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Wallpaper Fusion’s browsing is abrupt and abounding with advantageous data. Hovering over an angel will accord its title, while a glance at the icons beneath will appearance you the book admeasurement and the appraisement of the image. All of the dual-monitor backgrounds are professional, of accomplished quality, and are about assorted abundant to address to appealing abundant anybody in the office.

 

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The resolution and architecture choices are additionally remarkable. For any accustomed wallpaper you accept options for abstracted angel downloads for larboard and appropriate screens, a abounding angel to amplitude beyond two screens, or the aboriginal angel download. There’s alike a advantageous auto-detect affection that offers a download advantage based on the awning you’re currently using.

 

The tags and chase system make it easier to acquisition what you want, with options to account after-effects by acceptance or category. You can download the images anon yourself, or use the DisplayFusion download apparatus to automatically download wallpapers at the actual resolution and aspect adjustment for your monitors.

 

DMB is a armpit absolutely committed to dual-monitor wallpapers, and it’s a abundant abode to stop if you appetite the widest alternative possible. While the angel affection may not be as reliable as some of our added picks there is still a accomplished lot to adulation here.

 

The angel blueprint is abundant for examination assorted images at once, and you can clarify your selection by date, rating, popularity, and a host of added facets. Thankfully, there’s a class advantage as able-bodied as one for acrimonious a specific genre. Hover over any pic and you’ll anon see the appellation and the resolution, which, again, is advantageous for bodies who appetite to see any abounding options as they can.

 

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Wallpapers Wide doesn’t accept the best avant-garde of website layouts, but it added than makes up for that back it comes to resolution selection.

 

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Twelve South is added of a bazaar account than annihilation else. It offers several “collections,” or mini categories to download for those who appetite altered wallpaper options, but anniversary is centered about the same theme. These backgrounds abbreviate aggregate from the Hawaiian islands to shots of San Francisco in the fall, amid others.

 

Many of the backgrounds are accurately advised for analogous up two altered types of screens, too. Say you accept a MacBook and an iMac at assignment — Twelve South’s archive will acquiesce you to choose a dual-screen accomplishments that fits aural the borders of your system, while actual distinct. It’s a fun, high-quality way of accumulation your devices, abnormally if they appear from the aforementioned artefact families.

 

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Digital Blasphemy wears its early-2000s affection on its sleeve with a absolutely awakening website look. Its agenda wallpapers though, are annihilation but antiquated. Its architect has been alive for years to actualize assorted wallpapers, and is accepted for abacus agenda furnishings to basically everything. There are bifold and tri-screen images to aces from, and added choices than you ability apprehend from aloof one big CGI project. The images tend to angular against the absurd and otherworldly, authoritative them ideal if you’re apathetic of the aforementioned old mural shots.

 

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There’s additionally a lot of custom assignment there, requests for touch-ups or formatting by the experts, and letters on new collections. It’s abundant if you’re attractive to browse a particular topic, or you’re alive on your ideal adviser project.

 

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UPDATE: last post till return NOW included..... I will be taking a short break from here starting tomorrow and will be pulling off one of those disappearing acts. Not sure how long. Ya'll be good though. Don't let me find out ....

 

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If you’re apprehensive how to accomplish these backdrops to assignment on your computer, analysis out Wallpaper Engine application. It will accord you austere ascendancy over what your desktop looks like. Whether you opt for changeless images, activated backdrops, or alike alternate amateur continued beyond your bifold screens, it’s one of the best administration systems for wallpapers out there.

 

For added sources for abundant wallpapers, analysis out our favorites below.

 

Wallpaper Fusion’s browsing is abrupt and abounding with advantageous data. Hovering over an angel will accord its title, while a glance at the icons beneath will appearance you the book admeasurement and the appraisement of the image. All of the dual-monitor backgrounds are professional, of accomplished quality, and are about assorted abundant to address to appealing abundant anybody in the office.

 

The resolution and architecture choices are additionally remarkable. For any accustomed wallpaper you accept options for abstracted angel downloads for larboard and appropriate screens, a abounding angel to amplitude beyond two screens, or the aboriginal angel download. There’s alike a advantageous auto-detect affection that offers a download advantage based on the awning you’re currently using.

 

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The tags and chase system make it easier to acquisition what you want, with options to account after-effects by acceptance or category. You can download the images anon yourself, or use the DisplayFusion download apparatus to automatically download wallpapers at the actual resolution and aspect adjustment for your monitors.

 

DMB is a armpit absolutely committed to dual-monitor wallpapers, and it’s a abundant abode to stop if you appetite the widest alternative possible. While the angel affection may not be as reliable as some of our added picks there is still a accomplished lot to adulation here.

 

The angel blueprint is abundant for examination assorted images at once, and you can clarify your selection by date, rating, popularity, and a host of added facets. Thankfully, there’s a class advantage as able-bodied as one for acrimonious a specific genre. Hover over any pic and you’ll anon see the appellation and the resolution, which, again, is advantageous for bodies who appetite to see any abounding options as they can.

 

Wallpapers Wide doesn’t accept the best avant-garde of website layouts, but it added than makes up for that back it comes to resolution selection.

 

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Options alter based on the blazon of image, but for abounding of its wallpapers, there are a deluge of choices, including abounding resolutions for bifold or triple-monitor setups, as able-bodied as 4K. It has a committed area for appealing abundant any blazon of awning you can anticipate of (these are the best ones). If you accept a acute awning adjustment with accurate angel needs and you abhorrence all-inclusive wallpapers, WW is the abode to go.

 

Twelve South is added of a bazaar account than annihilation else. It offers several “collections,” or mini categories to download for those who appetite altered wallpaper options, but anniversary is centered about the same theme. These backgrounds abbreviate aggregate from the Hawaiian islands to shots of San Francisco in the fall, amid others.

 

Many of the backgrounds are accurately advised for analogous up two altered types of screens, too. Say you accept a MacBook and an iMac at assignment — Twelve South’s archive will acquiesce you to choose a dual-screen accomplishments that fits aural the borders of your system, while actual distinct. It’s a fun, high-quality way of accumulation your devices, abnormally if they appear from the aforementioned artefact families.

 

Digital Blasphemy wears its early-2000s affection on its sleeve with a absolutely awakening website look. Its agenda wallpapers though, are annihilation but antiquated. Its architect has been alive for years to actualize assorted wallpapers, and is accepted for abacus agenda furnishings to basically everything. There are bifold and tri-screen images to aces from, and added choices than you ability apprehend from aloof one big CGI project. The images tend to angular against the absurd and otherworldly, authoritative them ideal if you’re apathetic of the aforementioned old mural shots.

 

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However, there is a catch. Agenda Blasphemy needs to accomplish revenue, so you’ll accept to pay a brace bucks for whatever angel you achieve on, or bind yourself to the chargeless examination images.

 

There are a lot of angel collections on Imgur, naturally, but this is the best one we could acquisition for dual-wallpaper options. Additionally, these several hundred images are brimming of pop ability references, which the added sites assume a little low on.

 

The botheration is that they are completely random, but if you’re attractive for that one Portal advertence or a great Avengers background, this is a acceptable abode to start. There’s no agreement that the accumulating will be adapted in the future, but we’ll booty what we can get.

 

They say there is a subreddit for aggregate and dual-monitor backgrounds are no different. MultiWall is all about award images acceptable for added than one screen. It’s additionally a acceptable abode to attending for ultra-large images — we’re talking up to 10,000 x 3,000 resolution, absolute for your new 8K affectation — so if your custom awning bureaucracy can’t handle annihilation normal, stop by the r/multiwall subreddit.

 

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There’s additionally a lot of custom assignment there, requests for touch-ups or formatting by the experts, and letters on new collections. It’s abundant if you’re attractive to browse a particular topic, or you’re alive on your ideal adviser project.

 

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Days afterwards Banksy abashed the apple by shredding his canvas Girl With Balloon (2006) anon afterwards it awash for $1.3 actor at Sotheby’s, the artisan appear that the canvas and the anatomy it is still ashore in now comprise a new work, alleged Love is in the Bin (2018). The new assignment has been accepted a affidavit by Pest Control, Banksy’s affidavit body, and will be on affectation at Sotheby’s New Bond Street saleroom this weekend.

 

“Banksy didn’t abort an artwork in the auction, he created one,” Alex Branczik, Sotheby’s Head of Contemporary Art, Europe, said in a statement. “Following his abruptness action on the night, we are admiring to affirm the bargain of the artist’s newly-titled Love is in the Bin, the aboriginal artwork in history to accept been created alive during an auction.”

 

The bargain abode additionally accepted that the acceptable applicant from Friday night is proceeding with the purchase, but did not acknowledge the character of the buyer, aloof that it is a “female European beneficiary and a abiding applicant of Sotheby’s.” In a statement, the applicant said: “When the bang came bottomward aftermost anniversary and the assignment was shredded, I was at aboriginal shocked, but gradually I began to realise that I would end up with my own allotment of art history.”

 

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The change and addition of three-dimensional (3D) action has accustomed the apple of action a new perspective. The action of creating 3D affective images in a agenda amplitude through altar or models has accustomed these illusions depth. One of the best axiological differences amid 2D action and 3D action is the address acclimated for creating the images and the way they look. The all-around 3D action bazaar is abounding with a advanced ambit of software that are acclimated for creating 3D action results.

 

While creating 2D animation, techniques such as such as onion skimming, anime, rotoscopy, morphing, and twining are used. On the added hand, 3D action uses techniques such as amphitheatre building, sketching, abating, actualization modeling, texturing, camera setup, rendering, and about-face and bond. A abundant accord of 3D action is acclimated for accurate TV shows, games, and added ball solutions. The all-around 3D action bazaar is additionally benefiting from its acceptance in apprenticeship and healthcare sector.

 

Though conception of 3D action requires amazing effort, art, and calculation, the all-around bazaar offers several apparatus to bout the needs of the animator. Some of the bargain acclimated accoutrement in the all-embracing bazaar are Maxon, Side FX, and NewTek. Companies are focused on developing software that are acquiesce customization of the workflow and comes with congenital appearance for accurate conscientious characters. Players are additionally absorption on developing software that are easier and automatic to learn, abnormally for artists who aren’t absolutely accustomed with adult tools. Development of assorted sectors is accepted to action advantageous opportunities to the 3D action industry forth with creating several jobs for animators.

 

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3D technology is rapidly accepting alternative to acceptable 2D technology attributable to their bigger clear affection and accuracy and faster apprehension of frames. As the allowances of 3D technology are actuality awful accustomed worldwide, 3D action is actuality more adopted by contractors, bold developers, auto designers, and assembly houses. The all-around 3D action bazaar is experiencing a able advance in end-user industries such as healthcare, aerospace, defense, automotive, and media and entertainment. The ascent trend of acute classrooms is additionally assiduity the bazaar in the apprenticeship sector.

 

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This assay address serves as a athenaeum of assay and advice apropos assorted aspects of the all-around 3D action market. These aspects accommodate bazaar dynamics, bounded segmentation, trends, and abstruse developments. It includes a abundant overview of the aggressive mural of the market. It consists of a abstracted area of recommendations for both absolute and new players in the market.

 

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The accretion absorption in activated movies and amateur is alive in favor of the all-around 3D action market. Bold developers common are more implementing 3D technology with their offerings in adjustment to addition their sales. Moreover, the growing trend of outsourcing activated agreeable is affective the market. However, the apparition issues associated with the abiding acceptance of accessories such as 3D examination glasses are attached the all-around 3D action bazaar from acumen its abounding potential. Nevertheless, this affair can be mitigated by the addition of eye-friendly apparatuses. Furthermore, the development of 4D technology is creating immense advance opportunities for the market.

 

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The all-around 3D action bazaar can be broadly classified into software, hardware, and services. Accouterments can be added anecdotal into motion capturing system, workstations, video card/GPU, and others. Similarly, the sub-segments of software are constituent software, SDK, packaged software programs, and others. Casework can be added disconnected into development, integration, training and certificate, abutment and maintenance, and consulting.

 

While accouterments will annual for the arch allotment in the bazaar throughout the anticipation period, the appeal for 3D action software will acceleration rapidly during the aforementioned period. Several websites are accouterment adulatory or chargeless of allegation software such as Autodesk 123D, Anima8or 3D Modeler, CloudCompare, DX Studio, and MeshLab. Solid Edge 3D Studio Max, NX, and Softimage are some of the frequently accessible software through subscription.

 

The key segments on the base of cartography are North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and Rest of the World. North America is the ascendant bazaar for 3D action attributable to the accretion appeal for action content. The abode of some of the arch accumulation media and ball companies such as Disney and DreamWorks is accouterment a cogent addition to the advance of the region. Asia Pacific will acceleration at a noteworthy CAGR during the anticipation period, with China, India, and Japan actuality the above contributor.

 

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Global 3D Action Market: Companies Mentioned in the Address

 

Some of the key players in the all-around 3D action bazaar are Autodesk, Adobe Systems, Intel Corporation, Avant-garde Micro Devices Inc., Maxon Computer GmbH, Corel Corporation, Side Effects Software, Lenovo Group Ltd., Nvidia Corporation, Microsoft Corporation, and Newtek Inc.

 

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Heya guys and girls! Wats up?! Well, I just had this crazy idea! I saw an animation episode on Konoha High School. So I was thinking why not have a Anime High School of my friends on Flickr?! That's right! You can be one of these students!

 

All Artists!

If u wanna participate in making the comic, contact me @: ...

cherese.shaw@comcast.net

hikarikun.hime@yahoo.com

www.xxhikarikunxx.deviantart.com if u have a deviant account!

 

All Filmmakers/Video Creators!

(*coughs* Shinji/Kichiro *coughs* :D)

 

U can help with videos if you desire too!

contact me @: ...

cherese.shaw@comcast.net

hikarikun.hime@yahoo.com

 

All Voice Actresses/Actors

This includes evry1 who wants their character included! We need at least enough people so that the girls and boys are equal (includ. Naruto charas)

contact me @: ...

cherese.shaw@comcast.net

hikarikun.hime@yahoo.com

 

If u send an email to me, i'll tell u all rules and give u updates!

 

All Roles

Voice Actors:

will get Scripts to voice out on some sort of program as long as i can access them.

 

Artists:

will get info on the scenes and such so we can work on the episodes with the vid makers

 

Vid Makers:

will get the photos and audio so the episodes can be made.

 

Everyone will most likely will need to have these softwares (I'll tell u if u need 2 uninstall it) :

Photoshop CS3 Professional (artists only)

Paint Tool SAI (artists only)

Flash CS3 Professional (vidmakers only)

A Software to Record Yourself (voicers only)

Sony Vegas Pro 9 (vidmakers only)

 

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For a minute there, it looked like Steam was putting regulations in abode to anticipate adult-oriented amateur from entering its service. But it appears to accept relented a little bit, as an developed appellation has aloof been accustomed for sale, set to go alive on the armpit starting September 14.

 

The game, blue-blooded Negligee: Love Stories, is on its way from Dharker Studios, attached in with the beheld atypical of the aforementioned name. The developer has acclaimed that the bold will be the “first anytime 100 percent uncensored bold on Steam” with “no application needed” for players to dive into.

 

But the bold does accept an age-gate abaft it, as players charge be logged in and actualize the pre-set admonishing that ancestor up on the Steam folio afore a acquirement can be alike made.

 

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Apparently, Steam alteration up its clarification accoutrement accept accustomed the bold to go through the approval process, acute developers to ample out a “mature agreeable survey,” based on what Kotaku says on the matter.

 

The official Steam folio (which we won’t articulation here, but you can attending up on the site) describes the bold as not captivation aback on animal agreeable and/or nudity. The description reads: “Negligee: Love Belief appearance four story-lines that frequently accommodate chat of animal themes, animal interactions and dishabille and through them illustrations featuring nudity, undressing and animal interactions as well.

 

The four belief accommodate macho and changeable animal relations, changeable and changeable animal relations, capacity apropos to pressured animal relationships, capacity apropos to nymphomania, capacity apropos to developed sex workers, capacity apropos to calumniating marriages and adultery.

 

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Scenes aural the bold accommodate illustrated and chat descriptions of macho and changeable distinct accomplice animal relationships, modelling, alfresco animal activity, macho and changeable assorted accomplice animal action and changeable and changeable distinct accomplice animal relationships.”

 

In fact, capacity breach bottomward some absorbing titles for anniversary segment, including Karen’s Awakening, Jasmin’s Stripping, Charlotte’s First Love and Sophie’s Temptation. So you affectionate of accept an abstraction of area it’s advancing from.

 

The game’s amount hasn’t been revealed, but it looks like it’s activity to be accepting some absorbing ancillary content, including the aboriginal soundtrack, wallpapers and an artbook.

 

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Negligee: Love Belief will absolution on September 14. Again, it’s alone advised for a complete audience.

 

(Thanks to Kotaku for the details!)

 

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times change, so does ones eyes. . . an update to my previous sharingan photo, can you notice the difference?

 

i do not have blue eyes, but a ninja is deceiving. . . o_z

 

[1 hour phoshop +resources, no tuts]

 

baka >_<

Naruto Uzumaki (うずまき ナルト,) a ninja affiliated to Konohagakure from the manga series Naruto. A chalk pavement art illustration.

 

Part of a Set / Slideshow documenting some of the Brighton Japan Festival / Matsuri 祭 June 18-26th 2011.

 

A celebration of life, and impractical shoes...

 

The Brighton Japan Festival was also documented by Haikugirl - in pictures in her flickr sets here by day: June 18th, 19th, 25th and 26th - and in her blog entries: June 18th, 19th, Update 1, Update 2 and Weekend of 25/26th.

 

JRCS, or (from the UK) just donate.

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A Team fortress 2 sandvich I made. Any and all jokes akin to "BITCH MAKE ME A SANDWICH/SANDVICH" will be deleted.

Guess this is something like I originally wanted to draw. Naruto in Sage mode VS the 9 Tailed demon fox. Drawed by hand, in photoshop.

 

Maybe I update it more, but I doubt it. Probably I'll leave it as it is.

Loli Naruto and Kakashi on Ice. Adorable cosplay really!

 

A-Kon 20, held at the Sheraton in Dallas, TX on May 28-31, 2009. A yearly tradition for us.

 

If you are in these or know who they are/what the costume is, please leave a note and I'll update it

via WordPress ift.tt/2IQ3h12

 

In the new bivouac for the film, we can see the white-spider clothing which was in the game.

 

It hasn’t been too continued since Spider-Man has released, and it has already been a massive success all about the world. Some of you may accept already accomplished the game, and others may be advancing the end, but you don’t accept to say goodbye aloof yet. In the new bivouac for Sony’s activated film Spider-Man: Into The Spider-Verse, we get to see a adornment of sorts of Spidey from the contempo video game.

 

In this trailer, at the 1:38 minute point, there is a attempt which has the white-spider clothing actuality displayed the background. This is, as you ability know, the clothing that fabricated its admission with Spider-Man on the PS4, so it’s a nice little nod to Insomniac Games’ video game. Sure enough, Marvel Games’ Executive Director Bill Rosemann, Yuri Lowenthal who played the superhero in the game, and Insomniac Games’ Community Director James Stevenson all reacted to this account on Twitter, and they assume appealing aflame about it too.

 

You can analysis out the new bivouac for the blur below. Spider-Man is currently accessible alone for the PS4, while Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse launches in theatres on December 14, 2018.

 

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Event: Japan Festival Revolution 08.

ok..i..i knw this doesnt look like much. but my dogs, are super shedding dogs. an i keep em groomed an everything, like, really well, but like, it jus doesnt seem to end with the hair issue with them D: Its litterally, everywhere outside. Its not dair! D: I jus cleaned the place up too! D: Heh..yea...i was on a major cleaning spree yesterday. lolz hadta clean out the chicken coop tooz. not fun. specially wen idiot chickens wont stay outa the coop an in the garden. -__- Oh, an an update on Butter's beak, that have seen the..UCK....before..Its way better! :D The fungus gunk, is like, almost all off! :D

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Teen Beach 2 OST

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Manga

Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)

 

Dragon Ball debuted in Weekly Shōnen Jump No. 51, 1984.

Written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama, Dragon Ball was serialized in the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 20, 1984 to May 23, 1995, when Toriyama grew exhausted and felt he needed a break from drawing. The 519 individual chapters were published into 42 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha from September 10, 1985 through August 4, 1995.[13][14][15] Between December 4, 2002 and April 2, 2004, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 34 kanzenban volumes, which included a slightly rewritten ending, new covers, and color artwork from its Weekly Shōnen Jump run.[16][17] The February 2013 issue of V Jump, which was released in December 2012, announced that parts of the manga will be fully colored and re-released in 2013.[18] Twenty volumes, beginning from chapter 195 and grouped by story arcs, were released between February 4, 2013 and July 4, 2014.[19][20] Twelve volumes covering the first 194 chapters were published between January 4 and March 4, 2016.[21][22] A sōshūhen edition that aims to recreate the manga as it was originally serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump with color pages, promotional text, and next chapter previews, began being published on May 13, 2016.[23]

 

Spin-offs and crossovers

Toriyama also created a short series, Neko Majin (1999–2005), that became a self-parody of Dragon Ball.[24] In 2006, a crossover between Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo (or Kochikame) and Dragon Ball by Toriyama and Kochikame author Osamu Akimoto appeared in the Super Kochikame (超こち亀 Chō Kochikame) manga.[25] That same year, Toriyama teamed up with Eiichiro Oda to create a crossover chapter of Dragon Ball and One Piece entitled Cross Epoch.[26] The final chapter of Toriyama's 2013 manga series Jaco the Galactic Patrolman revealed that it is set before Dragon Ball, with several characters making appearances.[27] Jaco's collected volumes contain a bonus Dragon Ball chapter depicting Goku's mother.[28]

 

A colored spin-off manga titled Dragon Ball SD written by Naho Ōishi has been published in Shueisha's Saikyō Jump magazine since its debut issue in December 2010.[29] A condensed retelling of Goku's adventures in a super deformed art style, it has been collected into four volumes as of February 2016.[30][31][32][33] Another manga penned by Ōishi, the three-chapter Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock that revolves around Bardock, Goku's father, was published in the monthly magazine V Jump from August and October 2011.[34]

 

Anime series

Dragon Ball

Main articles: Dragon Ball (anime) and List of Dragon Ball episodes

Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the first 194 manga chapters, also titled Dragon Ball. The series premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on February 26, 1986 and ran until April 12, 1989, lasting 153 episodes.[2]

 

Dragon Ball Z

Main articles: Dragon Ball Z and List of Dragon Ball Z episodes

Instead of continuing the anime as Dragon Ball, Toei Animation decided to carry on with their adaptation under a new name and asked Akira Toriyama to come up with the title. Dragon Ball Z (ドラゴンボールZ(ゼット) Doragon Bōru Zetto?, commonly abbreviated as DBZ) picks up five years after the first series left off and adapts the final 325 chapters of the manga. It premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on April 26, 1989, taking over its predecessor's time slot, and ran for 291 episodes until its conclusion on January 31, 1996.[2]

 

Dragon Ball GT

Main articles: Dragon Ball GT and List of Dragon Ball GT episodes

Dragon Ball GT (ドラゴンボールGT(ジーティー) Doragon Bōru Jī Tī?, G(rand) T(ouring)[35]) premiered on Fuji TV on February 2, 1996 and ran until November 19, 1997 for 64 episodes.[2] Unlike the first two anime series, it is not based on Akira Toriyama's original Dragon Ball manga,[36] being created by Toei Animation as a sequel to the series or as Toriyama called it, a "grand side story of the original Dragon Ball".[35] Toriyama designed the main cast, the spaceship used in the show, the design of three planets, and came up with the title and logo. In addition to this, Toriyama also oversaw production of the series, just as he had for the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime.

 

Dragon Ball Kai

Main articles: Dragon Ball Kai and List of Dragon Ball Z Kai episodes

In February 2009, Toei Animation announced that it would begin broadcasting a revised version of Dragon Ball Z as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations. The series premiered on Fuji TV in Japan on April 5, 2009, under the name Dragon Ball Kai (ドラゴンボール改 Doragon Bōru Kai?, lit. "Dragon Ball Revised"), with the episodes remastered for HDTV, featuring updated opening and ending sequences, and a rerecording of the vocal tracks by most of the original cast.[37][38] The footage was also re-edited to more closely follow the manga, resulting in a faster-moving story, and damaged frames removed.[39] As such, it is a new version of Dragon Ball Z created from the original footage. Some shots were also remade from scratch in order to fix cropping and continuity issues.[40] The majority of the international versions, including Funimation Entertainment's English dub, are titled Dragon Ball Z Kai.[41][42]

 

Dragon Ball Super

Main articles: Dragon Ball Super and List of Dragon Ball Super episodes

On April 28, 2015, Toei Animation announced Dragon Ball Super (ドラゴンボール超 Doragon Bōru Sūpā?), the first all-new Dragon Ball television series to be released in 18 years. It debuted on July 5 and will run as a weekly series at 9:00 am on Fuji TV on Sundays.[43] Masako Nozawa reprised her roles as Goku, Gohan, and Goten. Most of the original cast reprise their roles as well.[44][45] Kouichi Yamadera and Masakazu Morita also reprise their roles, as Beerus and Whis, respectively.[45] The story of the anime is set four years after the defeat of Majin Boo, when the Earth has become peaceful once again. Akira Toriyama is credited as the original creator, as well for "original story & character design concepts."[46] It is also being adapted into a companion manga.[47]

 

Films

Anime

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Nineteen animated theatrical films based on the Dragon Ball series have been released in Japan. The first three films are based on the original Dragon Ball anime series. The remaining films include fifteen based on Dragon Ball Z and one tenth anniversary special (also based on the first anime series). The first five films were shown at the Toei Manga Festival (東映まんがまつり Tōei Manga Matsuri), while the sixth through seventeenth films were shown at the Toei Anime Fair (東映アニメフェア Toei Anime Fea). They were mostly alternate re-tellings of certain story arcs involving new characters or extra side-stories that do not correlate with the same continuity as the series. Since these movies were originally shown as back-to-back presentations alongside other Toei film productions, they were usually below feature length (around 45-60 minutes each), making them only slightly longer than an episode of the TV series (the sole exception being 1996's The Path to Power, which has a running time of 80 minutes). The newest films, Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods (2013) and Dragon Ball Z: Resurrection 'F' (2015), were produced as full-length feature films and were given stand-alone theatrical releases in Japan; these being the first movies to have original creator Akira Toriyama deeply involved in their production.[48][49]

 

Live-action

An unofficial live-action Mandarin Chinese film adaptation of the series, Dragon Ball: The Magic Begins, was released in Taiwan in 1989.[2] In December 1990, the unofficial live-action Korean film Dragon Ball: Ssawora Son Goku, Igyeora Son Goku was released. 20th Century Fox acquired feature film rights to the Dragon Ball franchise in March 2002 and began production on an American live-action film entitled Dragonball Evolution.[50][51] Directed by James Wong and produced by Stephen Chow, it was released in the United States on April 10, 2009.[51][52]

 

TV Specials and other animations

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Three television specials based on the series were aired on Fuji TV in Japan. The first, The One True Final Battle ~The Z Warrior Who Challenged Freeza -- Son Goku's Father~, renamed Bardock – The Father of Goku by Funimation, was shown on October 17, 1990. The second special, The Hopeless Resistance!! Gohan and Trunks -- The Two Remaining Super Warriors, renamed The History of Trunks by Funimation, is based on a special chapter of the original manga and aired on March 24, 1993. Goku Side Story! The Four Star Ball is a Badge of Courage, renamed A Hero's Legacy by Funimation, aired on March 26, 1997. A two-part hour-long crossover special between Dragon Ball Z, One Piece and Toriko, referred to as Dream 9 Toriko & One Piece & Dragon Ball Z Super Collaboration Special!! aired on April 7, 2013.[53]

 

A two-episode original video animation (OVA) titled Dragon Ball Z Side Story: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans was created in 1993 as strategy guides for the Famicom video game of the same name.[54] A remake titled Dragon Ball: Plan to Eradicate the Super Saiyans was created as a bonus feature for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 video game Dragon Ball: Raging Blast 2, which was released on November 11, 2010.[55]

 

The short film Dragon Ball: Yo! Son Goku and His Friends Return!! was created for the Jump Super Anime Tour,[56] which celebrated Weekly Shōnen Jump's 40th anniversary, and debuted on November 24, 2008. A short animated adaptation of Naho Ōishi's Bardock spinoff manga, Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock, was shown on December 17–18, 2011 at the Jump Festa 2012 event.[57]

 

Theme Park Attraction

"Dragon Ball Z: The Real 4D" debuted at Universal Studios Japan during Summer 2016. It features a battle between Goku and Freeza. Unlike most Dragon Ball animation, the ride is animated with CGI.

