3.74) 92.5

(3.64) 83.6

(3.29) 76.7

(3.02) 62.2

(2.45) 65

(2.56) 74.7

(2.94) 84.8

(3.34) 90.7

(3.57) 92.7

(3.65) 990.9

(39.01)

Source: World Meteorological Organisation (United Nations) [16]

[edit] Native population

 

Cape Cod has been the home of the Wampanoag tribe of Native American people for many centuries. They survived off the sea and were accomplished farmers. They understood the principles of sustainable forest management, and were known to light controlled fires to keep the underbrush in check. They helped the Pilgrims, who arrived in the fall of 1620, survive at their new Plymouth Colony. At the time, the dominant group was the Kakopee, known for their abilities at fishing. They were the first Native Americans to use large casting nets. Early colonial settlers recorded that the Kakopee numbered nearly 7,000.

 

Shortly after the Pilgrims arrived, the chief of the Kakopee, Mogauhok, attempted to make a treaty limiting colonial settlements. The effort failed after he succumbed to smallpox in 1625. Infectious diseases such as smallpox, measles and influenza caused the deaths of many other Kakopee and Wampanoag. They had no natural immunity to Eurasian diseases by then endemic among the English and other Europeans. Today, the only reminder of the Kakopee is a small public recreation area in Barnstable named for them. A historic marker notes the burial site of Mogauhok near Truro, although the location is conjecture.

 

While contractors were digging test wells in the eastern Massachusetts Military Reservation area, they discovered an archeological find.[citation needed] Excavation revealed the remains of a Kakopee village in Forestdale, a location in Sandwich. Researchers found a totem with a painted image of Mogauhok, portrayed in his chief's cape and brooch. The totem was discovered on property on Grand Oak Road. It is the first evidence other than colonial accounts of his role as an important Kakopee leader.

 

The Indians lost their lands through continued purchase and expropriation by the English colonists. The documentary Natives of the Narrowland (1993), narrated by actress Julie Harris, shows the history of the Wampanoag people through Cape Cod archaeological sites.

 

In 1974, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Council was formed to articulate the concerns of those with Native American ancestry. They petitioned the federal government in 1975 and again in 1990 for official recognition of the Mashpee Wampanoag as a tribe. In May 2007, the Wampanoag tribe was finally federally recognized as a tribe.[17]

[edit] History

Cranberry picking in 1906

 

Cape Cod was a landmark for early explorers. It may have been the "Promontory of Vinland" mentioned by the Norse voyagers (985-1025). Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 approached it from the south. He named Martha's Vineyard Claudia, after the mother of the King of France.[18] The next year the explorer Esteban Gómez called it Cape St. James.

 

In 1602 Bartholomew Gosnold named it Cape Cod, the surviving term and the ninth oldest English place-name in the U.S.[19] Samuel de Champlain charted its sand-silted harbors in 1606 and Henry Hudson landed there in 1609. Captain John Smith noted it on his map of 1614 and at last the Pilgrims entered the "Cape Harbor" and – contrary to the popular myth of Plymouth Rock – made their first landing near present-day Provincetown on November 11, 1620. Nearby, in what is now Eastham, they had their first encounter with Native Americans.

 

Cape Cod was among the first places settled by the English in North America. Aside from Barnstable (1639), Sandwich (1637) and Yarmouth (1639), the Cape's fifteen towns developed slowly. The final town to be established on the Cape was Bourne in 1884.[20] Provincetown was a group of huts until the 18th century. A channel from Massachusetts Bay to Buzzards Bay is shown on Southack's map of 1717. The present Cape Cod Canal was slowly developed from 1870 to 1914. The Federal government purchased it in 1928.

