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The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.

 

HISTORY

The towers were designed by Argentine - South American architect César Pelli. They chose a distinctive postmodern style to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres below the surface.

 

The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, and the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999. The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete. Its engineering designs on structural framework were contributed by Haitian engineer Domo Obiasse and colleagues Aris Battista and Princess D Battista. The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.

 

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.

 

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortiums were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation (JA Jones Construction Co., MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp) while Tower 2, the east tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd). Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction. Tower 2 became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time. When the structure reached about 72nd floor, tower 2 ran into problems. They discovered the structure was leaning 25 millimetres off from vertical. To correct the lean, the next 16 floors were slanted back 20 millimetres with specialist surveyors hired to check verticality twice a day until the building's completion.

 

Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space. Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

 

NOTABLE EVENTS

On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping (since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers.

 

Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat was phoned the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation.

 

On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants.

 

On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest. On 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". He made a second attempt on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, and was stopped once again on the same floor, though on the other tower.

 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOWERS

The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the 88 floors of the Petronas Towers. Willis Tower's tallest antenna is 75.41 m taller than those of the Petronas Towers, however, in accordance with CTBUH regulations and guidelines, the antennas of Willis Tower were not counted as part of its architectural features. The spires on the Petronas Towers are included in the height since they are not antenna masts. Therefore, the Petronas Towers exceed the official height of Willis Tower by 10 m even though the roof of Petronas Towers at 378.6 metres is 63.4 m lower than the roof of Willis Tower at 442 metres.The Petronas Towers feature a diamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres of stainless steel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding system resides within the towers. While the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres of 20.38-millimetre laminated glass to reduce heat by reflecting harmful UV rays.

 

On the top of each tower is a pinnacle standing 73.5 metres tall. The pinnacles were more than just the finishing touches to the height of the towers, each taking over 19 weeks to construct and both being assembled outside the country. One was constructed in Japan and the other in Korea. Each pinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: the spire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. While the pinnacles may seem to be an aesthetic feature of the towers to enhance their presence and height, they also play function to aircraft warning lights and are an essential element to the overall Islamic minaret design that the towers embody.

 

The interiors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects such as fabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.

 

The construction of the Petronas Towers turned out to be a multinational effort. The structural design engineers worked out of New York City, while the wind-tunnel consultants and elevator design engineers were from Canada. To meet local safety construction codes, the towers had to be able to withstand 105 km/h winds. To assure this requirement would be fulfilled, the engineers tested the towers twice within a wind tunnel, first by computer simulation and second by building an actual model of the towers.

 

ANCHOR TENANTS

Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

 

FEATURES

SURIA KLCC

Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 upmarket retail center at the feet of the Petronas Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, a philharmonic theatre, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.

 

KLCC PARK

Spanning 6.9 ha below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.

 

SKYBRIDGE

The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not attached to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking, as the towers sway several feet in towards and away from each other during high winds. It also provides some structural support to the towers in these occasions. The bridge is 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, weighing 750 tons. The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1000 people per day, and must be obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86. Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.

 

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower. The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event. Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

 

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers. After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days in July 1995 but instead of being directly connected to the towers, the skybridge can shift or slide in and out of them to counterbalance any effect from the wind. Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.

 

LIFT SYSTEM

The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.

 

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

 

From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts. The "short haul" group of 6 lifts take passengers to floors between level 2/3 and level 16/17. The "mid haul" group of six lifts take passengers to floors between level 18/19 and level 37/38. There is also a set of shuttle lifts that take passengers directly to levels 41/42. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43/44 to 57/58 and one set serving levels 59/60 to levels 73/74.

 

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not accessible as office space). This spares someone in the lower half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor to go to the upper half of the building.

 

The lifts contain a number of safety features. It is possible to evacuate people from a lift stuck between floors by manually driving one of the adjacent lifts next to it and opening a panel in the wall. It is then possible for people in the stuck lift to walk between lift cars. During an evacuation of the buildings, only the shuttle lift is allowed to be used, as there are only doors at levels G/1 and levels 41/42; therefore should there be a fire in the lower half of the building, this enclosed shaft would remain unaffected. Firefighter lifts are also provided in case of emergency.

 

The lift operating chart of the Petronas Towers

 

PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M)

SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M)

PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2) (Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4

A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2) (Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8/9-22/23

B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2) (Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 24/25-36/37

CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2) (Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40-42

C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2) (Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 43/44-57/58

D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2) (Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 59/60-73/74

E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2) (Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 75-83

TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2) (Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85-88

S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-38, 40-84

S3 (Tower 1) & S6(Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-36

F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, G, 1-6, 8-38, 40-88 (F1 & F3 non-stop at Level 1)

 

SERVICE BUILDING

The service building is to the east of the Petronas Towers and contains the chiller plant system and the cooling towers to keep the Petronas Towers cool and comfortable.

 

TICKETING SYSTEM

In order to visit Petronas towers, visitors must first purchase the tickets. Tickets of adults and children can be purchased via online web portal or at the counter. Discounted tickets for seniors are available for those 55 years of age and above. Queues for tickets can get quite long sometimes. The complete Ticketing System or Automated Fare Collection system is provided by a Malaysian-based solution company called Longbow Technologies Sdn Bhd.

 

IN POPULAR CULTURE

- The towers are prominently featured and mentioned by name in the 1999 film Entrapment, with numerous scenes filmed at the towers, with the climax set on the skybridge.

- The Towers appear in the first episode of the US TV series 24.

- Several scenes of the Bollywood film Don: The Chase Begins Again were also filmed in the Petronas Towers and its skybridge.

- In the Phineas and Ferb episode "Phineas and Ferb Save Summer!", the towers are visible during the musical number "Summer All Over the World".

- Eidos Interactive has twice used the towers for inspiration in their video games. In the 2002 Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, the Malaysia-based levels Basement Killing, The Graveyard Shift, and The Jacuzzi Job all take place in the Petronas Towers. In 2010's Just Cause 2, the fictional Panau Falls Casino is based on the Petronas Towers.

- A 2002 episode of the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures titled "When Pigs Fly" (Season 3, Episode 6), features the towers.

- The towers made its appearance, in the animated series Totally Spies episode titled "Man or Machine".

 

WIKIPEDIA

 

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Globalfoundries Saratoga County NY Globalfoundries Albany NY New York Convention Center aerial photos Mercer Development aerial photographer M W ... at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, NY, in ... Did GlobalFoundries just become an 800-pound Fab gorilla?

9/8/2009 by: Theo Valich - Get more from this author

   

ATIC [Advanced Technology Investment Company], technology investment group from the Government of Abu Dhabi, the majority owner of GlobalFoundries announced that the group is making a bid to acquire Chartered Semiconductor.

 

The move is not entirely unexpected, but rather a consequence of events that had nothing to do with semiconductor industry: Chartered Semiconductor is one of golden eggs in Singaporean's government investment arm [Temasek Holdings Pte], who is feeling the pain of global economy slowdown and the changes in companies owned by Temasek were obvious. As Singapore Airlines went through ownership change [now mostly owned by Temasek] the investment arm needed the cash to complete the transaction and Abu Dhabi's ATIC rode into town.

 

ATIC was interested in buying its competition, but when an opportunity like this arises, there isn't much you can do but to take it. The acquisition of Chartered Semi puts GlobalFoundries in a role of an 800-pound gorilla in the contract manufacturing space. First GlobalFoundries signed the deal to manufacture chips for a chip maker [STMicroelectronics], and now the GF owner is buying one of own largest competitors. In fact, until TSMC gets its SOI production up and running, GlobalFoundries is acquiring its second largest competitor in the SOI space [we take that ATIC does not want to buy IBM... for now].

 

In case you're unfamiliar with Chartered semiconductor manufacturing capabilities, the foundry owns six cleanrooms in a giant fab complex in Singapore, with production based on 200mm and 300mm wafers. Total output of the company is also very interesting:

 

Fab 2: 50,000 200mm WSM 600-350nm

Fab 3: 25,000 200mm WSM 350-180nm

Fab 3E: 34,000 200mm WSM in 250-180nm

Fab 5: 24,000 200mm WSM 350-180nm

Fab 6: 39,000 200mm WSM 180-110nm

Fab7: 45,000 300mm WSM 130-40nm [equal to 101,250 200mm wafers]

So, we have 172,000 WSM [wafer starts per month], or around 2,06 million 200mm wafers per year, plus an additional 540,000 300mm wafers. This manufacturing capacity is nothing short of impressive, even though the majority is in less competitive 200mm wafer space. If you would compare Chartered's Fab7 [300mm2 one] to GlobalFoundries' Fab1 complex in Dresden, you might be surprised at the differences in size, since Fab7 is massive: clean room space is as big as whole Module 2 [ex-Fab30/38] and half of Module 1 [ex-Fab36].

 

Yes, it is true that currently "only" 27,000 wafer starts can be in 40nm, but SOI capacity is quite impressive. Inside this advanced 300mm facility Chartered makes Microsoft's Xbox 360 CPUs, some AMD CPUs and some of IBM's Power chips.

 

Clean room space is also quite impressive - six facilities with a grand total of 773,640 square feet [71,871.15 m2]. If you compare that to current manufacturing facilities in Dresden, Module 1 [14,500 m2 - 156,000 sqft] and currently upgrading Module 2 [16,700 m2 - 180,000 sqft], you can see that GlobalFoundries wants to go from 336,000 sqft [31,214 m2] in 2009 to 1.38 million square feet [128,202 m2] of clean room space in 2012.

Divided by wafer size, GlobalFoundries in 2012 could look like this:

 

300mm2 - 120,000 wafer starts per month, 838,000 sqft [77,850 m2] Class 100 clean room

200mm2 - 172,000 wafer starts per month, 541,640 sqft [50,318 m2] Class 100 clean room

All in all, this is quite a significant jump in manufacturing space, as there aren't exactly many contract manufacturers who can or plan to annually output almost 1.5 million 300mm wafers in 2012-2013 frame. In fact, one could put a question that GlobalFoundries is doing this to attract the heavy weights, Microsoft, Sony, Nintendo - but Qualcomm and nVidia as well.

 

Over the past several months, we featured various articles on upcoming chips, but they all have one thing in common: they have to be built on 300mm wafers in order to be profitable. Qualcomm's quad-core ARM System-on-Chip is quite nice, but the company has to have 300mm wafers available to score a profit. Same thing with the 2010-2011 generation of nVidia's Tegra and Texas Instruments OMAP chips.

 

Thus, a foundry has to position itself aggressively and there is no doubt that this move puts GlobalFoundries on the map of TSMC and Intel challenger. While TSMC still has the overall lead in number of wafers it can produce, the numbers here show that GlobalFoundries is catching up and overtaking in 300mm wafer arena - a worrisome trend.

 

The clock isn't exactly stopping there - if we divide the wafers in SOI and non-SOI flavor, GlobalFoundries will be the largest SOI wafer maker, and with a move to optical interconnects starting in 2012-2013 there isn't exactly any doubt what's on the table. ATIC and AMD both want that GlobalFoundries change the semi playing field for good, and this acquisition only confirms that direction.

 

GlobalFoundries can freely disclose all of its plans and there isn't exactly a lot that other competitors can do but to launch massive FUD campaigns which again, would not stand due to engineering excellence shown by former AMD engineering teams, who saved Microsoft's bacon on Xbox 360 yields, for instance.

 

This move also solves one of major pains for GlobalFoundries exec team - no longer journalists and analysts need to ask "who are your customers?", because with the acquisition of Chartered Semi, that list grew by couple of dozen names, including Microsoft and IBM. You can expect that next GlobalFoundries event to feature numerous existing customers, even if they did not sign directly with GlobalFoundries, rather Chartered Semi.

 

ATIC's next move: Buying a wafer supplier?

We wonder what the next step for GlobalFoundries will be, but personally I would not bet against GF acquiring Soitec, as the largest SOI wafer vendor. Intel invested in the firm in 2007, when it became clear that the future chip interconnects [remember Intel Hybrid Silicon Laser demonstration on SOI wafers during IDF Fall 2006?] will require the use SOI wafers. AMD did not react at the time, but with over a trillion USD for investments alone, Abu Dhabi investment groups can easily flex their muscle and put everything they need under one roof.

   

© 2009 Bright Side Of News*, All rights reserved.

     

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Advanced Technology Investment Co., the Abu Dhabi company that owns the majority of GlobalFoundries, plans to acquire chip maker Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd.

 

The Singapore-based Chartered Semiconductor would become part of GlobalFoundries, a joint venture with ATIC and Advanced MicroDevices Inc. (NYSE: AMD).

 

GlobalFoundries is building a $4.2 billion manufacturing plant in Malta in Saratoga County. N.Y., about 25 miles north of Albany. It also has operations in Dresden, Germany.

 

It was unclear early Tuesday how the acquisition would affect the Malta operation.

 

ATIC would pay $3.9 billion in cash and debt for the acquisition, the companies said in a joint statement. The transaction is expected to close in late 2009, pending required government and shareholder approvals.

 

GlobalFoundries CEO Doug Grose would head up the combined operations. Chartered (Nasdaq: CHRT) CEO Chia Song Hwee would become chief operating officer and head the integration of both companies, according to the companies.

 

ATIC is a technology investment company wholly owned by the Abu Dhabi government. It owns 66 percent of GlobalFoundries; AMD owns the remaining 34 percent.

 

Singapore’s state-owned investment fund Temasek Holdings owns about 62 percent of Chartered’s shares. The chip maker produces chips for Xbox 360 games and other consoles.

 

“Chartered and GlobalFoundries will be able to draw on each other’s strengths to enable the next generation of semiconductor innovation, utilizing the value of both companies and the intellectual capital of thousands of skilled employees,” said Ibrahim Ajami, CEO of ATIC. GlobalFoundries’ plant in Malta is under construction. It’s expected to employ 1,5000 during the construction phase and 1,6000 permanent and ancillary jobs when it’s running at full capacity in 2010.

 

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The move follows an earlier investment in GlobalFoundries, a joint venture with AMD

John Ribeiro (IDG News Service) 08 September, 2009 06:01:00

Tags: processors, globalfoundries, ATIC, amd

 

Advanced Technology Investment Company (ATIC) of Abu Dhabi has signed a definitive agreement to acquire chip maker Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing of Singapore in a deal valued at S$5.6 billion (US$3.9 billion) in cash and debt, the companies said on Monday.

 

Chartered, a contract chip maker, will become part of GlobalFoundries, the chip manufacturing venture formed by ATIC and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).

 

The CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, will head up the combined operations, while Chartered CEO Chia Song Hwee will become chief operating officer and head the integration of the businesses, ATIC said in a statement.

 

The transaction is expected to close during the fourth quarter of this year. It will require approval by Chartered shareholders and government regulators.

 

ATIC is a technology investment company wholly owned by the government of Abu Dhabi.

 

The acquisition of Chartered will be its second major investment in the semiconductor industry after the deal with AMD.

 

GlobalFoundries has a manufacturing facility in Dresden, Germany, and another under construction in the state of New York.

 

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ATIC hopes to combine Chartered's customer relationships and capabilities in both 8-inch and 12-inch fabrication with GlobalFoundries' technology expertise, capacity, and global footprint.

 

Singapore state-owned investment fund Temasek Holdings, which owns about 62 percent of Chartered’s shares, fully supports the acquisition and has signed an irrevocable undertaking to vote in support of the transaction, the statement said.

 

Chartered also on Monday revised up its guidance for the third quarter of 2009.

 

The company increased its revenue forecast slightly and narrowed its loss forecast compared to guidance given in July, because of an incremental improvement in business.

  

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Posted: May 28, 2009

Job fair to Help M+W Zander fill 40 project management positions in new chip facility

(Nanowerk News) The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering ("CNSE") of the University at Albany today announced plans to host a Job Fair to assist M+W Zander in building its project management team to support the construction of GlobalFoundries' computer chip manufacturing facility in Malta.

The Job Fair, to be held on Wednesday, June 10 from 5 to 8 p.m. at CNSE's Albany NanoTech Complex, will help recruit candidates for 40 high-tech design and construction management positions, including electrical and mechanical designers, engineers and estimators; construction and design project managers and coordinators; architectural project managers, planners and interns; and, accounting, purchasing, document control and administrative personnel. The positions carry salaries that range from $40,000 to more than $100,000 annually.

Officials from M+W Zander will be on hand to accept resumes and conduct initial interviews on site, with representatives of CNSE also providing assistance at the event. This marks the fifth high-tech job fair to be held at CNSE in just the past three years, with previous events in May 2006, January 2007, September 2007 and October 2008.

Candidates interested in attending and interviewing at the Job Fair are encouraged to pre-register online by visiting cnse.albany.edu/events/jobfair2009.html.