 

Video games

See also: List of Dragon Ball video games

 

A Dragon Ball Z arcade conversion kit that includes the PCB, instructions and operator's manual.

The Dragon Ball franchise has spawned multiple video games across various genres and platforms. Earlier games of the series included a system of card battling and were released for the Famicom following the storyline of the series.[58] Starting with the Super Famicom and Mega Drive, most of the games were from the fighting genre or RPG (Role Playing Game), such as the Super Butoden series.[59] The first Dragon Ball game to be released in the United States was Dragon Ball GT: Final Bout for the PlayStation in 1997.[60] For the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable games the characters were redone in 3D cel-shaded graphics. These games included the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai series and the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi series.[61][62] Dragon Ball Z: Burst Limit was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.[63] Dragon Ball Xenoverse was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.[64][65] A massively multiplayer online role-playing game called Dragon Ball Online was available in Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan until the servers were shut down in 2013.[66]

 

Soundtracks

See also: List of Dragon Ball soundtracks

Myriad soundtracks were released in the anime, movies and the games. The music for the first two anime Dragon Ball and Z and its films was composed by Shunsuke Kikuchi, while the music from GT was composed by Akihito Tokunaga and the music from Kai was composed by Kenji Yamamoto and Norihito Sumitomo. For the first anime, the soundtracks released were Dragon Ball: Music Collection in 1985 and Dragon Ball: Complete Song Collection in 1991, although they were reissued in 2007 and 2003, respectively.[67] For the second anime, the soundtrack series released were Dragon Ball Z Hit Song Collection Series. It was produced and released by Columbia Records of Japan from July 21, 1989 to March 20, 1996 the show's entire lifespan. On September 20, 2006 Columbia re-released the Hit Song Collection on their Animex 1300 series.[68][69] Other CDs released are compilations, video games and films soundtracks as well as music from the English versions.[70]

 

Companion books

 

Cover of Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations

There have been numerous companion books to the Dragon Ball franchise. Chief among these are the Daizenshuu (大全集?) series, comprising seven hardback main volumes and three supplemental softcover volumes, covering the manga and the first two anime series and their theatrical films. The first of these, Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations (Daizenshuu volume 1), first published in Japan in 1995, is the only one that was released in English, being printed in 2008 by Viz Media.[71] It contains all 264 colored illustrations Akira Toriyama drew for the Weekly Shōnen Jump magazines' covers, bonus giveaways and specials, and all the covers for the 42 tankōbon. It also includes an interview with Toriyama on his work process. The remainder have never been released in English, and all are now out of print in Japan. From February 4 to May 9, 2013, condensed versions of the Daizenshuu with some updated information were released as the four-volume Chōzenshū (超全集?) series.[18] For Dragon Ball GT, the Dragon Ball GT Perfect Files were released in May and December 1997 by Shueisha's Jump Comics Selection imprint. They include series information, illustration galleries, behind-the-scenes information, and more. They were out of print for many years, but were re-released in April 2006 (accompanying the Japanese DVD release of Dragon Ball GT) and this edition is still in print.[72][73]

 

Coinciding with the 34-volume kanzenban re-release of the manga, and the release of the entire series on DVD for the first time in Japan, four new guidebooks were released in 2003 and 2004. Dragon Ball Landmark and Dragon Ball Forever cover the manga, using volume numbers for story points that reference the kanzenban release,[74][75] while Dragon Ball: Tenkaichi Densetsu (ドラゴンボール 天下一伝説?) and Dragon Ball Z: Son Goku Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 孫悟空伝説?) cover the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime, respectively.[76][77] Much of the material in these books is reused from the earlier Daizenshuu volumes, but they include new textual material including substantial interviews with the creator, cast and production staff of the series. Son Goku Densetsu in particular showcases previously-unpublished design sketches of Goku's father Bardock, drawn by character designer Katsuyoshi Nakatsuru prior to creator Akira Toriyama's revisions that resulted in the final version.

 

Following the release of Dragon Ball Kai in Japan, four new guidebooks were released: the two-volume Dragon Ball: Super Exciting Guide (ドラゴンボール 超エキサイティングガイド?) in 2009, covering the manga,[78][79] and two-volume Dragon Ball: Extreme Battle Collection (ドラゴンボール 極限バトルコレクション?) in 2010, covering the anime series.[80][81] Despite the TV series airing during this time being Kai, the Extreme Battle Collection books reference the earlier Z series in content and episode numbers. These books also include new question-and-answer sessions with Akira Toriyama, revealing a few new details about the world and characters of the series. 2010 also saw the release of a new artbook, Dragon Ball: Anime Illustrations Guide - The Golden Warrior (ドラゴンボール アニメイラスト集 「黄金の戦士」?); a sort of anime-counterpart to the manga-oriented Complete Illustrations, it showcases anime-original illustrations and includes interviews with the three principal character designers for the anime. Each of the Japanese "Dragon Box" DVD releases of the series and movies, which were released from 2003 to 2006, as well as the Blu-ray boxed sets of Dragon Ball Kai, released 2009 to 2011, come with a Dragon Book guide that contains details about the content therein. Each also contains a new interview with a member of the cast or staff of the series. These books have been reproduced textually for Funimation's release of the Dragon Ball Z Dragon Box sets from 2009 to 2011.

 

Collectible cards

See also: Dragon Ball Collectible Card Game

Collectible cards based on the Dragon Ball, Dragon Ball Z, and Dragon Ball GT series have been released by Bandai. These cards feature various scenes from the manga and anime stills, plus exclusive artwork from all three series. Bandai released the first set in the United States in July 2008.[82]

 

Reception

Manga

Dragon Ball is one of the most popular manga series of all time, and it continues to enjoy high readership today. By 2000, more than 126 million copies of its tankōbon volumes had been sold in Japan alone.[83] By 2012, this number had grown to pass 156 million in Japan and 230 million worldwide, making it the second best-selling Weekly Shōnen Jump manga of all time.[84][85] Dragon Ball is credited as one of the main reasons for the period when manga circulation was at its highest in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s.[86][87] For the 10th anniversary of the Japan Media Arts Festival in 2006, Japanese fans voted Dragon Ball the third greatest manga of all time.[88]

 

In a survey conducted by Oricon in 2007 among 1,000 people, Son Goku, the main character of the franchise, ranked first place as the "Strongest Manga Character of All Time."[89] Goku's journey and his ever growing strength resulted in the character winning "the admiration of young boys everywhere".[1] Manga artists, such as One Piece creator Eiichiro Oda and Naruto creator Masashi Kishimoto, have stated that Goku inspired their series' main protagonists as well as series structure.[90][91]

 

Manga critic Jason Thompson stated in 2011 that "Dragon Ball is by far the most influential shonen manga of the last 30 years, and today, almost every Shonen Jump artist lists it as one of their favorites and lifts from it in various ways."[92] He says the series "turns from a gag/adventure manga to an nearly-pure fighting manga",[92] and its basic formula of "lots of martial arts, lots of training sequences, a few jokes" became the model for other shōnen series, such as Naruto.[93] Thompson also called Toriyama's art influential and cited it as a reason for the series' popularity.[92] James S. Yadao, author of The Rough Guide to Manga, claims that the first several chapters of Dragon Ball "play out much like Saiyuki with Dr. Slump-like humour built in" and that Dr. Slump, Toriyama's previous manga, has a clear early influence on the series.[94] He feels the series "established its unique identity" after the first occasion when Goku's group disbands and he trains under Kame-sen'nin, when the story develops "a far more action-packed, sinister tone" with "wilder" battles with aerial and spiritual elements and an increased death count, while humor still makes an occasional appearance.[94] Yadao claims that an art shift occurs when the characters "lose the rounded, innocent look that he established in Dr. Slump and gain sharper angles that leap off the page with their energy and intensity."[95]

 

Animerica felt the series had "worldwide appeal", using dramatic pacing and over-the-top martial arts action to "maintain tension levels and keep a crippler crossface hold on the audience's attention spans".[96] In Little Boy: The Art of Japan's Exploding Subculture, Takashi Murakami commented that Dragon Ball's "never-ending cyclical narrative moves forward plausibly, seamlessly, and with great finesse."[83] Ridwan Khan from Animefringe.com commented that the manga had a "chubby" art style, but as the series continued the characters got more refined, leaner, and more muscular. Khan prefers the manga over the slow pacing of the anime counterparts.[97] Allen Divers of Anime News Network praised the story and humor of the manga as being very good at conveying all of the characters' personalities. Divers also called Viz's translation one of the best of all the English editions of the series due to its faithfulness to the original Japanese.[98] D. Aviva Rothschild of Rationalmagic.com remarked the first manga volume as "a superior humor title". They praised Goku's innocence and Bulma's insistence as one of the funniest parts of the series.[99]

 

The content of the manga has been controversial in United States. In November 1999, Toys "R" Us removed Viz's Dragon Ball from their stores nationwide when a Dallas parent complained the series had "borderline soft porn" after he bought them for his four-year-old son.[100] Commenting on the issue, Susan J. Napier explained it as a difference in culture.[100] After the ban, Viz reluctantly began to censor the series to keep wide distribution.[101] However, in 2001, after releasing three volumes censored, Viz announced Dragon Ball would be uncensored and reprinted due to fan reactions.[101] In October 2009, Wicomico County Public Schools in Maryland banned the Dragon Ball manga from their school district because it "depicts nudity, sexual contact between children and sexual innuendo among adults and children."[100]

 

Anime

The anime adaptations have also been very well-received and are better known in the Western world than the manga, with Anime News Network saying "Few anime series have mainstreamed it the way Dragon Ball Z has. To a certain generation of television consumers its characters are as well known as any in the animated realm, and for many it was the first step into the wilderness of anime fandom."[102] In 2000, satellite TV channel Animax together with Brutus, a men's lifestyle magazine, and Tsutaya, Japan's largest video rental chain, conducted a poll among 200,000 fans on the top anime series, with Dragon Ball coming in fourth.[103] TV Asahi conducted two polls in 2005 on the Top 100 Anime, Dragon Ball came in second in the nationwide survey conducted with multiple age-groups and in third in the online poll.[104][105] On several occasions the Dragon Ball anime has topped Japan's DVD sales.[106][107]

 

Carl Kimlinger of Anime News Network summed up Dragon Ball as "an action-packed tale told with rare humor and something even rarer—a genuine sense of adventure."[108] Both Kimlinger and colleague Theron Martin noted Funimation's reputation for drastic alterations of the script, but praised the dub.[108][109] However, some critics and most fans of the Japanese version have been more critical with Funimation's English dub and script of Dragon Ball Z over the years. Jeffrey Harris IGN criticized the voices including how Freeza's appearance combined with the feminine English voice left fans confused about Freeza's gender.[110] Carlos Ross of T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews considered the series' characters to be different from stereotypical stock characters and noted that they undergo much more development.[111] Despite praising Dragon Ball Z for its cast of characters, they criticized it for having long and repetitive fights.[112]

 

Dragon Ball Z is well-known, and often criticized, for its long, repetitive, dragged-out fights that span several episodes, with Martin commenting "DBZ practically turned drawing out fights into an art form."[113] However, Jason Thompson of io9 explained that this comes from the fact that the anime was being created alongside the manga.[114] Dragon Ball Z was listed as the 78th best animated show in IGN's Top 100 Animated Series,[115] and was also listed as the 50th greatest cartoon in Wizard magazine's Top 100 Greatest Cartoons list.[116]

 

Harris commented that Dragon Ball GT "is downright repellent", mentioning that the material and characters had lost their novelty and fun. He also criticized the GT character designs of Trunks and Vegeta as being goofy.[110] Zac Bertschy of Anime News Network also gave negative comments about GT, mentioning that the fights from the series were "a very simple childish exercise" and that many other anime were superior. The plot of Dragon Ball GT has also been criticized for giving a formula that was already used in its predecessors.[117]

 

The first episode of Dragon Ball Z Kai earned a viewer ratings percentage of 11.3, ahead of One Piece and behind Crayon Shin-chan.[118] Although following episodes had lower ratings, Kai was among the top 10 anime in viewer ratings every week in Japan for most of its run.[119][120]

 

Manga

Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)

 

Dragon Ball debuted in Weekly Shōnen Jump No. 51, 1984.

Written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama, Dragon Ball was serialized in the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 20, 1984 to May 23, 1995, when Toriyama grew exhausted and felt he needed a break from drawing. The 519 individual chapters were published into 42 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha from September 10, 1985 through August 4, 1995.[13][14][15] Between December 4, 2002 and April 2, 2004, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 34 kanzenban volumes, which included a slightly rewritten ending, new covers, and color artwork from its Weekly Shōnen Jump run.[16][17] The February 2013 issue of V Jump, which was released in December 2012, announced that parts of the manga will be fully colored and re-released in 2013.[18] Twenty volumes, beginning from chapter 195 and grouped by story arcs, were released between February 4, 2013 and July 4, 2014.[19][20] Twelve volumes covering the first 194 chapters were published between January 4 and March 4, 2016.[21][22] A sōshūhen edition that aims to recreate the manga as it was originally serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump with color pages, promotional text, and next chapter previews, began being published on May 13, 2016.[23]

 

Spin-offs and crossovers

Toriyama also created a short series, Neko Majin (1999–2005), that became a self-parody of Dragon Ball.[24] In 2006, a crossover between Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo (or Kochikame) and Dragon Ball by Toriyama and Kochikame author Osamu Akimoto appeared in the Super Kochikame (超こち亀 Chō Kochikame) manga.[25] That same year, Toriyama teamed up with Eiichiro Oda to create a crossover chapter of Dragon Ball and One Piece entitled Cross Epoch.[26] The final chapter of Toriyama's 2013 manga series Jaco the Galactic Patrolman revealed that it is set before Dragon Ball, with several characters making appearances.[27] Jaco's collected volumes contain a bonus Dragon Ball chapter depicting Goku's mother.[28]

 

A colored spin-off manga titled Dragon Ball SD written by Naho Ōishi has been published in Shueisha's Saikyō Jump magazine since its debut issue in December 2010.[29] A condensed retelling of Goku's adventures in a super deformed art style, it has been collected into four volumes as of February 2016.[30][31][32][33] Another manga penned by Ōishi, the three-chapter Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock that revolves around Bardock, Goku's father, was published in the monthly magazine V Jump from August and October 2011.[34]

 

Anime series

Dragon Ball

Main articles: Dragon Ball (anime) and List of Dragon Ball episodes

Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the first 194 manga chapters, also titled Dragon Ball. The series premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on February 26, 1986 and ran until April 12, 1989, lasting 153 episodes.[2]

 

Dragon Ball Z

Main articles: Dragon Ball Z and List of Dragon Ball Z episodes

Instead of continuing the anime as Dragon Ball, Toei Animation decided to carry on with their adaptation under a new name and asked Akira Toriyama to come up with the title. Dragon Ball Z (ドラゴンボールZ(ゼット) Doragon Bōru Zetto?, commonly abbreviated as DBZ) picks up five years after the first series left off and adapts the final 325 chapters of the manga. It premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on April 26, 1989, taking over its predecessor's time slot, and ran for 291 episodes until its conclusion on January 31, 1996.[2]

 

Dragon Ball GT

Main articles: Dragon Ball GT and List of Dragon Ball GT episodes

Dragon Ball GT (ドラゴンボールGT(ジーティー) Doragon Bōru Jī Tī?, G(rand) T(ouring)[35]) premiered on Fuji TV on February 2, 1996 and ran until November 19, 1997 for 64 episodes.[2] Unlike the first two anime series, it is not based on Akira Toriyama's original Dragon Ball manga,[36] being created by Toei Animation as a sequel to the series or as Toriyama called it, a "grand side story of the original Dragon Ball".[35] Toriyama designed the main cast, the spaceship used in the show, the design of three planets, and came up with the title and logo. In addition to this, Toriyama also oversaw production of the series, just as he had for the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime.

 

Dragon Ball Kai

Main articles: Dragon Ball Kai and List of Dragon Ball Z Kai episodes

In February 2009, Toei Animation announced that it would begin broadcasting a revised version of Dragon Ball Z as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations. The series premiered on Fuji TV in Japan on April 5, 2009, under the name Dragon Ball Kai (ドラゴンボール改 Doragon Bōru Kai?, lit. "Dragon Ball Revised"), with the episodes remastered for HDTV, featuring updated opening and ending sequences, and a rerecording of the vocal tracks by most of the original cast.[37][38] The footage was also re-edited to more closely follow the manga, resulting in a faster-moving story, and damaged frames removed.[39] As such, it is a new version of Dragon Ball Z created from the original footage. Some shots were also remade from scratch in order to fix cropping and continuity issues.[40] The majority of the international versions, including Funimation Entertainment's English dub, are titled Dragon Ball Z Kai.[41][42]

 

Dragon Ball Super

Main articles: Dragon Ball Super and List of Dragon Ball Super episodes

On April 28, 2015, Toei Animation announced Dragon Ball Super (ドラゴンボール超 Doragon Bōru Sūpā?), the first all-new Dragon Ball television series to be released in 18 years. It debuted on July 5 and will run as a weekly series at 9:00 am on Fuji TV on Sundays.[43] Masako Nozawa reprised her roles as Goku, Gohan, and Goten. Most of the original cast reprise their roles as well.[44][45] Kouichi Yamadera and Masakazu Morita also reprise their roles, as Beerus and Whis, respectively.[45] The story of the anime is set four years after the defeat of Majin Boo, when the Earth has become peaceful once again. Akira Toriyama is credited as the original creator, as well for "original story & character design concepts."[46] It is also being adapted into a companion manga.[47]

 

Films

Anime

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Nineteen animated theatrical films based on the Dragon Ball series have been released in Japan. The first three films are based on the original Dragon Ball anime series. The remaining films include fifteen based on Dragon Ball Z and one tenth anniversary special (also based on the first anime series). The first five films were shown at the Toei Manga Festival (東映まんがまつり Tōei Manga Matsuri), while the sixth through seventeenth films were shown at the Toei Anime Fair (東映アニメフェア Toei Anime Fea). They were mostly alternate re-tellings of certain story arcs involving new characters or extra side-stories that do not correlate with the same continuity as the series. Since these movies were originally shown as back-to-back presentations alongside other Toei film productions, they were usually below feature length (around 45-60 minutes each), making them only slightly longer than an episode of the TV series (the sole exception being 1996's The Path to Power, which has a running time of 80 minutes). The newest films, Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods (2013) and Dragon Ball Z: Resurrection 'F' (2015), were produced as full-length feature films and were given stand-alone theatrical releases in Japan; these being the first movies to have original creator Akira Toriyama deeply involved in their production.[48][49]

 

Live-action

An unofficial live-action Mandarin Chinese film adaptation of the series, Dragon Ball: The Magic Begins, was released in Taiwan in 1989.[2] In December 1990, the unofficial live-action Korean film Dragon Ball: Ssawora Son Goku, Igyeora Son Goku was released. 20th Century Fox acquired feature film rights to the Dragon Ball franchise in March 2002 and began production on an American live-action film entitled Dragonball Evolution.[50][51] Directed by James Wong and produced by Stephen Chow, it was released in the United States on April 10, 2009.[51][52]

 

TV Specials and other animations

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Three television specials based on the series were aired on Fuji TV in Japan. The first, The One True Final Battle ~The Z Warrior Who Challenged Freeza -- Son Goku's Father~, renamed Bardock – The Father of Goku by Funimation, was shown on October 17, 1990. The second special, The Hopeless Resistance!! Gohan and Trunks -- The Two Remaining Super Warriors, renamed The History of Trunks by Funimation, is based on a special chapter of the original manga and aired on March 24, 1993. Goku Side Story! The Four Star Ball is a Badge of Courage, renamed A Hero's Legacy by Funimation, aired on March 26, 1997. A two-part hour-long crossover special between Dragon Ball Z, One Piece and Toriko, referred to as Dream 9 Toriko & One Piece & Dragon Ball Z Super Collaboration Special!! aired on April 7, 2013.[53]

 

A two-episode original video animation (OVA) titled Dragon Ball Z Side Story: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans was created in 1993 as strategy guides for the Famicom video game of the same name.[54] A remake titled Dragon Ball: Plan to Eradicate the Super Saiyans was created as a bonus feature for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 video game Dragon Ball: Raging Blast 2, which was released on November 11, 2010.[55]

 

The short film Dragon Ball: Yo! Son Goku and His Friends Return!! was created for the Jump Super Anime Tour,[56] which celebrated Weekly Shōnen Jump's 40th anniversary, and debuted on November 24, 2008. A short animated adaptation of Naho Ōishi's Bardock spinoff manga, Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock, was shown on December 17–18, 2011 at the Jump Festa 2012 event.[57]

 

Theme Park Attraction

"Dragon Ball Z: The Real 4D" debuted at Universal Studios Japan during Summer 2016. It features a battle between Goku and Freeza. Unlike most Dragon Ball animation, the ride is animated with CGI.

 

Video games

See also: List of Dragon Ball video games

 

A Dragon Ball Z arcade conversion kit that includes the PCB, instructions and operator's manual.

The Dragon Ball franchise has spawned multiple video games across various genres and platforms. Earlier games of the series included a system of card battling and were released for the Famicom following the storyline of the series.[58] Starting with the Super Famicom and Mega Drive, most of the games were from the fighting genre or RPG (Role Playing Game), such as the Super Butoden series.[59] The first Dragon Ball game to be released in the United States was Dragon Ball GT: Final Bout for the PlayStation in 1997.[60] For the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable games the characters were redone in 3D cel-shaded graphics. These games included the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai series and the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi series.[61][62] Dragon Ball Z: Burst Limit was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.[63] Dragon Ball Xenoverse was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.[64][65] A massively multiplayer online role-playing game called Dragon Ball Online was available in Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan until the servers were shut down in 2013.[66]

 

Soundtracks

See also: List of Dragon Ball soundtracks

Myriad soundtracks were released in the anime, movies and the games. The music for the first two anime Dragon Ball and Z and its films was composed by Shunsuke Kikuchi, while the music from GT was composed by Akihito Tokunaga and the music from Kai was composed by Kenji Yamamoto and Norihito Sumitomo. For the first anime, the soundtracks released were Dragon Ball: Music Collection in 1985 and Dragon Ball: Complete Song Collection in 1991, although they were reissued in 2007 and 2003, respectively.[67] For the second anime, the soundtrack series released were Dragon Ball Z Hit Song Collection Series. It was produced and released by Columbia Records of Japan from July 21, 1989 to March 20, 1996 the show's entire lifespan. On September 20, 2006 Columbia re-released the Hit Song Collection on their Animex 1300 series.[68][69] Other CDs released are compilations, video games and films soundtracks as well as music from the English versions.[70]

 

Companion books

 

Cover of Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations

There have been numerous companion books to the Dragon Ball franchise. Chief among these are the Daizenshuu (大全集?) series, comprising seven hardback main volumes and three supplemental softcover volumes, covering the manga and the first two anime series and their theatrical films. The first of these, Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations (Daizenshuu volume 1), first published in Japan in 1995, is the only one that was released in English, being printed in 2008 by Viz Media.[71] It contains all 264 colored illustrations Akira Toriyama drew for the Weekly Shōnen Jump magazines' covers, bonus giveaways and specials, and all the covers for the 42 tankōbon. It also includes an interview with Toriyama on his work process. The remainder have never been released in English, and all are now out of print in Japan. From February 4 to May 9, 2013, condensed versions of the Daizenshuu with some updated information were released as the four-volume Chōzenshū (超全集?) series.[18] For Dragon Ball GT, the Dragon Ball GT Perfect Files were released in May and December 1997 by Shueisha's Jump Comics Selection imprint. They include series information, illustration galleries, behind-the-scenes information, and more. They were out of print for many years, but were re-released in April 2006 (accompanying the Japanese DVD release of Dragon Ball GT) and this edition is still in print.[72][73]

 

Coinciding with the 34-volume kanzenban re-release of the manga, and the release of the entire series on DVD for the first time in Japan, four new guidebooks were released in 2003 and 2004. Dragon Ball Landmark and Dragon Ball Forever cover the manga, using volume numbers for story points that reference the kanzenban release,[74][75] while Dragon Ball: Tenkaichi Densetsu (ドラゴンボール 天下一伝説?) and Dragon Ball Z: Son Goku Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 孫悟空伝説?) cover the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime, respectively.[76][77] Much of the material in these books is reused from the earlier Daizenshuu volumes, but they include new textual material including substantial interviews with the creator, cast and production staff of the series. Son Goku Densetsu in particular showcases previously-unpublished design sketches of Goku's father Bardock, drawn by character designer Katsuyoshi Nakatsuru prior to creator Akira Toriyama's revisions that resulted in the final version.

 

Following the release of Dragon Ball Kai in Japan, four new guidebooks were released: the two-volume Dragon Ball: Super Exciting Guide (ドラゴンボール 超エキサイティングガイド?) in 2009, covering the manga,[78][79] and two-volume Dragon Ball: Extreme Battle Collection (ドラゴンボール 極限バトルコレクション?) in 2010, covering the anime series.[80][81] Despite the TV series airing during this time being Kai, the Extreme Battle Collection books reference the earlier Z series in content and episode numbers. These books also include new question-and-answer sessions with Akira Toriyama, revealing a few new details about the world and characters of the series. 2010 also saw the release of a new artbook, Dragon Ball: Anime Illustrations Guide - The Golden Warrior (ドラゴンボール アニメイラスト集 「黄金の戦士」?); a sort of anime-counterpart to the manga-oriented Complete Illustrations, it showcases anime-original illustrations and includes interviews with the three principal character designers for the anime. Each of the Japanese "Dragon Box" DVD releases of the series and movies, which were released from 2003 to 2006, as well as the Blu-ray boxed sets of Dragon Ball Kai, released 2009 to 2011, come with a Dragon Book guide that contains details about the content therein. Each also contains a new interview with a member of the cast or staff of the series. These books have been reproduced textually for Funimation's release of the Dragon Ball Z Dragon Box sets from 2009 to 2011.