 

Thanks to early colonial settlement and intensive land use, by the time Henry Thoreau saw Cape Cod during his four visits over 1849 to 1857[21], its vegetation was depauperate and trees were scarce. As the settlers heated by fires, and it took 10 to 20 cords (40 to 80 m³) of wood to heat a home, they cleared most of Cape Cod of timber early on. They planted familiar crops, but these were unsuited to Cape Cod's thin, glacially derived soils. For instance, much of Eastham was planted to wheat. The settlers practiced burning of woodlands to release nutrients into the soil. Improper and intensive farming led to erosion and the loss of topsoil. Farmers grazed their cattle on the grassy dunes of coastal Massachusetts, only to watch "in horror as the denuded sands `walked' over richer lands, burying cultivated fields and fences." Dunes on the outer Cape became more common and many harbors filled in with eroded soils.[22]

 

By 1800, most of Cape Cod's firewood had to be transported by boat from Maine. The paucity of vegetation was worsened by the raising of merino sheep that reached its peak in New England around 1840. The early industrial revolution, which occurred through much of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, mostly bypassed Cape Cod due to a lack of significant water power in the area. As a result, and also because of its geographic position, the Cape developed as a large fishing and whaling center. After 1860 and the opening of the American West, farmers abandoned agriculture on the Cape. By 1950 forests had recovered to an extent not seen since the 18th century.

 

Cape Cod became a summer haven for city dwellers beginning at the end of the 19th century. Improved rail transportation made the towns of the Upper Cape, such as Bourne and Falmouth, accessible to Bostonians. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Northeastern mercantile elite built many large, shingled "cottages" along Buzzards Bay. The relaxed summer environment offered by Cape Cod was highlighted by writers including Joseph C. Lincoln, who published novels and countless short stories about Cape Cod folks in popular magazines such as the Saturday Evening Post and the Delineator.

 

Guglielmo Marconi made the first transatlantic wireless transmission originating in the United States from Cape Cod, at Wellfleet. The beach from which he transmitted has since been called Marconi Beach. In 1914 he opened the maritime wireless station WCC in Chatham. It supported the communications of Amelia Earhart, Howard Hughes, Admiral Byrd, and the Hindenburg. Marconi chose Chatham due to its vantage point on the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded on three sides by water. Walter Cronkite narrated a 17-minute documentary in 2005 about the history of the Chatham Station.

 

Much of the East-facing Atlantic seacoast of Cape Cod consists of wide, sandy beaches. In 1961, a significant portion of this coastline, already slated for housing subdivisions, was made a part of the Cape Cod National Seashore by President John F. Kennedy. It was protected from private development and preserved for public use. Large portions are open to the public, including the Marconi Site in Wellfleet. This is a park encompassing the site of the first two-way transoceanic radio transmission from the United States. (Theodore Roosevelt used Marconi's equipment for this transmission).

 

The Kennedy Compound in Hyannisport was President Kennedy's summer White House during his presidency. The Kennedy family continues to maintain residences on the compound. Other notable residents of Cape Cod have included actress Julie Harris, US Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis, figure skater Todd Eldredge, and novelists Norman Mailer and Kurt Vonnegut. Influential natives included the patriot James Otis, historian and writer Mercy Otis Warren, jurist Lemuel Shaw, and naval officer John Percival.

[edit] Lighthouses of Cape Cod

Race Point Lighthouse in Provincetown (1876)

 

Lighthouses, from ancient times, have fascinated members of the human race. There is something about a lighted beacon that suggests hope and trust and appeals to the better instincts of mankind.

Edward Rowe Snow

 

Due to its dangerous constantly moving shoals, Cape Cod's shores have featured beacons which warn ships of the danger since very early in its history. There are numerous working lighthouses on Cape Cod and the Islands, including Highland Light, Nauset Light, Chatham Light, Race Point Light, and Nobska Light, mostly operated by the U.S. Coast Guard. The exception is Nauset Light, which was decommissioned in 1996 and is now maintained by the Nauset Light Preservation Society under the auspices of Cape Cod National Seashore. These lighthouses are frequently photographed symbols of Cape Cod.