Assembly Majority Leader Ron Canestrari said, "That still another Job Fair is necessary to fill these high-tech positions is a great testament to the investments made in the rapidly growing nanotechnology sector in the Capital Region and New York State. I hope local residents will take full advantage of this opportunity to learn more about exciting careers in the nanotechnology industry."

Assemblyman John J. McEneny said, "The investments in nanotechnology are once again paying dividends in the form of exciting new high-tech career opportunities for residents of Albany and the Capital Region. It is an enormous source of pride to know that New York State is leading the worldwide nanotechnology revolution, which is creating new jobs and attracting new investments."

Rick Whitney, President and CEO of M+W Zander U.S. Operations said, "It is a pleasure to work in partnership with the UAlbany NanoCollege, the world leader in nanotechnology education, research and development, as M+W Zander builds its construction management team to support GlobalFoundries' world-class computer chip manufacturing facility at the Luther Forest Technology Campus. As a company that works on high-tech projects and facilities around the world, there is no question that the Capital Region and New York are recognized globally as the place to be for nanotechnology."

Dr. Alain E. Kaloyeros, Senior Vice President and Chief Executive Officer of CNSE, said, "With the vision, leadership and support of Speaker Silver, Assembly Majority Leader Canestrari, Assemblyman McEneny and the New York State Assembly, M+W Zander has become a valuable partner in building high-tech facilities that are critical to New York's global leadership in nanotechnology education, research and development, and economic outreach. The UAlbany NanoCollege is pleased to host this Job Fair, which will provide exciting career opportunities for local residents, and ensure that M+W Zander has a highly skilled management team in place to build GlobalFoundries' state-of-the-art computer chip manufacturing plant."

 

With headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany, M+W Zander is one of the world's foremost companies for the design and construction of high-tech buildings and cleanroom facilities for research and development, pilot manufacturing, manufacturing, and assembly and testing operations. M+W Zander's Northeastern U.S. headquarters is located at the Watervliet Arsenal, where it employs more than 250 people.

About M+W Zander

The M+W Zander Group offers its customers worldwide integrated life-cycle solutions for high-tech production plants and infrastructure complexes including all necessary service and modernization support. The customer base focuses primarily on leading electronics, photovoltaic, pharmaceutical, chemical, automobile and communication companies, as well as research institutes and universities. The company ranks among the market leaders in various market sectors which include semiconductors, photo-voltaics and pharmaceuticals. MWZ Group GmbH, Stuttgart, manages the global activities of the group as a holding company. The group has three main divisions based on Facility Solutions, Process Solutions and Product Solutions which together generated 2008 revenues of $2.32 billion with a workforce of approximately 4,500.

 

Source: CNSE

Comments

no3rdw says:

Did you take this photo? I did a photosimulation of the nanotech facility expansion based off this very same photo.

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Yes I did. Who supplied the photo to you? I don't remember anyone calling me about this. Only an architect firm in Albany. Let me know. Chris

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

no3rdw says:

Oops, sorry it took a while to get back to you - I just PM'd you about this :)

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Thanks Chris

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Too Much work to do to enter. Chris

Posted 28 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Thanks

Posted 27 months ago. ( permalink )

Donna62 says:

  

A great image, much admired by Donna62 --,

a "FIRST - THE EARTH!" member - www.flickr.com/groups/first-the-earth/

Posted 24 months ago. ( permalink )

 

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President Barack Obama Visits Luther Forest Technology Campus Malta Saratoga County New york GlobalFoundries Breaks Ground in Malta

GlobalFoundries held a groundbreaking ceremony for Fab 2 in Malta, N.Y. The foundry's goal is to have the first tool move in by October 2011, with qualification coming in early 2012 and commercial production by the second half of 2012. The event marks "a significant shift in momentum" for chip manufacturing in the United States, said Norm Armour, Fab 2 general manager.

David Lammers, News Editor -- Semiconductor International, 7/24/2009

As an Albany, N.Y., taxi driver ferried a visitor to the GlobalFoundries Fab 2 groundbreaking ceremony near the village of Malta, he said, "For three years they've been talking about this, but I never thought they would actually build it."

 

Planning began in June 2006, and it was this year on June 19 that GlobalFoundries began clearing portions of its 230-acre site, located ~24 miles from Albany and seven miles from Saratoga Springs. Fab 2 is expected to be making volume silicon by the second half of 2012, employing 1400 directly and an estimated 5000 indirect workers. The spinoff of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD, Sunnyvale, Calif.) has room for two additional modules at the site.

 

Fab 2 General Manager Norm Armour said he watched manufacturing shift from the United States to Asian foundries during his career at LSI Logic Corp., where he spent a decade managing LSI's fab in Gresham, Ore. "We are on the other side, trying to bring manufacturing back to a U.S. fab," Armour said. "It is a significant momentum shift."

 

That shift was supported by a $6B investment in GlobalFoundries by the Abu Dhabi Investment Co. (ATIC). The money will be spent to build Fab 2 at Malta, expected to cost $4.2B, as well as to expand and upgrade the GlobalFoundries Module 2 in Dresden, Germany. The state of New York is providing an estimated $1.2B in subsidies for Fab 2, and is investing additional funding to expand the University at Albany's nearby College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE). AMD contributed its existing manufacturing complex in Dresden as well as other assets, but no cash, providing AMD with access to a new fab without capital outlays.

   

GlobalFoundries Fab 2 will begin production in the second half of 2012.

  

Because the site is not space-constrained, Fab 2 will be a two-level building rather than three-level, said Tom Sonderman, vice president of manufacturing systems technology at GlobalFoundries. All of the wafer production will be on one floor, eliminating the need to move wafers-in-progress (WIP) up and down floors. A "zero footprint storage" approach will put some wafer stockers above the tools, he added. Implant will be located off of the main waffle slab, reducing construction costs, and maintenance shops will be on the upper production floor to further improve efficiencies.

 

Though its labor costs in both Dresden and Malta will be higher than at many Asian fabs, manufacturing innovations will make GlobalFoundries cost-competitive with Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan), according to Sonderman. GlobalFoundries is investing in the midst of a severe downturn, which also will reduce costs compared with the more expensive 24/7 construction schedules used when fabs are built in a hurry. Armour said it may take 18 months to build Fab 2, which is expected to have a 220,000 sq. ft. cleanroom with an option to expand cleanroom space to 300,000 sq. ft. The goal is to have the first tool move in by October 2011, with qualification coming in early 2012 and commercial production by the second half of 2012, a schedule that could be accelerated somewhat "depending on market conditions," Armour said.

 

Sonderman said construction begins at a time "of a lot of pent-up demand for advanced foundry capacity." Fab 2 will start at 28 nm technology, and then bring up a 22 nm SOI process for CPU production. GlobalFoundries will support AMD's manufacturing needs with the current 45 nm production, moving to 32 and 22 nm production. For foundry customers, however, most of the interest is at the half nodes, including 40 nm bulk technology immediately at Dresden and 28 nm high-k/metal gate technology late next year when 28 nm customer designs start to be accepted.

 

Sonderman said GlobalFoundries is accelerating its effort to support 40 nm bulk production, which he said comes as customers express concerns about yields at TSMC. "We definitely want to be a counterbalance to TSMC," Sonderman said, outlining plans to offer, by 2013, 600,000 wspy at Dresden and 400,000 wspy at Fab 2.

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Real estate, Tech Valley, Technology | 2 Comments

RPI spokesman joining GlobalFoundriesApril 2, 2009 at 10:25 am by Larry Rulison

Jason Gorss, the manager of media relations at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, will be joining GlobalFoundries later this month in a communications role.

 

Gorss (right) has been at RPI for several years now. He has a technical and scientific background that helps with his new role with the company, which is building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta called Fab 2 and owns two others in Dresden, Germany.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Jon Carvill said that Gorss’ role will be “more global in nature and focused on our technology.

 

“We will still look to add additional resources specific to Fab 2 in 2009,” Carvill said.

 

The company already has an office in Malta at the Saratoga Technology + Energy Park, which sits within the Luther Forest Technoogy Campus where GlobalFoundries is planning its factory on 222 acres. At least one former General Electric employee is now working there in a human resources position, and additional positions are expected to be filled in the coming months.

 

The new CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, is himself an RPI graduate.

 

The Times Union contacted Gorss this morning by e-mail and he confirmed he is taking the job.

 

“My experience at Rensselaer has given me the rare chance to work with incredibly brilliant people on a wide array of fascinating projects. I am going to miss my colleagues here, but I am excited about the new opportunity with GlobalFoundries,” Gorss said. “It is a perfect fit for someone with my background and interests. I am a technophile at heart, and this job will allow me to immerse myself in some of the most advanced technology on the planet.”05/15/2009 10:10 AM EDT)

  

MALTA, N.Y. — It's rare these days in the semiconductor industry to witness the unfolding of a project on a grand scale. Based on what has been proposed so far, the Global Foundries project backed by Advanced Micro Devices and its partner is precisely that.

 

"We want to be the first truly global semiconductor foundry," said Global Foundries CEO Global Doug Grose at a recent event here, where a ground-breaking ceremony will be held in July.

 

Global Foundries has committed up to $6 billion to develop a new fab to produce chips for AMD and new customers. AMD and partner, Abu Dhabi-backed Advanced Technology Investment Co. (ATIC). "This money is for a five- to seven-year stretch. Our investors [are] in this for the long haul," said Grose.

 

According to Jim McGregor, chief technology strategist at market researcher In-Stat, "Everything for the future depends on GlobalFoundries' ability to land new customers. Unfortunately, I can't predict that."

 

Jim Doran, senior vice president and general manager of AMD's Dresden, Germany, operation, said Global Foundries will use a Sunnyvale, Calif., facility for technology development and producing process design kits. The U.S. site also will be used for designing intellectual property and chip testing and validation.

 

Global Foundries also is engaged with neighbors here like the IBM Alliance on submicron research and development.

 

Global Foundries' 300-mm Fab 1 in Dresden includes a Module 1 used for 45-nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chips; Module 2 is used for 32-nm and beyond bulk CMOS process technology. Both modules are expected to operate at 25,000 monthly wafer starts at full capacity. Module 2 production will ramp up in late 2009.

  

The $4.5 billion Fab 2, a 300-mm manufacturing facility in Saratoga County, N.Y., is expected to come online in 2012 with 35,000 wafer starts per month at full capacity. Fab 2 is expected to create more than 1,400 jobs along with about 5,000 spin-off jobs.

    

Page 2: Global Foundries' big bet takes shape in upstate New York

  

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Global Foundries breaks ground on long-awaited NY fab.

 

The new 300-mm manufacturing facility is expected to bring 1,400 direct semiconductor manufacturing jobs and billions of dollars in economic development to upstate New York.

 

By Suzanne Deffree, Managing Editor, News -- Electronic News, 7/24/2009

Global Foundries today announced it officially broke ground on the construction of Fab 2, a new semiconductor manufacturing facility located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, NY.

 

The construction and ramp-up phases for the new $4.2 billion facility are expected to take approximately three years to complete, with volume production expected in 2012. According to the company, once Fab 2 is completed it will stand as the "most technologically advanced semiconductor manufacturing facility in the world" and the "largest leading-edge semiconductor foundry in the United States."

 

“As today’s chip designers push the boundaries on the next generation of products, there is a growing need for a new approach to design and manufacturing rooted in collaboration and innovation," Hector Ruiz, chairman of Global Foundries, said in a statement. "With Fab 2, Global Foundries moves the semiconductor industry away from the traditional model of isolated regional development and into an era of global hubs of manufacturing and technology expertise.”

 

The new facility is designed to manufacture microprocessors and logic products on 300-mm wafers, Global Foundries said, noting that initial production is expected to ramp at the 28-nm technology node and move to volume manufacturing on the 22-nm node. Fab 2 will work in conjunction with Global Foundries’ Fab 1 facility in Dresden, Germany.

   

Today's ground breaking was long awaited. Indeed, talk of the NY fab began in 2006, years before AMD spun out its manufacturing operations to form Global Foundries in October 2008. AMD saw significant support from the state during its decision and commitment process, including $1.2 billion in incentives. That largest private-public investment in the history of the state included grants, tax credits, and other New York City Empire Zone benefits. In accord with the investment, New York gave AMD a two-year window, from July 2007 to July 2009, to initiate the building of a new 300-mm wafer fabrication facility in Saratoga County, NY.

 

New York's significant support was not unwarranted. New York estimated that the plant will create approximately 1,400 new, direct semiconductor manufacturing jobs at full-scale production, providing an estimated annual payroll of more than $88 million to the upstate region. In addition, the project will create approximately 5,000 new, indirect jobs in the region, offering a sustained estimated total annual payroll of $290 million for all jobs, according to New York's estimates.

 

The state's universities also have several high-tech efforts in play that include AMD and its partners. Most recently, Intel, IBM, and Sematech backed an R&D joint venture with the University at Albany’s College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering center that is expected to add 475 jobs to New York.

 

“New York has worked with Global Foundries for three years to bring this [fab] project to fruition and I am pleased to say that with the groundbreaking of Fab 2, New York and Global Foundries take a lead role in delivering the type of economic growth needed to carry our nation toward sustainable growth,” said Governor David Paterson of New York in the Global Foundries statement. “This initiative not only provides our residents with a source for new jobs, but is integral in positioning New York as a future hub of innovation and an attractive destination for additional investment.”

 

AMD also showed its support at the ground breaking today. "This is an important opportunity to create thousands of jobs and strengthen US competiveness in the high-tech industry," said Dirk Meyer, president and CEO of AMD, in a company statement. “The multi-billion dollar investments in research and development and capacity expansion that Global Foundries is planning strengthen its position as a premier leading-edge semiconductor manufacturing foundry and make it the ideal AMD technology partner to help in bringing our innovative products to market.”

 

Link: www.edn.com/article/CA6672910.html

      

Location and plans:

m + w zander U.S. Operations, Inc. is designing and building the most advanced semiconductor manufacturing complex in the world for GLOBALFOUNDRIES. The Fab 2, Module 1 facility is to be located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in the Towns of Malta and Stillwater, Saratoga County, New York. The realization of this project will be the crowning achievement in the continued development of New York's Tech Valley as a pre-eminent location for technological breakthroughs not only in the field of semiconductors but in nanotechnology, bio-technology, pharmaceuticals and alternative energy as well.

 

m + w zander is proud to be a leader in this effort and shares this website in order to provide information and the excitement of constructing this most important project with the local and world-wide communities.

 

link: fab2construction.com/

           

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Last edited by Buyckske Ruben; December 6th, 2009 at 03:22 PM.

  

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December 6th, 2009, 03:27 PM #2

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Posts: 1,539 slideshow of construction site:

 

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Global Foundries' Fab 2: (part 1)

  

all the 3 parts:

    

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December 13th, 2009, 01:52 PM #3

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Hector Ruiz, the chairman of GlobalFoundries said that the new chip plant is “by far the most significant high-tech investment made in this country in decades.” This plant will produce the most advanced computer chips in the world when it is completed.

      

Having been the construction project manager for AMD’s original Dresden-based fabrication facilities, Globalfoundries has awarded M+W Zander the full turnkey construction contract for Fab 2, currently being built at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, New York. A departure from pervious fab projects, M+W Zander is also responsible for the architectural aspects of the 4 building project. Previously, AMA Group, based in Italy had been the architectural firm responsible for this aspect of the work. The turnkey project is worth approximately €550 million to M+W Zander over the two-year construction schedule.

 

The Fab 2 complex is more than 130,000 square meters (1.45 million square feet), including a 28,000 square meters (300,000 square feet) Class 100 clean room. A ‘spine’ support building is also being built, along with administrative office building and a central utility building (CUB) along with service yards and small support buildings.

 

M+W Zander will also handle general contracting for all of the technical areas to include the manufacturing spaces, building utilities, central utility building and process systems.

LINK: www.fabtech.org/news/_a/mw_za...undries_fab_2/

   

OKT 2009:

          

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December 13th, 2009, 02:04 PM #4

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Link: blogs.thenational.ae/beep_bee...abu-dhabi.html

        

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December 13th, 2009, 02:10 PM #5

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Posts: 1,539 YOUTUBE FILM about the concurrent Intel.

 

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Fab 32 - Intel's first high-volume 45nm chip factory:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FLBtQC0F0c

 

Very impressive!

  

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Category: GlobalFoundries

Customer-centricMay 3, 2009 at 6:00 am by Larry Rulison

 

Talking about customers, GlobalFoundries is making sure that it treats the customers that it does get the right way.

 

The 1.3 million-square-foot factory it will build in Saratoga County features a special entrance for customers, separate from the visitor entrance. Inside, customers will find a nearly half-acre of space devoted to designing chips for them. GlobalFoundries expects its customer base to grow beyond AMD to include graphics chips companies and those that produce chips used in handheld electronics.