 

Collectible cards

See also: Dragon Ball Collectible Card Game

Collectible cards based on the Dragon Ball, Dragon Ball Z, and Dragon Ball GT series have been released by Bandai. These cards feature various scenes from the manga and anime stills, plus exclusive artwork from all three series. Bandai released the first set in the United States in July 2008.[82]

 

Reception

Manga

Dragon Ball is one of the most popular manga series of all time, and it continues to enjoy high readership today. By 2000, more than 126 million copies of its tankōbon volumes had been sold in Japan alone.[83] By 2012, this number had grown to pass 156 million in Japan and 230 million worldwide, making it the second best-selling Weekly Shōnen Jump manga of all time.[84][85] Dragon Ball is credited as one of the main reasons for the period when manga circulation was at its highest in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s.[86][87] For the 10th anniversary of the Japan Media Arts Festival in 2006, Japanese fans voted Dragon Ball the third greatest manga of all time.[88]

 

In a survey conducted by Oricon in 2007 among 1,000 people, Son Goku, the main character of the franchise, ranked first place as the "Strongest Manga Character of All Time."[89] Goku's journey and his ever growing strength resulted in the character winning "the admiration of young boys everywhere".[1] Manga artists, such as One Piece creator Eiichiro Oda and Naruto creator Masashi Kishimoto, have stated that Goku inspired their series' main protagonists as well as series structure.[90][91]

 

Manga critic Jason Thompson stated in 2011 that "Dragon Ball is by far the most influential shonen manga of the last 30 years, and today, almost every Shonen Jump artist lists it as one of their favorites and lifts from it in various ways."[92] He says the series "turns from a gag/adventure manga to an nearly-pure fighting manga",[92] and its basic formula of "lots of martial arts, lots of training sequences, a few jokes" became the model for other shōnen series, such as Naruto.[93] Thompson also called Toriyama's art influential and cited it as a reason for the series' popularity.[92] James S. Yadao, author of The Rough Guide to Manga, claims that the first several chapters of Dragon Ball "play out much like Saiyuki with Dr. Slump-like humour built in" and that Dr. Slump, Toriyama's previous manga, has a clear early influence on the series.[94] He feels the series "established its unique identity" after the first occasion when Goku's group disbands and he trains under Kame-sen'nin, when the story develops "a far more action-packed, sinister tone" with "wilder" battles with aerial and spiritual elements and an increased death count, while humor still makes an occasional appearance.[94] Yadao claims that an art shift occurs when the characters "lose the rounded, innocent look that he established in Dr. Slump and gain sharper angles that leap off the page with their energy and intensity."[95]

 

Animerica felt the series had "worldwide appeal", using dramatic pacing and over-the-top martial arts action to "maintain tension levels and keep a crippler crossface hold on the audience's attention spans".[96] In Little Boy: The Art of Japan's Exploding Subculture, Takashi Murakami commented that Dragon Ball's "never-ending cyclical narrative moves forward plausibly, seamlessly, and with great finesse."[83] Ridwan Khan from Animefringe.com commented that the manga had a "chubby" art style, but as the series continued the characters got more refined, leaner, and more muscular. Khan prefers the manga over the slow pacing of the anime counterparts.[97] Allen Divers of Anime News Network praised the story and humor of the manga as being very good at conveying all of the characters' personalities. Divers also called Viz's translation one of the best of all the English editions of the series due to its faithfulness to the original Japanese.[98] D. Aviva Rothschild of Rationalmagic.com remarked the first manga volume as "a superior humor title". They praised Goku's innocence and Bulma's insistence as one of the funniest parts of the series.[99]

 

The content of the manga has been controversial in United States. In November 1999, Toys "R" Us removed Viz's Dragon Ball from their stores nationwide when a Dallas parent complained the series had "borderline soft porn" after he bought them for his four-year-old son.[100] Commenting on the issue, Susan J. Napier explained it as a difference in culture.[100] After the ban, Viz reluctantly began to censor the series to keep wide distribution.[101] However, in 2001, after releasing three volumes censored, Viz announced Dragon Ball would be uncensored and reprinted due to fan reactions.[101] In October 2009, Wicomico County Public Schools in Maryland banned the Dragon Ball manga from their school district because it "depicts nudity, sexual contact between children and sexual innuendo among adults and children."[100]

 

Anime

The anime adaptations have also been very well-received and are better known in the Western world than the manga, with Anime News Network saying "Few anime series have mainstreamed it the way Dragon Ball Z has. To a certain generation of television consumers its characters are as well known as any in the animated realm, and for many it was the first step into the wilderness of anime fandom."[102] In 2000, satellite TV channel Animax together with Brutus, a men's lifestyle magazine, and Tsutaya, Japan's largest video rental chain, conducted a poll among 200,000 fans on the top anime series, with Dragon Ball coming in fourth.[103] TV Asahi conducted two polls in 2005 on the Top 100 Anime, Dragon Ball came in second in the nationwide survey conducted with multiple age-groups and in third in the online poll.[104][105] On several occasions the Dragon Ball anime has topped Japan's DVD sales.[106][107]

 

Carl Kimlinger of Anime News Network summed up Dragon Ball as "an action-packed tale told with rare humor and something even rarer—a genuine sense of adventure."[108] Both Kimlinger and colleague Theron Martin noted Funimation's reputation for drastic alterations of the script, but praised the dub.[108][109] However, some critics and most fans of the Japanese version have been more critical with Funimation's English dub and script of Dragon Ball Z over the years. Jeffrey Harris IGN criticized the voices including how Freeza's appearance combined with the feminine English voice left fans confused about Freeza's gender.[110] Carlos Ross of T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews considered the series' characters to be different from stereotypical stock characters and noted that they undergo much more development.[111] Despite praising Dragon Ball Z for its cast of characters, they criticized it for having long and repetitive fights.[112]

 

Dragon Ball Z is well-known, and often criticized, for its long, repetitive, dragged-out fights that span several episodes, with Martin commenting "DBZ practically turned drawing out fights into an art form."[113] However, Jason Thompson of io9 explained that this comes from the fact that the anime was being created alongside the manga.[114] Dragon Ball Z was listed as the 78th best animated show in IGN's Top 100 Animated Series,[115] and was also listed as the 50th greatest cartoon in Wizard magazine's Top 100 Greatest Cartoons list.[116]

 

Harris commented that Dragon Ball GT "is downright repellent", mentioning that the material and characters had lost their novelty and fun. He also criticized the GT character designs of Trunks and Vegeta as being goofy.[110] Zac Bertschy of Anime News Network also gave negative comments about GT, mentioning that the fights from the series were "a very simple childish exercise" and that many other anime were superior. The plot of Dragon Ball GT has also been criticized for giving a formula that was already used in its predecessors.[117]

 

The first episode of Dragon Ball Z Kai earned a viewer ratings percentage of 11.3, ahead of One Piece and behind Crayon Shin-chan.[118] Although following episodes had lower ratings, Kai was among the top 10 anime in viewer ratings every week in Japan for most of its run.[119][120]

Vocês devem estar pensando: “O que uma coisa ter a ver com a outra?”. Bom, todos sabem que Dragon Ball, mais especificamente Goku, foi baseado em uma lenda Chinesa, a lenda do Rei Macaco ou a lenda de Saiyuki no Japão.

 

Mas o próprio Akira Toriyama, criador da saga, disse em entrevista à revista Shonen Jump dos EUA, “se não fosse por um filme de Jackie Chan, Dragon Ball nunca teria sido criado” e não teríamos Son Goku hoje.

 

Toriyama era um grande fã dos filmes de artes marciais e em especial do ator Jackie Chan. Para homenagea-lo ele introduziu as artes marciais dentro do mangá além de se inspirar no ator para criar o atrapalhado e poderoso Goku.

 

Dragon Boy?

11

 

O primeiro mangá do estilo artes marciais de Toriyama foi um mangá chamado Dragon Boy e conta a história de um menino com asas de dragão que treina artes marciais em um bosque e que um dia recebe de seu Sensei a missão de levar uma princesa à sua terra natal em segurança. O mangá foi tão bem aceito pelos leitores que Toriyama decidiu então que assim seria a sua nova história, já que estava à procura de uma.

 

A partir de Drunken Master, Akira Toriyama começa a planejar uma história e personagens para Dragon Ball mantendo as origens chinesas do filme e inspirando-se na lenda do Rei Macaco, ou a lenda de Saiyuki a Jornada ao Oeste no Japão.

 

Goku era cotado para ser um macaco

12

 

De inicio a ideia seria fazer de Goku um macaco de verdade, mas essa ideia foi logo descartada pois seria uma copia do Rei Macaco. Então Toriyama inspirou-se em Dragon Boy para criar Goku, o menino seria humano mas com um adicional, uma cauda de macaco.

 

Dragon Ball ia ser finalizado assim que Goku encontra-se as esferas do dragão

 

Ainda bem que isso não aconteceu não é mesmo? Toriyama adicionou também as esferas do dragão na história, que quando juntas, dariam o direito a realizar sonhos, assim como na lenda de Saiyuki que partem em sua jornada em busca dos escritos sagrados do Budismo.

 

Dragon Ball estava fadado a terminar quando as sete esferas fossem reunidas, mas o sucesso do mangá foi tão grande que optaram por continuar com a história, e então Toriyama foi meio que “obrigado” a continuar desenhando os mangás que eram publicados semanalmente.

 

Goku é uma mulher?

 

Calma, calma. No Japão uma senhora chamada Masako Nozawa faz a voz de Goku e seus filhos Gohan e Goten. As mulheres, por causa da voz mais fina, conseguem imitar vozes de criança com muita facilidade. Masako começou fazendo a voz de Goku na primeira parte da série e quando ele ficou mais velho conseguiu alterar a voz para um personagem diferente.

 

Com os filhos ela fazia a mesma coisa e deixou Akira Toriyama espantado: “Em uma cena em que Goku, Gohan e Goten apareciam juntos, Nozawa Masako conseguiu fazer as três vozes da conversa ao mesmo tempo”, disse Toriyama. Aqui no Brasil, Goku também é dublado por uma mulher (Úrsula Bezerra, a mesma dubladora de Naruto) em Dragon Ball.

 

Nomes dos personagens

13

 

Alguns personagens de Dragon Ball possuem nomes bem diferentes relacionados à comida e algumas outras coisas. Dá para citar vários exemplos como Vegeta que vem da palavra vegetal, Freeza de Freezer, Trunks de calções de banho em inglês e as tropas especiais Ginyu (Leite, em japonês) que têm seus nomes tirados do cardápio do café-da-manhã ocidental.

 

A mulher de Toriyama inventou o Kamehameha

14

 

Um dos golpes mais conhecidos de Goku (e mais imitado nas brincadeiras dos anos 90) foi inventado pela mulher de Toriyama. Ele estava aborrecido dizendo: “O nome do ataque especial do Mestre Kame vai ser alguma coisa com Ha”. Logo sua mulher disse: Kamehameha.

 

A palavra tinha uma sonoridade boa e foi logo incorporada ao personagem. O “Kame” significava tartaruga e “Ha” significava onda, mas a palavra inteira não tem significado algum em japonês. Entretanto, Kamehameha é um Deus havaiano. Misturando tudo dá até pra entender porque o Mestre Kame vive numa ilha e tem um casco de tartaruga nas costas.

 

Personagem preferido de Toriyama

15

 

Nada de Goku. Piccolo é o preferido do autor da série. O personagem foi criado por Akira Toriyama quando ele queria um antagonista que fosse um verdadeiro personagem maligno. Antes da sua criação, quase todos os vilões da série eram considerados muito adoráveis.

 

Quando Piccolo foi criado, Toriyama percebeu que sua aparição se transformou em um dos momentos mais interessantes da história do mangá e ele se tornou um de seus personagens favoritos. Apesar de que Akira considerava clichê a transformação de um vilão em herói, ele comentou que ainda se sentia emocionado ao desenhar Piccolo pois apesar de sua cara assustadora, ele se tornou uma criatura bastante simpática.

 

Piccolo surgiu dos desenhos que Akira fazia de humanos mas depois foi planejado para ser um demônio. Quando o protagonista Goku se tornou o homem mais forte da Terra, Toriyama decidiu criar personagens de outros planetas e a Piccolo foi estabelecido como um Namekuseijin.

 

Personagem que Toriyama mais odeia

16

 

Não é nenhum dos vilões. O personagem mais odiado pelo autor é a esposa de Goku: Chi-chi. Ele disse que a personagem é muito mandona e que apesar de tudo ele a fez “chata” de propósito. Ela zela pelo bem-estar de sua família, e deseja que seus filhos não sigam o estilo de vida de Goku, sempre envolvido em lutas e conflitos.

 

Chi-Chi tenta fazer Gohan se concentrar nos estudos durante sua infância, mas seu plano é interrompido por constantes ameaças à Terra durante esse período. Ela toma atitudes diferentes com Goten, e até mesmo o treina.

 

Filha do Rei Cutelo, Chi-chi também é bastante forte, sendo capaz de chegar às etapas finais do torneio Tenkaichi Budokai.

 

Goku se casou por comida

 

Chi-chi e Goku se conheceram quando crianças, e Goku promete se casar com ela, pensando que casamento é algum tipo de comida. Ela o confronta mais tarde e o faz cumprir sua promessa, apesar do mal-entendido.

 

Manga

Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)

 

Dragon Ball debuted in Weekly Shōnen Jump No. 51, 1984.

Written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama, Dragon Ball was serialized in the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 20, 1984 to May 23, 1995, when Toriyama grew exhausted and felt he needed a break from drawing. The 519 individual chapters were published into 42 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha from September 10, 1985 through August 4, 1995.[13][14][15] Between December 4, 2002 and April 2, 2004, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 34 kanzenban volumes, which included a slightly rewritten ending, new covers, and color artwork from its Weekly Shōnen Jump run.[16][17] The February 2013 issue of V Jump, which was released in December 2012, announced that parts of the manga will be fully colored and re-released in 2013.[18] Twenty volumes, beginning from chapter 195 and grouped by story arcs, were released between February 4, 2013 and July 4, 2014.[19][20] Twelve volumes covering the first 194 chapters were published between January 4 and March 4, 2016.[21][22] A sōshūhen edition that aims to recreate the manga as it was originally serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump with color pages, promotional text, and next chapter previews, began being published on May 13, 2016.[23]

 

Spin-offs and crossovers

Toriyama also created a short series, Neko Majin (1999–2005), that became a self-parody of Dragon Ball.[24] In 2006, a crossover between Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo (or Kochikame) and Dragon Ball by Toriyama and Kochikame author Osamu Akimoto appeared in the Super Kochikame (超こち亀 Chō Kochikame) manga.[25] That same year, Toriyama teamed up with Eiichiro Oda to create a crossover chapter of Dragon Ball and One Piece entitled Cross Epoch.[26] The final chapter of Toriyama's 2013 manga series Jaco the Galactic Patrolman revealed that it is set before Dragon Ball, with several characters making appearances.[27] Jaco's collected volumes contain a bonus Dragon Ball chapter depicting Goku's mother.[28]

 

A colored spin-off manga titled Dragon Ball SD written by Naho Ōishi has been published in Shueisha's Saikyō Jump magazine since its debut issue in December 2010.[29] A condensed retelling of Goku's adventures in a super deformed art style, it has been collected into four volumes as of February 2016.[30][31][32][33] Another manga penned by Ōishi, the three-chapter Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock that revolves around Bardock, Goku's father, was published in the monthly magazine V Jump from August and October 2011.[34]

 

Anime series

Dragon Ball

Main articles: Dragon Ball (anime) and List of Dragon Ball episodes

Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the first 194 manga chapters, also titled Dragon Ball. The series premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on February 26, 1986 and ran until April 12, 1989, lasting 153 episodes.[2]

 

Dragon Ball Z

Main articles: Dragon Ball Z and List of Dragon Ball Z episodes

Instead of continuing the anime as Dragon Ball, Toei Animation decided to carry on with their adaptation under a new name and asked Akira Toriyama to come up with the title. Dragon Ball Z (ドラゴンボールZ(ゼット) Doragon Bōru Zetto?, commonly abbreviated as DBZ) picks up five years after the first series left off and adapts the final 325 chapters of the manga. It premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on April 26, 1989, taking over its predecessor's time slot, and ran for 291 episodes until its conclusion on January 31, 1996.[2]

 

Dragon Ball GT

Main articles: Dragon Ball GT and List of Dragon Ball GT episodes

Dragon Ball GT (ドラゴンボールGT(ジーティー) Doragon Bōru Jī Tī?, G(rand) T(ouring)[35]) premiered on Fuji TV on February 2, 1996 and ran until November 19, 1997 for 64 episodes.[2] Unlike the first two anime series, it is not based on Akira Toriyama's original Dragon Ball manga,[36] being created by Toei Animation as a sequel to the series or as Toriyama called it, a "grand side story of the original Dragon Ball".[35] Toriyama designed the main cast, the spaceship used in the show, the design of three planets, and came up with the title and logo. In addition to this, Toriyama also oversaw production of the series, just as he had for the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime.

 

Dragon Ball Kai

Main articles: Dragon Ball Kai and List of Dragon Ball Z Kai episodes

In February 2009, Toei Animation announced that it would begin broadcasting a revised version of Dragon Ball Z as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations. The series premiered on Fuji TV in Japan on April 5, 2009, under the name Dragon Ball Kai (ドラゴンボール改 Doragon Bōru Kai?, lit. "Dragon Ball Revised"), with the episodes remastered for HDTV, featuring updated opening and ending sequences, and a rerecording of the vocal tracks by most of the original cast.[37][38] The footage was also re-edited to more closely follow the manga, resulting in a faster-moving story, and damaged frames removed.[39] As such, it is a new version of Dragon Ball Z created from the original footage. Some shots were also remade from scratch in order to fix cropping and continuity issues.[40] The majority of the international versions, including Funimation Entertainment's English dub, are titled Dragon Ball Z Kai.[41][42]

 

Dragon Ball Super

Main articles: Dragon Ball Super and List of Dragon Ball Super episodes

On April 28, 2015, Toei Animation announced Dragon Ball Super (ドラゴンボール超 Doragon Bōru Sūpā?), the first all-new Dragon Ball television series to be released in 18 years. It debuted on July 5 and will run as a weekly series at 9:00 am on Fuji TV on Sundays.[43] Masako Nozawa reprised her roles as Goku, Gohan, and Goten. Most of the original cast reprise their roles as well.[44][45] Kouichi Yamadera and Masakazu Morita also reprise their roles, as Beerus and Whis, respectively.[45] The story of the anime is set four years after the defeat of Majin Boo, when the Earth has become peaceful once again. Akira Toriyama is credited as the original creator, as well for "original story & character design concepts."[46] It is also being adapted into a companion manga.[47]

 

Films

Anime

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Nineteen animated theatrical films based on the Dragon Ball series have been released in Japan. The first three films are based on the original Dragon Ball anime series. The remaining films include fifteen based on Dragon Ball Z and one tenth anniversary special (also based on the first anime series). The first five films were shown at the Toei Manga Festival (東映まんがまつり Tōei Manga Matsuri), while the sixth through seventeenth films were shown at the Toei Anime Fair (東映アニメフェア Toei Anime Fea). They were mostly alternate re-tellings of certain story arcs involving new characters or extra side-stories that do not correlate with the same continuity as the series. Since these movies were originally shown as back-to-back presentations alongside other Toei film productions, they were usually below feature length (around 45-60 minutes each), making them only slightly longer than an episode of the TV series (the sole exception being 1996's The Path to Power, which has a running time of 80 minutes). The newest films, Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods (2013) and Dragon Ball Z: Resurrection 'F' (2015), were produced as full-length feature films and were given stand-alone theatrical releases in Japan; these being the first movies to have original creator Akira Toriyama deeply involved in their production.[48][49]

 

Live-action

An unofficial live-action Mandarin Chinese film adaptation of the series, Dragon Ball: The Magic Begins, was released in Taiwan in 1989.[2] In December 1990, the unofficial live-action Korean film Dragon Ball: Ssawora Son Goku, Igyeora Son Goku was released. 20th Century Fox acquired feature film rights to the Dragon Ball franchise in March 2002 and began production on an American live-action film entitled Dragonball Evolution.[50][51] Directed by James Wong and produced by Stephen Chow, it was released in the United States on April 10, 2009.[51][52]

 

TV Specials and other animations

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Three television specials based on the series were aired on Fuji TV in Japan. The first, The One True Final Battle ~The Z Warrior Who Challenged Freeza -- Son Goku's Father~, renamed Bardock – The Father of Goku by Funimation, was shown on October 17, 1990. The second special, The Hopeless Resistance!! Gohan and Trunks -- The Two Remaining Super Warriors, renamed The History of Trunks by Funimation, is based on a special chapter of the original manga and aired on March 24, 1993. Goku Side Story! The Four Star Ball is a Badge of Courage, renamed A Hero's Legacy by Funimation, aired on March 26, 1997. A two-part hour-long crossover special between Dragon Ball Z, One Piece and Toriko, referred to as Dream 9 Toriko & One Piece & Dragon Ball Z Super Collaboration Special!! aired on April 7, 2013.[53]

 

A two-episode original video animation (OVA) titled Dragon Ball Z Side Story: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans was created in 1993 as strategy guides for the Famicom video game of the same name.[54] A remake titled Dragon Ball: Plan to Eradicate the Super Saiyans was created as a bonus feature for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 video game Dragon Ball: Raging Blast 2, which was released on November 11, 2010.[55]

 

The short film Dragon Ball: Yo! Son Goku and His Friends Return!! was created for the Jump Super Anime Tour,[56] which celebrated Weekly Shōnen Jump's 40th anniversary, and debuted on November 24, 2008. A short animated adaptation of Naho Ōishi's Bardock spinoff manga, Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock, was shown on December 17–18, 2011 at the Jump Festa 2012 event.[57]

 

Theme Park Attraction

"Dragon Ball Z: The Real 4D" debuted at Universal Studios Japan during Summer 2016. It features a battle between Goku and Freeza. Unlike most Dragon Ball animation, the ride is animated with CGI.

 

Video games

See also: List of Dragon Ball video games

 

A Dragon Ball Z arcade conversion kit that includes the PCB, instructions and operator's manual.

The Dragon Ball franchise has spawned multiple video games across various genres and platforms. Earlier games of the series included a system of card battling and were released for the Famicom following the storyline of the series.[58] Starting with the Super Famicom and Mega Drive, most of the games were from the fighting genre or RPG (Role Playing Game), such as the Super Butoden series.[59] The first Dragon Ball game to be released in the United States was Dragon Ball GT: Final Bout for the PlayStation in 1997.[60] For the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable games the characters were redone in 3D cel-shaded graphics. These games included the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai series and the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi series.[61][62] Dragon Ball Z: Burst Limit was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.[63] Dragon Ball Xenoverse was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.[64][65] A massively multiplayer online role-playing game called Dragon Ball Online was available in Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan until the servers were shut down in 2013.[66]

 

Soundtracks

See also: List of Dragon Ball soundtracks

Myriad soundtracks were released in the anime, movies and the games. The music for the first two anime Dragon Ball and Z and its films was composed by Shunsuke Kikuchi, while the music from GT was composed by Akihito Tokunaga and the music from Kai was composed by Kenji Yamamoto and Norihito Sumitomo. For the first anime, the soundtracks released were Dragon Ball: Music Collection in 1985 and Dragon Ball: Complete Song Collection in 1991, although they were reissued in 2007 and 2003, respectively.[67] For the second anime, the soundtrack series released were Dragon Ball Z Hit Song Collection Series. It was produced and released by Columbia Records of Japan from July 21, 1989 to March 20, 1996 the show's entire lifespan. On September 20, 2006 Columbia re-released the Hit Song Collection on their Animex 1300 series.[68][69] Other CDs released are compilations, video games and films soundtracks as well as music from the English versions.[70]

 

Companion books

 

Cover of Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations

There have been numerous companion books to the Dragon Ball franchise. Chief among these are the Daizenshuu (大全集?) series, comprising seven hardback main volumes and three supplemental softcover volumes, covering the manga and the first two anime series and their theatrical films. The first of these, Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations (Daizenshuu volume 1), first published in Japan in 1995, is the only one that was released in English, being printed in 2008 by Viz Media.[71] It contains all 264 colored illustrations Akira Toriyama drew for the Weekly Shōnen Jump magazines' covers, bonus giveaways and specials, and all the covers for the 42 tankōbon. It also includes an interview with Toriyama on his work process. The remainder have never been released in English, and all are now out of print in Japan. From February 4 to May 9, 2013, condensed versions of the Daizenshuu with some updated information were released as the four-volume Chōzenshū (超全集?) series.[18] For Dragon Ball GT, the Dragon Ball GT Perfect Files were released in May and December 1997 by Shueisha's Jump Comics Selection imprint. They include series information, illustration galleries, behind-the-scenes information, and more. They were out of print for many years, but were re-released in April 2006 (accompanying the Japanese DVD release of Dragon Ball GT) and this edition is still in print.[72][73]

 

Coinciding with the 34-volume kanzenban re-release of the manga, and the release of the entire series on DVD for the first time in Japan, four new guidebooks were released in 2003 and 2004. Dragon Ball Landmark and Dragon Ball Forever cover the manga, using volume numbers for story points that reference the kanzenban release,[74][75] while Dragon Ball: Tenkaichi Densetsu (ドラゴンボール 天下一伝説?) and Dragon Ball Z: Son Goku Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 孫悟空伝説?) cover the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime, respectively.[76][77] Much of the material in these books is reused from the earlier Daizenshuu volumes, but they include new textual material including substantial interviews with the creator, cast and production staff of the series. Son Goku Densetsu in particular showcases previously-unpublished design sketches of Goku's father Bardock, drawn by character designer Katsuyoshi Nakatsuru prior to creator Akira Toriyama's revisions that resulted in the final version.

 

Following the release of Dragon Ball Kai in Japan, four new guidebooks were released: the two-volume Dragon Ball: Super Exciting Guide (ドラゴンボール 超エキサイティングガイド?) in 2009, covering the manga,[78][79] and two-volume Dragon Ball: Extreme Battle Collection (ドラゴンボール 極限バトルコレクション?) in 2010, covering the anime series.[80][81] Despite the TV series airing during this time being Kai, the Extreme Battle Collection books reference the earlier Z series in content and episode numbers. These books also include new question-and-answer sessions with Akira Toriyama, revealing a few new details about the world and characters of the series. 2010 also saw the release of a new artbook, Dragon Ball: Anime Illustrations Guide - The Golden Warrior (ドラゴンボール アニメイラスト集 「黄金の戦士」?); a sort of anime-counterpart to the manga-oriented Complete Illustrations, it showcases anime-original illustrations and includes interviews with the three principal character designers for the anime. Each of the Japanese "Dragon Box" DVD releases of the series and movies, which were released from 2003 to 2006, as well as the Blu-ray boxed sets of Dragon Ball Kai, released 2009 to 2011, come with a Dragon Book guide that contains details about the content therein. Each also contains a new interview with a member of the cast or staff of the series. These books have been reproduced textually for Funimation's release of the Dragon Ball Z Dragon Box sets from 2009 to 2011.