 

Others include:

 

Upper Cape: Wings Neck

 

Mid Cape: Sandy Neck, South Hyannis, Lewis Bay, Bishop and Clerks, Bass River

 

Lower Cape: Wood End, Long Point, Monomoy, Stage Harbor, Pamet, Mayo Beach, Billingsgate, Three Sisters, Nauset, Highland

[edit] Transportation

 

Cape Cod is connected to the mainland by a pair of canal-spanning highway bridges from Bourne and Sagamore that were constructed in the 1930s, and a vertical-lift railroad bridge. The limited number of access points to the peninsula can result in large traffic backups during the tourist season.

 

The entire Cape is roughly bisected lengthwise by U.S. Route 6, locally known as the Mid-Cape Highway and officially as the Grand Army of the Republic Highway.

 

Commercial air service to Cape Cod operates out of Barnstable Municipal Airport and Provincetown Municipal Airport. Several bus lines service the Cape. There are ferry connections from Boston to Provincetown, as well as from Hyannis and Woods Hole to the islands.

 

Cape Cod has a public transportation network comprising buses operated by three different companies, a rail line, taxis and paratransit services.

The Bourne Bridge over the Cape Cod Canal, with the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge in the background

[edit] Bus

 

Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority operates a year-round public bus system comprising three long distance routes and a local bus in Hyannis and Barnstable Village. From mid June until October, additional local routes are added in Falmouth and Provincetown. CCRTA also operates Barnstable County's ADA required paratransit (dial-a-ride) service, under the name "B-Bus."

 

Long distance bus service is available through Plymouth and Brockton Street Railway, with regular service to Boston and Logan Airport, as well as less frequent service to Provincetown. Peter Pan Bus Lines also runs long distance service to Providence T.F. Green Airport and New York City.

[edit] Rail

 

Regular passenger rail service through Cape Cod ended in 1959, quite possibly on June 30 of that year. In 1978, the tracks east of South Dennis were abandoned and replaced with the very popular bicycle path, known as the Cape Cod Rail Trail. Another bike path, the Shining Sea Bikeway, was built over tracks between Woods Hole and Falmouth in 1975; construction to extend this path to North Falmouth over 6.3 miles (10.1 km) of inactive rail bed began in April 2008[23] and ended in early 2009. Active freight service remains in the Upper Cape area in Sandwich and in Bourne, largely due to a trash transfer station located at Massachusetts Military Reservation along the Bourne-Falmouth rail line. In 1986, Amtrak ran a seasonal service in the summer from New York City to Hyannis called the Cape Codder. From 1988, Amtrak and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation increased service to a daily frequency.[24] Since its demise in 1996, there have been periodic discussions about reinstating passenger rail service from Boston to reduce car traffic to and from the Cape, with officials in Bourne seeking to re-extend MBTA Commuter Rail service from Middleboro to Buzzards Bay[25], despite a reluctant Beacon Hill legislature.

 

Cape Cod Central Railroad operates passenger train service on Cape Cod. The service is primarily tourist oriented and includes a dinner train. The scenic route between Downtown Hyannis and the Cape Cod Canal is about 2½ hours round trip. Massachusetts Coastal Railroad is also planning to return passenger railroad services eventually to the Bourne-Falmouth rail line in the future. An August 5, 2009 article on the New England Cable News channel, entitled South Coast rail project a priority for Mass. lawmakers, mentions a $1.4-billion railroad reconstruction plan by Governor Deval Patrick, and could mean rebuilding of old rail lines on the Cape. On November 21, 2009, the town of Falmouth saw its first passenger train in 12 years, a set of dinner train cars from Cape Cod Central. And a trip from the Mass Bay Railroad Enthusiasts on May 15, 2010 revealed a second trip along the Falmouth line.