  

Posted in GlobalFoundries | 1 Comment

GlobalFoundries site clearing should be soonApril 30, 2009 at 4:05 pm by Larry Rulison

Although the closing on the sale of 222 acres in Malta at the Luther Forest Technology Campus has been in the final stages now for the last couple of weeks, officials with GlobalFoundries Inc. said again today the deal could be done any day now.

 

The deal will also set in motion a number of events, including the awarding of the first contract to clear the site for a $4.2 billion computer chip factory.

 

In fact, right around the time the sale occurs, GlobalFoundries will send its official commitment letter to the state of New York, making it eligible for $650 million in cash incentives for chip fab construction and research and development activities.

 

Around the same time, GlobalFoundries will make the announcement that it has hired a general contractor. Although not official yet, it’s largely expected that M+W Zander, which built Albany NanoTech, will be given the nod. (more…)

 

Posted in Economic development, GlobalFoundries, Tech Valley, Technology | Add a comment

No Malta meeting for GlobalFoundriesApril 28, 2009 at 10:37 am by Larry Rulison

There will be no Malta Planning Board meeting tonight for GlobalFoundries, the company building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in the town.

 

The town planning board had posted an agenda for the meeting on the town’s Web site, but Town Planning Director Anthony Tozzi said today that the planning board has decided it doesn’t need to meet. It was scheduled to review temporary construction plans for the project.

 

GlobalFoundries is still wrapping up the purchase of 222 acres of land at Luther Forest, and closing is expected later this week or early next week. The planning board doesn’t need to make any approvals until after the closing of that deal, which is why the board decided not to meet.

 

The Malta Planning Board usually meets the third Tuesday of every month, but it has set aside the second and fourth Tuesday of every month for the GlobalFoundries project if needed.

 

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Government | Add a comment

AMD posts loss of $416 millionApril 21, 2009 at 4:55 pm by Larry Rulison

Advanced Micro Devices Inc., the only customer of GlobalFoundries Inc., the company building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta, posted a $416 million loss in the first quarter.

 

Sales totaled $1.177 billion.

 

AMD spun off GlobalFoundries earlier this year and included the results of GlobalFoundries in its consolidated results released today.

 

Those results say GlobalFoundries had sales of $283 million and an operating loss of $141 million.

 

The results also show AMD spent $44 million on the formation of GlobalFoundries during the past two quarters.

 

GlobalFoundries is expected to acquire 222 acres at the Luther Forest Technology Campus any day now and start construction of the chip fab this summer. The plant is expected to start full-scale manufacturing by 2012.

 

Posted in Advanced Micro Devices Inc., General, GlobalFoundries | Add a comment

Malta holding meeting on Luther ForestApril 20, 2009 at 11:48 am by Larry Rulison

The Malta Town Board will hold a workshop and special meeting tonight to make some minor changes to an agreement it has with the Luther Forest Technology Campus.

  

Aerial shows road construction at the Luther Forest site. (Times Union archive)

The meeting comes as it appears that the sale of 222 acres at Luther Forest to GlobalFoundries Inc. for a $4.2 billion computer chip factory could come any day now.

 

It’s unclear if the changes to the agreement with the town, technically a declaration of covenants, conditions and restrictions, are needed so the sale can take place.

 

Malta Supervisor Paul Sausville said this morning that he thought the sale might take place today and he didn’t think the changes – considered minor — had to occur for the sale to go through.

 

Sausville said the document deals with things such as who is responsible for interior roads, sidewalks and lights at the tech park.

 

He said Luther Forest and the town reached an agreement last week, but the town of Stillwater made some minor changes to its version on Thursday, and the two documents have to be identical. The park straddles both towns, although most of the land is located in Malta.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Travis Bullard said the Malta meeting is being held just to make minor revisions. He has said the land deal is imminent.

 

Posted in GlobalFoundries, Government | Add a comment

Luther Forest looking for consultantsApril 16, 2009 at 2:47 pm by Larry Rulison

The nonprofit group developing the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Malta is looking for real estate and construction consultants to provide their expertise as it develops the 1,414-acre business park.

 

Computer chip manufacturer GlobalFoudries Inc. is expected to be the first tenant, taking 222 acres. A deal by the Sunnyvale, Calif.-based firm to acquire the land is due any day now.

 

The Luther Forest Technology Campus Economic Development Corp. issued a request for proposals today for consultants it can use on an as-needed basis.

 

The RFPs are due back April 30. The review process will begin in early May, with selection to take place within a few weeks after that.

 

To see the RFP, click here.

 

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Real estate, Tech Valley, Technology | 2 Comments

RPI spokesman joining GlobalFoundriesApril 2, 2009 at 10:25 am by Larry Rulison

Jason Gorss, the manager of media relations at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, will be joining GlobalFoundries later this month in a communications role.

 

Gorss (right) has been at RPI for several years now. He has a technical and scientific background that helps with his new role with the company, which is building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta called Fab 2 and owns two others in Dresden, Germany.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Jon Carvill said that Gorss’ role will be “more global in nature and focused on our technology.

 

“We will still look to add additional resources specific to Fab 2 in 2009,” Carvill said.

 

The company already has an office in Malta at the Saratoga Technology + Energy Park, which sits within the Luther Forest Technoogy Campus where GlobalFoundries is planning its factory on 222 acres. At least one former General Electric employee is now working there in a human resources position, and additional positions are expected to be filled in the coming months.

 

The new CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, is himself an RPI graduate.

 

The Times Union contacted Gorss this morning by e-mail and he confirmed he is taking the job.

 

“My experience at Rensselaer has given me the rare chance to work with incredibly brilliant people on a wide array of fascinating projects. I am going to miss my colleagues here, but I am excited about the new opportunity with GlobalFoundries,” Gorss said. “It is a perfect fit for someone with my background and interests. I am a technophile at heart, and this job will allow me to immerse myself in some of the most advanced technology on the planet.”

 

Click here to access job opportunities with GlobalFoundries.

 

Posted in Education, GlobalFoundries | 1 Comment

New Fab2 renderings releasedMarch 24, 2009 at 7:41 pm by Larry Rulison

GlobalFoundries Inc. is going to show these new renderings (below) of Fab2 to the Malta Planning Board tonight.

 

GlobalFoundries is planning a $4.2 billion computer-chip factory in the Luther Forest Technology Campus, which sits on land in both Malta and the town of Stillwater.

 

The company is seeking a temporary construction permit tonight after getting approval to start moving soil and trees. That work could begin early next month.

         

Posted in Advanced Micro Devices Inc., GlobalFoundries | Add a comment

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All Times Union materials copyright 1996-2009, Capital Newspapers Division of The Hearst Corporation, Albany, NY

 

The resources that are available to companies located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus are unparalleled. The Campus is located in the midst of New York’s Tech Valley, a 19-county region in eastern New York that spans from Montreal to New York City. Tech Valley contains more than 1,000 technology companies providing more than 50,000 jobs. Tech Valley companies have a combined economic impact of more than $5 billion and an annual payroll of $2 billion.

 

Located centrally in NY’s Tech Valley, the Luther Forest Technology Campus is the premier site for innovative, high tech companies. The Luther Forest Technology Campus has convenient access to major North American markets, close proximity to industry suppliers, leading universities, and major R&D partners.

  

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

"This area (NY’s Capital Region) is really ripe for development with the combination of educational institutions, people and facilities."

-- Hector Ruiz, Chairman of the Board

GLOBALFOUNDRIES

 

Photo credit: Banner image courtesy of University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering. Lower photo: Aerial view of University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering

            

28 Clinton Street Saratoga Springs, NY 12866 USA

  

went to the community open house at the Globalfoundries Fab2 construction site in Malta, New York this morning. Globalfoundries had a nice tent set up with hot coffee, cookies, donuts, etc. It was a good thing because it was raining pretty hard and the gravel parking lot had a lot of water on it. Globalfoundries and M + W Zander had people on-site to answer questions about the project. They had a few large pictures of the construction site inside the tent as well as artist conceptions of the completed building.

 

The actual construction site could be seen from outside the tent. I took a few of my own pictures that you can see below. Double click on any of the pictures to enlarge them. It is a pretty impressive site. You can’t see the construction site from any of the main roads in the area because it is a few miles deep into The Luther Forest. It is on Stone Break Road off of Route 9 in Malta. I doubt that you can get into the actual construction site except for events like this. (Google Maps can’t locate “Stone Break Road, Malta NY”, unless you include the zip code 12020, but Bing.com can find it without the zip code.)

 

By the time I arrived they had run out of “fact sheets” but I was told to check their website and the information would be updated by Tuesday, October 27th. You can find their website at Globalfoundries.com.

 

Hector Ruiz, the chairman of GlobalFoundries said that the new chip plant is “by far the most significant high-tech investment made in this country in decades.” This plant will produce the most advanced computer chips in the world when it is completed.

 

I wrote a previous article about the chip plant in March. You can read it here: Globalfoundries Chip Plant in Saratoga County New York.

  

The refreshment tent at the Globalfoundries Community Open House

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

The construction and eventual operation of this plant will be an economic boost to Saratoga Springs and the surrounding area for years to come. What do you think about the plant? Leave a comment or send me an email. Thanks.

  

Tags: bing.com, chip plant, fab2, GlobalFoundries, google maps, Hector Ruiz, luther forest, m + w zander, malta ny, saratoga springs

 

General, New York State | John Tedder | October 24, 2009 4:03 pm

 

One Response to “The Globalfoundries Chip Plant in Malta, New York”

Daniel Tagliento says:

October 31, 2009 at 1:50 pmThe local “newspapers” lack of in depth investigative reporting was not at all included in their articles!

What was the reason the entire working platform had to be ‘bulldozed’ flat and devoid of mature stands of trees and other fauna?

Waht is the landscaping of the buildings and parking areas supposed to ‘blend’ into the surrounding topography?

Does this ‘platforming’ necessiate storm water retention ponds?

 

At the completion and occupation of the complex will it be eye friendly?

Note: Parssiphany, New Jersy

Buiding Codes insist that Mega-National type complexes remain ‘hidden’ in park like setting closely resembling the natural forest thy found before construction. Ten Billion of many Corporate Headquarters in ten years were build and remain sucessful but accessible by two lane tree stands lined country lane like entrances with multi-storied parking structures and modest designed multi-storied offices etc, all this surrounded by lawns and fields!

For Your Information the Mayor, who had his hand opefor the entire process was found guilty of 23 or the 24 charges, his hand was returning to his pocket with money he should not have had procession of!

Back to the Chase:Tokyo Electron opening in Malta; part of first wave drawn by chip fab

 

A graduate of the University of the West Indies, Mona, with an upper second class degree in Management Studies 2005, she says her motivation in life is love, that is, the desire to see every human being discover their purpose in life and come into their full potential. Simone has spent the last 6 years as a Senior Client Care Officer at Jamaica Money Market Brokers where she is often required to exercise her acquired skills in problem resolution, crucial confrontation, forward logical thinking and research online or printed resources. She is also the holder of professional certificates in Securities, Project Management and First Aid. Her other skills include proficient knowledge of Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher and Projects and Public Speaking. She also enjoys writing values based children’s stories.

Simone also has a myriad of leadership experiences through voluntary services spanning current mentorship to young girls, co-coordinating KCN Jamaica Business Expo – 2013, co-coordinating KCN Jamaica Fun Day – 2010, coordinating Reggae Marathon Timelines – 2009 and 2012, and President of Scotia Scholars Club 2005 – 2006 to name a few.

 

Simone is a member of Kingdom Life Advancement Centre – KCN Jamaica and is married to Marlon Christie.

The MiraCosta Library & Information Hub

The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.

 

HISTORY

The towers were designed by Argentine - South American architect César Pelli. They chose a distinctive postmodern style to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres below the surface.

 

The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, and the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999. The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete. Its engineering designs on structural framework were contributed by Haitian engineer Domo Obiasse and colleagues Aris Battista and Princess D Battista. The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.

 

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.

 

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortiums were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation (JA Jones Construction Co., MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp) while Tower 2, the east tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd). Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction. Tower 2 became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time. When the structure reached about 72nd floor, tower 2 ran into problems. They discovered the structure was leaning 25 millimetres off from vertical. To correct the lean, the next 16 floors were slanted back 20 millimetres with specialist surveyors hired to check verticality twice a day until the building's completion.

 

Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space. Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

 

NOTABLE EVENTS

On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping (since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers.

 

Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat was phoned the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation.

 

On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants.

 

On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest. On 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". He made a second attempt on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, and was stopped once again on the same floor, though on the other tower.

 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOWERS

The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the 88 floors of the Petronas Towers. Willis Tower's tallest antenna is 75.41 m taller than those of the Petronas Towers, however, in accordance with CTBUH regulations and guidelines, the antennas of Willis Tower were not counted as part of its architectural features. The spires on the Petronas Towers are included in the height since they are not antenna masts. Therefore, the Petronas Towers exceed the official height of Willis Tower by 10 m even though the roof of Petronas Towers at 378.6 metres is 63.4 m lower than the roof of Willis Tower at 442 metres.The Petronas Towers feature a diamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres of stainless steel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding system resides within the towers. While the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres of 20.38-millimetre laminated glass to reduce heat by reflecting harmful UV rays.

 

On the top of each tower is a pinnacle standing 73.5 metres tall. The pinnacles were more than just the finishing touches to the height of the towers, each taking over 19 weeks to construct and both being assembled outside the country. One was constructed in Japan and the other in Korea. Each pinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: the spire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. While the pinnacles may seem to be an aesthetic feature of the towers to enhance their presence and height, they also play function to aircraft warning lights and are an essential element to the overall Islamic minaret design that the towers embody.

 

The interiors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects such as fabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.

 

The construction of the Petronas Towers turned out to be a multinational effort. The structural design engineers worked out of New York City, while the wind-tunnel consultants and elevator design engineers were from Canada. To meet local safety construction codes, the towers had to be able to withstand 105 km/h winds. To assure this requirement would be fulfilled, the engineers tested the towers twice within a wind tunnel, first by computer simulation and second by building an actual model of the towers.

 

ANCHOR TENANTS

Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

 

FEATURES

SURIA KLCC

Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 upmarket retail center at the feet of the Petronas Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, a philharmonic theatre, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.

 

KLCC PARK

Spanning 6.9 ha below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.

 

SKYBRIDGE

The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not attached to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking, as the towers sway several feet in towards and away from each other during high winds. It also provides some structural support to the towers in these occasions. The bridge is 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, weighing 750 tons. The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1000 people per day, and must be obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86. Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.

 

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower. The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event. Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

 

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers. After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days in July 1995 but instead of being directly connected to the towers, the skybridge can shift or slide in and out of them to counterbalance any effect from the wind. Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.

 

LIFT SYSTEM

The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.

 

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

 

From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts. The "short haul" group of 6 lifts take passengers to floors between level 2/3 and level 16/17. The "mid haul" group of six lifts take passengers to floors between level 18/19 and level 37/38. There is also a set of shuttle lifts that take passengers directly to levels 41/42. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43/44 to 57/58 and one set serving levels 59/60 to levels 73/74.

 

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not accessible as office space). This spares someone in the lower half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor to go to the upper half of the building.

 

The lifts contain a number of safety features. It is possible to evacuate people from a lift stuck between floors by manually driving one of the adjacent lifts next to it and opening a panel in the wall. It is then possible for people in the stuck lift to walk between lift cars. During an evacuation of the buildings, only the shuttle lift is allowed to be used, as there are only doors at levels G/1 and levels 41/42; therefore should there be a fire in the lower half of the building, this enclosed shaft would remain unaffected. Firefighter lifts are also provided in case of emergency.

 

The lift operating chart of the Petronas Towers

 

PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M)

SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M)

PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2) (Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4

A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2) (Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8/9-22/23

B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2) (Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 24/25-36/37

CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2) (Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40-42

C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2) (Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 43/44-57/58

D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2) (Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 59/60-73/74

E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2) (Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 75-83

TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2) (Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85-88

S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-38, 40-84

S3 (Tower 1) & S6(Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-36

F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, G, 1-6, 8-38, 40-88 (F1 & F3 non-stop at Level 1)

 

SERVICE BUILDING

The service building is to the east of the Petronas Towers and contains the chiller plant system and the cooling towers to keep the Petronas Towers cool and comfortable.

 

TICKETING SYSTEM

In order to visit Petronas towers, visitors must first purchase the tickets. Tickets of adults and children can be purchased via online web portal or at the counter. Discounted tickets for seniors are available for those 55 years of age and above. Queues for tickets can get quite long sometimes. The complete Ticketing System or Automated Fare Collection system is provided by a Malaysian-based solution company called Longbow Technologies Sdn Bhd.