 

Collectible cards

See also: Dragon Ball Collectible Card Game

Collectible cards based on the Dragon Ball, Dragon Ball Z, and Dragon Ball GT series have been released by Bandai. These cards feature various scenes from the manga and anime stills, plus exclusive artwork from all three series. Bandai released the first set in the United States in July 2008.[82]

 

Reception

Manga

Dragon Ball is one of the most popular manga series of all time, and it continues to enjoy high readership today. By 2000, more than 126 million copies of its tankōbon volumes had been sold in Japan alone.[83] By 2012, this number had grown to pass 156 million in Japan and 230 million worldwide, making it the second best-selling Weekly Shōnen Jump manga of all time.[84][85] Dragon Ball is credited as one of the main reasons for the period when manga circulation was at its highest in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s.[86][87] For the 10th anniversary of the Japan Media Arts Festival in 2006, Japanese fans voted Dragon Ball the third greatest manga of all time.[88]

 

In a survey conducted by Oricon in 2007 among 1,000 people, Son Goku, the main character of the franchise, ranked first place as the "Strongest Manga Character of All Time."[89] Goku's journey and his ever growing strength resulted in the character winning "the admiration of young boys everywhere".[1] Manga artists, such as One Piece creator Eiichiro Oda and Naruto creator Masashi Kishimoto, have stated that Goku inspired their series' main protagonists as well as series structure.[90][91]

 

Manga critic Jason Thompson stated in 2011 that "Dragon Ball is by far the most influential shonen manga of the last 30 years, and today, almost every Shonen Jump artist lists it as one of their favorites and lifts from it in various ways."[92] He says the series "turns from a gag/adventure manga to an nearly-pure fighting manga",[92] and its basic formula of "lots of martial arts, lots of training sequences, a few jokes" became the model for other shōnen series, such as Naruto.[93] Thompson also called Toriyama's art influential and cited it as a reason for the series' popularity.[92] James S. Yadao, author of The Rough Guide to Manga, claims that the first several chapters of Dragon Ball "play out much like Saiyuki with Dr. Slump-like humour built in" and that Dr. Slump, Toriyama's previous manga, has a clear early influence on the series.[94] He feels the series "established its unique identity" after the first occasion when Goku's group disbands and he trains under Kame-sen'nin, when the story develops "a far more action-packed, sinister tone" with "wilder" battles with aerial and spiritual elements and an increased death count, while humor still makes an occasional appearance.[94] Yadao claims that an art shift occurs when the characters "lose the rounded, innocent look that he established in Dr. Slump and gain sharper angles that leap off the page with their energy and intensity."[95]

 

Animerica felt the series had "worldwide appeal", using dramatic pacing and over-the-top martial arts action to "maintain tension levels and keep a crippler crossface hold on the audience's attention spans".[96] In Little Boy: The Art of Japan's Exploding Subculture, Takashi Murakami commented that Dragon Ball's "never-ending cyclical narrative moves forward plausibly, seamlessly, and with great finesse."[83] Ridwan Khan from Animefringe.com commented that the manga had a "chubby" art style, but as the series continued the characters got more refined, leaner, and more muscular. Khan prefers the manga over the slow pacing of the anime counterparts.[97] Allen Divers of Anime News Network praised the story and humor of the manga as being very good at conveying all of the characters' personalities. Divers also called Viz's translation one of the best of all the English editions of the series due to its faithfulness to the original Japanese.[98] D. Aviva Rothschild of Rationalmagic.com remarked the first manga volume as "a superior humor title". They praised Goku's innocence and Bulma's insistence as one of the funniest parts of the series.[99]

 

The content of the manga has been controversial in United States. In November 1999, Toys "R" Us removed Viz's Dragon Ball from their stores nationwide when a Dallas parent complained the series had "borderline soft porn" after he bought them for his four-year-old son.[100] Commenting on the issue, Susan J. Napier explained it as a difference in culture.[100] After the ban, Viz reluctantly began to censor the series to keep wide distribution.[101] However, in 2001, after releasing three volumes censored, Viz announced Dragon Ball would be uncensored and reprinted due to fan reactions.[101] In October 2009, Wicomico County Public Schools in Maryland banned the Dragon Ball manga from their school district because it "depicts nudity, sexual contact between children and sexual innuendo among adults and children."[100]

 

Anime

The anime adaptations have also been very well-received and are better known in the Western world than the manga, with Anime News Network saying "Few anime series have mainstreamed it the way Dragon Ball Z has. To a certain generation of television consumers its characters are as well known as any in the animated realm, and for many it was the first step into the wilderness of anime fandom."[102] In 2000, satellite TV channel Animax together with Brutus, a men's lifestyle magazine, and Tsutaya, Japan's largest video rental chain, conducted a poll among 200,000 fans on the top anime series, with Dragon Ball coming in fourth.[103] TV Asahi conducted two polls in 2005 on the Top 100 Anime, Dragon Ball came in second in the nationwide survey conducted with multiple age-groups and in third in the online poll.[104][105] On several occasions the Dragon Ball anime has topped Japan's DVD sales.[106][107]

 

Carl Kimlinger of Anime News Network summed up Dragon Ball as "an action-packed tale told with rare humor and something even rarer—a genuine sense of adventure."[108] Both Kimlinger and colleague Theron Martin noted Funimation's reputation for drastic alterations of the script, but praised the dub.[108][109] However, some critics and most fans of the Japanese version have been more critical with Funimation's English dub and script of Dragon Ball Z over the years. Jeffrey Harris IGN criticized the voices including how Freeza's appearance combined with the feminine English voice left fans confused about Freeza's gender.[110] Carlos Ross of T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews considered the series' characters to be different from stereotypical stock characters and noted that they undergo much more development.[111] Despite praising Dragon Ball Z for its cast of characters, they criticized it for having long and repetitive fights.[112]

 

Dragon Ball Z is well-known, and often criticized, for its long, repetitive, dragged-out fights that span several episodes, with Martin commenting "DBZ practically turned drawing out fights into an art form."[113] However, Jason Thompson of io9 explained that this comes from the fact that the anime was being created alongside the manga.[114] Dragon Ball Z was listed as the 78th best animated show in IGN's Top 100 Animated Series,[115] and was also listed as the 50th greatest cartoon in Wizard magazine's Top 100 Greatest Cartoons list.[116]

 

Harris commented that Dragon Ball GT "is downright repellent", mentioning that the material and characters had lost their novelty and fun. He also criticized the GT character designs of Trunks and Vegeta as being goofy.[110] Zac Bertschy of Anime News Network also gave negative comments about GT, mentioning that the fights from the series were "a very simple childish exercise" and that many other anime were superior. The plot of Dragon Ball GT has also been criticized for giving a formula that was already used in its predecessors.[117]

 

The first episode of Dragon Ball Z Kai earned a viewer ratings percentage of 11.3, ahead of One Piece and behind Crayon Shin-chan.[118] Although following episodes had lower ratings, Kai was among the top 10 anime in viewer ratings every week in Japan for most of its run.[119][120]

 

Manga

Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)

 

Dragon Ball debuted in Weekly Shōnen Jump No. 51, 1984.

Written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama, Dragon Ball was serialized in the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 20, 1984 to May 23, 1995, when Toriyama grew exhausted and felt he needed a break from drawing. The 519 individual chapters were published into 42 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha from September 10, 1985 through August 4, 1995.[13][14][15] Between December 4, 2002 and April 2, 2004, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 34 kanzenban volumes, which included a slightly rewritten ending, new covers, and color artwork from its Weekly Shōnen Jump run.[16][17] The February 2013 issue of V Jump, which was released in December 2012, announced that parts of the manga will be fully colored and re-released in 2013.[18] Twenty volumes, beginning from chapter 195 and grouped by story arcs, were released between February 4, 2013 and July 4, 2014.[19][20] Twelve volumes covering the first 194 chapters were published between January 4 and March 4, 2016.[21][22] A sōshūhen edition that aims to recreate the manga as it was originally serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump with color pages, promotional text, and next chapter previews, began being published on May 13, 2016.[23]

 

Spin-offs and crossovers

Toriyama also created a short series, Neko Majin (1999–2005), that became a self-parody of Dragon Ball.[24] In 2006, a crossover between Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo (or Kochikame) and Dragon Ball by Toriyama and Kochikame author Osamu Akimoto appeared in the Super Kochikame (超こち亀 Chō Kochikame) manga.[25] That same year, Toriyama teamed up with Eiichiro Oda to create a crossover chapter of Dragon Ball and One Piece entitled Cross Epoch.[26] The final chapter of Toriyama's 2013 manga series Jaco the Galactic Patrolman revealed that it is set before Dragon Ball, with several characters making appearances.[27] Jaco's collected volumes contain a bonus Dragon Ball chapter depicting Goku's mother.[28]

 

A colored spin-off manga titled Dragon Ball SD written by Naho Ōishi has been published in Shueisha's Saikyō Jump magazine since its debut issue in December 2010.[29] A condensed retelling of Goku's adventures in a super deformed art style, it has been collected into four volumes as of February 2016.[30][31][32][33] Another manga penned by Ōishi, the three-chapter Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock that revolves around Bardock, Goku's father, was published in the monthly magazine V Jump from August and October 2011.[34]

 

Anime series

Dragon Ball

Main articles: Dragon Ball (anime) and List of Dragon Ball episodes

Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the first 194 manga chapters, also titled Dragon Ball. The series premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on February 26, 1986 and ran until April 12, 1989, lasting 153 episodes.[2]

 

Dragon Ball Z

Main articles: Dragon Ball Z and List of Dragon Ball Z episodes

Instead of continuing the anime as Dragon Ball, Toei Animation decided to carry on with their adaptation under a new name and asked Akira Toriyama to come up with the title. Dragon Ball Z (ドラゴンボールZ(ゼット) Doragon Bōru Zetto?, commonly abbreviated as DBZ) picks up five years after the first series left off and adapts the final 325 chapters of the manga. It premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on April 26, 1989, taking over its predecessor's time slot, and ran for 291 episodes until its conclusion on January 31, 1996.[2]

 

Dragon Ball GT

Main articles: Dragon Ball GT and List of Dragon Ball GT episodes

Dragon Ball GT (ドラゴンボールGT(ジーティー) Doragon Bōru Jī Tī?, G(rand) T(ouring)[35]) premiered on Fuji TV on February 2, 1996 and ran until November 19, 1997 for 64 episodes.[2] Unlike the first two anime series, it is not based on Akira Toriyama's original Dragon Ball manga,[36] being created by Toei Animation as a sequel to the series or as Toriyama called it, a "grand side story of the original Dragon Ball".[35] Toriyama designed the main cast, the spaceship used in the show, the design of three planets, and came up with the title and logo. In addition to this, Toriyama also oversaw production of the series, just as he had for the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime.

 

Dragon Ball Kai

Main articles: Dragon Ball Kai and List of Dragon Ball Z Kai episodes

In February 2009, Toei Animation announced that it would begin broadcasting a revised version of Dragon Ball Z as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations. The series premiered on Fuji TV in Japan on April 5, 2009, under the name Dragon Ball Kai (ドラゴンボール改 Doragon Bōru Kai?, lit. "Dragon Ball Revised"), with the episodes remastered for HDTV, featuring updated opening and ending sequences, and a rerecording of the vocal tracks by most of the original cast.[37][38] The footage was also re-edited to more closely follow the manga, resulting in a faster-moving story, and damaged frames removed.[39] As such, it is a new version of Dragon Ball Z created from the original footage. Some shots were also remade from scratch in order to fix cropping and continuity issues.[40] The majority of the international versions, including Funimation Entertainment's English dub, are titled Dragon Ball Z Kai.[41][42]

 

Dragon Ball Super

Main articles: Dragon Ball Super and List of Dragon Ball Super episodes

On April 28, 2015, Toei Animation announced Dragon Ball Super (ドラゴンボール超 Doragon Bōru Sūpā?), the first all-new Dragon Ball television series to be released in 18 years. It debuted on July 5 and will run as a weekly series at 9:00 am on Fuji TV on Sundays.[43] Masako Nozawa reprised her roles as Goku, Gohan, and Goten. Most of the original cast reprise their roles as well.[44][45] Kouichi Yamadera and Masakazu Morita also reprise their roles, as Beerus and Whis, respectively.[45] The story of the anime is set four years after the defeat of Majin Boo, when the Earth has become peaceful once again. Akira Toriyama is credited as the original creator, as well for "original story & character design concepts."[46] It is also being adapted into a companion manga.[47]

 

Films

Anime

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Nineteen animated theatrical films based on the Dragon Ball series have been released in Japan. The first three films are based on the original Dragon Ball anime series. The remaining films include fifteen based on Dragon Ball Z and one tenth anniversary special (also based on the first anime series). The first five films were shown at the Toei Manga Festival (東映まんがまつり Tōei Manga Matsuri), while the sixth through seventeenth films were shown at the Toei Anime Fair (東映アニメフェア Toei Anime Fea). They were mostly alternate re-tellings of certain story arcs involving new characters or extra side-stories that do not correlate with the same continuity as the series. Since these movies were originally shown as back-to-back presentations alongside other Toei film productions, they were usually below feature length (around 45-60 minutes each), making them only slightly longer than an episode of the TV series (the sole exception being 1996's The Path to Power, which has a running time of 80 minutes). The newest films, Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods (2013) and Dragon Ball Z: Resurrection 'F' (2015), were produced as full-length feature films and were given stand-alone theatrical releases in Japan; these being the first movies to have original creator Akira Toriyama deeply involved in their production.[48][49]

 

Live-action

An unofficial live-action Mandarin Chinese film adaptation of the series, Dragon Ball: The Magic Begins, was released in Taiwan in 1989.[2] In December 1990, the unofficial live-action Korean film Dragon Ball: Ssawora Son Goku, Igyeora Son Goku was released. 20th Century Fox acquired feature film rights to the Dragon Ball franchise in March 2002 and began production on an American live-action film entitled Dragonball Evolution.[50][51] Directed by James Wong and produced by Stephen Chow, it was released in the United States on April 10, 2009.[51][52]

 

TV Specials and other animations

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Three television specials based on the series were aired on Fuji TV in Japan. The first, The One True Final Battle ~The Z Warrior Who Challenged Freeza -- Son Goku's Father~, renamed Bardock – The Father of Goku by Funimation, was shown on October 17, 1990. The second special, The Hopeless Resistance!! Gohan and Trunks -- The Two Remaining Super Warriors, renamed The History of Trunks by Funimation, is based on a special chapter of the original manga and aired on March 24, 1993. Goku Side Story! The Four Star Ball is a Badge of Courage, renamed A Hero's Legacy by Funimation, aired on March 26, 1997. A two-part hour-long crossover special between Dragon Ball Z, One Piece and Toriko, referred to as Dream 9 Toriko & One Piece & Dragon Ball Z Super Collaboration Special!! aired on April 7, 2013.[53]

 

A two-episode original video animation (OVA) titled Dragon Ball Z Side Story: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans was created in 1993 as strategy guides for the Famicom video game of the same name.[54] A remake titled Dragon Ball: Plan to Eradicate the Super Saiyans was created as a bonus feature for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 video game Dragon Ball: Raging Blast 2, which was released on November 11, 2010.[55]

 

The short film Dragon Ball: Yo! Son Goku and His Friends Return!! was created for the Jump Super Anime Tour,[56] which celebrated Weekly Shōnen Jump's 40th anniversary, and debuted on November 24, 2008. A short animated adaptation of Naho Ōishi's Bardock spinoff manga, Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock, was shown on December 17–18, 2011 at the Jump Festa 2012 event.[57]

 

Theme Park Attraction

"Dragon Ball Z: The Real 4D" debuted at Universal Studios Japan during Summer 2016. It features a battle between Goku and Freeza. Unlike most Dragon Ball animation, the ride is animated with CGI.

 

Video games

See also: List of Dragon Ball video games

 

A Dragon Ball Z arcade conversion kit that includes the PCB, instructions and operator's manual.

The Dragon Ball franchise has spawned multiple video games across various genres and platforms. Earlier games of the series included a system of card battling and were released for the Famicom following the storyline of the series.[58] Starting with the Super Famicom and Mega Drive, most of the games were from the fighting genre or RPG (Role Playing Game), such as the Super Butoden series.[59] The first Dragon Ball game to be released in the United States was Dragon Ball GT: Final Bout for the PlayStation in 1997.[60] For the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable games the characters were redone in 3D cel-shaded graphics. These games included the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai series and the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi series.[61][62] Dragon Ball Z: Burst Limit was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.[63] Dragon Ball Xenoverse was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.[64][65] A massively multiplayer online role-playing game called Dragon Ball Online was available in Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan until the servers were shut down in 2013.[66]

 

Soundtracks

See also: List of Dragon Ball soundtracks

Myriad soundtracks were released in the anime, movies and the games. The music for the first two anime Dragon Ball and Z and its films was composed by Shunsuke Kikuchi, while the music from GT was composed by Akihito Tokunaga and the music from Kai was composed by Kenji Yamamoto and Norihito Sumitomo. For the first anime, the soundtracks released were Dragon Ball: Music Collection in 1985 and Dragon Ball: Complete Song Collection in 1991, although they were reissued in 2007 and 2003, respectively.[67] For the second anime, the soundtrack series released were Dragon Ball Z Hit Song Collection Series. It was produced and released by Columbia Records of Japan from July 21, 1989 to March 20, 1996 the show's entire lifespan. On September 20, 2006 Columbia re-released the Hit Song Collection on their Animex 1300 series.[68][69] Other CDs released are compilations, video games and films soundtracks as well as music from the English versions.[70]

 

Companion books

 

Cover of Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations

There have been numerous companion books to the Dragon Ball franchise. Chief among these are the Daizenshuu (大全集?) series, comprising seven hardback main volumes and three supplemental softcover volumes, covering the manga and the first two anime series and their theatrical films. The first of these, Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations (Daizenshuu volume 1), first published in Japan in 1995, is the only one that was released in English, being printed in 2008 by Viz Media.[71] It contains all 264 colored illustrations Akira Toriyama drew for the Weekly Shōnen Jump magazines' covers, bonus giveaways and specials, and all the covers for the 42 tankōbon. It also includes an interview with Toriyama on his work process. The remainder have never been released in English, and all are now out of print in Japan. From February 4 to May 9, 2013, condensed versions of the Daizenshuu with some updated information were released as the four-volume Chōzenshū (超全集?) series.[18] For Dragon Ball GT, the Dragon Ball GT Perfect Files were released in May and December 1997 by Shueisha's Jump Comics Selection imprint. They include series information, illustration galleries, behind-the-scenes information, and more. They were out of print for many years, but were re-released in April 2006 (accompanying the Japanese DVD release of Dragon Ball GT) and this edition is still in print.[72][73]

 

Coinciding with the 34-volume kanzenban re-release of the manga, and the release of the entire series on DVD for the first time in Japan, four new guidebooks were released in 2003 and 2004. Dragon Ball Landmark and Dragon Ball Forever cover the manga, using volume numbers for story points that reference the kanzenban release,[74][75] while Dragon Ball: Tenkaichi Densetsu (ドラゴンボール 天下一伝説?) and Dragon Ball Z: Son Goku Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 孫悟空伝説?) cover the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime, respectively.[76][77] Much of the material in these books is reused from the earlier Daizenshuu volumes, but they include new textual material including substantial interviews with the creator, cast and production staff of the series. Son Goku Densetsu in particular showcases previously-unpublished design sketches of Goku's father Bardock, drawn by character designer Katsuyoshi Nakatsuru prior to creator Akira Toriyama's revisions that resulted in the final version.

 

Following the release of Dragon Ball Kai in Japan, four new guidebooks were released: the two-volume Dragon Ball: Super Exciting Guide (ドラゴンボール 超エキサイティングガイド?) in 2009, covering the manga,[78][79] and two-volume Dragon Ball: Extreme Battle Collection (ドラゴンボール 極限バトルコレクション?) in 2010, covering the anime series.[80][81] Despite the TV series airing during this time being Kai, the Extreme Battle Collection books reference the earlier Z series in content and episode numbers. These books also include new question-and-answer sessions with Akira Toriyama, revealing a few new details about the world and characters of the series. 2010 also saw the release of a new artbook, Dragon Ball: Anime Illustrations Guide - The Golden Warrior (ドラゴンボール アニメイラスト集 「黄金の戦士」?); a sort of anime-counterpart to the manga-oriented Complete Illustrations, it showcases anime-original illustrations and includes interviews with the three principal character designers for the anime. Each of the Japanese "Dragon Box" DVD releases of the series and movies, which were released from 2003 to 2006, as well as the Blu-ray boxed sets of Dragon Ball Kai, released 2009 to 2011, come with a Dragon Book guide that contains details about the content therein. Each also contains a new interview with a member of the cast or staff of the series. These books have been reproduced textually for Funimation's release of the Dragon Ball Z Dragon Box sets from 2009 to 2011.

 

Collectible cards

See also: Dragon Ball Collectible Card Game

Collectible cards based on the Dragon Ball, Dragon Ball Z, and Dragon Ball GT series have been released by Bandai. These cards feature various scenes from the manga and anime stills, plus exclusive artwork from all three series. Bandai released the first set in the United States in July 2008.[82]

 

Reception

Manga

Dragon Ball is one of the most popular manga series of all time, and it continues to enjoy high readership today. By 2000, more than 126 million copies of its tankōbon volumes had been sold in Japan alone.[83] By 2012, this number had grown to pass 156 million in Japan and 230 million worldwide, making it the second best-selling Weekly Shōnen Jump manga of all time.[84][85] Dragon Ball is credited as one of the main reasons for the period when manga circulation was at its highest in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s.[86][87] For the 10th anniversary of the Japan Media Arts Festival in 2006, Japanese fans voted Dragon Ball the third greatest manga of all time.[88]

 

In a survey conducted by Oricon in 2007 among 1,000 people, Son Goku, the main character of the franchise, ranked first place as the "Strongest Manga Character of All Time."[89] Goku's journey and his ever growing strength resulted in the character winning "the admiration of young boys everywhere".[1] Manga artists, such as One Piece creator Eiichiro Oda and Naruto creator Masashi Kishimoto, have stated that Goku inspired their series' main protagonists as well as series structure.[90][91]

 

Manga critic Jason Thompson stated in 2011 that "Dragon Ball is by far the most influential shonen manga of the last 30 years, and today, almost every Shonen Jump artist lists it as one of their favorites and lifts from it in various ways."[92] He says the series "turns from a gag/adventure manga to an nearly-pure fighting manga",[92] and its basic formula of "lots of martial arts, lots of training sequences, a few jokes" became the model for other shōnen series, such as Naruto.[93] Thompson also called Toriyama's art influential and cited it as a reason for the series' popularity.[92] James S. Yadao, author of The Rough Guide to Manga, claims that the first several chapters of Dragon Ball "play out much like Saiyuki with Dr. Slump-like humour built in" and that Dr. Slump, Toriyama's previous manga, has a clear early influence on the series.[94] He feels the series "established its unique identity" after the first occasion when Goku's group disbands and he trains under Kame-sen'nin, when the story develops "a far more action-packed, sinister tone" with "wilder" battles with aerial and spiritual elements and an increased death count, while humor still makes an occasional appearance.[94] Yadao claims that an art shift occurs when the characters "lose the rounded, innocent look that he established in Dr. Slump and gain sharper angles that leap off the page with their energy and intensity."[95]

 

Animerica felt the series had "worldwide appeal", using dramatic pacing and over-the-top martial arts action to "maintain tension levels and keep a crippler crossface hold on the audience's attention spans".[96] In Little Boy: The Art of Japan's Exploding Subculture, Takashi Murakami commented that Dragon Ball's "never-ending cyclical narrative moves forward plausibly, seamlessly, and with great finesse."[83] Ridwan Khan from Animefringe.com commented that the manga had a "chubby" art style, but as the series continued the characters got more refined, leaner, and more muscular. Khan prefers the manga over the slow pacing of the anime counterparts.[97] Allen Divers of Anime News Network praised the story and humor of the manga as being very good at conveying all of the characters' personalities. Divers also called Viz's translation one of the best of all the English editions of the series due to its faithfulness to the original Japanese.[98] D. Aviva Rothschild of Rationalmagic.com remarked the first manga volume as "a superior humor title". They praised Goku's innocence and Bulma's insistence as one of the funniest parts of the series.[99]

 

The content of the manga has been controversial in United States. In November 1999, Toys "R" Us removed Viz's Dragon Ball from their stores nationwide when a Dallas parent complained the series had "borderline soft porn" after he bought them for his four-year-old son.[100] Commenting on the issue, Susan J. Napier explained it as a difference in culture.[100] After the ban, Viz reluctantly began to censor the series to keep wide distribution.[101] However, in 2001, after releasing three volumes censored, Viz announced Dragon Ball would be uncensored and reprinted due to fan reactions.[101] In October 2009, Wicomico County Public Schools in Maryland banned the Dragon Ball manga from their school district because it "depicts nudity, sexual contact between children and sexual innuendo among adults and children."[100]

 

Anime

The anime adaptations have also been very well-received and are better known in the Western world than the manga, with Anime News Network saying "Few anime series have mainstreamed it the way Dragon Ball Z has. To a certain generation of television consumers its characters are as well known as any in the animated realm, and for many it was the first step into the wilderness of anime fandom."[102] In 2000, satellite TV channel Animax together with Brutus, a men's lifestyle magazine, and Tsutaya, Japan's largest video rental chain, conducted a poll among 200,000 fans on the top anime series, with Dragon Ball coming in fourth.[103] TV Asahi conducted two polls in 2005 on the Top 100 Anime, Dragon Ball came in second in the nationwide survey conducted with multiple age-groups and in third in the online poll.[104][105] On several occasions the Dragon Ball anime has topped Japan's DVD sales.[106][107]

 

Carl Kimlinger of Anime News Network summed up Dragon Ball as "an action-packed tale told with rare humor and something even rarer—a genuine sense of adventure."[108] Both Kimlinger and colleague Theron Martin noted Funimation's reputation for drastic alterations of the script, but praised the dub.[108][109] However, some critics and most fans of the Japanese version have been more critical with Funimation's English dub and script of Dragon Ball Z over the years. Jeffrey Harris IGN criticized the voices including how Freeza's appearance combined with the feminine English voice left fans confused about Freeza's gender.[110] Carlos Ross of T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews considered the series' characters to be different from stereotypical stock characters and noted that they undergo much more development.[111] Despite praising Dragon Ball Z for its cast of characters, they criticized it for having long and repetitive fights.[112]

 

Dragon Ball Z is well-known, and often criticized, for its long, repetitive, dragged-out fights that span several episodes, with Martin commenting "DBZ practically turned drawing out fights into an art form."[113] However, Jason Thompson of io9 explained that this comes from the fact that the anime was being created alongside the manga.[114] Dragon Ball Z was listed as the 78th best animated show in IGN's Top 100 Animated Series,[115] and was also listed as the 50th greatest cartoon in Wizard magazine's Top 100 Greatest Cartoons list.[116]

 

Harris commented that Dragon Ball GT "is downright repellent", mentioning that the material and characters had lost their novelty and fun. He also criticized the GT character designs of Trunks and Vegeta as being goofy.[110] Zac Bertschy of Anime News Network also gave negative comments about GT, mentioning that the fights from the series were "a very simple childish exercise" and that many other anime were superior. The plot of Dragon Ball GT has also been criticized for giving a formula that was already used in its predecessors.[117]

 

The first episode of Dragon Ball Z Kai earned a viewer ratings percentage of 11.3, ahead of One Piece and behind Crayon Shin-chan.[118] Although following episodes had lower ratings, Kai was among the top 10 anime in viewer ratings every week in Japan for most of its run.[119][120]

Vocês devem estar pensando: “O que uma coisa ter a ver com a outra?”. Bom, todos sabem que Dragon Ball, mais especificamente Goku, foi baseado em uma lenda Chinesa, a lenda do Rei Macaco ou a lenda de Saiyuki no Japão.

 

Mas o próprio Akira Toriyama, criador da saga, disse em entrevista à revista Shonen Jump dos EUA, “se não fosse por um filme de Jackie Chan, Dragon Ball nunca teria sido criado” e não teríamos Son Goku hoje.