[edit] Taxi

 

Taxicabs are plentiful, with several different companies operating out of different parts of the Cape. Except at the airport and some bus terminals with taxi stands, cabs must be booked ahead of time, with most operators preferring two to three hours notice. Cabs cannot be "hailed" anywhere in Barnstable County, this was outlawed in the early nineties after several robbery attempts on drivers.

 

Most companies utilize a New York City-style taximeter and charge based on distance plus an initial fee of $2 to $3. In Provincetown, cabs charge a flat fare per person anywhere in the town.

[edit] Tourism

Hyannis Harbor on Nantucket Sound

 

Although Cape Cod has a year-round population of about 230,000, it experiences a tourist season each summer, the beginning and end of which can be roughly approximated as Memorial Day and Labor Day, respectively. Many businesses are specifically targeted to summer visitors, and close during the eight to nine months of the "off season" (although the "on season" has been expanding somewhat in recent years due to Indian Summer, reduced lodging rates, and the number of people visiting the Cape after Labor Day who either have no school-age children, and the elderly, reducing the true "off season" to six or seven months). In the late 20th century, tourists and owners of second homes began visiting the Cape more and more in the spring and fall, softening the definition of the high season and expanding it somewhat (see above). Some particularly well-known Cape products and industries include cranberries, shellfish (particularly oysters and clams) and lobstering.

 

Provincetown, at the tip of Cape Cod, also berths several whale watching fleets who patrol the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Most fleets guarantee a whale sighting (mostly humpback whale, fin whale, minke whale, sei whale, and critically endangered, the North Atlantic Right Whale), and one is the only federally certified operation qualified to rescue whales. Provincetown has also long been known as an art colony, attracting writers and artists. The town is home to the Cape's most attended art museum, the Provincetown Art Association and Museum. Many hotels and resorts are friendly to or cater to gay and lesbian tourists and it is known as a gay mecca in the summer.[26]

 

Cape Cod is a popular destination for beachgoers from all over. With 559.6 miles (900.6 km) of coastline, beaches, both public and private, are easily accessible. The Cape has upwards of sixty public beaches, many of which offer parking for non-residents for a daily fee (in summer). The Cape Cod National Seashore has 40 miles (64 km) of sandy beach and many walking paths.

 

Cape Cod is also popular for its outdoor activities like beach walking, biking, boating, fishing, go-karts, golfing, kayaking, miniature golf, and unique shopping. There are 27 public, daily-fee golf courses and 15 private courses on Cape Cod.[27] Bed and breakfasts or vacation houses are often used for lodging.

 

Each summer the Naukabout Music Festival is held at the Barnstable County Fair Grounds located in East Falmouth,(typically) during the first weekend of August. This Music festival features local, regional and national talent along with food, arts and family friendly activities.

[edit] Sport fishing

 

Cape Cod is known around the world as a spring-to-fall destination for sport anglers. Among the species most widely pursued are striped bass, bluefish, bluefin tuna, false albacore (little tunny), bonito, tautog, flounder and fluke. The Cape Cod Bay side of the Cape, from Sandwich to Provincetown, has several harbors, saltwater creeks, and shoals that hold bait fish and attract the larger game fish, such as striped bass, bluefish and bluefin tuna.

 

The outer edge of the Cape, from Provincetown to Falmouth, faces the open Atlantic from Provincetown to Chatham, and then the more protected water of Nantucket and Vineyard Sounds, from Chatham to Falmouth. The bays, harbors and shoals along this coastline also provide a robust habitat for game species, and during the late summer months warm-water species such as mahi-mahi and marlin will also appear on the southern edge of Cape Cod's waters. Nearly every harbor on Cape Cod hosts sport fishing charter boats, which run from May through October.[28]

[edit] Sports

 

The Cape has nine amateur baseball franchises playing within Barnstable County in the Cape Cod Baseball League. The Wareham Gatemen also play in the Cape Cod Baseball League in nearby Wareham, Massachusetts in Plymouth County. The league originated 1923, although intertown competition traces to 1866. Teams in the league are the Bourne Braves, Brewster Whitecaps, Chatham Anglers (formerly the Chatham Athletics), Cotuit Kettleers, Falmouth Commodores, Harwich Mariners, Hyannis Harbor Hawks (formerly the Hyannis Mets), Orleans Firebirds (formerly the Orleans Cardinals), Wareham Gatemen and the Yarmouth-Dennis Red Sox. Pro ball scouts frequent the games in the summer, looking for stars of the future.