 

IN POPULAR CULTURE

- The towers are prominently featured and mentioned by name in the 1999 film Entrapment, with numerous scenes filmed at the towers, with the climax set on the skybridge.

- The Towers appear in the first episode of the US TV series 24.

- Several scenes of the Bollywood film Don: The Chase Begins Again were also filmed in the Petronas Towers and its skybridge.

- In the Phineas and Ferb episode "Phineas and Ferb Save Summer!", the towers are visible during the musical number "Summer All Over the World".

- Eidos Interactive has twice used the towers for inspiration in their video games. In the 2002 Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, the Malaysia-based levels Basement Killing, The Graveyard Shift, and The Jacuzzi Job all take place in the Petronas Towers. In 2010's Just Cause 2, the fictional Panau Falls Casino is based on the Petronas Towers.

- A 2002 episode of the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures titled "When Pigs Fly" (Season 3, Episode 6), features the towers.

- The towers made its appearance, in the animated series Totally Spies episode titled "Man or Machine".

 

WIKIPEDIA

 

Xbox live – wikipedia, free encyclopedia, Xbox live (trademarked as xbox live) is an online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery service created and operated by microsoft. it was first made...

 

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The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.

 

HISTORY

The towers were designed by Argentine - South American architect César Pelli. They chose a distinctive postmodern style to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres below the surface.

 

The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, and the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999. The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete. Its engineering designs on structural framework were contributed by Haitian engineer Domo Obiasse and colleagues Aris Battista and Princess D Battista. The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.

 

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.

 

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortiums were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation (JA Jones Construction Co., MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp) while Tower 2, the east tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd). Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction. Tower 2 became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time. When the structure reached about 72nd floor, tower 2 ran into problems. They discovered the structure was leaning 25 millimetres off from vertical. To correct the lean, the next 16 floors were slanted back 20 millimetres with specialist surveyors hired to check verticality twice a day until the building's completion.

 

Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space. Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

 

NOTABLE EVENTS

On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping (since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers.

 

Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat was phoned the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation.

 

On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants.

 

On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest. On 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". He made a second attempt on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, and was stopped once again on the same floor, though on the other tower.

 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOWERS

The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the 88 floors of the Petronas Towers. Willis Tower's tallest antenna is 75.41 m taller than those of the Petronas Towers, however, in accordance with CTBUH regulations and guidelines, the antennas of Willis Tower were not counted as part of its architectural features. The spires on the Petronas Towers are included in the height since they are not antenna masts. Therefore, the Petronas Towers exceed the official height of Willis Tower by 10 m even though the roof of Petronas Towers at 378.6 metres is 63.4 m lower than the roof of Willis Tower at 442 metres.The Petronas Towers feature a diamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres of stainless steel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding system resides within the towers. While the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres of 20.38-millimetre laminated glass to reduce heat by reflecting harmful UV rays.

 

On the top of each tower is a pinnacle standing 73.5 metres tall. The pinnacles were more than just the finishing touches to the height of the towers, each taking over 19 weeks to construct and both being assembled outside the country. One was constructed in Japan and the other in Korea. Each pinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: the spire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. While the pinnacles may seem to be an aesthetic feature of the towers to enhance their presence and height, they also play function to aircraft warning lights and are an essential element to the overall Islamic minaret design that the towers embody.

 

The interiors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects such as fabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.

 

The construction of the Petronas Towers turned out to be a multinational effort. The structural design engineers worked out of New York City, while the wind-tunnel consultants and elevator design engineers were from Canada. To meet local safety construction codes, the towers had to be able to withstand 105 km/h winds. To assure this requirement would be fulfilled, the engineers tested the towers twice within a wind tunnel, first by computer simulation and second by building an actual model of the towers.

 

ANCHOR TENANTS

Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

 

FEATURES

SURIA KLCC

Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 upmarket retail center at the feet of the Petronas Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, a philharmonic theatre, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.

 

KLCC PARK

Spanning 6.9 ha below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.

 

SKYBRIDGE

The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not attached to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking, as the towers sway several feet in towards and away from each other during high winds. It also provides some structural support to the towers in these occasions. The bridge is 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, weighing 750 tons. The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1000 people per day, and must be obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86. Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.

 

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower. The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event. Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

 

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers. After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days in July 1995 but instead of being directly connected to the towers, the skybridge can shift or slide in and out of them to counterbalance any effect from the wind. Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.

 

LIFT SYSTEM

The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.

 

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

 

From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts. The "short haul" group of 6 lifts take passengers to floors between level 2/3 and level 16/17. The "mid haul" group of six lifts take passengers to floors between level 18/19 and level 37/38. There is also a set of shuttle lifts that take passengers directly to levels 41/42. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43/44 to 57/58 and one set serving levels 59/60 to levels 73/74.

 

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not accessible as office space). This spares someone in the lower half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor to go to the upper half of the building.

 

The lifts contain a number of safety features. It is possible to evacuate people from a lift stuck between floors by manually driving one of the adjacent lifts next to it and opening a panel in the wall. It is then possible for people in the stuck lift to walk between lift cars. During an evacuation of the buildings, only the shuttle lift is allowed to be used, as there are only doors at levels G/1 and levels 41/42; therefore should there be a fire in the lower half of the building, this enclosed shaft would remain unaffected. Firefighter lifts are also provided in case of emergency.

 

The lift operating chart of the Petronas Towers

 

PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M)

SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M)

PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2) (Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4

A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2) (Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8/9-22/23

B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2) (Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 24/25-36/37

CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2) (Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40-42

C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2) (Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 43/44-57/58

D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2) (Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 59/60-73/74

E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2) (Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 75-83

TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2) (Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85-88

S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-38, 40-84

S3 (Tower 1) & S6(Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-36

F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, G, 1-6, 8-38, 40-88 (F1 & F3 non-stop at Level 1)

 

SERVICE BUILDING

The service building is to the east of the Petronas Towers and contains the chiller plant system and the cooling towers to keep the Petronas Towers cool and comfortable.

 

TICKETING SYSTEM

In order to visit Petronas towers, visitors must first purchase the tickets. Tickets of adults and children can be purchased via online web portal or at the counter. Discounted tickets for seniors are available for those 55 years of age and above. Queues for tickets can get quite long sometimes. The complete Ticketing System or Automated Fare Collection system is provided by a Malaysian-based solution company called Longbow Technologies Sdn Bhd.

 

IN POPULAR CULTURE

- The towers are prominently featured and mentioned by name in the 1999 film Entrapment, with numerous scenes filmed at the towers, with the climax set on the skybridge.

- The Towers appear in the first episode of the US TV series 24.

- Several scenes of the Bollywood film Don: The Chase Begins Again were also filmed in the Petronas Towers and its skybridge.

- In the Phineas and Ferb episode "Phineas and Ferb Save Summer!", the towers are visible during the musical number "Summer All Over the World".

- Eidos Interactive has twice used the towers for inspiration in their video games. In the 2002 Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, the Malaysia-based levels Basement Killing, The Graveyard Shift, and The Jacuzzi Job all take place in the Petronas Towers. In 2010's Just Cause 2, the fictional Panau Falls Casino is based on the Petronas Towers.

- A 2002 episode of the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures titled "When Pigs Fly" (Season 3, Episode 6), features the towers.

- The towers made its appearance, in the animated series Totally Spies episode titled "Man or Machine".

 

WIKIPEDIA

 

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The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.

 

HISTORY

The towers were designed by Argentine - South American architect César Pelli. They chose a distinctive postmodern style to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres below the surface.

 

The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, and the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999. The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete. Its engineering designs on structural framework were contributed by Haitian engineer Domo Obiasse and colleagues Aris Battista and Princess D Battista. The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.

 

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.

 

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortiums were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation (JA Jones Construction Co., MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp) while Tower 2, the east tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd). Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction. Tower 2 became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time. When the structure reached about 72nd floor, tower 2 ran into problems. They discovered the structure was leaning 25 millimetres off from vertical. To correct the lean, the next 16 floors were slanted back 20 millimetres with specialist surveyors hired to check verticality twice a day until the building's completion.

 

Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space. Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

 

NOTABLE EVENTS

On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping (since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers.

 

Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat was phoned the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation.

 

On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants.

 

On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest. On 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". He made a second attempt on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, and was stopped once again on the same floor, though on the other tower.

 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOWERS

The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the 88 floors of the Petronas Towers. Willis Tower's tallest antenna is 75.41 m taller than those of the Petronas Towers, however, in accordance with CTBUH regulations and guidelines, the antennas of Willis Tower were not counted as part of its architectural features. The spires on the Petronas Towers are included in the height since they are not antenna masts. Therefore, the Petronas Towers exceed the official height of Willis Tower by 10 m even though the roof of Petronas Towers at 378.6 metres is 63.4 m lower than the roof of Willis Tower at 442 metres.The Petronas Towers feature a diamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres of stainless steel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding system resides within the towers. While the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres of 20.38-millimetre laminated glass to reduce heat by reflecting harmful UV rays.

 

On the top of each tower is a pinnacle standing 73.5 metres tall. The pinnacles were more than just the finishing touches to the height of the towers, each taking over 19 weeks to construct and both being assembled outside the country. One was constructed in Japan and the other in Korea. Each pinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: the spire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. While the pinnacles may seem to be an aesthetic feature of the towers to enhance their presence and height, they also play function to aircraft warning lights and are an essential element to the overall Islamic minaret design that the towers embody.

 

The interiors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects such as fabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.

 

The construction of the Petronas Towers turned out to be a multinational effort. The structural design engineers worked out of New York City, while the wind-tunnel consultants and elevator design engineers were from Canada. To meet local safety construction codes, the towers had to be able to withstand 105 km/h winds. To assure this requirement would be fulfilled, the engineers tested the towers twice within a wind tunnel, first by computer simulation and second by building an actual model of the towers.

 

ANCHOR TENANTS

Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

 

FEATURES

SURIA KLCC

Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 upmarket retail center at the feet of the Petronas Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, a philharmonic theatre, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.

 

KLCC PARK

Spanning 6.9 ha below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.

 

SKYBRIDGE

The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not attached to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking, as the towers sway several feet in towards and away from each other during high winds. It also provides some structural support to the towers in these occasions. The bridge is 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, weighing 750 tons. The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1000 people per day, and must be obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86. Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.

 

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower. The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event. Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

 

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers. After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days in July 1995 but instead of being directly connected to the towers, the skybridge can shift or slide in and out of them to counterbalance any effect from the wind. Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.

 

LIFT SYSTEM

The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.

 

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

 

From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts. The "short haul" group of 6 lifts take passengers to floors between level 2/3 and level 16/17. The "mid haul" group of six lifts take passengers to floors between level 18/19 and level 37/38. There is also a set of shuttle lifts that take passengers directly to levels 41/42. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43/44 to 57/58 and one set serving levels 59/60 to levels 73/74.

 

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not accessible as office space). This spares someone in the lower half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor to go to the upper half of the building.

 

The lifts contain a number of safety features. It is possible to evacuate people from a lift stuck between floors by manually driving one of the adjacent lifts next to it and opening a panel in the wall. It is then possible for people in the stuck lift to walk between lift cars. During an evacuation of the buildings, only the shuttle lift is allowed to be used, as there are only doors at levels G/1 and levels 41/42; therefore should there be a fire in the lower half of the building, this enclosed shaft would remain unaffected. Firefighter lifts are also provided in case of emergency.

 

The lift operating chart of the Petronas Towers

 

PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M)

SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M)

PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2) (Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4

A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2) (Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8/9-22/23

B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2) (Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 24/25-36/37

CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2) (Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40-42

C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2) (Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 43/44-57/58

D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2) (Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 59/60-73/74

E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2) (Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 75-83

TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2) (Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85-88

S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-38, 40-84

S3 (Tower 1) & S6(Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-36

F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, G, 1-6, 8-38, 40-88 (F1 & F3 non-stop at Level 1)

 

SERVICE BUILDING

The service building is to the east of the Petronas Towers and contains the chiller plant system and the cooling towers to keep the Petronas Towers cool and comfortable.

 

TICKETING SYSTEM

In order to visit Petronas towers, visitors must first purchase the tickets. Tickets of adults and children can be purchased via online web portal or at the counter. Discounted tickets for seniors are available for those 55 years of age and above. Queues for tickets can get quite long sometimes. The complete Ticketing System or Automated Fare Collection system is provided by a Malaysian-based solution company called Longbow Technologies Sdn Bhd.

 

IN POPULAR CULTURE

- The towers are prominently featured and mentioned by name in the 1999 film Entrapment, with numerous scenes filmed at the towers, with the climax set on the skybridge.

- The Towers appear in the first episode of the US TV series 24.

- Several scenes of the Bollywood film Don: The Chase Begins Again were also filmed in the Petronas Towers and its skybridge.

- In the Phineas and Ferb episode "Phineas and Ferb Save Summer!", the towers are visible during the musical number "Summer All Over the World".

- Eidos Interactive has twice used the towers for inspiration in their video games. In the 2002 Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, the Malaysia-based levels Basement Killing, The Graveyard Shift, and The Jacuzzi Job all take place in the Petronas Towers. In 2010's Just Cause 2, the fictional Panau Falls Casino is based on the Petronas Towers.

- A 2002 episode of the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures titled "When Pigs Fly" (Season 3, Episode 6), features the towers.

- The towers made its appearance, in the animated series Totally Spies episode titled "Man or Machine".

 

WIKIPEDIA

 

The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.

 

HISTORY

The towers were designed by Argentine - South American architect César Pelli. They chose a distinctive postmodern style to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres below the surface.

 

The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, and the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999. The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete. Its engineering designs on structural framework were contributed by Haitian engineer Domo Obiasse and colleagues Aris Battista and Princess D Battista. The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.

 

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.

 

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortiums were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation (JA Jones Construction Co., MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp) while Tower 2, the east tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd). Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction. Tower 2 became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time. When the structure reached about 72nd floor, tower 2 ran into problems. They discovered the structure was leaning 25 millimetres off from vertical. To correct the lean, the next 16 floors were slanted back 20 millimetres with specialist surveyors hired to check verticality twice a day until the building's completion.

 

Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space. Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

 

NOTABLE EVENTS

On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping (since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers.

 

Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat was phoned the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation.

 

On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants.

 

On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest. On 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". He made a second attempt on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, and was stopped once again on the same floor, though on the other tower.

 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOWERS

The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the 88 floors of the Petronas Towers. Willis Tower's tallest antenna is 75.41 m taller than those of the Petronas Towers, however, in accordance with CTBUH regulations and guidelines, the antennas of Willis Tower were not counted as part of its architectural features. The spires on the Petronas Towers are included in the height since they are not antenna masts. Therefore, the Petronas Towers exceed the official height of Willis Tower by 10 m even though the roof of Petronas Towers at 378.6 metres is 63.4 m lower than the roof of Willis Tower at 442 metres.The Petronas Towers feature a diamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres of stainless steel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding system resides within the towers. While the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres of 20.38-millimetre laminated glass to reduce heat by reflecting harmful UV rays.

 

On the top of each tower is a pinnacle standing 73.5 metres tall. The pinnacles were more than just the finishing touches to the height of the towers, each taking over 19 weeks to construct and both being assembled outside the country. One was constructed in Japan and the other in Korea. Each pinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: the spire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. While the pinnacles may seem to be an aesthetic feature of the towers to enhance their presence and height, they also play function to aircraft warning lights and are an essential element to the overall Islamic minaret design that the towers embody.

 

The interiors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects such as fabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.

 

The construction of the Petronas Towers turned out to be a multinational effort. The structural design engineers worked out of New York City, while the wind-tunnel consultants and elevator design engineers were from Canada. To meet local safety construction codes, the towers had to be able to withstand 105 km/h winds. To assure this requirement would be fulfilled, the engineers tested the towers twice within a wind tunnel, first by computer simulation and second by building an actual model of the towers.

 

ANCHOR TENANTS

Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

 

FEATURES

SURIA KLCC

Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 upmarket retail center at the feet of the Petronas Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, a philharmonic theatre, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.

 

KLCC PARK

Spanning 6.9 ha below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.

 

SKYBRIDGE

The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not attached to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking, as the towers sway several feet in towards and away from each other during high winds. It also provides some structural support to the towers in these occasions. The bridge is 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, weighing 750 tons. The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1000 people per day, and must be obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86. Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.

 

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower. The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event. Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

 

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers. After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days in July 1995 but instead of being directly connected to the towers, the skybridge can shift or slide in and out of them to counterbalance any effect from the wind. Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.

 

LIFT SYSTEM

The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.

 

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

 

From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts. The "short haul" group of 6 lifts take passengers to floors between level 2/3 and level 16/17. The "mid haul" group of six lifts take passengers to floors between level 18/19 and level 37/38. There is also a set of shuttle lifts that take passengers directly to levels 41/42. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43/44 to 57/58 and one set serving levels 59/60 to levels 73/74.