 

Toriyama era um grande fã dos filmes de artes marciais e em especial do ator Jackie Chan. Para homenagea-lo ele introduziu as artes marciais dentro do mangá além de se inspirar no ator para criar o atrapalhado e poderoso Goku.

 

Dragon Boy?

11

 

O primeiro mangá do estilo artes marciais de Toriyama foi um mangá chamado Dragon Boy e conta a história de um menino com asas de dragão que treina artes marciais em um bosque e que um dia recebe de seu Sensei a missão de levar uma princesa à sua terra natal em segurança. O mangá foi tão bem aceito pelos leitores que Toriyama decidiu então que assim seria a sua nova história, já que estava à procura de uma.

 

A partir de Drunken Master, Akira Toriyama começa a planejar uma história e personagens para Dragon Ball mantendo as origens chinesas do filme e inspirando-se na lenda do Rei Macaco, ou a lenda de Saiyuki a Jornada ao Oeste no Japão.

 

Goku era cotado para ser um macaco

12

 

De inicio a ideia seria fazer de Goku um macaco de verdade, mas essa ideia foi logo descartada pois seria uma copia do Rei Macaco. Então Toriyama inspirou-se em Dragon Boy para criar Goku, o menino seria humano mas com um adicional, uma cauda de macaco.

 

Dragon Ball ia ser finalizado assim que Goku encontra-se as esferas do dragão

 

Ainda bem que isso não aconteceu não é mesmo? Toriyama adicionou também as esferas do dragão na história, que quando juntas, dariam o direito a realizar sonhos, assim como na lenda de Saiyuki que partem em sua jornada em busca dos escritos sagrados do Budismo.

 

Dragon Ball estava fadado a terminar quando as sete esferas fossem reunidas, mas o sucesso do mangá foi tão grande que optaram por continuar com a história, e então Toriyama foi meio que “obrigado” a continuar desenhando os mangás que eram publicados semanalmente.

 

Goku é uma mulher?

 

Calma, calma. No Japão uma senhora chamada Masako Nozawa faz a voz de Goku e seus filhos Gohan e Goten. As mulheres, por causa da voz mais fina, conseguem imitar vozes de criança com muita facilidade. Masako começou fazendo a voz de Goku na primeira parte da série e quando ele ficou mais velho conseguiu alterar a voz para um personagem diferente.

 

Com os filhos ela fazia a mesma coisa e deixou Akira Toriyama espantado: “Em uma cena em que Goku, Gohan e Goten apareciam juntos, Nozawa Masako conseguiu fazer as três vozes da conversa ao mesmo tempo”, disse Toriyama. Aqui no Brasil, Goku também é dublado por uma mulher (Úrsula Bezerra, a mesma dubladora de Naruto) em Dragon Ball.

 

Nomes dos personagens

13

 

Alguns personagens de Dragon Ball possuem nomes bem diferentes relacionados à comida e algumas outras coisas. Dá para citar vários exemplos como Vegeta que vem da palavra vegetal, Freeza de Freezer, Trunks de calções de banho em inglês e as tropas especiais Ginyu (Leite, em japonês) que têm seus nomes tirados do cardápio do café-da-manhã ocidental.

 

A mulher de Toriyama inventou o Kamehameha

14

 

Um dos golpes mais conhecidos de Goku (e mais imitado nas brincadeiras dos anos 90) foi inventado pela mulher de Toriyama. Ele estava aborrecido dizendo: “O nome do ataque especial do Mestre Kame vai ser alguma coisa com Ha”. Logo sua mulher disse: Kamehameha.

 

A palavra tinha uma sonoridade boa e foi logo incorporada ao personagem. O “Kame” significava tartaruga e “Ha” significava onda, mas a palavra inteira não tem significado algum em japonês. Entretanto, Kamehameha é um Deus havaiano. Misturando tudo dá até pra entender porque o Mestre Kame vive numa ilha e tem um casco de tartaruga nas costas.

 

Personagem preferido de Toriyama

15

 

Nada de Goku. Piccolo é o preferido do autor da série. O personagem foi criado por Akira Toriyama quando ele queria um antagonista que fosse um verdadeiro personagem maligno. Antes da sua criação, quase todos os vilões da série eram considerados muito adoráveis.

 

Quando Piccolo foi criado, Toriyama percebeu que sua aparição se transformou em um dos momentos mais interessantes da história do mangá e ele se tornou um de seus personagens favoritos. Apesar de que Akira considerava clichê a transformação de um vilão em herói, ele comentou que ainda se sentia emocionado ao desenhar Piccolo pois apesar de sua cara assustadora, ele se tornou uma criatura bastante simpática.

 

Piccolo surgiu dos desenhos que Akira fazia de humanos mas depois foi planejado para ser um demônio. Quando o protagonista Goku se tornou o homem mais forte da Terra, Toriyama decidiu criar personagens de outros planetas e a Piccolo foi estabelecido como um Namekuseijin.

 

Personagem que Toriyama mais odeia

16

 

Não é nenhum dos vilões. O personagem mais odiado pelo autor é a esposa de Goku: Chi-chi. Ele disse que a personagem é muito mandona e que apesar de tudo ele a fez “chata” de propósito. Ela zela pelo bem-estar de sua família, e deseja que seus filhos não sigam o estilo de vida de Goku, sempre envolvido em lutas e conflitos.

 

Chi-Chi tenta fazer Gohan se concentrar nos estudos durante sua infância, mas seu plano é interrompido por constantes ameaças à Terra durante esse período. Ela toma atitudes diferentes com Goten, e até mesmo o treina.

 

Filha do Rei Cutelo, Chi-chi também é bastante forte, sendo capaz de chegar às etapas finais do torneio Tenkaichi Budokai.

 

Goku se casou por comida

 

Chi-chi e Goku se conheceram quando crianças, e Goku promete se casar com ela, pensando que casamento é algum tipo de comida. Ela o confronta mais tarde e o faz cumprir sua promessa, apesar do mal-entendido.

 

Manga

Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)

 

Dragon Ball debuted in Weekly Shōnen Jump No. 51, 1984.

Written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama, Dragon Ball was serialized in the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 20, 1984 to May 23, 1995, when Toriyama grew exhausted and felt he needed a break from drawing. The 519 individual chapters were published into 42 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha from September 10, 1985 through August 4, 1995.[13][14][15] Between December 4, 2002 and April 2, 2004, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 34 kanzenban volumes, which included a slightly rewritten ending, new covers, and color artwork from its Weekly Shōnen Jump run.[16][17] The February 2013 issue of V Jump, which was released in December 2012, announced that parts of the manga will be fully colored and re-released in 2013.[18] Twenty volumes, beginning from chapter 195 and grouped by story arcs, were released between February 4, 2013 and July 4, 2014.[19][20] Twelve volumes covering the first 194 chapters were published between January 4 and March 4, 2016.[21][22] A sōshūhen edition that aims to recreate the manga as it was originally serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump with color pages, promotional text, and next chapter previews, began being published on May 13, 2016.[23]

 

Spin-offs and crossovers

Toriyama also created a short series, Neko Majin (1999–2005), that became a self-parody of Dragon Ball.[24] In 2006, a crossover between Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo (or Kochikame) and Dragon Ball by Toriyama and Kochikame author Osamu Akimoto appeared in the Super Kochikame (超こち亀 Chō Kochikame) manga.[25] That same year, Toriyama teamed up with Eiichiro Oda to create a crossover chapter of Dragon Ball and One Piece entitled Cross Epoch.[26] The final chapter of Toriyama's 2013 manga series Jaco the Galactic Patrolman revealed that it is set before Dragon Ball, with several characters making appearances.[27] Jaco's collected volumes contain a bonus Dragon Ball chapter depicting Goku's mother.[28]

 

A colored spin-off manga titled Dragon Ball SD written by Naho Ōishi has been published in Shueisha's Saikyō Jump magazine since its debut issue in December 2010.[29] A condensed retelling of Goku's adventures in a super deformed art style, it has been collected into four volumes as of February 2016.[30][31][32][33] Another manga penned by Ōishi, the three-chapter Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock that revolves around Bardock, Goku's father, was published in the monthly magazine V Jump from August and October 2011.[34]

 

Anime series

Dragon Ball

Main articles: Dragon Ball (anime) and List of Dragon Ball episodes

Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the first 194 manga chapters, also titled Dragon Ball. The series premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on February 26, 1986 and ran until April 12, 1989, lasting 153 episodes.[2]

 

Dragon Ball Z

Main articles: Dragon Ball Z and List of Dragon Ball Z episodes

Instead of continuing the anime as Dragon Ball, Toei Animation decided to carry on with their adaptation under a new name and asked Akira Toriyama to come up with the title. Dragon Ball Z (ドラゴンボールZ(ゼット) Doragon Bōru Zetto?, commonly abbreviated as DBZ) picks up five years after the first series left off and adapts the final 325 chapters of the manga. It premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on April 26, 1989, taking over its predecessor's time slot, and ran for 291 episodes until its conclusion on January 31, 1996.[2]

 

Dragon Ball GT

Main articles: Dragon Ball GT and List of Dragon Ball GT episodes

Dragon Ball GT (ドラゴンボールGT(ジーティー) Doragon Bōru Jī Tī?, G(rand) T(ouring)[35]) premiered on Fuji TV on February 2, 1996 and ran until November 19, 1997 for 64 episodes.[2] Unlike the first two anime series, it is not based on Akira Toriyama's original Dragon Ball manga,[36] being created by Toei Animation as a sequel to the series or as Toriyama called it, a "grand side story of the original Dragon Ball".[35] Toriyama designed the main cast, the spaceship used in the show, the design of three planets, and came up with the title and logo. In addition to this, Toriyama also oversaw production of the series, just as he had for the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime.

 

Dragon Ball Kai

Main articles: Dragon Ball Kai and List of Dragon Ball Z Kai episodes

In February 2009, Toei Animation announced that it would begin broadcasting a revised version of Dragon Ball Z as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations. The series premiered on Fuji TV in Japan on April 5, 2009, under the name Dragon Ball Kai (ドラゴンボール改 Doragon Bōru Kai?, lit. "Dragon Ball Revised"), with the episodes remastered for HDTV, featuring updated opening and ending sequences, and a rerecording of the vocal tracks by most of the original cast.[37][38] The footage was also re-edited to more closely follow the manga, resulting in a faster-moving story, and damaged frames removed.[39] As such, it is a new version of Dragon Ball Z created from the original footage. Some shots were also remade from scratch in order to fix cropping and continuity issues.[40] The majority of the international versions, including Funimation Entertainment's English dub, are titled Dragon Ball Z Kai.[41][42]

 

Dragon Ball Super

Main articles: Dragon Ball Super and List of Dragon Ball Super episodes

On April 28, 2015, Toei Animation announced Dragon Ball Super (ドラゴンボール超 Doragon Bōru Sūpā?), the first all-new Dragon Ball television series to be released in 18 years. It debuted on July 5 and will run as a weekly series at 9:00 am on Fuji TV on Sundays.[43] Masako Nozawa reprised her roles as Goku, Gohan, and Goten. Most of the original cast reprise their roles as well.[44][45] Kouichi Yamadera and Masakazu Morita also reprise their roles, as Beerus and Whis, respectively.[45] The story of the anime is set four years after the defeat of Majin Boo, when the Earth has become peaceful once again. Akira Toriyama is credited as the original creator, as well for "original story & character design concepts."[46] It is also being adapted into a companion manga.[47]

 

Films

Anime

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Nineteen animated theatrical films based on the Dragon Ball series have been released in Japan. The first three films are based on the original Dragon Ball anime series. The remaining films include fifteen based on Dragon Ball Z and one tenth anniversary special (also based on the first anime series). The first five films were shown at the Toei Manga Festival (東映まんがまつり Tōei Manga Matsuri), while the sixth through seventeenth films were shown at the Toei Anime Fair (東映アニメフェア Toei Anime Fea). They were mostly alternate re-tellings of certain story arcs involving new characters or extra side-stories that do not correlate with the same continuity as the series. Since these movies were originally shown as back-to-back presentations alongside other Toei film productions, they were usually below feature length (around 45-60 minutes each), making them only slightly longer than an episode of the TV series (the sole exception being 1996's The Path to Power, which has a running time of 80 minutes). The newest films, Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods (2013) and Dragon Ball Z: Resurrection 'F' (2015), were produced as full-length feature films and were given stand-alone theatrical releases in Japan; these being the first movies to have original creator Akira Toriyama deeply involved in their production.[48][49]

 

Live-action

An unofficial live-action Mandarin Chinese film adaptation of the series, Dragon Ball: The Magic Begins, was released in Taiwan in 1989.[2] In December 1990, the unofficial live-action Korean film Dragon Ball: Ssawora Son Goku, Igyeora Son Goku was released. 20th Century Fox acquired feature film rights to the Dragon Ball franchise in March 2002 and began production on an American live-action film entitled Dragonball Evolution.[50][51] Directed by James Wong and produced by Stephen Chow, it was released in the United States on April 10, 2009.[51][52]

 

TV Specials and other animations

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Three television specials based on the series were aired on Fuji TV in Japan. The first, The One True Final Battle ~The Z Warrior Who Challenged Freeza -- Son Goku's Father~, renamed Bardock – The Father of Goku by Funimation, was shown on October 17, 1990. The second special, The Hopeless Resistance!! Gohan and Trunks -- The Two Remaining Super Warriors, renamed The History of Trunks by Funimation, is based on a special chapter of the original manga and aired on March 24, 1993. Goku Side Story! The Four Star Ball is a Badge of Courage, renamed A Hero's Legacy by Funimation, aired on March 26, 1997. A two-part hour-long crossover special between Dragon Ball Z, One Piece and Toriko, referred to as Dream 9 Toriko & One Piece & Dragon Ball Z Super Collaboration Special!! aired on April 7, 2013.[53]

 

A two-episode original video animation (OVA) titled Dragon Ball Z Side Story: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans was created in 1993 as strategy guides for the Famicom video game of the same name.[54] A remake titled Dragon Ball: Plan to Eradicate the Super Saiyans was created as a bonus feature for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 video game Dragon Ball: Raging Blast 2, which was released on November 11, 2010.[55]

 

The short film Dragon Ball: Yo! Son Goku and His Friends Return!! was created for the Jump Super Anime Tour,[56] which celebrated Weekly Shōnen Jump's 40th anniversary, and debuted on November 24, 2008. A short animated adaptation of Naho Ōishi's Bardock spinoff manga, Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock, was shown on December 17–18, 2011 at the Jump Festa 2012 event.[57]

 

Theme Park Attraction

"Dragon Ball Z: The Real 4D" debuted at Universal Studios Japan during Summer 2016. It features a battle between Goku and Freeza. Unlike most Dragon Ball animation, the ride is animated with CGI.

 

Video games

See also: List of Dragon Ball video games

 

A Dragon Ball Z arcade conversion kit that includes the PCB, instructions and operator's manual.

The Dragon Ball franchise has spawned multiple video games across various genres and platforms. Earlier games of the series included a system of card battling and were released for the Famicom following the storyline of the series.[58] Starting with the Super Famicom and Mega Drive, most of the games were from the fighting genre or RPG (Role Playing Game), such as the Super Butoden series.[59] The first Dragon Ball game to be released in the United States was Dragon Ball GT: Final Bout for the PlayStation in 1997.[60] For the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable games the characters were redone in 3D cel-shaded graphics. These games included the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai series and the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi series.[61][62] Dragon Ball Z: Burst Limit was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.[63] Dragon Ball Xenoverse was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.[64][65] A massively multiplayer online role-playing game called Dragon Ball Online was available in Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan until the servers were shut down in 2013.[66]

 

Soundtracks

See also: List of Dragon Ball soundtracks

Myriad soundtracks were released in the anime, movies and the games. The music for the first two anime Dragon Ball and Z and its films was composed by Shunsuke Kikuchi, while the music from GT was composed by Akihito Tokunaga and the music from Kai was composed by Kenji Yamamoto and Norihito Sumitomo. For the first anime, the soundtracks released were Dragon Ball: Music Collection in 1985 and Dragon Ball: Complete Song Collection in 1991, although they were reissued in 2007 and 2003, respectively.[67] For the second anime, the soundtrack series released were Dragon Ball Z Hit Song Collection Series. It was produced and released by Columbia Records of Japan from July 21, 1989 to March 20, 1996 the show's entire lifespan. On September 20, 2006 Columbia re-released the Hit Song Collection on their Animex 1300 series.[68][69] Other CDs released are compilations, video games and films soundtracks as well as music from the English versions.[70]

 

Companion books

 

Cover of Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations

There have been numerous companion books to the Dragon Ball franchise. Chief among these are the Daizenshuu (大全集?) series, comprising seven hardback main volumes and three supplemental softcover volumes, covering the manga and the first two anime series and their theatrical films. The first of these, Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations (Daizenshuu volume 1), first published in Japan in 1995, is the only one that was released in English, being printed in 2008 by Viz Media.[71] It contains all 264 colored illustrations Akira Toriyama drew for the Weekly Shōnen Jump magazines' covers, bonus giveaways and specials, and all the covers for the 42 tankōbon. It also includes an interview with Toriyama on his work process. The remainder have never been released in English, and all are now out of print in Japan. From February 4 to May 9, 2013, condensed versions of the Daizenshuu with some updated information were released as the four-volume Chōzenshū (超全集?) series.[18] For Dragon Ball GT, the Dragon Ball GT Perfect Files were released in May and December 1997 by Shueisha's Jump Comics Selection imprint. They include series information, illustration galleries, behind-the-scenes information, and more. They were out of print for many years, but were re-released in April 2006 (accompanying the Japanese DVD release of Dragon Ball GT) and this edition is still in print.[72][73]

 

Coinciding with the 34-volume kanzenban re-release of the manga, and the release of the entire series on DVD for the first time in Japan, four new guidebooks were released in 2003 and 2004. Dragon Ball Landmark and Dragon Ball Forever cover the manga, using volume numbers for story points that reference the kanzenban release,[74][75] while Dragon Ball: Tenkaichi Densetsu (ドラゴンボール 天下一伝説?) and Dragon Ball Z: Son Goku Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 孫悟空伝説?) cover the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime, respectively.[76][77] Much of the material in these books is reused from the earlier Daizenshuu volumes, but they include new textual material including substantial interviews with the creator, cast and production staff of the series. Son Goku Densetsu in particular showcases previously-unpublished design sketches of Goku's father Bardock, drawn by character designer Katsuyoshi Nakatsuru prior to creator Akira Toriyama's revisions that resulted in the final version.

 

Following the release of Dragon Ball Kai in Japan, four new guidebooks were released: the two-volume Dragon Ball: Super Exciting Guide (ドラゴンボール 超エキサイティングガイド?) in 2009, covering the manga,[78][79] and two-volume Dragon Ball: Extreme Battle Collection (ドラゴンボール 極限バトルコレクション?) in 2010, covering the anime series.[80][81] Despite the TV series airing during this time being Kai, the Extreme Battle Collection books reference the earlier Z series in content and episode numbers. These books also include new question-and-answer sessions with Akira Toriyama, revealing a few new details about the world and characters of the series. 2010 also saw the release of a new artbook, Dragon Ball: Anime Illustrations Guide - The Golden Warrior (ドラゴンボール アニメイラスト集 「黄金の戦士」?); a sort of anime-counterpart to the manga-oriented Complete Illustrations, it showcases anime-original illustrations and includes interviews with the three principal character designers for the anime. Each of the Japanese "Dragon Box" DVD releases of the series and movies, which were released from 2003 to 2006, as well as the Blu-ray boxed sets of Dragon Ball Kai, released 2009 to 2011, come with a Dragon Book guide that contains details about the content therein. Each also contains a new interview with a member of the cast or staff of the series. These books have been reproduced textually for Funimation's release of the Dragon Ball Z Dragon Box sets from 2009 to 2011.

 

Collectible cards

See also: Dragon Ball Collectible Card Game

Collectible cards based on the Dragon Ball, Dragon Ball Z, and Dragon Ball GT series have been released by Bandai. These cards feature various scenes from the manga and anime stills, plus exclusive artwork from all three series. Bandai released the first set in the United States in July 2008.[82]

 

Reception

Manga

Dragon Ball is one of the most popular manga series of all time, and it continues to enjoy high readership today. By 2000, more than 126 million copies of its tankōbon volumes had been sold in Japan alone.[83] By 2012, this number had grown to pass 156 million in Japan and 230 million worldwide, making it the second best-selling Weekly Shōnen Jump manga of all time.[84][85] Dragon Ball is credited as one of the main reasons for the period when manga circulation was at its highest in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s.[86][87] For the 10th anniversary of the Japan Media Arts Festival in 2006, Japanese fans voted Dragon Ball the third greatest manga of all time.[88]

 

In a survey conducted by Oricon in 2007 among 1,000 people, Son Goku, the main character of the franchise, ranked first place as the "Strongest Manga Character of All Time."[89] Goku's journey and his ever growing strength resulted in the character winning "the admiration of young boys everywhere".[1] Manga artists, such as One Piece creator Eiichiro Oda and Naruto creator Masashi Kishimoto, have stated that Goku inspired their series' main protagonists as well as series structure.[90][91]

 

Manga critic Jason Thompson stated in 2011 that "Dragon Ball is by far the most influential shonen manga of the last 30 years, and today, almost every Shonen Jump artist lists it as one of their favorites and lifts from it in various ways."[92] He says the series "turns from a gag/adventure manga to an nearly-pure fighting manga",[92] and its basic formula of "lots of martial arts, lots of training sequences, a few jokes" became the model for other shōnen series, such as Naruto.[93] Thompson also called Toriyama's art influential and cited it as a reason for the series' popularity.[92] James S. Yadao, author of The Rough Guide to Manga, claims that the first several chapters of Dragon Ball "play out much like Saiyuki with Dr. Slump-like humour built in" and that Dr. Slump, Toriyama's previous manga, has a clear early influence on the series.[94] He feels the series "established its unique identity" after the first occasion when Goku's group disbands and he trains under Kame-sen'nin, when the story develops "a far more action-packed, sinister tone" with "wilder" battles with aerial and spiritual elements and an increased death count, while humor still makes an occasional appearance.[94] Yadao claims that an art shift occurs when the characters "lose the rounded, innocent look that he established in Dr. Slump and gain sharper angles that leap off the page with their energy and intensity."[95]

 

Animerica felt the series had "worldwide appeal", using dramatic pacing and over-the-top martial arts action to "maintain tension levels and keep a crippler crossface hold on the audience's attention spans".[96] In Little Boy: The Art of Japan's Exploding Subculture, Takashi Murakami commented that Dragon Ball's "never-ending cyclical narrative moves forward plausibly, seamlessly, and with great finesse."[83] Ridwan Khan from Animefringe.com commented that the manga had a "chubby" art style, but as the series continued the characters got more refined, leaner, and more muscular. Khan prefers the manga over the slow pacing of the anime counterparts.[97] Allen Divers of Anime News Network praised the story and humor of the manga as being very good at conveying all of the characters' personalities. Divers also called Viz's translation one of the best of all the English editions of the series due to its faithfulness to the original Japanese.[98] D. Aviva Rothschild of Rationalmagic.com remarked the first manga volume as "a superior humor title". They praised Goku's innocence and Bulma's insistence as one of the funniest parts of the series.[99]

 

The content of the manga has been controversial in United States. In November 1999, Toys "R" Us removed Viz's Dragon Ball from their stores nationwide when a Dallas parent complained the series had "borderline soft porn" after he bought them for his four-year-old son.[100] Commenting on the issue, Susan J. Napier explained it as a difference in culture.[100] After the ban, Viz reluctantly began to censor the series to keep wide distribution.[101] However, in 2001, after releasing three volumes censored, Viz announced Dragon Ball would be uncensored and reprinted due to fan reactions.[101] In October 2009, Wicomico County Public Schools in Maryland banned the Dragon Ball manga from their school district because it "depicts nudity, sexual contact between children and sexual innuendo among adults and children."[100]

 

Anime

The anime adaptations have also been very well-received and are better known in the Western world than the manga, with Anime News Network saying "Few anime series have mainstreamed it the way Dragon Ball Z has. To a certain generation of television consumers its characters are as well known as any in the animated realm, and for many it was the first step into the wilderness of anime fandom."[102] In 2000, satellite TV channel Animax together with Brutus, a men's lifestyle magazine, and Tsutaya, Japan's largest video rental chain, conducted a poll among 200,000 fans on the top anime series, with Dragon Ball coming in fourth.[103] TV Asahi conducted two polls in 2005 on the Top 100 Anime, Dragon Ball came in second in the nationwide survey conducted with multiple age-groups and in third in the online poll.[104][105] On several occasions the Dragon Ball anime has topped Japan's DVD sales.[106][107]

 

Carl Kimlinger of Anime News Network summed up Dragon Ball as "an action-packed tale told with rare humor and something even rarer—a genuine sense of adventure."[108] Both Kimlinger and colleague Theron Martin noted Funimation's reputation for drastic alterations of the script, but praised the dub.[108][109] However, some critics and most fans of the Japanese version have been more critical with Funimation's English dub and script of Dragon Ball Z over the years. Jeffrey Harris IGN criticized the voices including how Freeza's appearance combined with the feminine English voice left fans confused about Freeza's gender.[110] Carlos Ross of T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews considered the series' characters to be different from stereotypical stock characters and noted that they undergo much more development.[111] Despite praising Dragon Ball Z for its cast of characters, they criticized it for having long and repetitive fights.[112]

 

Dragon Ball Z is well-known, and often criticized, for its long, repetitive, dragged-out fights that span several episodes, with Martin commenting "DBZ practically turned drawing out fights into an art form."[113] However, Jason Thompson of io9 explained that this comes from the fact that the anime was being created alongside the manga.[114] Dragon Ball Z was listed as the 78th best animated show in IGN's Top 100 Animated Series,[115] and was also listed as the 50th greatest cartoon in Wizard magazine's Top 100 Greatest Cartoons list.[116]

 

Harris commented that Dragon Ball GT "is downright repellent", mentioning that the material and characters had lost their novelty and fun. He also criticized the GT character designs of Trunks and Vegeta as being goofy.[110] Zac Bertschy of Anime News Network also gave negative comments about GT, mentioning that the fights from the series were "a very simple childish exercise" and that many other anime were superior. The plot of Dragon Ball GT has also been criticized for giving a formula that was already used in its predecessors.[117]

 

The first episode of Dragon Ball Z Kai earned a viewer ratings percentage of 11.3, ahead of One Piece and behind Crayon Shin-chan.[118] Although following episodes had lower ratings, Kai was among the top 10 anime in viewer ratings every week in Japan for most of its run.[119][120]

Vocês devem estar pensando: “O que uma coisa ter a ver com a outra?”. Bom, todos sabem que Dragon Ball, mais especificamente Goku, foi baseado em uma lenda Chinesa, a lenda do Rei Macaco ou a lenda de Saiyuki no Japão.

 

Mas o próprio Akira Toriyama, criador da saga, disse em entrevista à revista Shonen Jump dos EUA, “se não fosse por um filme de Jackie Chan, Dragon Ball nunca teria sido criado” e não teríamos Son Goku hoje.

 

Toriyama era um grande fã dos filmes de artes marciais e em especial do ator Jackie Chan. Para homenagea-lo ele introduziu as artes marciais dentro do mangá além de se inspirar no ator para criar o atrapalhado e poderoso Goku.

 

Dragon Boy?