 

Cape Cod is also a national hot bed for baseball and hockey. Along with the Cape Cod Baseball League and the new Junior Hockey League team, the Cape Cod Cubs, many high school players are being seriously recruited as well. Barnstable and Harwich have each sent multiple players to Division 1 colleges for baseball, Harwich has also won three State titles in the past 12 years (1996, 2006, 2007). Bourne and Sandwich, known rivals in hockey have won state championships recently. Bourne in 2004, and Sandwich in 2007. Nauset, Barnstable, and Martha's Vineyard are also state hockey powerhouses. Barnstable and Falmouth also hold the title of having one of the longest Thanksgiving football rivalries in the country. The teams have played each other every year on the Thanksgiving since 1895. The Bourne and Barnstable girl's volleyball teams are two of the best teams in the state and Barnstable in the country. With Bourne winning the State title in 2003 and 2007. In the past 15 years, Barnstable has won 12 Division 1 State titles and has won the state title the past two years.

 

The Cape also is home to the Cape Cod Frenzy, a team in the American Basketball Association.

 

Soccer on Cape Cod is represented by the Cape Cod Crusaders, playing in the USL Premier Development League (PDL) soccer based in Hyannis. In addition, a summer Cape Cod Adult Soccer League (CCASL) is active in several towns on the Cape.

 

Cape Cod is also the home of the Cape Cod Cubs, a new junior league hockey team that is based out of Hyannis at the new communtiy center being built of Bearses Way.

 

The end of each summer is marked with the running of the world famous Falmouth Road Race which is held on the 3rd Saturday in August. It draws about 10,000 runners to the Cape and showcases the finest runners in the world (mainly for the large purse that the race is able to offer). The race is 7.2 miles (11.6 km) long, which is a non-standard distance. The reason for the unusual distance is that the man who thought the race up (Tommy Leonard) was a bartender who wanted a race along the coast from one bar (The Cap'n Kidd in Woods Hole) to another (The Brothers Four in Falmouth Heights). While the bar in Falmouth Heights is no longer there, the race still starts at the front door of the Cap'n Kidd in Woods Hole and now finishes at the beach in Falmouth Heights. Prior to the Falmouth race is an annual 5-mile (8.0 km) race through Brewster called the Brew Run, held early in August.

[edit] Education

 

Each town usually consists of a few elementary schools, one or two middle schools and one large public high school that services the entire town. Exceptions to this include Dennis-Yarmouth Regional High School located in Yarmouth which services both the town of Yarmouth as well as Dennis and Nauset Regional High School located in Eastham which services the town of Brewster, Orleans, Eastham, Wellfleet, Truro, and Provincetown (optional). Bourne High School is the public school for students residing in the town of Bourne, which is gathered from villages in Bourne, including Sagamore, Sagamore Beach, and Buzzards Bay. Barnstable High School is the largest high school and is known for its girls' volleyball team which have been state champions a total of 12 times. Barnstable High School also boasts one of the country's best high school drama clubs which were awarded with a contract by Warner Brothers to created a documentary in webisode format based on their production of Wizard of Oz. Sturgis Charter Public School is a public school in Hyannis which was featured in Newsweek's Magazine's "Best High Schools" ranking. It ranked 28th in the country and 1st in the state of Massachusetts in the 2009 edition and ranked 43rd and 55th in the 2008 and 2007 edition, respectively. Sturgis offers the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme in their junior and senior year and is open to students as far as Plymouth. The Cape also contains two vocational high schools. One is the Cape Cod Regional Technical High School in Harwich and the other is Upper Cape Cod Regional Technical High School located in Bourne. Lastly, Mashpee High School is home to the Mashpee Chapter of (SMPTE,) the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. This chapter is the first and only high school chapter in the world to be a part of this organization and has received much recognition within the Los Angeles broadcasting industry as a result. The officers of this group who have made history are listed below:

 

* President: Ryan D. Stanley '11

* Vice-President Kenneth J. Peters '13

* Treasurer Eric N. Bergquist '11

* Secretary Andrew L. Medlar '11

 

In addition to public schools, Cape Cod has a wide range of private schools. The town of Barnstable has Trinity Christian Academy, Cape Cod Academy, St. Francis Xavier Preparatory School, and Pope John Paul II High School. Bourne offers the Waldorf School of Cape Cod, Orleans offers the Lighthouse Charter School for elementary and middle school students, and Falmouth offers Falmouth Academy. Riverview School is located in East Sandwich and is a special co-ed boarding school which services students as old as 22 who have learning disabilities. Another specialized school is the Penikese Island School located on Penikese Island, part of the Elizabeth Islands off southwestern Cape Cod, which services struggling and troubled teenage boys.

 

Cape Cod also contains two institutions of higher education. One is the Cape Cod Community College located in West Barnstable, Barnstable. The other is Massachusetts Maritime Academy in Buzzards Bay, Bourne. Massachusetts Maritime Academy is the oldest continuously operating maritime college in the United States.

[edit] Islands off Cape Cod

 

Like Cape Cod itself, the islands south of the Cape have evolved from whaling and trading areas to resort destinations, attracting wealthy families, celebrities, and other tourists. The islands include Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, as well as Forbes family-owned Naushon Island, which was purchased by John Murray Forbes with profits from opium dealing in the China trade during the Opium War. Naushon is one of the Elizabeth Islands, many of which are privately owned. One of the publicly accessible Elizabeths is the southernmost island in the chain, Cuttyhunk, with a year-round population of 52 people. Several prominent families have established compounds or estates on the larger islands, making these islands some of the wealthiest resorts in the Northeast, yet they retain much of the early merchant trading and whaling culture.

Late in the afternoon on the last day in March 2009, I walked into Bryant Park, which is located behind the New York Public Library, between 41st and 42nd Street, facing Avenue of the Americas. There were several people reading and basking in the sun, a couple people typing on their laptop computers, and one chess game underway. I spent about half an hour wandering around to see what looked photo-worthy, and then wandered off to get some dinner...

 

This woman was typing away on a laptop computer ... alas, it was not an Apple Powerbook. But maybe she doesn't know any better. Just think: if she had been typing on a Mac, her photo probably would have been published a thousand times by now!

 

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Even though this photo was taken in March 2009, Karen Bryan claims to have published it in a Nov 13, 2008 blog titled “'The Future of the Travel Blog' Presentation, Travel Blog Camp, London 11 November 2008." Back in the "real world," the photo was also published in an Apr 22, 2009 blog entitled "Greenify Your PC!." And it was published in a May 1, 2009 blog titled "Our New Toolbar Helps You Go Green." Then it was published in a Jul 8, 2009 blog titled "Five ways to maximize freelance writing income." And it was published in a Jul 16, 2009 blog titled "Facebook Your Way to Universal Healthcare in The Atlantic. More recently, it was published in an Aug 6, 2009 blog titled "Loudoun County Puts Development Applications Online, Earns National Accolades." And it was published in an Aug 17, 2009 Lifehacker blog titled "What Email Service Do You Use?" It was also published in a Sep 4, 2009 blog titled "http://humantrafficking.change.org/blog/view/want_to_blog_for_changeorg"

 