 

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not accessible as office space). This spares someone in the lower half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor to go to the upper half of the building.

 

The lifts contain a number of safety features. It is possible to evacuate people from a lift stuck between floors by manually driving one of the adjacent lifts next to it and opening a panel in the wall. It is then possible for people in the stuck lift to walk between lift cars. During an evacuation of the buildings, only the shuttle lift is allowed to be used, as there are only doors at levels G/1 and levels 41/42; therefore should there be a fire in the lower half of the building, this enclosed shaft would remain unaffected. Firefighter lifts are also provided in case of emergency.

 

The lift operating chart of the Petronas Towers

 

PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M)

SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M)

PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2) (Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4

A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2) (Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8/9-22/23

B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2) (Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 24/25-36/37

CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2) (Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40-42

C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2) (Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 43/44-57/58

D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2) (Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 59/60-73/74

E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2) (Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 75-83

TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2) (Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85-88

S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-38, 40-84

S3 (Tower 1) & S6(Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-36

F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, G, 1-6, 8-38, 40-88 (F1 & F3 non-stop at Level 1)

 

SERVICE BUILDING

The service building is to the east of the Petronas Towers and contains the chiller plant system and the cooling towers to keep the Petronas Towers cool and comfortable.

 

TICKETING SYSTEM

In order to visit Petronas towers, visitors must first purchase the tickets. Tickets of adults and children can be purchased via online web portal or at the counter. Discounted tickets for seniors are available for those 55 years of age and above. Queues for tickets can get quite long sometimes. The complete Ticketing System or Automated Fare Collection system is provided by a Malaysian-based solution company called Longbow Technologies Sdn Bhd.

 

IN POPULAR CULTURE

- The towers are prominently featured and mentioned by name in the 1999 film Entrapment, with numerous scenes filmed at the towers, with the climax set on the skybridge.

- The Towers appear in the first episode of the US TV series 24.

- Several scenes of the Bollywood film Don: The Chase Begins Again were also filmed in the Petronas Towers and its skybridge.

- In the Phineas and Ferb episode "Phineas and Ferb Save Summer!", the towers are visible during the musical number "Summer All Over the World".

- Eidos Interactive has twice used the towers for inspiration in their video games. In the 2002 Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, the Malaysia-based levels Basement Killing, The Graveyard Shift, and The Jacuzzi Job all take place in the Petronas Towers. In 2010's Just Cause 2, the fictional Panau Falls Casino is based on the Petronas Towers.

- A 2002 episode of the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures titled "When Pigs Fly" (Season 3, Episode 6), features the towers.

- The towers made its appearance, in the animated series Totally Spies episode titled "Man or Machine".

 

WIKIPEDIA

 

The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.

 

HISTORY

The towers were designed by Argentine - South American architect César Pelli. They chose a distinctive postmodern style to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres below the surface.

 

The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, and the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999. The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete. Its engineering designs on structural framework were contributed by Haitian engineer Domo Obiasse and colleagues Aris Battista and Princess D Battista. The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.

 

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.

 

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortiums were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation (JA Jones Construction Co., MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp) while Tower 2, the east tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd). Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction. Tower 2 became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time. When the structure reached about 72nd floor, tower 2 ran into problems. They discovered the structure was leaning 25 millimetres off from vertical. To correct the lean, the next 16 floors were slanted back 20 millimetres with specialist surveyors hired to check verticality twice a day until the building's completion.

 

Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space. Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

 

NOTABLE EVENTS

On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping (since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers.

 

Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat was phoned the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation.

 

On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants.

 

On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest. On 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". He made a second attempt on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, and was stopped once again on the same floor, though on the other tower.

 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOWERS

The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the 88 floors of the Petronas Towers. Willis Tower's tallest antenna is 75.41 m taller than those of the Petronas Towers, however, in accordance with CTBUH regulations and guidelines, the antennas of Willis Tower were not counted as part of its architectural features. The spires on the Petronas Towers are included in the height since they are not antenna masts. Therefore, the Petronas Towers exceed the official height of Willis Tower by 10 m even though the roof of Petronas Towers at 378.6 metres is 63.4 m lower than the roof of Willis Tower at 442 metres.The Petronas Towers feature a diamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres of stainless steel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding system resides within the towers. While the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres of 20.38-millimetre laminated glass to reduce heat by reflecting harmful UV rays.

 

On the top of each tower is a pinnacle standing 73.5 metres tall. The pinnacles were more than just the finishing touches to the height of the towers, each taking over 19 weeks to construct and both being assembled outside the country. One was constructed in Japan and the other in Korea. Each pinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: the spire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. While the pinnacles may seem to be an aesthetic feature of the towers to enhance their presence and height, they also play function to aircraft warning lights and are an essential element to the overall Islamic minaret design that the towers embody.

 

The interiors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects such as fabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.

 

The construction of the Petronas Towers turned out to be a multinational effort. The structural design engineers worked out of New York City, while the wind-tunnel consultants and elevator design engineers were from Canada. To meet local safety construction codes, the towers had to be able to withstand 105 km/h winds. To assure this requirement would be fulfilled, the engineers tested the towers twice within a wind tunnel, first by computer simulation and second by building an actual model of the towers.

 

ANCHOR TENANTS

Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

 

FEATURES

SURIA KLCC

Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 upmarket retail center at the feet of the Petronas Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, a philharmonic theatre, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.

 

KLCC PARK

Spanning 6.9 ha below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.

 

SKYBRIDGE

The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not attached to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking, as the towers sway several feet in towards and away from each other during high winds. It also provides some structural support to the towers in these occasions. The bridge is 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, weighing 750 tons. The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1000 people per day, and must be obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86. Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.

 

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower. The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event. Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

 

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers. After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days in July 1995 but instead of being directly connected to the towers, the skybridge can shift or slide in and out of them to counterbalance any effect from the wind. Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.

 

LIFT SYSTEM

The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.

 

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

 

From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts. The "short haul" group of 6 lifts take passengers to floors between level 2/3 and level 16/17. The "mid haul" group of six lifts take passengers to floors between level 18/19 and level 37/38. There is also a set of shuttle lifts that take passengers directly to levels 41/42. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43/44 to 57/58 and one set serving levels 59/60 to levels 73/74.

 

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not accessible as office space). This spares someone in the lower half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor to go to the upper half of the building.

 

The lifts contain a number of safety features. It is possible to evacuate people from a lift stuck between floors by manually driving one of the adjacent lifts next to it and opening a panel in the wall. It is then possible for people in the stuck lift to walk between lift cars. During an evacuation of the buildings, only the shuttle lift is allowed to be used, as there are only doors at levels G/1 and levels 41/42; therefore should there be a fire in the lower half of the building, this enclosed shaft would remain unaffected. Firefighter lifts are also provided in case of emergency.

 

The lift operating chart of the Petronas Towers

 

PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M)

SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M)

PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2) (Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4

A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2) (Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8/9-22/23

B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2) (Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 24/25-36/37

CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2) (Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40-42

C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2) (Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 43/44-57/58

D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2) (Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 59/60-73/74

E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2) (Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 75-83

TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2) (Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85-88

S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-38, 40-84

S3 (Tower 1) & S6(Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-36

F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, G, 1-6, 8-38, 40-88 (F1 & F3 non-stop at Level 1)

 

SERVICE BUILDING

The service building is to the east of the Petronas Towers and contains the chiller plant system and the cooling towers to keep the Petronas Towers cool and comfortable.

 

TICKETING SYSTEM

In order to visit Petronas towers, visitors must first purchase the tickets. Tickets of adults and children can be purchased via online web portal or at the counter. Discounted tickets for seniors are available for those 55 years of age and above. Queues for tickets can get quite long sometimes. The complete Ticketing System or Automated Fare Collection system is provided by a Malaysian-based solution company called Longbow Technologies Sdn Bhd.

 

IN POPULAR CULTURE

- The towers are prominently featured and mentioned by name in the 1999 film Entrapment, with numerous scenes filmed at the towers, with the climax set on the skybridge.

- The Towers appear in the first episode of the US TV series 24.

- Several scenes of the Bollywood film Don: The Chase Begins Again were also filmed in the Petronas Towers and its skybridge.

- In the Phineas and Ferb episode "Phineas and Ferb Save Summer!", the towers are visible during the musical number "Summer All Over the World".

- Eidos Interactive has twice used the towers for inspiration in their video games. In the 2002 Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, the Malaysia-based levels Basement Killing, The Graveyard Shift, and The Jacuzzi Job all take place in the Petronas Towers. In 2010's Just Cause 2, the fictional Panau Falls Casino is based on the Petronas Towers.

- A 2002 episode of the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures titled "When Pigs Fly" (Season 3, Episode 6), features the towers.

- The towers made its appearance, in the animated series Totally Spies episode titled "Man or Machine".

 

WIKIPEDIA

 

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The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.

 

HISTORY

The towers were designed by Argentine - South American architect César Pelli. They chose a distinctive postmodern style to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres below the surface.

 

The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, and the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999. The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete. Its engineering designs on structural framework were contributed by Haitian engineer Domo Obiasse and colleagues Aris Battista and Princess D Battista. The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.

 

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.

 

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortiums were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation (JA Jones Construction Co., MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp) while Tower 2, the east tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd). Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction. Tower 2 became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time. When the structure reached about 72nd floor, tower 2 ran into problems. They discovered the structure was leaning 25 millimetres off from vertical. To correct the lean, the next 16 floors were slanted back 20 millimetres with specialist surveyors hired to check verticality twice a day until the building's completion.

 

Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space. Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

 

NOTABLE EVENTS

On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping (since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers.

 

Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat was phoned the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation.

 

On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants.

 

On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest. On 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". He made a second attempt on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, and was stopped once again on the same floor, though on the other tower.

 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOWERS

The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the 88 floors of the Petronas Towers. Willis Tower's tallest antenna is 75.41 m taller than those of the Petronas Towers, however, in accordance with CTBUH regulations and guidelines, the antennas of Willis Tower were not counted as part of its architectural features. The spires on the Petronas Towers are included in the height since they are not antenna masts. Therefore, the Petronas Towers exceed the official height of Willis Tower by 10 m even though the roof of Petronas Towers at 378.6 metres is 63.4 m lower than the roof of Willis Tower at 442 metres.The Petronas Towers feature a diamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres of stainless steel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding system resides within the towers. While the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres of 20.38-millimetre laminated glass to reduce heat by reflecting harmful UV rays.

 

On the top of each tower is a pinnacle standing 73.5 metres tall. The pinnacles were more than just the finishing touches to the height of the towers, each taking over 19 weeks to construct and both being assembled outside the country. One was constructed in Japan and the other in Korea. Each pinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: the spire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. While the pinnacles may seem to be an aesthetic feature of the towers to enhance their presence and height, they also play function to aircraft warning lights and are an essential element to the overall Islamic minaret design that the towers embody.

 

The interiors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects such as fabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.

 

The construction of the Petronas Towers turned out to be a multinational effort. The structural design engineers worked out of New York City, while the wind-tunnel consultants and elevator design engineers were from Canada. To meet local safety construction codes, the towers had to be able to withstand 105 km/h winds. To assure this requirement would be fulfilled, the engineers tested the towers twice within a wind tunnel, first by computer simulation and second by building an actual model of the towers.

 

ANCHOR TENANTS

Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

 

FEATURES

SURIA KLCC

Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 upmarket retail center at the feet of the Petronas Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, a philharmonic theatre, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.

 

KLCC PARK

Spanning 6.9 ha below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.

 

SKYBRIDGE

The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not attached to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking, as the towers sway several feet in towards and away from each other during high winds. It also provides some structural support to the towers in these occasions. The bridge is 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, weighing 750 tons. The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1000 people per day, and must be obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86. Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.

 

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower. The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event. Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

 

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers. After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days in July 1995 but instead of being directly connected to the towers, the skybridge can shift or slide in and out of them to counterbalance any effect from the wind. Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.

 

LIFT SYSTEM

The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.

 

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

 

From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts. The "short haul" group of 6 lifts take passengers to floors between level 2/3 and level 16/17. The "mid haul" group of six lifts take passengers to floors between level 18/19 and level 37/38. There is also a set of shuttle lifts that take passengers directly to levels 41/42. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43/44 to 57/58 and one set serving levels 59/60 to levels 73/74.

 

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not accessible as office space). This spares someone in the lower half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor to go to the upper half of the building.

 

The lifts contain a number of safety features. It is possible to evacuate people from a lift stuck between floors by manually driving one of the adjacent lifts next to it and opening a panel in the wall. It is then possible for people in the stuck lift to walk between lift cars. During an evacuation of the buildings, only the shuttle lift is allowed to be used, as there are only doors at levels G/1 and levels 41/42; therefore should there be a fire in the lower half of the building, this enclosed shaft would remain unaffected. Firefighter lifts are also provided in case of emergency.

 

The lift operating chart of the Petronas Towers

 

PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M)

SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M)

PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2) (Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4

A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2) (Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8/9-22/23

B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2) (Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 24/25-36/37

CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2) (Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40-42

C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2) (Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 43/44-57/58

D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2) (Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 59/60-73/74

E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2) (Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 75-83

TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2) (Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85-88

S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-38, 40-84

S3 (Tower 1) & S6(Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-36

F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, G, 1-6, 8-38, 40-88 (F1 & F3 non-stop at Level 1)

 

SERVICE BUILDING

The service building is to the east of the Petronas Towers and contains the chiller plant system and the cooling towers to keep the Petronas Towers cool and comfortable.

 

TICKETING SYSTEM

In order to visit Petronas towers, visitors must first purchase the tickets. Tickets of adults and children can be purchased via online web portal or at the counter. Discounted tickets for seniors are available for those 55 years of age and above. Queues for tickets can get quite long sometimes. The complete Ticketing System or Automated Fare Collection system is provided by a Malaysian-based solution company called Longbow Technologies Sdn Bhd.

 

IN POPULAR CULTURE

- The towers are prominently featured and mentioned by name in the 1999 film Entrapment, with numerous scenes filmed at the towers, with the climax set on the skybridge.

- The Towers appear in the first episode of the US TV series 24.

- Several scenes of the Bollywood film Don: The Chase Begins Again were also filmed in the Petronas Towers and its skybridge.

- In the Phineas and Ferb episode "Phineas and Ferb Save Summer!", the towers are visible during the musical number "Summer All Over the World".

- Eidos Interactive has twice used the towers for inspiration in their video games. In the 2002 Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, the Malaysia-based levels Basement Killing, The Graveyard Shift, and The Jacuzzi Job all take place in the Petronas Towers. In 2010's Just Cause 2, the fictional Panau Falls Casino is based on the Petronas Towers.

- A 2002 episode of the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures titled "When Pigs Fly" (Season 3, Episode 6), features the towers.

- The towers made its appearance, in the animated series Totally Spies episode titled "Man or Machine".

 

WIKIPEDIA

 

You may not should be a programming genius to get success selling to a online market. The next article will assist you through several tips that allows you to showcase to the customers more proficiently.

 

As a way to boost the PageRank of your respective eCommerce site, give a short-term promotion. You could buy a google page rank when you have an effective enough deal. This is merely like stores marking down items which do not sell well at full price.

 

Marketing is all about finding a need and filling that need. Try to anticipate what questions you may provide answers to or problems you may solve. If you can assist users with their issues they may end up making a purchase from you together with referring anyone to friends.

 

To succeed in web marketing you should invest the time and effort that would be required in any other job. Following the lead of an individual who's proven their skill and trustworthiness is a good way to start. Savvy online marketers often offer free consultations or promotional service bundles to customers. You need to choose a marketing strategy that appeals to you one that you can hold onto easily. Internet promotion is well worth your time and energy, so be patient, and you will probably see results.

 

It is important that the content on your site is relevant and covers all the needed information. Your goal ought to be to teach your potential customers exactly what you will be selling so they understand what and why they should want to purchase your product. Keep your content as unique as you can. Don't repeat any descriptions and don't include unnecessary data that might turn off the customer.

 

Many webmasters overlook that they need to keep their websites simple. Although glitzy interactive, multimedia tools such as Microsoft Silverlight and Adobe Flash which are be touted by a professional web designer might be seductive to a new website owner, it may possibly not be a prudent selection for their internet site. Smart owners be aware that not everybody will have a way or will want to use this technology. A website does not need to have a bunch of crazy features, as long as it is efficient and user-friendly.

 

Of course, mastering any respective field or niche is going to take a lot of time and practice, but you have to get started somewhere. You can get yourself away and off to a great start by following the steps outlined on this page.