11

 

O primeiro mangá do estilo artes marciais de Toriyama foi um mangá chamado Dragon Boy e conta a história de um menino com asas de dragão que treina artes marciais em um bosque e que um dia recebe de seu Sensei a missão de levar uma princesa à sua terra natal em segurança. O mangá foi tão bem aceito pelos leitores que Toriyama decidiu então que assim seria a sua nova história, já que estava à procura de uma.

 

A partir de Drunken Master, Akira Toriyama começa a planejar uma história e personagens para Dragon Ball mantendo as origens chinesas do filme e inspirando-se na lenda do Rei Macaco, ou a lenda de Saiyuki a Jornada ao Oeste no Japão.

 

Goku era cotado para ser um macaco

12

 

De inicio a ideia seria fazer de Goku um macaco de verdade, mas essa ideia foi logo descartada pois seria uma copia do Rei Macaco. Então Toriyama inspirou-se em Dragon Boy para criar Goku, o menino seria humano mas com um adicional, uma cauda de macaco.

 

Dragon Ball ia ser finalizado assim que Goku encontra-se as esferas do dragão

 

Ainda bem que isso não aconteceu não é mesmo? Toriyama adicionou também as esferas do dragão na história, que quando juntas, dariam o direito a realizar sonhos, assim como na lenda de Saiyuki que partem em sua jornada em busca dos escritos sagrados do Budismo.

 

Dragon Ball estava fadado a terminar quando as sete esferas fossem reunidas, mas o sucesso do mangá foi tão grande que optaram por continuar com a história, e então Toriyama foi meio que “obrigado” a continuar desenhando os mangás que eram publicados semanalmente.

 

Goku é uma mulher?

 

Calma, calma. No Japão uma senhora chamada Masako Nozawa faz a voz de Goku e seus filhos Gohan e Goten. As mulheres, por causa da voz mais fina, conseguem imitar vozes de criança com muita facilidade. Masako começou fazendo a voz de Goku na primeira parte da série e quando ele ficou mais velho conseguiu alterar a voz para um personagem diferente.

 

Com os filhos ela fazia a mesma coisa e deixou Akira Toriyama espantado: “Em uma cena em que Goku, Gohan e Goten apareciam juntos, Nozawa Masako conseguiu fazer as três vozes da conversa ao mesmo tempo”, disse Toriyama. Aqui no Brasil, Goku também é dublado por uma mulher (Úrsula Bezerra, a mesma dubladora de Naruto) em Dragon Ball.

 

Nomes dos personagens

13

 

Alguns personagens de Dragon Ball possuem nomes bem diferentes relacionados à comida e algumas outras coisas. Dá para citar vários exemplos como Vegeta que vem da palavra vegetal, Freeza de Freezer, Trunks de calções de banho em inglês e as tropas especiais Ginyu (Leite, em japonês) que têm seus nomes tirados do cardápio do café-da-manhã ocidental.

 

A mulher de Toriyama inventou o Kamehameha

14

 

Um dos golpes mais conhecidos de Goku (e mais imitado nas brincadeiras dos anos 90) foi inventado pela mulher de Toriyama. Ele estava aborrecido dizendo: “O nome do ataque especial do Mestre Kame vai ser alguma coisa com Ha”. Logo sua mulher disse: Kamehameha.

 

A palavra tinha uma sonoridade boa e foi logo incorporada ao personagem. O “Kame” significava tartaruga e “Ha” significava onda, mas a palavra inteira não tem significado algum em japonês. Entretanto, Kamehameha é um Deus havaiano. Misturando tudo dá até pra entender porque o Mestre Kame vive numa ilha e tem um casco de tartaruga nas costas.

 

Personagem preferido de Toriyama

15

 

Nada de Goku. Piccolo é o preferido do autor da série. O personagem foi criado por Akira Toriyama quando ele queria um antagonista que fosse um verdadeiro personagem maligno. Antes da sua criação, quase todos os vilões da série eram considerados muito adoráveis.

 

Quando Piccolo foi criado, Toriyama percebeu que sua aparição se transformou em um dos momentos mais interessantes da história do mangá e ele se tornou um de seus personagens favoritos. Apesar de que Akira considerava clichê a transformação de um vilão em herói, ele comentou que ainda se sentia emocionado ao desenhar Piccolo pois apesar de sua cara assustadora, ele se tornou uma criatura bastante simpática.

 

Piccolo surgiu dos desenhos que Akira fazia de humanos mas depois foi planejado para ser um demônio. Quando o protagonista Goku se tornou o homem mais forte da Terra, Toriyama decidiu criar personagens de outros planetas e a Piccolo foi estabelecido como um Namekuseijin.

 

Personagem que Toriyama mais odeia

16

 

Não é nenhum dos vilões. O personagem mais odiado pelo autor é a esposa de Goku: Chi-chi. Ele disse que a personagem é muito mandona e que apesar de tudo ele a fez “chata” de propósito. Ela zela pelo bem-estar de sua família, e deseja que seus filhos não sigam o estilo de vida de Goku, sempre envolvido em lutas e conflitos.

 

Chi-Chi tenta fazer Gohan se concentrar nos estudos durante sua infância, mas seu plano é interrompido por constantes ameaças à Terra durante esse período. Ela toma atitudes diferentes com Goten, e até mesmo o treina.

 

Filha do Rei Cutelo, Chi-chi também é bastante forte, sendo capaz de chegar às etapas finais do torneio Tenkaichi Budokai.

 

Goku se casou por comida

 

Chi-chi e Goku se conheceram quando crianças, e Goku promete se casar com ela, pensando que casamento é algum tipo de comida. Ela o confronta mais tarde e o faz cumprir sua promessa, apesar do mal-entendido.

 

Manga

Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)

 

Dragon Ball debuted in Weekly Shōnen Jump No. 51, 1984.

Written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama, Dragon Ball was serialized in the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 20, 1984 to May 23, 1995, when Toriyama grew exhausted and felt he needed a break from drawing. The 519 individual chapters were published into 42 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha from September 10, 1985 through August 4, 1995.[13][14][15] Between December 4, 2002 and April 2, 2004, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 34 kanzenban volumes, which included a slightly rewritten ending, new covers, and color artwork from its Weekly Shōnen Jump run.[16][17] The February 2013 issue of V Jump, which was released in December 2012, announced that parts of the manga will be fully colored and re-released in 2013.[18] Twenty volumes, beginning from chapter 195 and grouped by story arcs, were released between February 4, 2013 and July 4, 2014.[19][20] Twelve volumes covering the first 194 chapters were published between January 4 and March 4, 2016.[21][22] A sōshūhen edition that aims to recreate the manga as it was originally serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump with color pages, promotional text, and next chapter previews, began being published on May 13, 2016.[23]

 

Spin-offs and crossovers

Toriyama also created a short series, Neko Majin (1999–2005), that became a self-parody of Dragon Ball.[24] In 2006, a crossover between Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo (or Kochikame) and Dragon Ball by Toriyama and Kochikame author Osamu Akimoto appeared in the Super Kochikame (超こち亀 Chō Kochikame) manga.[25] That same year, Toriyama teamed up with Eiichiro Oda to create a crossover chapter of Dragon Ball and One Piece entitled Cross Epoch.[26] The final chapter of Toriyama's 2013 manga series Jaco the Galactic Patrolman revealed that it is set before Dragon Ball, with several characters making appearances.[27] Jaco's collected volumes contain a bonus Dragon Ball chapter depicting Goku's mother.[28]

 

A colored spin-off manga titled Dragon Ball SD written by Naho Ōishi has been published in Shueisha's Saikyō Jump magazine since its debut issue in December 2010.[29] A condensed retelling of Goku's adventures in a super deformed art style, it has been collected into four volumes as of February 2016.[30][31][32][33] Another manga penned by Ōishi, the three-chapter Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock that revolves around Bardock, Goku's father, was published in the monthly magazine V Jump from August and October 2011.[34]

 

Anime series

Dragon Ball

Main articles: Dragon Ball (anime) and List of Dragon Ball episodes

Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the first 194 manga chapters, also titled Dragon Ball. The series premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on February 26, 1986 and ran until April 12, 1989, lasting 153 episodes.[2]

 

Dragon Ball Z

Main articles: Dragon Ball Z and List of Dragon Ball Z episodes

Instead of continuing the anime as Dragon Ball, Toei Animation decided to carry on with their adaptation under a new name and asked Akira Toriyama to come up with the title. Dragon Ball Z (ドラゴンボールZ(ゼット) Doragon Bōru Zetto?, commonly abbreviated as DBZ) picks up five years after the first series left off and adapts the final 325 chapters of the manga. It premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on April 26, 1989, taking over its predecessor's time slot, and ran for 291 episodes until its conclusion on January 31, 1996.[2]

 

Dragon Ball GT

Main articles: Dragon Ball GT and List of Dragon Ball GT episodes

Dragon Ball GT (ドラゴンボールGT(ジーティー) Doragon Bōru Jī Tī?, G(rand) T(ouring)[35]) premiered on Fuji TV on February 2, 1996 and ran until November 19, 1997 for 64 episodes.[2] Unlike the first two anime series, it is not based on Akira Toriyama's original Dragon Ball manga,[36] being created by Toei Animation as a sequel to the series or as Toriyama called it, a "grand side story of the original Dragon Ball".[35] Toriyama designed the main cast, the spaceship used in the show, the design of three planets, and came up with the title and logo. In addition to this, Toriyama also oversaw production of the series, just as he had for the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime.

 

Dragon Ball Kai

Main articles: Dragon Ball Kai and List of Dragon Ball Z Kai episodes

In February 2009, Toei Animation announced that it would begin broadcasting a revised version of Dragon Ball Z as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations. The series premiered on Fuji TV in Japan on April 5, 2009, under the name Dragon Ball Kai (ドラゴンボール改 Doragon Bōru Kai?, lit. "Dragon Ball Revised"), with the episodes remastered for HDTV, featuring updated opening and ending sequences, and a rerecording of the vocal tracks by most of the original cast.[37][38] The footage was also re-edited to more closely follow the manga, resulting in a faster-moving story, and damaged frames removed.[39] As such, it is a new version of Dragon Ball Z created from the original footage. Some shots were also remade from scratch in order to fix cropping and continuity issues.[40] The majority of the international versions, including Funimation Entertainment's English dub, are titled Dragon Ball Z Kai.[41][42]

 

Dragon Ball Super

Main articles: Dragon Ball Super and List of Dragon Ball Super episodes

On April 28, 2015, Toei Animation announced Dragon Ball Super (ドラゴンボール超 Doragon Bōru Sūpā?), the first all-new Dragon Ball television series to be released in 18 years. It debuted on July 5 and will run as a weekly series at 9:00 am on Fuji TV on Sundays.[43] Masako Nozawa reprised her roles as Goku, Gohan, and Goten. Most of the original cast reprise their roles as well.[44][45] Kouichi Yamadera and Masakazu Morita also reprise their roles, as Beerus and Whis, respectively.[45] The story of the anime is set four years after the defeat of Majin Boo, when the Earth has become peaceful once again. Akira Toriyama is credited as the original creator, as well for "original story & character design concepts."[46] It is also being adapted into a companion manga.[47]

 

Films

Anime

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Nineteen animated theatrical films based on the Dragon Ball series have been released in Japan. The first three films are based on the original Dragon Ball anime series. The remaining films include fifteen based on Dragon Ball Z and one tenth anniversary special (also based on the first anime series). The first five films were shown at the Toei Manga Festival (東映まんがまつり Tōei Manga Matsuri), while the sixth through seventeenth films were shown at the Toei Anime Fair (東映アニメフェア Toei Anime Fea). They were mostly alternate re-tellings of certain story arcs involving new characters or extra side-stories that do not correlate with the same continuity as the series. Since these movies were originally shown as back-to-back presentations alongside other Toei film productions, they were usually below feature length (around 45-60 minutes each), making them only slightly longer than an episode of the TV series (the sole exception being 1996's The Path to Power, which has a running time of 80 minutes). The newest films, Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods (2013) and Dragon Ball Z: Resurrection 'F' (2015), were produced as full-length feature films and were given stand-alone theatrical releases in Japan; these being the first movies to have original creator Akira Toriyama deeply involved in their production.[48][49]

 

Live-action

An unofficial live-action Mandarin Chinese film adaptation of the series, Dragon Ball: The Magic Begins, was released in Taiwan in 1989.[2] In December 1990, the unofficial live-action Korean film Dragon Ball: Ssawora Son Goku, Igyeora Son Goku was released. 20th Century Fox acquired feature film rights to the Dragon Ball franchise in March 2002 and began production on an American live-action film entitled Dragonball Evolution.[50][51] Directed by James Wong and produced by Stephen Chow, it was released in the United States on April 10, 2009.[51][52]

 

TV Specials and other animations

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Three television specials based on the series were aired on Fuji TV in Japan. The first, The One True Final Battle ~The Z Warrior Who Challenged Freeza -- Son Goku's Father~, renamed Bardock – The Father of Goku by Funimation, was shown on October 17, 1990. The second special, The Hopeless Resistance!! Gohan and Trunks -- The Two Remaining Super Warriors, renamed The History of Trunks by Funimation, is based on a special chapter of the original manga and aired on March 24, 1993. Goku Side Story! The Four Star Ball is a Badge of Courage, renamed A Hero's Legacy by Funimation, aired on March 26, 1997. A two-part hour-long crossover special between Dragon Ball Z, One Piece and Toriko, referred to as Dream 9 Toriko & One Piece & Dragon Ball Z Super Collaboration Special!! aired on April 7, 2013.[53]

 

A two-episode original video animation (OVA) titled Dragon Ball Z Side Story: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans was created in 1993 as strategy guides for the Famicom video game of the same name.[54] A remake titled Dragon Ball: Plan to Eradicate the Super Saiyans was created as a bonus feature for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 video game Dragon Ball: Raging Blast 2, which was released on November 11, 2010.[55]

 

The short film Dragon Ball: Yo! Son Goku and His Friends Return!! was created for the Jump Super Anime Tour,[56] which celebrated Weekly Shōnen Jump's 40th anniversary, and debuted on November 24, 2008. A short animated adaptation of Naho Ōishi's Bardock spinoff manga, Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock, was shown on December 17–18, 2011 at the Jump Festa 2012 event.[57]

 

Theme Park Attraction

"Dragon Ball Z: The Real 4D" debuted at Universal Studios Japan during Summer 2016. It features a battle between Goku and Freeza. Unlike most Dragon Ball animation, the ride is animated with CGI.

 

Video games

See also: List of Dragon Ball video games

 

A Dragon Ball Z arcade conversion kit that includes the PCB, instructions and operator's manual.

The Dragon Ball franchise has spawned multiple video games across various genres and platforms. Earlier games of the series included a system of card battling and were released for the Famicom following the storyline of the series.[58] Starting with the Super Famicom and Mega Drive, most of the games were from the fighting genre or RPG (Role Playing Game), such as the Super Butoden series.[59] The first Dragon Ball game to be released in the United States was Dragon Ball GT: Final Bout for the PlayStation in 1997.[60] For the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable games the characters were redone in 3D cel-shaded graphics. These games included the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai series and the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi series.[61][62] Dragon Ball Z: Burst Limit was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.[63] Dragon Ball Xenoverse was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.[64][65] A massively multiplayer online role-playing game called Dragon Ball Online was available in Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan until the servers were shut down in 2013.[66]

 

Soundtracks

See also: List of Dragon Ball soundtracks

Myriad soundtracks were released in the anime, movies and the games. The music for the first two anime Dragon Ball and Z and its films was composed by Shunsuke Kikuchi, while the music from GT was composed by Akihito Tokunaga and the music from Kai was composed by Kenji Yamamoto and Norihito Sumitomo. For the first anime, the soundtracks released were Dragon Ball: Music Collection in 1985 and Dragon Ball: Complete Song Collection in 1991, although they were reissued in 2007 and 2003, respectively.[67] For the second anime, the soundtrack series released were Dragon Ball Z Hit Song Collection Series. It was produced and released by Columbia Records of Japan from July 21, 1989 to March 20, 1996 the show's entire lifespan. On September 20, 2006 Columbia re-released the Hit Song Collection on their Animex 1300 series.[68][69] Other CDs released are compilations, video games and films soundtracks as well as music from the English versions.[70]

 

Companion books

 

Cover of Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations

There have been numerous companion books to the Dragon Ball franchise. Chief among these are the Daizenshuu (大全集?) series, comprising seven hardback main volumes and three supplemental softcover volumes, covering the manga and the first two anime series and their theatrical films. The first of these, Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations (Daizenshuu volume 1), first published in Japan in 1995, is the only one that was released in English, being printed in 2008 by Viz Media.[71] It contains all 264 colored illustrations Akira Toriyama drew for the Weekly Shōnen Jump magazines' covers, bonus giveaways and specials, and all the covers for the 42 tankōbon. It also includes an interview with Toriyama on his work process. The remainder have never been released in English, and all are now out of print in Japan. From February 4 to May 9, 2013, condensed versions of the Daizenshuu with some updated information were released as the four-volume Chōzenshū (超全集?) series.[18] For Dragon Ball GT, the Dragon Ball GT Perfect Files were released in May and December 1997 by Shueisha's Jump Comics Selection imprint. They include series information, illustration galleries, behind-the-scenes information, and more. They were out of print for many years, but were re-released in April 2006 (accompanying the Japanese DVD release of Dragon Ball GT) and this edition is still in print.[72][73]

 

Coinciding with the 34-volume kanzenban re-release of the manga, and the release of the entire series on DVD for the first time in Japan, four new guidebooks were released in 2003 and 2004. Dragon Ball Landmark and Dragon Ball Forever cover the manga, using volume numbers for story points that reference the kanzenban release,[74][75] while Dragon Ball: Tenkaichi Densetsu (ドラゴンボール 天下一伝説?) and Dragon Ball Z: Son Goku Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 孫悟空伝説?) cover the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime, respectively.[76][77] Much of the material in these books is reused from the earlier Daizenshuu volumes, but they include new textual material including substantial interviews with the creator, cast and production staff of the series. Son Goku Densetsu in particular showcases previously-unpublished design sketches of Goku's father Bardock, drawn by character designer Katsuyoshi Nakatsuru prior to creator Akira Toriyama's revisions that resulted in the final version.

 

Following the release of Dragon Ball Kai in Japan, four new guidebooks were released: the two-volume Dragon Ball: Super Exciting Guide (ドラゴンボール 超エキサイティングガイド?) in 2009, covering the manga,[78][79] and two-volume Dragon Ball: Extreme Battle Collection (ドラゴンボール 極限バトルコレクション?) in 2010, covering the anime series.[80][81] Despite the TV series airing during this time being Kai, the Extreme Battle Collection books reference the earlier Z series in content and episode numbers. These books also include new question-and-answer sessions with Akira Toriyama, revealing a few new details about the world and characters of the series. 2010 also saw the release of a new artbook, Dragon Ball: Anime Illustrations Guide - The Golden Warrior (ドラゴンボール アニメイラスト集 「黄金の戦士」?); a sort of anime-counterpart to the manga-oriented Complete Illustrations, it showcases anime-original illustrations and includes interviews with the three principal character designers for the anime. Each of the Japanese "Dragon Box" DVD releases of the series and movies, which were released from 2003 to 2006, as well as the Blu-ray boxed sets of Dragon Ball Kai, released 2009 to 2011, come with a Dragon Book guide that contains details about the content therein. Each also contains a new interview with a member of the cast or staff of the series. These books have been reproduced textually for Funimation's release of the Dragon Ball Z Dragon Box sets from 2009 to 2011.

 

Collectible cards

See also: Dragon Ball Collectible Card Game

Collectible cards based on the Dragon Ball, Dragon Ball Z, and Dragon Ball GT series have been released by Bandai. These cards feature various scenes from the manga and anime stills, plus exclusive artwork from all three series. Bandai released the first set in the United States in July 2008.[82]

 

Reception

Manga

Dragon Ball is one of the most popular manga series of all time, and it continues to enjoy high readership today. By 2000, more than 126 million copies of its tankōbon volumes had been sold in Japan alone.[83] By 2012, this number had grown to pass 156 million in Japan and 230 million worldwide, making it the second best-selling Weekly Shōnen Jump manga of all time.[84][85] Dragon Ball is credited as one of the main reasons for the period when manga circulation was at its highest in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s.[86][87] For the 10th anniversary of the Japan Media Arts Festival in 2006, Japanese fans voted Dragon Ball the third greatest manga of all time.[88]

 

In a survey conducted by Oricon in 2007 among 1,000 people, Son Goku, the main character of the franchise, ranked first place as the "Strongest Manga Character of All Time."[89] Goku's journey and his ever growing strength resulted in the character winning "the admiration of young boys everywhere".[1] Manga artists, such as One Piece creator Eiichiro Oda and Naruto creator Masashi Kishimoto, have stated that Goku inspired their series' main protagonists as well as series structure.[90][91]

 

Manga critic Jason Thompson stated in 2011 that "Dragon Ball is by far the most influential shonen manga of the last 30 years, and today, almost every Shonen Jump artist lists it as one of their favorites and lifts from it in various ways."[92] He says the series "turns from a gag/adventure manga to an nearly-pure fighting manga",[92] and its basic formula of "lots of martial arts, lots of training sequences, a few jokes" became the model for other shōnen series, such as Naruto.[93] Thompson also called Toriyama's art influential and cited it as a reason for the series' popularity.[92] James S. Yadao, author of The Rough Guide to Manga, claims that the first several chapters of Dragon Ball "play out much like Saiyuki with Dr. Slump-like humour built in" and that Dr. Slump, Toriyama's previous manga, has a clear early influence on the series.[94] He feels the series "established its unique identity" after the first occasion when Goku's group disbands and he trains under Kame-sen'nin, when the story develops "a far more action-packed, sinister tone" with "wilder" battles with aerial and spiritual elements and an increased death count, while humor still makes an occasional appearance.[94] Yadao claims that an art shift occurs when the characters "lose the rounded, innocent look that he established in Dr. Slump and gain sharper angles that leap off the page with their energy and intensity."[95]

 

Animerica felt the series had "worldwide appeal", using dramatic pacing and over-the-top martial arts action to "maintain tension levels and keep a crippler crossface hold on the audience's attention spans".[96] In Little Boy: The Art of Japan's Exploding Subculture, Takashi Murakami commented that Dragon Ball's "never-ending cyclical narrative moves forward plausibly, seamlessly, and with great finesse."[83] Ridwan Khan from Animefringe.com commented that the manga had a "chubby" art style, but as the series continued the characters got more refined, leaner, and more muscular. Khan prefers the manga over the slow pacing of the anime counterparts.[97] Allen Divers of Anime News Network praised the story and humor of the manga as being very good at conveying all of the characters' personalities. Divers also called Viz's translation one of the best of all the English editions of the series due to its faithfulness to the original Japanese.[98] D. Aviva Rothschild of Rationalmagic.com remarked the first manga volume as "a superior humor title". They praised Goku's innocence and Bulma's insistence as one of the funniest parts of the series.[99]

 

The content of the manga has been controversial in United States. In November 1999, Toys "R" Us removed Viz's Dragon Ball from their stores nationwide when a Dallas parent complained the series had "borderline soft porn" after he bought them for his four-year-old son.[100] Commenting on the issue, Susan J. Napier explained it as a difference in culture.[100] After the ban, Viz reluctantly began to censor the series to keep wide distribution.[101] However, in 2001, after releasing three volumes censored, Viz announced Dragon Ball would be uncensored and reprinted due to fan reactions.[101] In October 2009, Wicomico County Public Schools in Maryland banned the Dragon Ball manga from their school district because it "depicts nudity, sexual contact between children and sexual innuendo among adults and children."[100]

 

Anime

The anime adaptations have also been very well-received and are better known in the Western world than the manga, with Anime News Network saying "Few anime series have mainstreamed it the way Dragon Ball Z has. To a certain generation of television consumers its characters are as well known as any in the animated realm, and for many it was the first step into the wilderness of anime fandom."[102] In 2000, satellite TV channel Animax together with Brutus, a men's lifestyle magazine, and Tsutaya, Japan's largest video rental chain, conducted a poll among 200,000 fans on the top anime series, with Dragon Ball coming in fourth.[103] TV Asahi conducted two polls in 2005 on the Top 100 Anime, Dragon Ball came in second in the nationwide survey conducted with multiple age-groups and in third in the online poll.[104][105] On several occasions the Dragon Ball anime has topped Japan's DVD sales.[106][107]

 

Carl Kimlinger of Anime News Network summed up Dragon Ball as "an action-packed tale told with rare humor and something even rarer—a genuine sense of adventure."[108] Both Kimlinger and colleague Theron Martin noted Funimation's reputation for drastic alterations of the script, but praised the dub.[108][109] However, some critics and most fans of the Japanese version have been more critical with Funimation's English dub and script of Dragon Ball Z over the years. Jeffrey Harris IGN criticized the voices including how Freeza's appearance combined with the feminine English voice left fans confused about Freeza's gender.[110] Carlos Ross of T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews considered the series' characters to be different from stereotypical stock characters and noted that they undergo much more development.[111] Despite praising Dragon Ball Z for its cast of characters, they criticized it for having long and repetitive fights.[112]

 

Dragon Ball Z is well-known, and often criticized, for its long, repetitive, dragged-out fights that span several episodes, with Martin commenting "DBZ practically turned drawing out fights into an art form."[113] However, Jason Thompson of io9 explained that this comes from the fact that the anime was being created alongside the manga.[114] Dragon Ball Z was listed as the 78th best animated show in IGN's Top 100 Animated Series,[115] and was also listed as the 50th greatest cartoon in Wizard magazine's Top 100 Greatest Cartoons list.[116]

 

Harris commented that Dragon Ball GT "is downright repellent", mentioning that the material and characters had lost their novelty and fun. He also criticized the GT character designs of Trunks and Vegeta as being goofy.[110] Zac Bertschy of Anime News Network also gave negative comments about GT, mentioning that the fights from the series were "a very simple childish exercise" and that many other anime were superior. The plot of Dragon Ball GT has also been criticized for giving a formula that was already used in its predecessors.[117]

 

The first episode of Dragon Ball Z Kai earned a viewer ratings percentage of 11.3, ahead of One Piece and behind Crayon Shin-chan.[118] Although following episodes had lower ratings, Kai was among the top 10 anime in viewer ratings every week in Japan for most of its run.[119][120]

 

Manga

Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)

 

Dragon Ball debuted in Weekly Shōnen Jump No. 51, 1984.