It was published in an undated (Oct 2009) blog titled "How to Fix Common Laptop Problems." And it was published in an Oct 21, 2009 Brazilian blog title " Custo é o diferencial na hora de escolher uma plataforma de blog." It was also published in a Nov 3, 2009 blog titled "What Do You Want Students To Do?" And it was published in an undated (Nov 2009) blog titled "Sedentary Runners." It was also published in a Nov 9, 2009 blog titled "Keep Your Health Club Members Coming Back By Allowing Them to Book Appointments Online." And it was published in a Nov 27, 2009 blog titled "Degrees of Presence IV: My experience." It was also published in a Dec 2, 2009 blog titled "Internet Linked to Intellect."

 

It was published again in a Dec 13, 2009 blog titled "Las ciudades del mundo más conectadas con Internet." It was also published in a Dec 14, 2009 German blog titled "Modisch immer Online auf MySpace Fashion." And it was published in a Dec 18, 2009 blog titled La primera red 4G del mundo se estrena en Suecia, whose URL Flickr is not allowing me to embed -- but it's www dot tuexperto dot com slash 2009/12/18/la-primera-red-4g-del-mundo-se-estrena-en-suecia/

 

Moving into 2010, the photo has been published in a Jan 5, 2010 Fast Company blog titled "What Women Want: Facebook Ads!", www-dot-fastcompany-dot-com/blog/maccabee-montandon/upswing/rise-fan-girls. And it was published in a Jan 11, 2010 blog titled "Caen las disqueras, sube la música." It was also published in a Jan 15, 2010 blog titled "School Lunches and 'Home' Work: Friday Finds." And it was published in a Jan 20, 2010 blog titled "Welcome to Mobility Hacks." It was also published in a Feb 2, 2010 blog titled "Thanks for Visiting." A week later, it was published in a Feb 9, 2010 blog titled "Większość polskich internautów korzysta z internetowych multimediów."

 

The photo was published in a Feb 17, 2010 blog titled "What does Matador mean to you?," as well as a Feb 17, 2010 Polish blog titled "Informacja stanie się walutą." On Feb 18, 2010 it was published in a blog titled "School uses laptop webcams to spy on students." And I discovered that it was published in an undated (Mar 2010) German blog titled "Einführung," which seems to provide an online service for Germans who want to learn to speak Italian. It was also published in a Mar 24, 2010 Mexican blog titled "Uso de software ilegal en el mundo." And it was published in an Apr 14, 2010 Italian blog titled "Le donne sfruttano il lato oscuro di Facebook," as well as an Apr 14, 2010 blog titled "10 Ways To Make The Most Of Your Laptop." About a week later, I found it on an undated (Apr 22, 2010?) blog titled "Ask the Readers: Your Favorite Online Resources." It was also published in an Apr 22, 2010 blog titled "The Evolution of a Blog." And it was published in an undated (Apr 2010) Mahalo-dot-com blog titled "Ask any question, any time." It was also published as an illustration in a May 12, 2010 Romanian(?) Gadgets blog, with the same title as the caption that I put on this Flickr page; and it was also published on May 12, 2010 in a blog titled "Definition of a Truly Mobile Job."

 

On May 17, 2010 the photo was published without any title or description on a Technologeek site. And on May 26, 2010, the photo was published in a Spanish blog titled "Buscar Pareja," and also a Norwegian blog titled "Her handler du best på nett." On May 30, 2010, it was published in a blog titled "What is the best laptop?." And on Jun 2, 2010 it was published in what appears to be a Polish blog, titled "Yahoo! grozi lokalnym mediom. Będzie walka o reklamodawców." It was also published in a Jun 10, 2010 Rent Laptop Computer blog, with a title that was a slightly bizarre variation on the caption that I used for this Flickr page: "ONE OF A SINGULAR NON-APPLE LAPTOPS SEEN IN AN DIFFERENTLY COLD PLAY GROUND FULL OF COLD PEOPLE."