Satya Nadella, senior vice president of research and development for the online services division for Microsoft Corp., speaks during a Microsoft Search Summit event in San Francisco, California, U.S., on Wednesday, Dec. 15, 2010. Microsoft Corp. updated its Bing search engine today, aiming to build on U.S. market-share gains last month as it chases Google Inc. Photographer: David Paul Morris/Bloomberg via Getty Images *** Local Caption *** Satya Nadella

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An Instantiation is a concept in Object Oriented Programming (OOP) - You can create an object with a set of properties that are defined by a Class in a program. When you create a member of a class, it is the instantiation (i.e. realization or creation) of a specific object of that class.

 

Object (computer science)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In computer science, an object is a location in memory having a value and possibly referenced by an identifier. An object can be a variable, a data structure, or a function. In the class-based object-oriented programming paradigm, "object" refers to a particular instance of a class where the object can be a combination of variables, functions, and data structures. In relational database management, an object can be a table or column, or an association between data and a database entity (such as relating a person's age to a specific person).[1]

 

Contents [hide]

1 Object-based languages

2 Object-oriented programming

3 Specialized objects

4 Distributed objects

5 Objects and the Semantic Web

6 See also

7 References

8 External links

Object-based languages[edit]

Main article: Object-based language

An important distinction in programming languages is the difference between an object-oriented language and an object-based language. A language is usually considered object-based if it includes the basic capabilities for an object: identity, properties, and attributes. A language is considered object-oriented if it is object-based and also has the capability of polymorphism and inheritance. Polymorphism refers to the ability to overload the name of a function with multiple behaviors based on which object(s) are passed to it. Conventional message passing discriminates only on the first object and considers that to be "sending a message" to that object. However, some OOP languages such as Flavors and the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) enable discriminating on more than the first parameter of the function.[2] Inheritance is the ability to subclass an object class, to create a new class that is a subclass of an existing one and inherits all the data constraints and behaviors of its parents but also changes one or more of them.[3][4]

 

Object-oriented programming[edit]

Main article: Object-oriented programming

Object-Oriented programming is an approach to designing modular reusable software systems. The object-oriented approach is fundamentally a modelling approach.[5] The object-oriented approach is an evolution of good design practices that go back to the very beginning of computer programming. Object-orientation is simply the logical extension of older techniques such as structured programming and abstract data types. An object is an abstract data type with the addition of polymorphism and inheritance.

 

Rather than structure programs as code and data an object-oriented system integrates the two using the concept of an "object". An object has state (data) and behavior (code). Objects can correspond to things found in the real world. So for example, a graphics program will have objects such as circle, square, menu. An online shopping system will have objects such as shopping cart, customer, product,. The shopping system will support behaviors such as place order, make payment, and offer discount. The objects are designed as class hierarchies. So for example with the shopping system there might be high level classes such as electronics product, kitchen product, and book. There may be further refinements for example under electronic products: CD Player, DVD player, etc. These classes and subclasses correspond to sets and subsets in mathematical logic.[6][7]

 

Specialized objects[edit]

An important concept for objects is the design pattern. A design pattern provides a reusable template to address a common problem. The following object descriptions are examples of some of the most common design patterns for objects.[8]

 

Function object: an object with a single method (in C++, this method would be the function operator, "operator()") that acts much like a function (like a C/C++ pointer to a function).

Immutable object: an object set up with a fixed state at creation time and which does not change afterward.

First-class object: an object that can be used without restriction.

Container: an object that can contain other objects.

Factory object: an object whose purpose is to create other objects.

Metaobject: an object from which other objects can be created (Compare with class, which is not necessarily an object)

Prototype: a specialized metaobject from which other objects can be created by copying

God object: an object that knows too much or does too much. The God object is an example of an anti-pattern.

Singleton object: An object that is the only instance of its class during the lifetime of the program.

Filter object

Distributed objects[edit]

Main article: Distributed object

The object-oriented approach is not just a programming model. It can be used equally well as an interface definition language for distributed systems. The objects in a distributed computing model tend to be larger grained, longer lasting, and more service-oriented than programming objects.

 

A standard method to package distributed objects is via an Interface Definition Language (IDL). An IDL shields the client of all of the details of the distributed server object. Details such as which computer the object resides on, what programming language it uses, what operating system, and other platform specific issues. The IDL is also usually part of a distributed environment that provides services such as transactions and persistence to all objects in a uniform manner. Two of the most popular standards for distributed objects are the Object Management Group's CORBA standard and Microsoft's DCOM.[9]

 

In addition to distributed objects, a number of other extensions to the basic concept of an object have been proposed to enable distributed computing:

 

Protocol objects are components of a protocol stack that enclose network communication within an object-oriented interface.

Replicated objects are groups of distributed objects (called replicas) that run a distributed multi-party protocol to achieve high consistency between their internal states, and that respond to requests in a coordinated way. Examples include fault-tolerant CORBA objects.

Live distributed objects (or simply live objects)[10] generalize the replicated object concept to groups of replicas that might internally use any distributed protocol, perhaps resulting in only a weak consistency between their local states.

Some of these extensions, such as distributed objects and protocol objects, are domain-specific terms for special types of "ordinary" objects used in a certain context (such as remote invocation or protocol composition). Others, such as replicated objects and live distributed objects, are more non-standard, in that they abandon the usual case that an object resides in a single location at a time, and apply the concept to groups of entities (replicas) that might span across multiple locations, might have only weakly consistent state, and whose membership might dynamically change.

 

Objects and the Semantic Web[edit]

The Semantic Web is essentially a distributed objects framework. Two key technologies in the Semantic Web are the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and the Resource Description Framework (RDF). RDF provides the capability to define basic objects—names, properties, attributes, relations—that are accessible via the Internet. OWL adds a richer object model, based on set theory, that provides additional modeling capabilities such as multiple inheritance.

 

OWL objects are not like standard large grained distributed objects accessed via an Interface Definition Language. Such an approach would not be appropriate for the Internet because the Internet is constantly evolving and standardization on one set of interfaces is difficult to achieve. OWL objects tend to be similar to the kind of objects used to define application domain models in programming languages such as Java and C++.

 

However, there are important distinctions between OWL objects and traditional object-oriented programming objects. Where as traditional objects get compiled into static hierarchies usually with single inheritance, OWL objects are dynamic. An OWL object can change its structure at run time and can become an instance of new or different classes.

 

Another critical difference is the way the model treats information that is currently not in the system. Programming objects and most database systems use the "closed-world assumption". If a fact is not known to the system that fact is assumed to be false. Semantic Web objects use the open world assumption, a statement is only considered false if there is actual relevant information that it is false, otherwise it is assumed to be unknown, neither true nor false.

 

OWL objects are actually most like objects in artificial intelligence frame languages such as KL-ONE and Loom.

 

The following table contrasts traditional objects from Object-Oriented programming languages such as Java or C++ with Semantic Web Objects:[11][12]

 

OOP ObjectsSemantic Web Objects

Classes are regarded as types for instances.Classes are regarded as sets of individuals.

Instances can not change their type at runtime.Class membership may change at runtime.

The list of classes is fully known at compile-time and cannot change after that.Classes can be created and changed at runtime.

Compilers are used at build-time. Compile-time errors indicate problems.Reasoners can be used for classification and consistency checking at runtime or build-time.

Classes encode much of their meaning and behavior through imperative functions and methods.Classes make their meaning explicit in terms of OWL statements. No imperative code can be attached.

Instances are anonymous insofar that they cannot easily be addressed from outside of an executing program.All named RDF and OWL resources have a unique URI under which they can be referenced.

Closed world: If there is not enough information to prove a statement true, then it is assumed to be false.Open world: If there is not enough information to prove a statement true, then it may be true or false.[13]

 

Apple Store, Bethesda, MD

 

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Blogged by The Consumerist ("If You Want The Next iPad This Week, Don't Order It Online" by Phil Villarreal - March 12, 2012) at consumerist.com/2012/03/if-you-want-the-next-ipad-this-we...

 

Blogged by The Consumerist ("'This American Life' Retracts Story On Foxconn Factory That Makes Apple Products" by Mary Beth Quirk - March 16, 2012) at consumerist.com/2012/03/this-american-life-retracts-story...

 

Blogged by Mashable ("Apple Subpoenaed By FTC in Google Antitrust Investigation [REPORT]" by Kate Freeman - March 13, 2012) at mashable.com/2012/03/13/apple-subpoenaed-by-ftc-in-google...

 

Blogged by Mashable ("Apple’s Auditor Finds ‘Significant Issues’ at Foxconn Factories" by Kate Freeman - March 29, 2012) at mashable.com/2012/03/29/fair-labor-auditor-apples-factori...

 

Blogged by Mashable ("More Than 600,000 Macs Infected With Flashback Malware [REPORT]" by Todd Wasserman - April 5, 2012) at mashable.com/2012/04/05/600000-macs-flashback/

 

Blogged by The Consumerist ("Apple Insists They're Totally Not Fixing Any E-Book Prices" by Mary Beth Quirk - April 13, 2012) at consumerist.com/2012/04/apple-insists-theyre-totally-not-...

 

Blogged by Mashable ("1 in 5 Macs Has Malware [STUDY]" by Todd Wasserman - April 24, 2012) at mashable.com/2012/04/24/1-in-5-macs-has-malware-study/

 

Blogged by The Consumerist ("Apple Triumphs Over Samsung With Injunction Against Sale Of 10-Inch Galaxy Tab" by Mary Beth Quirk - June 27, 2012) at consumerist.com/2012/06/apple-triumphs-over-samsung-with-...

 

Blogged by Mother Jones: Blue Marble ("Beyond Foxconn: More Dirt on the Factories Making Your iPhone" by Xian Chiang-Waren - July 19, 2012) at www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2012/07/apple-exploits-th...

 

Blogged by The Consumerist ("Tim Cook: Sorry Our iOS6 Maps Service Isn’t Really So Great… Maybe Try Google?" by Mary Beth Quirk - September 28, 2012) at consumerist.com/2012/09/28/tim-cook-sorry-our-ios6-maps-s...

 

Blogged by The Next Web ("Apple’s reformed ‘apology’ to Samsung makes an appearance in UK newspapers" by Matt Brian - November 2, 2012) at thenextweb.com/apple/2012/11/02/apples-reformed-apology-t...

 

Linked by Cult of Mac ("Apple Makes Its Samsung Non-Apology A Lot More Boring In UK Papers" by Killian Bell - November 2, 2012) at www.cultofmac.com/199410/apple-makes-its-samsung-non-apol...

 

Blogged by The Next Web ("Apple sued in New Zealand for cancelling mispriced $35 website order actually worth $1600" by Matt Brian - November 4, 2012) at thenextweb.com/apple/2012/11/04/apple-sued-in-new-zealand...

 

Blogged by The Next Web ("Apple hires whitehat hacker who helped Microsoft probe and secure Windows Vista" by Matt Brian - December 6, 2012) at thenextweb.com/apple/2012/12/06/apple-hires-whitehat-hack...

 

Blogged by Washington City Paper City Desk ("Apple Employee Reveals Hierarchy of D.C. Apple Stores" by Will Sommer - December 20, 2012) at www.washingtoncitypaper.com/blogs/citydesk/2012/12/20/app...

 

Blogged by The Next Web ("Developers begin seeing new Apple iPhone hardware and iOS 7 in usage logs" by Matt Brian - January 1, 2013) at thenextweb.com/apple/2013/01/01/developers-begin-seeing-n...

 

Blogged by PlayTogether.eu ("iPhone6 und IOS7 im Anmarsch") at playtogether.eu/iphone6-und-ios7-im-anmarsch/

 

Blogged by The Next Web ("Apple announces 40 billion App Store downloads, 500 million active accounts" by Matt Brian - January 7, 2013) at thenextweb.com/apple/2013/01/07/apple-announces-40-billio...

 

Blogged by DCist ("Downtown D.C. Might Get an Apple Store" by Martin Austermuhle - January 11, 2013) at dcist.com/2013/01/apple_store.php

 

Blogged by The Next Web ("Apple appoints Xerox CFO Luca Maestri as new corporate controller" by Matt Brian - January 11, 2013) at thenextweb.com/apple/2013/01/11/apple-appoints-xerox-cfo-...

 

Blogged by The Next Web ("Apple announces 25 billion iTunes song sales, averaging over 15,000 downloads every minute" by Matt Brian - February 6, 2013) at thenextweb.com/apple/2013/02/06/apple-announces-25-billio...

 

Blogged by The Next Web ("Apple announces $8B paid out to developers, a jump of $1B in just one month" by Matthew Panzarino - February 12, 2013) at thenextweb.com/apple/2013/02/12/apple-announces-8b-paid-o...

 

Blogged by TechKronos ("Apple all set to unveil their iRadio music streaming service" - June 9, 2013) at techkronos.com/2013/06/09/apple-all-set-to-unveil-iradio-...

 

Blogged by Consumerist ("The iWatch Is Apparently A Real Thing In That Apple Applied For A Trademark In Japan" by Mary Beth Quirk - July 1, 2013) at consumerist.com/2013/07/01/the-iwatch-is-apparently-a-rea...

 

Blogged by ComputerHoy.com ("Pantallas IGZO para los iPhone 5S y iPhone 6 de Apple" by Héctor Guillén - July 10, 2013) at computerhoy.com/noticias/moviles/apple-podria-intengrar-p...

 

Blogged by SmartPlanet ("Apple will begin manufacturing Macs in U.S. next year" by Tyler Falk - December 6, 2012) at www.smartplanet.com/blog/bulletin/apple-will-begin-manufa...

 

Blogged by VentureBeat ("Apple loses ‘most profitable smartphone vendor’ title to Samsung" by John Koetsier - July 26, 2013) at venturebeat.com/2013/07/26/apple-loses-most-profitable-sm...

 

Blogged by Consumerist ("Report: The iWatch Is Coming, The iWatch Is Coming… In 2014" by Mary Beth Quirk - August 28, 2013) at consumerist.com/2013/08/28/report-the-iwatch-is-coming-th...

 

Blogged by Consumerist ("Apple Offering $10 Discount To Customers Trading In Third-Party USB Adapters" by Mary Beth Quirk - August 6, 2013) at consumerist.com/2013/08/06/apple-offering-10-discount-to-...

 

Blogged by VentureBeat ("Amazon could get its iOS bookstore back, thanks to proposed Apple price-fixing punishment" by Ricardo Bilton - August 2, 2013) at venturebeat.com/2013/08/02/doj-apple-antitrust-punishment/

 

Blogged by VentureBeat ("iWatch on the way? Apple buys wireless chip maker Passif Semiconductor" by Tom Cheredar - August 1, 2013) at venturebeat.com/2013/08/01/iwatch-on-the-way-apple-buys-w...

 

Blogged by Geekosystem ("8 Features Apple Could Announce for the iPhone 5S That Might Win Me Back" by Glen Tickle - September 9, 2013) at www.geekosystem.com/iphone-5s-features-glen-wants/

 

Blogged by MicroBits ("Què esperem de la keynote d’Apple a San Francisco?" by Gerard Escaich Folch - September 8, 2013) at www.microbits.cat/que-esperem-de-la-keynote-dapple-a-san-...

 

Blogged by VentureBeat ("Carl Icahn buys ‘quite a bit’ of Apple’s ‘no brainer’ stock" by Meghan Kelly - September 11, 2013) at venturebeat.com/2013/09/11/carl-icahn-apple-stock/

 

Blogged by VentureBeat ("Apple snaps up productivity app Cue for around $35M (report)" by Meghan Kelly - October 3, 2013) at venturebeat.com/2013/10/03/apple-cue/

 

Blogged by VentureBeat ("Appeals court: Apple hasn’t infringed on Motorola smartphone patents" by Nate Ralph - January 10, 2014) at venturebeat.com/2014/01/10/apple-motorola-smartphone-pate...

 

Blogged by Venture Beat | Business ("Apple buys back $14B worth of stock — CEO says ‘great stuff’ coming from new product categories" by Devindra Hardawar - February 7, 2014) at venturebeat.com/2014/02/07/apple-buys-back-14b-worth-of-s...

 

Blogged by Consumerist ("Apple Pushes Record Labels To Offer Exclusive iTunes Content, Block Initial Streaming" by Ashlee Kieler - March 11, 2014) at consumerist.com/2014/03/11/apple-pushes-record-labels-to-...

 

Blogged by Applesfera ("¿Cuáles son las motivaciones de Tim Cook y Larry Page?" by Eduardo Archanco - April 17, 2014) at www.applesfera.com/apple-1/cuales-son-las-motivaciones-de... and www.compudemano.com/foros/discusion/cuales-son-las-motiva...

 

Blogged by Branches-vouz ("Apple nie avoir été victime d’une intrusion de son service iCloud" by Laurent LaSalle - May 28, 2014) at branchez-vous.com/2014/05/28/apple-nie-avoir-ete-victime-...