Written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama, Dragon Ball was serialized in the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 20, 1984 to May 23, 1995, when Toriyama grew exhausted and felt he needed a break from drawing. The 519 individual chapters were published into 42 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha from September 10, 1985 through August 4, 1995.[13][14][15] Between December 4, 2002 and April 2, 2004, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 34 kanzenban volumes, which included a slightly rewritten ending, new covers, and color artwork from its Weekly Shōnen Jump run.[16][17] The February 2013 issue of V Jump, which was released in December 2012, announced that parts of the manga will be fully colored and re-released in 2013.[18] Twenty volumes, beginning from chapter 195 and grouped by story arcs, were released between February 4, 2013 and July 4, 2014.[19][20] Twelve volumes covering the first 194 chapters were published between January 4 and March 4, 2016.[21][22] A sōshūhen edition that aims to recreate the manga as it was originally serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump with color pages, promotional text, and next chapter previews, began being published on May 13, 2016.[23]

 

Spin-offs and crossovers

Toriyama also created a short series, Neko Majin (1999–2005), that became a self-parody of Dragon Ball.[24] In 2006, a crossover between Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo (or Kochikame) and Dragon Ball by Toriyama and Kochikame author Osamu Akimoto appeared in the Super Kochikame (超こち亀 Chō Kochikame) manga.[25] That same year, Toriyama teamed up with Eiichiro Oda to create a crossover chapter of Dragon Ball and One Piece entitled Cross Epoch.[26] The final chapter of Toriyama's 2013 manga series Jaco the Galactic Patrolman revealed that it is set before Dragon Ball, with several characters making appearances.[27] Jaco's collected volumes contain a bonus Dragon Ball chapter depicting Goku's mother.[28]

 

A colored spin-off manga titled Dragon Ball SD written by Naho Ōishi has been published in Shueisha's Saikyō Jump magazine since its debut issue in December 2010.[29] A condensed retelling of Goku's adventures in a super deformed art style, it has been collected into four volumes as of February 2016.[30][31][32][33] Another manga penned by Ōishi, the three-chapter Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock that revolves around Bardock, Goku's father, was published in the monthly magazine V Jump from August and October 2011.[34]

 

Anime series

Dragon Ball

Main articles: Dragon Ball (anime) and List of Dragon Ball episodes

Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the first 194 manga chapters, also titled Dragon Ball. The series premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on February 26, 1986 and ran until April 12, 1989, lasting 153 episodes.[2]

 

Dragon Ball Z

Main articles: Dragon Ball Z and List of Dragon Ball Z episodes

Instead of continuing the anime as Dragon Ball, Toei Animation decided to carry on with their adaptation under a new name and asked Akira Toriyama to come up with the title. Dragon Ball Z (ドラゴンボールZ(ゼット) Doragon Bōru Zetto?, commonly abbreviated as DBZ) picks up five years after the first series left off and adapts the final 325 chapters of the manga. It premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on April 26, 1989, taking over its predecessor's time slot, and ran for 291 episodes until its conclusion on January 31, 1996.[2]

 

Dragon Ball GT

Main articles: Dragon Ball GT and List of Dragon Ball GT episodes

Dragon Ball GT (ドラゴンボールGT(ジーティー) Doragon Bōru Jī Tī?, G(rand) T(ouring)[35]) premiered on Fuji TV on February 2, 1996 and ran until November 19, 1997 for 64 episodes.[2] Unlike the first two anime series, it is not based on Akira Toriyama's original Dragon Ball manga,[36] being created by Toei Animation as a sequel to the series or as Toriyama called it, a "grand side story of the original Dragon Ball".[35] Toriyama designed the main cast, the spaceship used in the show, the design of three planets, and came up with the title and logo. In addition to this, Toriyama also oversaw production of the series, just as he had for the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime.

 

Dragon Ball Kai

Main articles: Dragon Ball Kai and List of Dragon Ball Z Kai episodes

In February 2009, Toei Animation announced that it would begin broadcasting a revised version of Dragon Ball Z as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations. The series premiered on Fuji TV in Japan on April 5, 2009, under the name Dragon Ball Kai (ドラゴンボール改 Doragon Bōru Kai?, lit. "Dragon Ball Revised"), with the episodes remastered for HDTV, featuring updated opening and ending sequences, and a rerecording of the vocal tracks by most of the original cast.[37][38] The footage was also re-edited to more closely follow the manga, resulting in a faster-moving story, and damaged frames removed.[39] As such, it is a new version of Dragon Ball Z created from the original footage. Some shots were also remade from scratch in order to fix cropping and continuity issues.[40] The majority of the international versions, including Funimation Entertainment's English dub, are titled Dragon Ball Z Kai.[41][42]

 

Dragon Ball Super

Main articles: Dragon Ball Super and List of Dragon Ball Super episodes

On April 28, 2015, Toei Animation announced Dragon Ball Super (ドラゴンボール超 Doragon Bōru Sūpā?), the first all-new Dragon Ball television series to be released in 18 years. It debuted on July 5 and will run as a weekly series at 9:00 am on Fuji TV on Sundays.[43] Masako Nozawa reprised her roles as Goku, Gohan, and Goten. Most of the original cast reprise their roles as well.[44][45] Kouichi Yamadera and Masakazu Morita also reprise their roles, as Beerus and Whis, respectively.[45] The story of the anime is set four years after the defeat of Majin Boo, when the Earth has become peaceful once again. Akira Toriyama is credited as the original creator, as well for "original story & character design concepts."[46] It is also being adapted into a companion manga.[47]

 

Films

Anime

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Nineteen animated theatrical films based on the Dragon Ball series have been released in Japan. The first three films are based on the original Dragon Ball anime series. The remaining films include fifteen based on Dragon Ball Z and one tenth anniversary special (also based on the first anime series). The first five films were shown at the Toei Manga Festival (東映まんがまつり Tōei Manga Matsuri), while the sixth through seventeenth films were shown at the Toei Anime Fair (東映アニメフェア Toei Anime Fea). They were mostly alternate re-tellings of certain story arcs involving new characters or extra side-stories that do not correlate with the same continuity as the series. Since these movies were originally shown as back-to-back presentations alongside other Toei film productions, they were usually below feature length (around 45-60 minutes each), making them only slightly longer than an episode of the TV series (the sole exception being 1996's The Path to Power, which has a running time of 80 minutes). The newest films, Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods (2013) and Dragon Ball Z: Resurrection 'F' (2015), were produced as full-length feature films and were given stand-alone theatrical releases in Japan; these being the first movies to have original creator Akira Toriyama deeply involved in their production.[48][49]

 

Live-action

An unofficial live-action Mandarin Chinese film adaptation of the series, Dragon Ball: The Magic Begins, was released in Taiwan in 1989.[2] In December 1990, the unofficial live-action Korean film Dragon Ball: Ssawora Son Goku, Igyeora Son Goku was released. 20th Century Fox acquired feature film rights to the Dragon Ball franchise in March 2002 and began production on an American live-action film entitled Dragonball Evolution.[50][51] Directed by James Wong and produced by Stephen Chow, it was released in the United States on April 10, 2009.[51][52]

 

TV Specials and other animations

See also: List of Dragon Ball films

Three television specials based on the series were aired on Fuji TV in Japan. The first, The One True Final Battle ~The Z Warrior Who Challenged Freeza -- Son Goku's Father~, renamed Bardock – The Father of Goku by Funimation, was shown on October 17, 1990. The second special, The Hopeless Resistance!! Gohan and Trunks -- The Two Remaining Super Warriors, renamed The History of Trunks by Funimation, is based on a special chapter of the original manga and aired on March 24, 1993. Goku Side Story! The Four Star Ball is a Badge of Courage, renamed A Hero's Legacy by Funimation, aired on March 26, 1997. A two-part hour-long crossover special between Dragon Ball Z, One Piece and Toriko, referred to as Dream 9 Toriko & One Piece & Dragon Ball Z Super Collaboration Special!! aired on April 7, 2013.[53]

 

A two-episode original video animation (OVA) titled Dragon Ball Z Side Story: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans was created in 1993 as strategy guides for the Famicom video game of the same name.[54] A remake titled Dragon Ball: Plan to Eradicate the Super Saiyans was created as a bonus feature for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 video game Dragon Ball: Raging Blast 2, which was released on November 11, 2010.[55]

 

The short film Dragon Ball: Yo! Son Goku and His Friends Return!! was created for the Jump Super Anime Tour,[56] which celebrated Weekly Shōnen Jump's 40th anniversary, and debuted on November 24, 2008. A short animated adaptation of Naho Ōishi's Bardock spinoff manga, Dragon Ball: Episode of Bardock, was shown on December 17–18, 2011 at the Jump Festa 2012 event.[57]

 

Theme Park Attraction

"Dragon Ball Z: The Real 4D" debuted at Universal Studios Japan during Summer 2016. It features a battle between Goku and Freeza. Unlike most Dragon Ball animation, the ride is animated with CGI.

 

Video games

See also: List of Dragon Ball video games

 

A Dragon Ball Z arcade conversion kit that includes the PCB, instructions and operator's manual.

The Dragon Ball franchise has spawned multiple video games across various genres and platforms. Earlier games of the series included a system of card battling and were released for the Famicom following the storyline of the series.[58] Starting with the Super Famicom and Mega Drive, most of the games were from the fighting genre or RPG (Role Playing Game), such as the Super Butoden series.[59] The first Dragon Ball game to be released in the United States was Dragon Ball GT: Final Bout for the PlayStation in 1997.[60] For the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable games the characters were redone in 3D cel-shaded graphics. These games included the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai series and the Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi series.[61][62] Dragon Ball Z: Burst Limit was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.[63] Dragon Ball Xenoverse was the first game of the franchise developed for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.[64][65] A massively multiplayer online role-playing game called Dragon Ball Online was available in Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan until the servers were shut down in 2013.[66]

 

Soundtracks

See also: List of Dragon Ball soundtracks

Myriad soundtracks were released in the anime, movies and the games. The music for the first two anime Dragon Ball and Z and its films was composed by Shunsuke Kikuchi, while the music from GT was composed by Akihito Tokunaga and the music from Kai was composed by Kenji Yamamoto and Norihito Sumitomo. For the first anime, the soundtracks released were Dragon Ball: Music Collection in 1985 and Dragon Ball: Complete Song Collection in 1991, although they were reissued in 2007 and 2003, respectively.[67] For the second anime, the soundtrack series released were Dragon Ball Z Hit Song Collection Series. It was produced and released by Columbia Records of Japan from July 21, 1989 to March 20, 1996 the show's entire lifespan. On September 20, 2006 Columbia re-released the Hit Song Collection on their Animex 1300 series.[68][69] Other CDs released are compilations, video games and films soundtracks as well as music from the English versions.[70]

 

Companion books

 

Cover of Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations

There have been numerous companion books to the Dragon Ball franchise. Chief among these are the Daizenshuu (大全集?) series, comprising seven hardback main volumes and three supplemental softcover volumes, covering the manga and the first two anime series and their theatrical films. The first of these, Dragon Ball: The Complete Illustrations (Daizenshuu volume 1), first published in Japan in 1995, is the only one that was released in English, being printed in 2008 by Viz Media.[71] It contains all 264 colored illustrations Akira Toriyama drew for the Weekly Shōnen Jump magazines' covers, bonus giveaways and specials, and all the covers for the 42 tankōbon. It also includes an interview with Toriyama on his work process. The remainder have never been released in English, and all are now out of print in Japan. From February 4 to May 9, 2013, condensed versions of the Daizenshuu with some updated information were released as the four-volume Chōzenshū (超全集?) series.[18] For Dragon Ball GT, the Dragon Ball GT Perfect Files were released in May and December 1997 by Shueisha's Jump Comics Selection imprint. They include series information, illustration galleries, behind-the-scenes information, and more. They were out of print for many years, but were re-released in April 2006 (accompanying the Japanese DVD release of Dragon Ball GT) and this edition is still in print.[72][73]

 

Coinciding with the 34-volume kanzenban re-release of the manga, and the release of the entire series on DVD for the first time in Japan, four new guidebooks were released in 2003 and 2004. Dragon Ball Landmark and Dragon Ball Forever cover the manga, using volume numbers for story points that reference the kanzenban release,[74][75] while Dragon Ball: Tenkaichi Densetsu (ドラゴンボール 天下一伝説?) and Dragon Ball Z: Son Goku Densetsu (ドラゴンボールZ 孫悟空伝説?) cover the Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z anime, respectively.[76][77] Much of the material in these books is reused from the earlier Daizenshuu volumes, but they include new textual material including substantial interviews with the creator, cast and production staff of the series. Son Goku Densetsu in particular showcases previously-unpublished design sketches of Goku's father Bardock, drawn by character designer Katsuyoshi Nakatsuru prior to creator Akira Toriyama's revisions that resulted in the final version.

 

Following the release of Dragon Ball Kai in Japan, four new guidebooks were released: the two-volume Dragon Ball: Super Exciting Guide (ドラゴンボール 超エキサイティングガイド?) in 2009, covering the manga,[78][79] and two-volume Dragon Ball: Extreme Battle Collection (ドラゴンボール 極限バトルコレクション?) in 2010, covering the anime series.[80][81] Despite the TV series airing during this time being Kai, the Extreme Battle Collection books reference the earlier Z series in content and episode numbers. These books also include new question-and-answer sessions with Akira Toriyama, revealing a few new details about the world and characters of the series. 2010 also saw the release of a new artbook, Dragon Ball: Anime Illustrations Guide - The Golden Warrior (ドラゴンボール アニメイラスト集 「黄金の戦士」?); a sort of anime-counterpart to the manga-oriented Complete Illustrations, it showcases anime-original illustrations and includes interviews with the three principal character designers for the anime. Each of the Japanese "Dragon Box" DVD releases of the series and movies, which were released from 2003 to 2006, as well as the Blu-ray boxed sets of Dragon Ball Kai, released 2009 to 2011, come with a Dragon Book guide that contains details about the content therein. Each also contains a new interview with a member of the cast or staff of the series. These books have been reproduced textually for Funimation's release of the Dragon Ball Z Dragon Box sets from 2009 to 2011.

 

Collectible cards

See also: Dragon Ball Collectible Card Game

Collectible cards based on the Dragon Ball, Dragon Ball Z, and Dragon Ball GT series have been released by Bandai. These cards feature various scenes from the manga and anime stills, plus exclusive artwork from all three series. Bandai released the first set in the United States in July 2008.[82]

 

Reception

Manga

Dragon Ball is one of the most popular manga series of all time, and it continues to enjoy high readership today. By 2000, more than 126 million copies of its tankōbon volumes had been sold in Japan alone.[83] By 2012, this number had grown to pass 156 million in Japan and 230 million worldwide, making it the second best-selling Weekly Shōnen Jump manga of all time.[84][85] Dragon Ball is credited as one of the main reasons for the period when manga circulation was at its highest in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s.[86][87] For the 10th anniversary of the Japan Media Arts Festival in 2006, Japanese fans voted Dragon Ball the third greatest manga of all time.[88]

 

In a survey conducted by Oricon in 2007 among 1,000 people, Son Goku, the main character of the franchise, ranked first place as the "Strongest Manga Character of All Time."[89] Goku's journey and his ever growing strength resulted in the character winning "the admiration of young boys everywhere".[1] Manga artists, such as One Piece creator Eiichiro Oda and Naruto creator Masashi Kishimoto, have stated that Goku inspired their series' main protagonists as well as series structure.[90][91]

 

Manga critic Jason Thompson stated in 2011 that "Dragon Ball is by far the most influential shonen manga of the last 30 years, and today, almost every Shonen Jump artist lists it as one of their favorites and lifts from it in various ways."[92] He says the series "turns from a gag/adventure manga to an nearly-pure fighting manga",[92] and its basic formula of "lots of martial arts, lots of training sequences, a few jokes" became the model for other shōnen series, such as Naruto.[93] Thompson also called Toriyama's art influential and cited it as a reason for the series' popularity.[92] James S. Yadao, author of The Rough Guide to Manga, claims that the first several chapters of Dragon Ball "play out much like Saiyuki with Dr. Slump-like humour built in" and that Dr. Slump, Toriyama's previous manga, has a clear early influence on the series.[94] He feels the series "established its unique identity" after the first occasion when Goku's group disbands and he trains under Kame-sen'nin, when the story develops "a far more action-packed, sinister tone" with "wilder" battles with aerial and spiritual elements and an increased death count, while humor still makes an occasional appearance.[94] Yadao claims that an art shift occurs when the characters "lose the rounded, innocent look that he established in Dr. Slump and gain sharper angles that leap off the page with their energy and intensity."[95]

 

Animerica felt the series had "worldwide appeal", using dramatic pacing and over-the-top martial arts action to "maintain tension levels and keep a crippler crossface hold on the audience's attention spans".[96] In Little Boy: The Art of Japan's Exploding Subculture, Takashi Murakami commented that Dragon Ball's "never-ending cyclical narrative moves forward plausibly, seamlessly, and with great finesse."[83] Ridwan Khan from Animefringe.com commented that the manga had a "chubby" art style, but as the series continued the characters got more refined, leaner, and more muscular. Khan prefers the manga over the slow pacing of the anime counterparts.[97] Allen Divers of Anime News Network praised the story and humor of the manga as being very good at conveying all of the characters' personalities. Divers also called Viz's translation one of the best of all the English editions of the series due to its faithfulness to the original Japanese.[98] D. Aviva Rothschild of Rationalmagic.com remarked the first manga volume as "a superior humor title". They praised Goku's innocence and Bulma's insistence as one of the funniest parts of the series.[99]

 

The content of the manga has been controversial in United States. In November 1999, Toys "R" Us removed Viz's Dragon Ball from their stores nationwide when a Dallas parent complained the series had "borderline soft porn" after he bought them for his four-year-old son.[100] Commenting on the issue, Susan J. Napier explained it as a difference in culture.[100] After the ban, Viz reluctantly began to censor the series to keep wide distribution.[101] However, in 2001, after releasing three volumes censored, Viz announced Dragon Ball would be uncensored and reprinted due to fan reactions.[101] In October 2009, Wicomico County Public Schools in Maryland banned the Dragon Ball manga from their school district because it "depicts nudity, sexual contact between children and sexual innuendo among adults and children."[100]

 

Anime

The anime adaptations have also been very well-received and are better known in the Western world than the manga, with Anime News Network saying "Few anime series have mainstreamed it the way Dragon Ball Z has. To a certain generation of television consumers its characters are as well known as any in the animated realm, and for many it was the first step into the wilderness of anime fandom."[102] In 2000, satellite TV channel Animax together with Brutus, a men's lifestyle magazine, and Tsutaya, Japan's largest video rental chain, conducted a poll among 200,000 fans on the top anime series, with Dragon Ball coming in fourth.[103] TV Asahi conducted two polls in 2005 on the Top 100 Anime, Dragon Ball came in second in the nationwide survey conducted with multiple age-groups and in third in the online poll.[104][105] On several occasions the Dragon Ball anime has topped Japan's DVD sales.[106][107]

 

Carl Kimlinger of Anime News Network summed up Dragon Ball as "an action-packed tale told with rare humor and something even rarer—a genuine sense of adventure."[108] Both Kimlinger and colleague Theron Martin noted Funimation's reputation for drastic alterations of the script, but praised the dub.[108][109] However, some critics and most fans of the Japanese version have been more critical with Funimation's English dub and script of Dragon Ball Z over the years. Jeffrey Harris IGN criticized the voices including how Freeza's appearance combined with the feminine English voice left fans confused about Freeza's gender.[110] Carlos Ross of T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews considered the series' characters to be different from stereotypical stock characters and noted that they undergo much more development.[111] Despite praising Dragon Ball Z for its cast of characters, they criticized it for having long and repetitive fights.[112]

 

Dragon Ball Z is well-known, and often criticized, for its long, repetitive, dragged-out fights that span several episodes, with Martin commenting "DBZ practically turned drawing out fights into an art form."[113] However, Jason Thompson of io9 explained that this comes from the fact that the anime was being created alongside the manga.[114] Dragon Ball Z was listed as the 78th best animated show in IGN's Top 100 Animated Series,[115] and was also listed as the 50th greatest cartoon in Wizard magazine's Top 100 Greatest Cartoons list.[116]

 

Harris commented that Dragon Ball GT "is downright repellent", mentioning that the material and characters had lost their novelty and fun. He also criticized the GT character designs of Trunks and Vegeta as being goofy.[110] Zac Bertschy of Anime News Network also gave negative comments about GT, mentioning that the fights from the series were "a very simple childish exercise" and that many other anime were superior. The plot of Dragon Ball GT has also been criticized for giving a formula that was already used in its predecessors.[117]

 

The first episode of Dragon Ball Z Kai earned a viewer ratings percentage of 11.3, ahead of One Piece and behind Crayon Shin-chan.[118] Although following episodes had lower ratings, Kai was among the top 10 anime in viewer ratings every week in Japan for most of its run.[119][120]

 

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When Mojave, the new adaptation of MacOS, launched in September 2018 it bought a accumulating of new desktop wallpapers that appearance a Mojave arid sand-dune as it changes throughout a 24-hour period.

 

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You don’t accept to install Mojave – in actuality you don’t alike charge a Mac, you can get the wallpapers now, by downloading them from the articulation below.

 

If you accept installed Mojave, you can go advanced and alpha application Dynamic Desktop now. Here’s an commodity to advice you set it up so that the Mojave angel changes throughout the day.

 

You can download the Mojave Wallpaper and use it on your pre-Mojave Mac (or alike a PC if you absolutely appetite to blend with people’s heads).

 

This Reddit affiche has uploaded all the images that amalgamate to accomplish the Dynamic Desktop angel of the beach dune that Apple is application to represent Mojave. It’s a 40MB book and you can download it here.

 

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There are a absolute of 16 images of the aforementioned sand-dune in the folder, anniversary one apery a altered time of day.

 

If you would like to use one as your desktop wallpaper on a Mac, chase these instructions. It is additionally accessible to actualize a Dynamic Desktop appearance effect, we’ll attending at how to do that next.

 

You can download the Mojave Wallpaper and actualize a sudo Mojave Dynamic Desktop affection on your Mac after installing Mojave.

 

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To alpha you’ll charge to download the Mojave wallpaper as above. You can grab the angel from this link: images. It’s a 40MB book including all 16 sand-dune images.

 

Once you accept downloaded images assimilate your Mac, annoyance the binder of images to your desktop, archetype the binder of images to Photos.

 

Here’s how to set up a Dynamic Desktop effect:

 

The alone affair with this adjustment of creating a Dynamic Desktop is that actuality in the UK appropriate now we’re in the acme of summer, with continued canicule (the sun was up at 4.45am this morning and will set at 9.20pm). Since there are alone eight images that attending abundantly daytime that agency you will alone get that aurora aftereffect for eight hours of the day, so accept wisely!

 

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If you install Mojave the Dynamic Desktop should be affiliated to the hours of aurora area you are based.

 

Want to use Apple’s sand-dune angel on your iPhone too?

 

Once you accept downloaded the images from the articulation aloft on your Mac you can AirDrop them to your iPhone, archetype them to an iCloud folder, iMessage them to yourself, or aloof appearance them actuality (via the Imgur app), and download the one you like assimilate your iPhone.

 

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While this 25th December has brought us blithe Nintendo Download updates, and a host of treats and discounts about the world, North American Wii U owners accept an added amusement – a chargeless Crunchyroll app to admission a lot of anime, manga and Asian dramas.

 

That’ll no agnosticism be music to the aerial of a cardinal of Wii U owners, with the video alive account alms franchises such as Naruto Shippuden, One Piece, Sword Art Online and Hunter x Hunter. The app itself is free, admitting like added TV casework such as Netflix there’s a cable amount to admission the content.

 

Nintendo’s columnist absolution promises “25,000 episodes and 15,000 hours of hit accountant content” to be accessible appropriate off the bat for absolute all-access exceptional Crunchyroll customers. Those that aren’t associates will be able to balloon the account for chargeless for 14 days, afterwards which point it’s all-important to booty up the $11.95 a ages account or lose admission – it seems that alone this top-tier, ad-free cable allows examination on the Wii U.

 

At the time of autograph this isn’t accessible on the European Wii U eShop, so this is North America-only appropriate now.

 

Are any of you absolute Crunchyroll associates activity to download this, or will you accord the balloon a spin?

 

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Funkmaster Flex plays DMX‘s “Party Up” audibly as two activated versions of Ludacris and Method Man bite and bang the bits out of anniversary added in a angry ring. Bodies acclamation from all abandon as the brace cull out their best moves on one another, acquisitive to pin the added and be crowned the champ of the fight. This is Def Jam Vendetta, area rappers handle battles not with a mic — but with their fists.

 

Originally appear in April 2003, Vendetta was a collaborative endeavor amid Def Jam and EA Games. Prior to Vendetta, hip-hop adeptness and video bold culture were brought calm alert with capricious results. 1995’s Rap Jam: Volume One allowed players to booty the basketball cloister as LL Air-conditioned J, Flavor Flav, and added rappers. But the cartoon fabricated best of the rappers duplicate from anniversary other, not to acknowledgment the game’s arresting gameplay. Four years afterwards came the absolution of Wu-Tang Clan: Shaolin Style, a angry bold that accustomed alloyed reviews but was advised avant-garde at the time because it accustomed up to four bodies to action simultaneously. Ultimately, both amateur served as a cautionary account for approaching hip-hop video games.

 

In the aboriginal 2000s, hip-hop began to soundtrack video bold franchises like Madden NFL and Tony Hawk’s Pro Skater. Rappers were additionally authoritative cameos in video amateur as playable characters, with Jermaine Dupri and Q-Tip actualization in Knockout Kings 2000, and Redman actualization in NBA 2K1. Instances such as these showed that rappers were agreeable with — or at the actual atomic accidental to — video games. But a video bold committed to hip-hop culture — not aloof alone rappers or one rap aggregate but the fashion, music, and slang — still hadn’t been made.

 

Then Vendetta happened. In the game, players charge accomplish their way through an underground angry ring, demography on rappers like Ghostface Killah, Joe Budden, Redman, Ludacris, Scarface, and others in angry matches. There are three means to win — pin, submission, or KO — and annihilation goes already the action begins. As basic breach from kicks, punches, and allurement holds, characters additionally accept the adeptness to cull off a appropriate move aback they’ve congenital up their ability gauge. The appropriate moves ambit from the “Methalize” (where Method Man break an opponent’s aback by anatomy slamming him) to the “Ruff Ryders Anthem” (where DMX bliss his opponent, does a mid-air circuit aloft them and throws them to the ground, and snaps his neck).

 

As players win added matches they’re able to enhance their characters, advancing them for their final action adjoin the man abaft the underground angry alliance — best bang-up D-Mob (voiced by Christopher Judge).

 

Vendetta allowed hip-hop adeptness and music to be its centerpiece. A bartering and analytical success, the bold went on to accept two sequels, Def Jam: Action for NY and Def Jam: Icon, and recently Def Jam teased the achievability of another Vendetta game. But this is the one that started it all and account of Vendetta, Okayplayer has talked with the development aggregation and some of the rappers a allotment of creating the bold to acquaint its abstruse history — 15 years aback its release.

 

Kevin Liles: I was a big gamer, always. I grew up on aggregate from Atari to PlayStation to Xbox. We had a lot of Madden wars — we would alarm them in the office — afterwards work. And aback the gaming industry started putting music central of amateur I was wondering, “We’re licensing all these songs to the bold aggregation — how appear we’re not authoritative games?”

 

I sat bottomward with the Electronic Arts — I didn’t go about to a lot of altered bodies — and said, “Listen, let’s anticipate of commodity bigger that we can do together. Why don’t we appear up with commodity that hip-hop will be in and absolutely accompany it to life, and not aloof accomplish a baby bold that bodies will aloof comedy for a brace of minutes, but commodity that bodies could appoint with and absolutely acquaint a adventure and go through the accomplished process?”

 

Josh Holmes: I was alive at Electronic Arts with Daryl Anselmo, who’s one of the co-founders of our accustomed studio, Midwinter Entertainment. The two of us had aloof accomplished creating NBA Street, an arcade streetball bold that was heavily alloyed with streetball adeptness and hip-hop adeptness and was one of the aboriginal EA BIG titles.

 

We were array of alive on a angry bold internally that was code-named Kung Fu Fighting, aback one of the advisers at the studio, Paul Lee, declared to us a angry activity that he had beneath his banderole that had had the WCW license, and I assumption they had absent the authorization aback the WWE had bought the WCW. The aggregation was disturbing creatively and didn’t apperceive what to do with the game. They had this absurd developer based in Japan alleged AKI Corporation who had done all these acclaimed angry amateur in the past.