 

On Jun 12, 2010, the photo was published in an Italian blog titled "Libri di donne: scarichiamoli gratis dalla rete." And on Jun 16, 2010 a cropped version of the photo was published in a Spanish blog titled "Encuentros en Sevilla: los mejores sitios para ligar." It was also published in a Jun 21,2010 FixALaptop blog titled "Where can I download a new free camera software for toshiba vista laptop?" And it was published in a Jun 23, 2010 blog titled " per unit community college fee gets some support." It was also published in two Jun 28, 2010 blogs" "Where to Write Out of the House," and "Why It’s So Easy to Spend Too Much Online." And it was published in a Jun 29, 2010 blog titled "What Women Want ... Online."

 

The photo was also published in a Nov 26, 2010 blog titled "Going Internet-Lite." And it was also published in a Nov 26, 2010 blog titled アメリカ旅行でも仕事環境を準備するお話。at linker.in/journal/2010/11/mobile-trip.php. It was also published as an illustration in an undated (late Nov 2010) Writer's World blog.

 

The photo was also published in a Dec 8, 2010 blog titled "The Brief History of Apple Laptops." It was also published in a Dec 9, 2010 blog titled "A Guide To Online Dating In New York City." And it was published in a Dec 10, 2010 Smookey blog with the same title and detailed notes that I had written on this Flickr page. It was also published in a Dec 15, 2010 Dutch "Joop" blog titled "EU-surfer beter beschermd tegen ongewenste reclame." And it was published in a Dec 16, 2010 blog titled "mi date un sito per comprare online?" It was also published in a Dec 17, 2010 blog titled "Ma con POSTEPAY posso comprare nei negozi? o posso solo comprare su internet?" as well as another Dec 17, 2010 blog titled "What are tips on how to avoid players with online dating? What should I look for in the profile?" and yet another Dec 17, 2010 blog titled "Pranzare di fronte al computer fa mangiare di più." It was also published in an undated (late Dec 2010) blog titled "Q&A: mi potete cosigliare un sito per comprare trucchi, pennelli ecc online?" It was also published in a Dec 26, 2010 New Home Businesses blog, with the same title as the caption that I put on this Flickr page. And it was published in a Dec 29, 2010 blog titled "How An Entrepreneur Create New Products At Lightning Speed."

 

Moving into 2011, the photo was published in a Jan 2, 2011 blog titled "Q&A: how could i make money online free?", as well as a Jan 2, 2011 blog titled "How to know which SEO software suits your search engine optimization needs?" It was also published in a Jan 4, 2011 blog titled "Online Degrees: A More Affordable And Flexible Higher." And it was published in a Jan 5, 2011 blog titled "Legitimate Paid Surveys – How to Earn Money Online from Home Starting Today ." It was also published in a Jan 9, 2011 blog titled "ciao raga ho un amica che vorrebbe comprare un cell su e bay, sevondo voi e sicuro?" And it was published in an undated (Jan 2011) "Forward SIngles" blog, titled "Медиите за Forward Singles (3)." It was also published in a Jan 19, 2011 blog titled "Getting A Degree In Sports Marketing." And it was published in a Jan 21, 2011 blog titled " Evoquer publiquement sa réussite, ses revenus internet, ou pas…" It was also published in a Jan 27, 2011 blog titled "http://interaktywnie.com/biznes/newsy/domeny/home-pl-tworzy-gielde-domen-18993." And it was published in a Jan 30, 2011 blog titled "Q&A: do I have an eating disorder?"

 

The photo was also published in a Feb 3, 2011 blog titled "AWP 2011 Panel Post: How To Get Beyond “Using Social Media” & Become A Social Artist Instead." And it was published in a Feb 4, 2011 blog titled "Thanks for Visiting." It was also published in a Feb 7, 2011 blog titled "Consommation et Affirmatio