 

Blogged by ENTER.CO ("APPLE SUPERA EXPECTATIVAS DE WALL STREET, PERO EL IPAD PREOCUPA" by José Luis Peñarredonda - July 22, 2014) at www.enter.co/cultura-digital/negocios/apple-supera-expect...

 

Blogged by playtogether.eu ("iPhone6 und IOS7 im Anmarsch") at playtogether.eu/iphone6-und-ios7-im-anmarsch/

 

Blogged by Trenologi ("Catat Rekor Penjualan iPhone, Apple Bukukan Pendapatan $57,6 Miliar di Q1 2014" by Bambang Winarso - January 28, 2014) at www.trenologi.com/2014012831573/catat-rekor-penjualan-iph...

 

Blogged by Trenologi ("Promo iPhone 6 Bocor ke Publik?" by Wiku Baskoro - August 25, 2014) at www.trenologi.com/2014082542342/promo-iphone-6-bocor-ke-p...

 

Blogged by Consumerist ("Jury Orders Apple To Pay $532.9M After Finding That iTunes Software Infringes On 3 Patents" by Mary Beth Quirk - February 25, 2015) at consumerist.com/2015/02/25/jury-orders-apple-to-pay-532-9...

 

Blogged by Consumerist ("Report: Stolen Credit Card Information Used By Fraudsters To Make Purchases With Apple Pay" by Ashlee Kieler - March 6, 2015) at consumerist.com/2015/03/06/report-stolen-credit-card-info...

 

Blogged by Trenologi ("Lowongan Kerja di Apple untuk Indonesia (Jakarta) Kembali Dibuka" by Wiku Baskoro - April 16, 2014) at www.trenologi.com/2014041635460/lowongan-kerja-di-apple-u...

 

Blogged by Virates at virates.com/news/49102925

 

Blogged by Liberty Voice ("Apple Inc.’s Recent Struggles" - April 21, 2015) at guardianlv.com/2015/04/apple-inc-s-recent-struggles/

 

Blogged by ActuaLitté ("Antitrust et ebooks : Triple plainte contre Apple et les éditeurs" by Nicolas Gary - June 10, 2014) at actualitte.com/article/lecture-numerique/antitrust-et-ebo...

 

Blogged by Consumerist ("Apple Increases iTunes Match, Apple Music iCloud Storage Limit To 100,000 Tracks" by Ashlee Kieler - December 7, 2015) at consumerist.com/2015/12/07/apple-increases-itunes-match-a...

Sowohl Industrieunternehmen als auch Bibliotheken setzen heutzutage intensiv auf die Nutzung von E-Journalen und Online-Datenbanken anstatt umständlich mit teuren Printmedien zu hantieren. Mithilfe dieser Online-Ressourcen können Organisationen Kosten und Aufwand signifikant reduzieren. Allerdings ist für den komfortablen Zugriff und die rechtssichere Lizenzierung eine umfassende Management-Lösung erforderlich.

 

Mit dem Hidden Automatic Navigator (HAN) bietet die Göttinger H+H Software GmbH seit vielen Jahren ein mächtiges und zugleich komfortables Werkzeug zur Bereitstellung von Online-Ressourcen. H+H deckt mit HAN eine sehr breit gefächerte Zielgruppe ab: von Bibliotheken - etwa die Bayerische Staatsbibliothek - über Lehranstalten und staatliche Einrichtungen bis hin zu Industrieunternehmen wie Bayer Healthcare.

 

Ende Februar bringt H+H nun Version 3 von HAN auf den Markt. Das neue Release vereint eine vereinfachte Handhabung mit optimierten Funktionen und einem verbesserten Lizenzmodell. So ermöglicht etwa die neue webbasierte Statistikfunktion eine einfachere und effizientere Auswertung der statistischen Nutzung von Online-Ressourcen. Die Statistik unterscheidet dabei zwei unterschiedliche Rollen: eine administrative Rolle zur Festlegung von Berechnungskriterien und eine Rolle, um auf die berechneten Daten zugreifen zu können. Dank eines neuen Kernels wird zudem die Bereitstellung von Online-Ressourcen vereinfacht, da bisher erforderliche manuelle Anpassungen entfallen. Zusammen mit der verbesserten Updatefunktion sinken eventuelle Ausfallzeiten, in denen die Ressourcen nicht zur Verfügung stehen. Ebenfalls vereinfacht wurde die Administrationsoberfläche, die bei HAN 3 auf dem von Microsoft Office 2010 bekannten Design basiert. Auf der Agenda steht zudem die Funktion Link-Inspektor, die hinterlegte URLs automatisch auf Gültigkeit prüft. Bei Bedarf entscheidet der Administrator wie mit nicht mehr gültigen URLs verfahren werden soll. Die Integration des Link-Inspektors ist für Mitte des Jahres geplant.

 

Gleichzeitig mit der neuen Version 3 überarbeitet H+H auch das Lizenzmodell. Statt wie bisher die parallelen Zugriffe als Basis für die Subskription heranzuziehen, wird nun die Gesamtzahl aller Nutzer lizenziert. Damit wird vermieden, dass einzelne Nutzer bei zahlreichen parallelen Zugriffen keine gültige Lizenz erhalten und Wartezeiten akzeptieren müssen. Dank des neuen Lizenzmodells steht jedem Nutzer jederzeit eine Lizenz zur Verfügung.

Im Gegensatz zur bisherigen Kauflizenz schließen Neukunden ab sofort einen Subskriptionsvertrag mit H+H, der neben der Softwarenutzung auch Support und Updates beinhaltet. Die Kunden profitieren dabei vor allem von einer sehr geringen Anfangsinvestition. Bestandskunden können entscheiden, ob sie auf das neue Mietmodell umsteigen oder ihren bisherigen Service-Vertrag aufrecht erhalten wollen.

 

H+H wird auch beim Leipziger Kongresses Bibliothek & Information, vom 11. bis 14. März 2013, vertreten sein und Interessenten Version 3 von HAN präsentieren.

 

Weitere Informationen finden Sie unter www.hh-han.com.

 

H+H Software GmbH

Alexander Vierschrodt

Maschmühlenweg 8-10

 

37073 Göttingen

D

 

E-Mail: alexander.vierschrodt@hh-software.com

Homepage: www.hh-han.com

Telefon: (05 51) 522 08-0

 

Pressekontakt

H+H Software GmbH

Alexander Vierschrodt

Maschmühlenweg 8-10

 

37073 Göttingen

D

 

E-Mail: alexander.vierschrodt@hh-software.com

Homepage: www.hh-han.com

Telefon: (05 51) 522 08-0

We are photographer - not anti video, but anti video on flickr...

 

• 100.000.000 views - 100.000.000 comments

• 100.000.000 次檢視 - 100.000.000 回應

• 100.000.000 vistas - 100.000.000 comentarios

• 100.000.000 vues - 100.000.000 commentaires

• 100.000.000 visualizzazioni - 100.000.000 commenti

• 100.000.000 mal angesehen - 100.000.000 Kommentare

 

NO video on flickr - we don't like "items", we like photos !

real photo groups must be free of videos !!!

 

- - - - -

 

Austria is indeed home to a town called 'Fucking'.

The second sign carries the hilarity even further:

"Bitte nicht so schnell!"

is german for "Please not so fast!"

 

- - - - -

 

DEAR ADMINS OF PHOTO GROUPS,

CHANGE YOUR rules and MODERATION SETTINGS !

 

The kind of items you would like to accept into the pool:

 

• Media types: (from Photos&Videos - to) Photos only

• Content types: Photos only

 

• Akzeptierte Medientypen: Fotos

• Akzeptierte Inhaltstypen: Fotos

 

• Tipo de medios: Sólo fotos

• Tipos de contenido: Fotos

 

• Types de média: Photos uniquement

• Types de contenu: Photos

 

• Tipi multimediali: Solo foto

• Tipi di contenuto: Foto

 

你接受將哪種項目放入分享區?

• 媒體類型︰僅相片

• 內容類型︰相片

 

flickr = Photography

YOU TUBE = Video

 

- - - - -

 

Yahoo Inc. will begin showing homemade videos on its online photo-sharing site, Flickr, in a long-anticipated move that may be too late to lure most people away from the Internet’s dominant video channel, Google Inc.’s YouTube. Flickr’s video technology, to debut late Tuesday, represents the latest example of Yahoo trying to catch up to Google in a crucial battleground. Yahoo’s inability to keep pace with Google in the lucrative online search market caused its profits and stock price to sag during the past two years, which in turn triggered an unsolicited takeover attempt by Microsoft Corp. for more than $40 billion. Flickr’s new technology is aimed at amateurs and hobbyists looking for a better way to share short video clips with family and friends.

 

Only Flickr’s “pro” members — those who pay for a $24.95 annual subscription — will be allowed to transfer video clips of up to 90 seconds to the site, but anyone will be able to watch them. A privacy setting will allow videographers to limit access to the clips on Flickr if they want. The video service will be offered in English and seven other languages: French, German, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish and traditional Chinese. Flickr believes its service will offer a more personal touch than the many other Web sites that feature video, and that will help distinguish it. Flickr managers also expect to appeal to people looking to keep their video and pictures on the same site.

 

Let youtube have the video and Flickr have the photos or if Yahoo wants videos create a seperate page.

 

Don't become another Facebook or Myspace!!

What next Ad's on each page?

 

Please keep flickr for Photographers - Photographers don't want FLICKR flooded with random 'video phone' style videos. Give us the choice on whether we see video.

 

- - - - -

These days, getting someone to respond to your unsolicited email is almost impossible, so how will a small business or organization get their press releases out? The SEO press release is different than your traditional press release. A press release will have to be relevant, timely and interesting, but there is a completely different strategy involved in SEO press release copywriting, so it has a better chance of getting picked up by a news organization or blog looking for content.

 

Press release Copywriting

Make your press release with an HTML editor.

 

Because you are making content that will be released online, it has to be ready to be published online. But doing is much is harder than you think. Use your HTML editor in 'microsoft' Word to make an SEO press release. You can also visit an online HTML editor.

 

SEO press releaseThe first 250 words should be keyword-rich.

 

Be keyword smart when making your press release. Pick a few key, relevant words or phrases and ensure that they work with the writing. No one wants to read a dry article that looks more like a keyword directory than something that should give interesting information.

 

Pick 3 relevant keywords to use as anchor text links.

 

Anchor text links is a link to a website that does not contain the actual website address. Instead, they appear as understandale words in the context of a sentence that will redirect to the relevant info when clicked. These anchor text links should drive people to your website and your content.

 

Make SEO Press release Template

Add 1 or 2 quotes for a relevant source about them.

 

These quotes can be from the manager, owner or a beloved customer. You can very well write up a quote in the SEO press release template that is rich in keywords, and then ask the speaker of the quote to confirm that they agree and would allow you to put these words in their mouth.

 

Introduce at least 1 picture and 1 video.

 

Having a picture and video available in the SEO press release means that you have already done 95% of the work for whoever uses it as content to their website. People managing content websites are busy; the less work they have to do with positing content online, the more they will use your press release.

 

Give your SEO press release a standalone optimized title.

 

Most of the time, when viewing a press release in the massive stream of data, all that we see is the title. If you want to people to read your release, give them the information that they need to easily fish it out of your river of information, and the desire to read it.

 

Submit your SEO press release.

 

Once your press release is completed, submit and distribute it to website with readers that you are targeting, as well as to online press release hubs. There are so many free SEO press release distribution sites; send them out to possibly you can for the best results.

 

Hire A reputable Press release Service

 

Even when you do not get a bite on your press release from outside media, don’t fret; there is still a good chance that your potential customers will come across you, your press release and your business just by doing a simple search using the optimized keywords for your SEO press release. Hire a reputable SEO press release service like Influence Engine Marketer to help you out. www.influenceenginemarketer.com/seo-press-release/

When ITV launched on 22 September 1955, the BBC's television service had been running unchallenged for almost two decades and was fast gaining popularity.

 

Less than fifteen months before the first television commercial appeared on British screens, on July 4th 1954, the Minister of Fuel and Power, Geoffrey Lloyd, burned a large replica of a ration book at an open meeting in his constituency to herald the official end of fourteen years of rationing in Britain. The dawning of a new age of prosperity was upon the British public. From a retailers point of view the start of commercial television could not have been better timed.

 

At 8pm, on September 22, 1955, ITV broadcast its first television programme. Its first advertisement came 12 minutes later advertising Gibbs SR Toothpaste. That first programme is now almost completely forgotten. But the first advertisement has acquired iconic status.

 

See video clip

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=YSSpugVNQD4

 

The USA's first television advertisement was broadcast July 1, 1941. The watchmaker Bulova paid $4 for a placement on New York station WNBT before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies. The 10-second spot displayed a picture of a clock superimposed on a map of the United States, accompanied by the voice-over "America runs on Bulova time."

 

ITV Facts

 

* The BBC tried to strangle ITV at birth on 22 September 1955 by killing off Grace Archer, a leading character in the radio series, The Archers.

 

* ITV's launch night was marked with a lavish banquet at London Guildhall, where the menu included clear turtle soup, lobster chablis and roast grouse washed down with 1947 Krug.

 

* ITV went live at 7.15pm on 22 September 1955, with a line-up including the Hallé Orchestra playing Elgar's Cockaigne Suite and an excerpt from The Importance of Being Earnest, starring Sir John Gielgud.

 

* The first full day of transmission was on 23 September, and included the weather presented by Squadron-Leader Laurie West.

 

* ITV had the first female newsreader on British TV, Barbara Mandell, who read the news on the second day on air.

 

* Before ITV launched, Lord Reith, the founder of the BBC, compared "sponsored broadcasting" to smallpox, bubonic plague and the Black Death (all of which were introduced to England from overseas).

 

* Opponents of commercial television were incensed when American TV coverage of the Coronation was interrupted for an ad break featuring a celebrity chimp, J Fred Muggs. A clause was included in the commercial television Bill banning ad breaks from broadcasts featuring the Royal Family.

 

* More words were spoken in Parliament about whether a law allowing commercial television should be passed than are contained in the New Testament.

 

* The Broadcasting Bill was given Royal Assent on 30 July 1954, paving the way for a new independent television service supervised by the Independent Television Authority.

 

* Household cleaning products were the most advertised products in ITV's first five years.

 

* Adverts were placed in the press inviting applications from prospective programme contractors on 25 August 1954, attracting 25 replies.

 

* It is a myth that Sidney and Cecil Bernstein, the founders of Granada TV, chose to set up their company in the North, because it rained more, so they thought people would stay in to watch more TV.

 

* Lew Grade's ATV consortium, which held ITV licences in London and the Midlands, changed the face of television entertainment. But the ITA turned down the impresario's first application for a franchise, fearing it would give him too much clout.

 

* The first advert shown on ITV was at 8.12pm on its launch night for Gibbs SR toothpaste. At the time, more than a third of the population never brushed their teeth.

 

* ITV was the home of the first US TV shows to be broadcast in the UK, including I Love Lucy and the A-Team.

 

* Granada needed two transmitters for the northern region to serve both sides of the Pennines, but while the Lancashire transmitter was ready in time for launch night on 3 May 1956, the Yorkshire side was delayed until November.

 

* In the early days of ITV, the actors' union Equity refused to allow repeats so, if a show was repeated, the actors had to perform it all over again.

 

* An Oxford postgraduate called Somerset Plantagenet Fry became a celebrity as the first contestant on the quiz show Double Your Money's Treasure Trail in 1955.

 

* In 1958 Granada covered the Rochdale by-election, the first election to be shown on British television.

 

* Sunday Night At The London Palladium was one of ITV's most successful shows. At its height in 1958, when it was presented by Bruce Forsyth, it was watched by 28 million people.

 

* Armchair Theatre, run by Sydney Newman, brought original plays to a broad audience, but in 1958 one of the cast died as Underground was being transmitted. The play went on.

 

* Gone With The Wind star Vivien Leigh made her TV debut on ITV in 1959, in a production of Thornton Wilder's play The Skin of Our Teeth.

 

* The first episode of Coronation Street was broadcast on 9 December 1960. Writer Tony Warren originally called it Florizel Street and it almost became Jubilee Street.

 

* In 1962, the Pilkington report was highly critical of ITV and suggested the licence to run the third channel should be awarded to the BBC.

 

* In 1965, the ban on advertising cigarettes resulted in an £8m loss of revenue for ITV.

 

* ITV switched from black and white to colour in November 1969, prompting employees to strike for a pay increase for operating the new system.

 

* The Beatles made their TV debut in a live performance for People and Places, from Manchester on 17 October 1962.

 

* ITV's first major ratings clash with the BBC was on 20 July 1969, when the two went head to head with their live coverage of the first man on the Moon.