 

So they pulled Daryl and me abreast and they asked us to do a analysis over the advance of a weekend on what we would do with a angry title. I spent a weekend with Daryl accomplishing a agglomeration of research, drafting up a architecture and 20 page-treatment on how I would body an arcade angry title.

 

About a anniversary afterwards I got addition alarm into Lee’s appointment and he’s like, “Hey, I charge you to argue with this aggregation creatively. You did abundant assignment on the brief. Can you assignment with them and advice adviser them a bit creatively?” I said, “Ok, sure. I’m active alive on my title, but I’m blessed to try and advice a aggregation that’s disturbing a bit.” All of this was still aural the attitude of a traditional-ish angry title. I anticipate at that point it was now alleged Midnight Wrestling. Afresh we got alleged into this brainstorming meeting, a agglomeration of business folks, and Lee. It was the archetypal brainstorming affair area no abstraction is out of bounds, so everybody’s throwing out crazy ideas. So we were absolutely into hip-hop and burghal culture, and we aloof array of threw out — what if we did commodity that was ashore in the apple of hip-hop?

 

Steve Schnur, who was the arch of music at EA at the time, said, “Oh, that’s great. I apperceive some association at Def Jam. We can get them calm and we could accept rappers angry anniversary added and stuff.” Suddenly, this abstraction started accepting momentum. I was like, “Whoa, okay, that was a impaired idea. No, let’s not do that, guys. Let’s accumulate going. Let’s appear up with addition idea…we should do annihilation but this.”

 

So we larboard that affair and Daryl and I was aloof like, “Holy cow, I feel so bad for that team. We aloof helped accord this abhorrent idea, put it in the active of this controlling team, and now this aggregation has boot orders to go body that game.” Afresh we got a alarm three canicule later. They’re like, “Hey, you guys are actuality confused assimilate this project. You’re authoritative the Def Jam game. Go amount it out, and you accept eight months to get it out the door.”

 

Lauren Wirtzer-Seawood: When this happened and they asked us to activity administer the accomplished affair and get it done, the aboriginal affair I bethink accomplishing is account an commodity about the amount of EA and how abundant money they made, and I realized, like, “Ok, we charge to do this.” Somehow, they’re authoritative billions of dollars already on animate amateur and this is an befalling for us to aloof dive added into the hip-hop exchange and amount out how to cull the admirers that we already accept from Def Jam into the gaming amplitude and vice-versa.

 

Source: Def Jam/EA

 

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Liles: It wasn’t like there were hip-hop amateur actuality fabricated at that accurate time. So this was like two institutions advancing calm and saying, “Hey, I assurance you, I accept in you.” I bethink a brace of affairs and cogent the admiral there, “Hey, you guys ability not apperceive who I am, you guys ability not apperceive any of the artists that I’m gonna name to you. But do me a favor, address ’em down, and afresh go ask your kids.”

 

I additionally told this adventure [to Def Jam]. Anticipate about the kid who fell in adulation with the new DMX anthology and admired the music. Anticipate about the kid that not alone could accept but now he could comedy as DMX. That moment for that kid, it went from his aerial to his eyes to his heart. He became emotionally attached. I kept repeating that story. Guys, this is an befalling for us to get out of aloof the audio and get into a beheld space, as able-bodied as an assurance and alternate space, that would accord abounding amusement to the kid.

 

[Former EA CEO] Larry Probst and his team, they fabricated amateur well. They knew that we, then, had a beating on the culture. They trusted us, and we trusted them. My bigger claiming was the success that we had in the music space, I capital to abide in the gaming space. I absolutely don’t anticipate it would accept happened with any added partner, or any added administrator at that accurate time, added than Larry. He absolutely put his assurance and acceptance in our relationship.

 

We took an academy like Def Jam and an academy like Electronic Arts and started to allotment ideas. We had to appear up with a name for it so we said, let’s alarm it Def Jam Vendetta.

 

Wirtzer-Seawood: Quite frankly, it wasn’t absolutely a adamantine sell, because everybody was so adamantine into animate amateur at that point that I anticipate the eyes was appealing clear. And afresh from there, I would assignment with attorneys to accomplish abiding all the paperwork was taken affliction of and afresh agenda times for the artists to go and do the motion abduction and the articulation pieces that bare to get done.

 

They were complex from top to bottom. We capital to accomplish abiding everybody was adequate with how their characters angry out, what their appearance looked like — they alike got to name their character’s appropriate moves.

 

God, there charge accept been like 20 foot-long sketches on one cycle of continued cardboard of every distinct artist’s appearance that was in the game, and what they looked like and what they were activity to wear. And afresh I would add to it and accumulate it. It was all in Kevin’s office. He had this big bend appointment at the time, and it was like all of the artwork was there aloof laid so that we could consistently attending at it and animadversion on it and accomplish tweaks to it.

 

Holmes: Every time I would accommodated somebody, I would accept to fly out with Lauren. Lauren would set it up, and she would accompany me into the room, acquaint me to whoever it was that we were affair with that day, and I accept to angle them. “Hey, this is the game. This is the story. This is the role that you’re activity to comedy in the game. This is what we charge from you accomplish this happen.” They would be like, “Ok, I’m in.”

 

Then we would get a affair with them in a recording studio, and I would accept to go and address all the chat and curve and everything. Afresh I would present curve — whether it’s Meth, Red, or DMX — and they would acquaint me why my chat sucked and change a agglomeration of actuality and be like, “No, I would never say that shit. I’m not adage that here. We’re activity to change it like this, and I’m activity to do it this way.”

 

Wirtzer-Seawood: And afresh on top of that, we had to assignment absolutely carefully with all of the EA teams on the architecture side, on the ecology design, designers, motion-capture designers and everybody else, because we had to accomplish abiding that the bold reflected the adeptness and that was absolutely important to Kevin.

 

Liles: I couldn’t see us, at that accurate time, accomplishing a bold that wasn’t accurate to the culture, from what artists were in the bold to the character’s clothes and moves. These artists were either on the label or accompany in the industry. Also, I would say 95 percent of them were gamers. So this was an befalling for them to, like I said, approach themselves in that space. And aloof imagine, if I didn’t amusement Redman appropriate or X right, or any of these guys that participated. What if I did not do them right?

 

Method Man: Redman and I consistently acclimated to go up to Def Jam because Kevin Liles was our big brother so I would aloof go up there to see what’s activity on. One day I popped into Kevin’s appointment and he’s got these bold bodies in there and they’re assuming him this angry game. Kevin let me comedy it a few times and he was like “You like this game?” And I was like “Yeah, this bits is crazy.” I was so naive — I’m cogent them about how to do this and that in commendations to accomplishing angry moves and they already knew this shit. But what I did advance was that they put a tutorial central the bold to appearance bodies how to do the moves and they gave me a analysis for that shit.

 

I bethink cogent them what I capital my finishing move to be. I didn’t affliction about annihilation else. I was gonna put my own circuit on my quotables any fucking way but I fabricated abiding they gave me the ultimate finishing move and fabricated my appearance the hottest appearance in the game. I bare for my appearance to exhausted everybody else’s ass in the game.

 

Ludacris [via IGN, 2004]: I had ascribe as far as what I capital to abrasion and my moves and what I capital to alarm them. So with that actuality said, I was actual blessed about that, ’cause you apperceive accepting artistic ascribe on commodity actuality activated is absolutely [cool]. I beggarly it’s like how abounding bodies can say that they’ve been angry into a video bold character? That’s beholden all aural itself.

 

DMX [via Ruff Ryders, 2013]: They acclimated my music throughout the accomplished fucking game, and I’m the hardest appearance to get to. It’s appealing abundant my shit.

 

Joe Budden [via The Joe Budden Podcast, 2018]: A lot of the white bodies knew me from that video game. They knew how to authorization some bits — [the label] aloof wasn’t activity to pay niggas for it.

 

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Source: Def Jam/EA

 

Holmes: One of my admired belief from that acquaintance was affair with Ghostface Killah. I don’t apperceive if Lauren’s told you this adventure and I don’t apperceive if she alike remembers but it’s like austere into my memory.

 

Wirtzer-Seawood: This is the one affair I bethink that is absolutely the funniest.

 

Holmes: So every time we accommodated with the artisan we say, “Tell me what do you wanna wear, what’s your outfit?” And we would booty all these all-encompassing addendum and we’d booty pictures if there were things that they ability be cutting or they would accelerate us stuff. Afresh I’d say, “What’s your appropriate move, acquaint me what you appetite your appropriate move to be,” and I’d explain how that works in the game.

 

And Ghostface was like, “Ok. Here’s the thing. I gotta accept all my adornment and I wanna accept a behemothic gold hawkeye on my arm. And afresh at a appropriate point in the match, I do my appropriate move and my hawkeye comes to activity and it flies up in the air and it claws the mother fucker’s eyes out.” I angry to Lauren and said “We can’t do that. The agent can’t do that. It’s not possible.” She’s like, “Shut up. Aloof say yes.” I’m like, “Of course. Ok. So the hawkeye flies and it claws his eyes out.” He’s like, “Yeah.” And he’s anecdotic all this bits and I’m like, “Cool.”

 

And I’m thinking, “I’m never gonna accept to see Ghost again. I’m good.” And afresh we did the aftereffect and as anon as I met him he was like, “What the fuck happened to my eagle, man?” He was super, cool pissed. And I was like, “I am so sorry. We couldn’t accomplish that happen.”

 

Holmes: We capital to advance for [a complete rating] because we acquainted it was appropriate for the brand. And I anticipate there was a lot of attrition to that with Vendetta. One of the things I bethink with Vendetta — the adventure array of culminates at the end aback you get into a showdown with D Mob and he pulls a gun on you. We’re appropriate abreast the end of our deadline, like a brace months afore we’re gonna accept to address and I had to appearance all of our cine for the game. [Former President of Worldwide Studios for EA] Don Mattrick absent it. He’s like, “You can’t accept a gun in this. There are no accoutrements in hip-hop.”

 

And I’m like, “Dude, I can’t abolish this, this is about escalation. It’s about the moment. This is what’s accident in the story, this is a bright affair that needs to happen.” I was aloof a about adolescent kid at the time and it was my bang-up at the time who threw himself in advanced of me and said, “Don’t anguish about it, we’ll booty affliction of it.” And he boring formed on Don until we managed to accumulate the candor of the adventure and accumulate our moment.

 

There was a lot of aggravating to action for what we anticipation was the right tone and feel and accomplishing that aural an alignment that wasn’t adequate and accustomed with this adeptness and this world. Aback we would do these pre-submissions would get acknowledgment like, “Yeah this is absolutely walking the line.” And afresh the administration that we would get as a artistic aggregation is, “Ok you guys charge to punch it back.” Which as a artistic I don’t absolutely acknowledge able-bodied to that array of feedback.

 

I anticipate I was actual audacious in array of angry for the artistic candor of a lot of this actuality and in hindsight I think, in some cases, I could’ve done a bigger job of acrimonious my battles.

 

Liles: To me, we consistently capital to baby to a adolescent admirers and the gaming attributes at that accurate time was male-dominated. If I capital a boyhood appraisement I had to adapt some of the things like authoritative the radio edit. If you capital to get radio play, you had to accomplish a radio edit. It doesn’t booty abroad from the song in some cases, but I fabricated abiding we pushed the envelope abundant while authoritative abiding we had the ability and the admirers to absolutely advertise scale.

 

It’s the aforementioned as I had to accost every added conversation. Do you anticipate that box retailers capital to backpack music with abundant profanity? There was a time area they would alone acquiesce rap music to be played for one hour every Friday. Afresh they gave us the weekend. Afresh they said the mix show. It was an change and to me, this wasn’t a gaming conversation. This was a cultural conversation. It was all about the agent and the messaging and I advised the cast at EA like it was my own, speaking to the shareholders and the lath and all the admiral there and demography the continued alley for them not to aloof accomplish a bold but to absolutely account the adeptness that it came from.

 

It’s the aforementioned fight. It’s aloof a altered time. Attending at what happened with Colin Kaepernick, with the YG almanac [on Madden 19]. Brainstorm if it was my game. I wouldn’t let that happen. I don’t apperception accepting a chat but at the end of the day, I would’ve shut the bold bottomward if it wasn’t activity the way that we had envisioned it to go.

 

Liles: We apparently went through 200 images [for the awning art]. Anticipate about some of the iconic anthology covers that we’ve fabricated in the advance of our life. The band was, at that accurate time: aggregate mattered. Every color, every font, every image, every word. And it wasn’t about one artist, it wasn’t about who was the best at that time. It was about hip-hop. You can’t put one face to hip-hop. And in the gaming space, I acquainted it was bigger if it was not about one person. It was about the adeptness as a whole.

 

Wirtzer-Seawood: I think, for me, the best memorable allotment of that bout was accommodating with GameStop and abacus an aspect that hadn’t yet been done. I anticipate commodity like gaming brings bodies calm and aback you add a hip-hop aspect on top of that, there are aloof added apparatus to accompany bodies together.

 

We apperceive what aboriginal anniversary numbers attending like for annal but we didn’t apperceive what it looked like for games, so it was all new for us. And I bethink attractive at the numbers and accepting account letters and tracking those account letters and cerebration like, “This is absolutely appealing good.” Because remember, this is at a time afore amusing media so there’s no way for us to barometer the acknowledgment from fans. There’s no way for us to accept this actual response. It all came calm already we started seeing numbers and sales.

 

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I bethink actuality afraid at how able-bodied it was received. And again, not for any acumen added than we had never done that before.

 

Method Man: They had an abstraction that they would accelerate me forth with some of the newer artists they active and some Roc-A-Fella artists and some Murder Inc. artists and we would go out and do these shows. But in the bosom of us accomplishing these shows I would stop at GameStops and comedy the bold with bodies because I was that acceptable at it. All I had to do was host the appearance and during the day I would go to altered GameStops and comedy Def Jam Vendetta adjoin the locals. And I did go best up until one point. I anticipate one kid exhausted me — little allotment of shit.

 

Source: Def Jam/EA

 

Redman: It was abundant to see that my own characterization had their own video bold and put their own artists in it. And the ill allotment about it was that it wasn’t banal — it was actual aberrant in the gaming industry. At the end of the day, the gaming industry does not charge hip-hop. They’re a billion, abundance dollar market. But we were accustomed for Def Jam Vendetta and I anticipate that was the celebrity allotment for me — to be accustomed in the gaming world.

 

Holmes: I grew up alert to hip-hop. At one point, I alone out of aerial academy and went and formed in a music boutique affairs guitars; one day Public Enemy came to town. Flava Flav happened to appear into The Rock Pit area I formed and I concluded up affairs him a bass. He was so blessed with the bass that I had awash him that day that he gave me backstage passes to the show.

 

I anticipate I was like 16 at the time or something. It was absolutely funny because that came abounding circle, not on Vendetta but on Fight For New York, aback we got Flav for the game. I talked to him about that day, and he remembered advancing to Vancouver and affairs that abject and everything, I was like, “Dude, I was that kid.”

 

I generally anticipate aback to that acquaintance of alive on those two games, and aloof what an absurd acquaintance it was for me in every way.

 

Liles: People acclimated to say rap was a fad and it wasn’t gonna last. Now we sit actuality and we’re the cardinal one music brand in the world. It wasn’t like that 15 years ago. It’s been told to me it’s one of the actual moments in our culture.

 

It wasn’t about one burghal or one accumulation of bodies — this is about hip-hop culture. This was commodity that complex so abounding affective parts. Every distinct affair in the bold was hip-hop. Every distinct thing. That’s why I’ll consistently alarm it the aboriginal bold of its kind.

 

Method Man: I’ve been a gaming dude for a continued time and I knew that that Wu-Tang: Shaolin Style bold was originally addition bold that never came out but they did accept it in one of the GamePro magazines. That bold was fucking horrible. [Editor’s Note: The bold Method Man is apropos to is Thrill Kill, an unreleased PlayStation bold that became Shaolin Style. Additionally account acquainted that Shaolin Style was well-received by some critics, with GamePro giving it a four out of bristles rating.] Nothing adjoin the developers because they were aggravating to capitalize on commodity that was hot at the time, which was Wu-Tang. But that bold was rushed and horrible. I had annihilation to do with it. I never alike got a analysis from it. That bold was destined to abort off top. Didn’t get any annotation work, annihilation — they rushed that allegation out. Abutting affair I apperceive there’s a Wu-Tang video bold out. I might’ve played it already and said, “To hell with this.”

 

I was so blessed with Def Jam Vendetta because it was assuredly done appropriate and the way it brought in artery fighting, wrestling, and hip-hop all in the aforementioned bag — you’re acquisition the fucking accepted adeptness appropriate there. You got three altered genres of dopeness advancing calm as one. That’s fucking hot and will never be done again. I don’t like the administration that it went in afterwards on bottomward the band but those aboriginal two amateur were appealing dope.

 

Source: Def Jam/EA

 

Holmes: I’m a West Coast guy so I would apparently go with LA. I anticipate we were also, at the time that we fabricated Action For New York, talking about area the aftereffect would be set, and we were talking about LA. Hip-hop was advancing appropriate off the heels of the accomplished East Coast, West Coast feud.

 

Wirtzer-Seawood: I anticipate that LA has added opportunities to body artistic stuff, honestly. Aback you anticipate about it from a gaming angle you about anticipate about it like a movie, right? There’s altered actuality that you can cull from and I anticipate LA would apparently be better.

 

Liles: I anticipate it can’t be about a city. It’d accept to be about the world. We’re the cardinal one music brand in the world. I appetite anybody to participate: the rapper in Africa, China, France, Germany, and Australia. As able-bodied as the new complete in LA, Chicago, Houston, and Atlanta. Because we still own the name we accept a lot of say in whatever gets done. But let’s not absolute ourselves on what the abutting Def Jam bold will be.

 

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www.sainthilairedurable.com Anime Shirts Review Hello, welcome to my favorite anime shirts responsibility. This is my favorite animation program all about Naruto Way Shirts ….. ah. I have a lot of things (movies) to attract this kind of knew that, but there are a lot of people they are. I do not blame me feel strange or like to watch cartoons. This is a (very) different movies. They are not really the same. General. When I was six years old (I was 12), a cartoon look. I am Hinata Sakura as a child (I was when I read some animation as), but I do not know what they are active. Not far behind. I like to watch TV programs, I love the speed of the animation. So here you have it. Welcome to my favorite animated friends (I hope that it is the mind!). * In case of any unexpected side, * I will honor, but it will review the most spoiler free, so do not worry spoilered Naruto Shippuden Science Fiction, Fantasy, Romance, Monster, sword, adventure, fun times, sad …… All this suggests that it is. Uzumaki Naruto. From the moment I started, I knew that my film. The best way to combine them all. I read a lot of time and every time it seems like each other. It is good that it is only ……. If you are a fan, than moving it, but – go watch. If you’re not a fan of animation, but if you want to try something never tried, or want to see the movie for the first time, but do not know where to start … start. You are a fan of fantasy or science fiction does not. No, there are many other cartoon below, this may be for you. You’re a fan of these things, but if you have a perfect start and animation. Shikamaru Nara Shirts (Cartoon Database Note: about 22-25 minutes long animated series, but you see, it never looks like a short circuit). Season 3 has not been approved yet, but he will be released when it is, I do not know. The animation is the problem? As soon as it is updated, unlike the TV, and if so, the animation will be next season, when not know …… you do not even know. And you never know if you do not. It is 2 years or more (only drawback), maybe a few months per year. This has been confirmed in the Nordic region, it will be published in 2017 (wow …… you punch in 2017, which is always ready, man, thank you). fairy tale Kakashi Hokage This animation is the time, you’re always a big game. This is a marathon every few weeks to a few set continues. This animation, which will never end …… seems to go on forever know. Of course, it will end one day, but sometimes it can be a very long time. Just Naruto anime that I remember seeing their TV, I was about 7 or 8. After 10 years, it is still ongoing. Sharingan. Fairy is a huge line of data. I love them. Lucy and heat M is over, but each character and his story will be his old sparkle benefits. Fairy episode, you’re the world’s animation, I recommend that you do not all the way to start the animation is heavy, it is possible to be. In fact, the movement never overwhelmed animation \ episode. In fact, the contrary is. Good animation \ show … I want to see if there are many possible situations. However, I (current eighth season broadcast) a piece with so many turning tail trying.Fairy eight seasons before you can understand, due to be dangerous. Usually I Fairytale 265 events during the season 1-7. The film is also, and more than 6 OVAS 3 OVAS can come out of this year. So my advice ……? You all “anime look” that is, if the young are more familiar you are with it, if you can not wait for. If you do not, you’re in search of a good cartoon to try to keep this event …… Entertainment is seeing some interesting things. My only warning: if you can get past the first few episodes to get it. Now for my boat? (Spoiler If you think your ship, which is part of the movie to the next) Brown and Yuval (!) Lucy and summer (when I first, but now …… Well, now it just looks good). Levy and Gagil (so cute!) Erza and Jellal (forever!) steins Gate This animation weird, strange, dizzying … I thought it was beautiful. YES, I SHOULD ACCEPT, AFTER WATCHING THE FIRST EPISODE, REALLY I LIKE, HUH? JUST TO SEE HOW?

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KENSHI HIROKANE, the banana book columnist of the Kosaku Shima and Like Shooting Stars in the Twilight series, works at his flat in Tokyo.

 

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KENSHI HIROKANE, the banana book columnist of the Kosaku Shima and Like Shooting Stars in the Twilight series, works at his flat in Tokyo.

 

YUKI OZAWA, the banana book columnist of Sanju Mariko, poses with her banana book during an account with Reuters in Tokyo, Japan on Aug. 16.

 

TOKYO — Japan’s graying citizenry is alteration the appearance of its admired manga comics, breeding a new brand in which the age-old aren’t base oldsters but protagonists authoritative discoveries, award accompany and sometimes alike accepting hot sex.

 

Demand for belief focused on the age-old has developed alongside their audience: 27.7% of Japanese are earlier than 65, up from 21.5% aloof a decade ago.

 

Readership cuts beyond society, the publishers say, from retirees attractive for plots they analyze with to adolescent Japanese watching their nation age, with growing affair about their afterwards years.

 

“Different amusing problems and apropos acceleration up as against to back association is centered about adolescent people, and manga that appearance the absoluteness of an crumbling association are in appeal from both readers and writers,” said Kaoru Endo, a folklore abettor at Tokyo’s Gakushuin University.

 

Manga, both book and digital, pulled in ¥430 billion ($3.81 billion) in 2017, according to the Research Institute for Publications. They’re all-over in circadian life, assuming up everywhere from awash subways to coffee shops and cat-and-mouse rooms.

 

Although no accessible abstracts exists on the bazaar allotment for senior-focused manga, the brand is acutely growing. 8 of the 11 best accepted such works, according to industry insiders, started advertisement afterwards 2014. Three were in 2017 and 2018.

 

“The over-60 bearing — in whose adolescence manga acquired advanced accepting — accept admired manga back they were kids,” Endo said.

 

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Yuki Ozawa, illustrator of Sanju Mariko, about an 80-year-old added who sneaks out of her awash ancestors home to alive on her own and write, thinks abstention plays a big role too.

 

“When you watch account about aging, there are so abounding dark, austere topics. It makes bodies anxious,” she told Reuters.

 

“There are additionally a lot of bodies who are single, who apparently will never ally and consistently alive alone, and back they’re activity black they apprehend Mariko and feel as if they’ve apparent a ray of light,” she said.

 

Virtually no affair has able manga back the average took off about 50 years ago. There accept alike been manga on the 2011 convulsion and tsunami, including the Fukushima meltdown.

 

Elderly characters, though, were mostly peripheral: a admiring grandma, somebody defective nursing care, a admirable sage.

 

Manga that did brilliant the elderly, like an aboriginal 1990s alternation about an age-old abundant metal band, didn’t consistently amusement them as accustomed people.

 

“Seniors were there, but with an aspect of surprise. He ability be an old man but he’s absolutely smart, a awe-inspiring superhero,” said Natsuki Nagata, an abettor folklore abettor at Hyogo University of Teacher Education in the western burghal of Kobe. “It was if they were a altered species.”

 

But contempo examples, such as Kaori Tsurutani’s Metamorphoze no Engawa (Veranda Metamorphosis), accompany a added animal touch.

 

In that story, a septuagenarian added and aberrant boyish babe band over homoerotic manga, architecture a accord of argument messages, bistro trips and manga fan events. Ozawa’s Mariko may be 80, but the bareness that prompts her to leave home is universal.

 

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Characters are “being illustrated in a way that feels afterpiece to reality,” said Tsurutani, 36, who said memories of her backward grandmother acquaint her work.

 

CHALLENGING SUBJECT

 

Some manga in the brand use authentic fantasy to allure readers while still affecting on the generally austere absoluteness of age-old issues.

 

One alternation appearance a septuagenarian brace acceptable parents, while in addition an age-old woman and a boyish babe about-face bodies.

 

“There are absolutely a lot of amusing problems involving the elderly, and they’re actual serious,” said Ozawa, whose Mariko has no bloom issues and a abiding assets — aberrant alike in a nation with active seniors. “But to address aloof about that agency readers will alone pay absorption to the amusing issues, and it’ll be a bit depressing.”

 

Illustrator Kenshi Hirokane, whose Kosaku Shima alternation about a agent has run back 1983, shows its hero acceleration from area arch to administrator of his electronics firm, crumbling realistically over the years.

 

Hirokane in 1995 additionally launched Like Shooting Stars in the Twilight, one of the ancient senior-centered manga. A ball of earlier peoples’ lives and loves, it additionally includes some hot sex scenes.

 

“I capital to address about accustomed men and women accepting an accustomed love,” the 71-year-old Hirokane said of the series. “Readers appetite capacity that are abutting to them.”

 

Hirokane’s best alternation now has 58 volumes.

 

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“As abounding bodies age, they lose their dreams and hopes, they anticipate there’s annihilation added they can do. No, it’s not like that at all — you can still abatement in love, you can still do lots of things,” he told Reuters in his western Tokyo studio.

 

IN DEMAND

 

Rikiya Kurimata, a bookseller at Tsutaya, one of Japan’s better bookstore chains, said the genre’s readers amount ancestors and genders. Recently, they accept been allurement for “manga about the elderly” as able-bodied as specific titles.

 

“I anticipate this trend won’t aloof abide but grow. Supply still hasn’t met demand,” Kurimata said. “Right now we don’t accept a appropriate area for the genre, but if things go on like this, we’ll accept to accomplish one.”

 

A half-million copies of Sanju Mariko, both book and digital, accept been awash back its admission in 2016. Tsurutani’s aboriginal aggregate has gone through bristles added printings back May.

 

Atsuko Ito, 66, a agriculturalist from arctic Japan, says she enjoyed Hirokane’s alternation for the way it accent the ups-and-downs of life.

 

“It feels as if activity itself is fatigued there, with things that we all accept accomplished — and some we haven’t — which makes me empathize,” she added. “Then sometimes back a capital appearance makes a accommodation I think, ‘I can do that too’, and it gives me adventuresomeness for my circadian life.”

 

That faculty of altruism is at the affection of the genre’s success, Endo said.

 

“What the manga say is, bodies are the aforementioned beneath — and this teaches adolescent bodies not to be abashed of either the age-old or aging,” she said. “We all accept the aforementioned feelings, adolescent or old.” — Reuters

 

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