 

* The tape of ITV's coverage of the Moon landing has since been erased, along with many other programmes of the 1960s and 1970s, so it could be reused.

 

* In 1968, London Weekend Television acquired the rights to the one-day cricket contest, the Gillette Cup. The MCC was furious when ITV interrupted play for ads. The MCC took cricket back to the BBC, prompting an ITV lawsuit.

 

* 'Pop Stars' presenter 'Nasty' Nigel Lythgoe made his first television appearance as a dancer on Sunday Night At The London Palladium.

 

* Robin Hood was brought to ITV by Hannah Weinstein, who had fled the US in the McCarthy era and employed other blacklisted Hollywood talent to make a show about a character who redistributed wealth from the rich to the poor.

 

* ITV pioneered the concept of the studio panel to discuss football matches during the 1970 Mexico World Cup.

 

* Richard Burton was one of the backers for HTV's successful bid for the ITV franchise in Wales in 1967.

 

* ITV hoped to set up a second terrestrial channel like the BBC, but its hopes were dashed by the 1977 Annan report into the future of broadcasting.

 

* Lew Grade tried to keep down the cost of employing Roger Moore in The Saint by telling him episodes would last half an hour rather than an hour.

 

* The name of The Avengers' character Emma Peel was an expression of what the producers were looking for - Man Appeal.

 

* Mindful of impact, in the making of Jesus of Nazareth, Lew Grade asked: "Why are there only 12 apostles?"

 

* The Sweeney was the first police drama to be shot on location in real streets rather than in the studio.

 

* It takes longer to watch ITV's 13-part 1981 costume drama Brideshead Revisited than it does to read Evelyn Waugh's novel.

 

* The US oil companies who usually sponsored ITV's big dramas at first would not back Jewel In The Crown, saying India was too far away for the US audience.

 

* In 1973, the ITA banned a World In Action programme about the business affairs of bankrupt architect John Poulson, uniting The Sunday Times and Socialist Worker in a campaign against censorship.

 

* The South Bank Show first aired in 1978. When writer Richard Curtis applied to work for it, he was not even shortlisted.

 

* Greg Dyke was hired as editor-in-chief of TV-am in May 1983, when the new show was engaged in a frantic battle with BBC Breakfast and had just 800,000 viewers.

 

* City analysts reckon ITV's first unsuccessful foray into digital , OnDigital, had losses of up to £1m a day. Even rebranding it as ITV Digital, with a campaign featuring a woolly monkey, couldn't save it from going bust in 2002.

 

* In the first Pop Idol final, which pitted Will Young against Gareth Gates, on 9 Feburary 2002, the public cast 8.7 million votes and BT said the volume of calls had threatened the network.

 

* Bryan Ferry has admitted to being a fan of Footballers' Wives. He said the show was: "Wonderful! All these trashy women wandering around done up to the nines. I love it."

 

* The final of the first series of I'm A Celebrity... Get Me Out Of Here inspired some to recreate their own jungles. B&Q reported a 30 per cent rise in online sales of deck chairs, barbecues and garden arches.

 

* Nearly 13 milion viewers tuned in to watch Ken and Deidre Barlow get remarried on Coronation Street in April 2005; 7 million saw Charles wed Camilla the following day.

 

* Royal Mail is releasing stamps to mark the 50th birthday, but Kevin Whately's image has had to be cut from the Inspector Morse stamp, as no one living, apart from the Royal Family, is allowed to appear on UK stamps.

 

* Nearly 90% of people watching timeshifted shows fast-forward the ads, but TV remains the most memorable form of advertising.

 

* Prior to the 1980s music in television advertisements was generally limited to jingles and incidental music; on some occasions lyrics to a popular song would be changed to create a theme song or a jingle for a particular product. In 1971 the converse occurred when a song written for a Coca-Cola advertisement was re-recorded as the pop single "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing" by the New Seekers, and became a hit. Some pop and rock songs were re-recorded by cover bands for use in advertisements, but the cost of licensing original recordings for this purpose remained prohibitive until the late 1980s.

 

The use of previously-recorded popular songs in television advertisements began in earnest in 1985 when Burger King used the original recording of Aretha Franklin's song "Freeway of Love" in a television advertisement for the restaurant. This also occurred in 1987 when Nike used the original recording of The Beatles' song "Revolution" in an advertisement for athletic shoes. Since then, many classic popular songs have been used in similar fashion.

 

Songs can be used to concretely illustrate a point about the product being sold (such as Bob Seger's "Like a Rock" used for Chevy trucks), but more often are simply used to associate the good feelings listeners had for the song to the product on display. In some cases the original meaning of the song can be totally irrelevant or even completely opposite to the implication of the use in advertising; for example Iggy Pop's "Lust for Life", a song about heroin use addiction, has been used to advertise Royal Caribbean International, a cruise ship line. Music-licensing agreements with major artists, especially those that had not previously allowed their recordings to be used for this purpose, such as Microsoft's use of "Start Me Up" by the Rolling Stones and Apple Inc.'s use of U2's "Vertigo" became a source of publicity in themselves.

 

In early instances, songs were often used over the objections of the original artists, who had lost control of their music publishing the music of Beatles being perhaps the most well-known case; more recently artists have actively solicited use of their music in advertisements and songs have gained popularity and sales after being used in advertisements. A famous case is Levi's company, which has used several one hit wonders in their advertisements (songs such as "Inside", "Spaceman", and "Flat Beat").

 

Sometimes a controversial reaction has followed the use of some particular song on an advertisement. Often the trouble has been that people do not like the idea of using songs that promote values important for them in advertisements. For example Sly and the Family Stone's anti-racism song, "Everyday People", was used in a car advertisement, which angered among people.

 

Generic scores for advertisements often feature clarinets, saxophones, or various strings (such as the acoustic/electric guitars and violins) as the primary instruments.

 

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, electronica music was increasingly used as background scores for television advertisements, initially for automobiles, and later for other technological and business products such as computers and financial services.

 

* Top 10 most controversial ads see link below

 

news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7373667.stm

Blog Archive Microsoft Dynamics GP Cloud Has Arrived!

 

microsoft cloud commercial

 

Microsoft Dynamics GP announces 2 new cloud-based services!

 

Microsoft has released the first 2 Cloud offerings for Dynamics GP 10.0 and GP 2010. Within the Dynamics GP Cloud, Payment Services and Commerce Services are now both available for use. Building on the vision of “Extend the Reach”, these two new services do just that, by bringing some basic cloud services into the Dynamics GP world.

 

Payment Services adds credit and debit card processing directly from within Dynamics GP. Process payments and deposits from both the Sales Order Processing transaction Entry screen, and the Cash Receipts entry screen of Receivables Management. Payment Services works with the major card providers: VISA, MasterCard, Discover Card and American Express, as well as PayPal. Payment Services will also extend to your online presence such as a web store.

 

Payment Services is av...

Linux Overview:

 

Linux is also known as GNU/Linux is a computer operating system, Just like Microsoft Windows or Apple Mac OS. Unlike those two, however, it is built with a collaborative development model. The operating system and most of its software are created by volunteers and employees of companies, governments and organizations from all over the world. It has many other benefits including speed, security and stability. Linux kernel based operating systems are called Linux OS, like redhat, Linux mint, Ubuntu, centos etc.

 

Training Objectives of Linux:

 

Linux is, in simplest terms, an operating system. It is designed to provide personal computer users a free or very low-cost operating system comparable to traditional and usually more expensive UNIX systems. We will give you complete overview on Partitions, Boot Process, File Management, File System Maintenance, Administration and Documentation, Backup and Restore and many other activities.

 

Target Students / Prerequisites:

 

Students Must be belongs to Technical Background and having Knowledge in UNIX and Linux Commands.

 

Linux Online Training Course

Module 1: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Essentials (RH124)

 

Linux basics-logging into the system, changing users.

 

Understand the Linux file system.

 

Running commands and getting help.

 

Browsing the file system.

 

Open,edit, and save text document using the VIM text editor.

 

Text processing tools-grep,cut,sed,sort,diff and patch.

 

Perform common tasks using the graphical GNOME GUI.

 

Reading and setting permissions on files and directories.

 

Graphical configuration tools to manage networking&printing.

 

Finding files and directories using text and graphical utilities

 

Network clients using web browser,email,chat.

 

Regular expressions patterns matching and i/o redirection.

 

Customize your X windows system.

 

Installing Red hat enterprise Linux.

 

Install remove packages using yum,pup &pirut

 

Module 2: Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration (RH 135)

 

Create and maintain the Linux file system.

 

Configure an NFS Client with autofs.

 

Understand system boot sequence.

 

Understand the Linux kernel and set kernel parameters.

 

Configure network in IPV4.

 

Configure a workstation as a client to NIS,DNS&DHCP services.

 

Install RHEL interactively and with Kickstart.

 

Install,remove,query new packages using rpm and yum.

 

Printing and administration tools.

 

Automate task with at,cron&anacron.

 

Backup file system to tape and tar archives.

 

Advance user and group administration with SUID/SGID&sticky bit.

 

Configure basic host security with acces control list&Selinux.

 

Manage and configure GNOME desktop environment.

 

Perform basic performance,memory and process management.

 

Configure RAID and LVM advance file system.

 

Use Xen Virtualization to create and manage guest OS.

 

Perform basic troubleshooting.

 

Module 3: Red Hat Network Services And Security Administration(RH255)

 

System performance and introduction to security.

 

Benifits of system monitoring.

 

Secure system with SELinux and tcpwrappers.

 

Password and kernel security.

 

Configure firewall with iptables.

 

Deploying DNS and DHCP server.

 

Configure and manage FTP, NFS and Samba server.

 

Implementing Apache web server.

 

Content filtering through squid proxy server.

 

Configure and manage mail server with send mail and postfix.

 

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The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.

 

HISTORY

The towers were designed by Argentine - South American architect César Pelli. They chose a distinctive postmodern style to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur. Planning on the Petronas Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club, beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres below the surface.

 

The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, and the first batch of Petronas personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999. The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete. Its engineering designs on structural framework were contributed by Haitian engineer Domo Obiasse and colleagues Aris Battista and Princess D Battista. The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.

 

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb, albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.

 

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortiums were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation (JA Jones Construction Co., MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp) while Tower 2, the east tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd). Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering & Construction. Tower 2 became the first to reach the world's tallest building at the time. When the structure reached about 72nd floor, tower 2 ran into problems. They discovered the structure was leaning 25 millimetres off from vertical. To correct the lean, the next 16 floors were slanted back 20 millimetres with specialist surveyors hired to check verticality twice a day until the building's completion.

 

Due to the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space. Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

 

NOTABLE EVENTS

On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping (since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas Towers.

 

Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat was phoned the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation.

 

On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants.

 

On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest. On 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". He made a second attempt on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, and was stopped once again on the same floor, though on the other tower.

 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOWERS

The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the 88 floors of the Petronas Towers. Willis Tower's tallest antenna is 75.41 m taller than those of the Petronas Towers, however, in accordance with CTBUH regulations and guidelines, the antennas of Willis Tower were not counted as part of its architectural features. The spires on the Petronas Towers are included in the height since they are not antenna masts. Therefore, the Petronas Towers exceed the official height of Willis Tower by 10 m even though the roof of Petronas Towers at 378.6 metres is 63.4 m lower than the roof of Willis Tower at 442 metres.The Petronas Towers feature a diamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres of stainless steel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding system resides within the towers. While the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres of 20.38-millimetre laminated glass to reduce heat by reflecting harmful UV rays.

 

On the top of each tower is a pinnacle standing 73.5 metres tall. The pinnacles were more than just the finishing touches to the height of the towers, each taking over 19 weeks to construct and both being assembled outside the country. One was constructed in Japan and the other in Korea. Each pinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: the spire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. While the pinnacles may seem to be an aesthetic feature of the towers to enhance their presence and height, they also play function to aircraft warning lights and are an essential element to the overall Islamic minaret design that the towers embody.

 

The interiors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects such as fabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.

 

The construction of the Petronas Towers turned out to be a multinational effort. The structural design engineers worked out of New York City, while the wind-tunnel consultants and elevator design engineers were from Canada. To meet local safety construction codes, the towers had to be able to withstand 105 km/h winds. To assure this requirement would be fulfilled, the engineers tested the towers twice within a wind tunnel, first by computer simulation and second by building an actual model of the towers.

 

ANCHOR TENANTS

Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

 

FEATURES

SURIA KLCC

Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 upmarket retail center at the feet of the Petronas Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, a philharmonic theatre, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.

 

KLCC PARK

Spanning 6.9 ha below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.

 

SKYBRIDGE

The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not attached to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking, as the towers sway several feet in towards and away from each other during high winds. It also provides some structural support to the towers in these occasions. The bridge is 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, weighing 750 tons. The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1000 people per day, and must be obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86. Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.

 

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower. The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event. Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

 

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers. After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days in July 1995 but instead of being directly connected to the towers, the skybridge can shift or slide in and out of them to counterbalance any effect from the wind. Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.

 

LIFT SYSTEM

The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.

 

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

 

From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts. The "short haul" group of 6 lifts take passengers to floors between level 2/3 and level 16/17. The "mid haul" group of six lifts take passengers to floors between level 18/19 and level 37/38. There is also a set of shuttle lifts that take passengers directly to levels 41/42. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43/44 to 57/58 and one set serving levels 59/60 to levels 73/74.

 

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not accessible as office space). This spares someone in the lower half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor to go to the upper half of the building.

 

The lifts contain a number of safety features. It is possible to evacuate people from a lift stuck between floors by manually driving one of the adjacent lifts next to it and opening a panel in the wall. It is then possible for people in the stuck lift to walk between lift cars. During an evacuation of the buildings, only the shuttle lift is allowed to be used, as there are only doors at levels G/1 and levels 41/42; therefore should there be a fire in the lower half of the building, this enclosed shaft would remain unaffected. Firefighter lifts are also provided in case of emergency.

 

The lift operating chart of the Petronas Towers

 

PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M)

SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2) (Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M)

PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2) (Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4

A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2) (Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8/9-22/23

B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2) (Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 24/25-36/37

CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2) (Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40-42

C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2) (Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 43/44-57/58

D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2) (Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 59/60-73/74

E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2) (Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 75-83

TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2) (Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85-88

S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-38, 40-84

S3 (Tower 1) & S6(Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-36

F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, G, 1-6, 8-38, 40-88 (F1 & F3 non-stop at Level 1)

 

SERVICE BUILDING

The service building is to the east of the Petronas Towers and contains the chiller plant system and the cooling towers to keep the Petronas Towers cool and comfortable.

 

TICKETING SYSTEM

In order to visit Petronas towers, visitors must first purchase the tickets. Tickets of adults and children can be purchased via online web portal or at the counter. Discounted tickets for seniors are available for those 55 years of age and above. Queues for tickets can get quite long sometimes. The complete Ticketing System or Automated Fare Collection system is provided by a Malaysian-based solution company called Longbow Technologies Sdn Bhd.

 

IN POPULAR CULTURE

- The towers are prominently featured and mentioned by name in the 1999 film Entrapment, with numerous scenes filmed at the towers, with the climax set on the skybridge.

- The Towers appear in the first episode of the US TV series 24.

- Several scenes of the Bollywood film Don: The Chase Begins Again were also filmed in the Petronas Towers and its skybridge.

- In the Phineas and Ferb episode "Phineas and Ferb Save Summer!", the towers are visible during the musical number "Summer All Over the World".

- Eidos Interactive has twice used the towers for inspiration in their video games. In the 2002 Hitman 2: Silent Assassin, the Malaysia-based levels Basement Killing, The Graveyard Shift, and The Jacuzzi Job all take place in the Petronas Towers. In 2010's Just Cause 2, the fictional Panau Falls Casino is based on the Petronas Towers.

- A 2002 episode of the animated series Jackie Chan Adventures titled "When Pigs Fly" (Season 3, Episode 6), features the towers.

- The towers made its appearance, in the animated series Totally Spies episode titled "Man or Machine".

 

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FLIP4NEW, Friedrichsdorf, 10.06.2013, www.flip4new.de/)

 

Vom 10. (Start der wichtigsten Pressekonferenzen) bis zum 13. Juni geht es auf der E3 vor allem um zwei Geräte: Playstation 4 und Xbox One.

Denn auf den beiden Konsolen lasten die Hoffnungen der Branche. Bis zu zehn Jahre könnten die Konsolen die Spielewelt prägen. Was Sony und Microsoft sich in ihren Entwicklungsabteilungen ausgedacht haben, könnte die Spielewelt für die nächsten 10 Jahre entscheidend prägen.

 

Geheimniskrämerei

Obwohl die neuen Konsolen schon Ende 2013 erscheinen, waren die Informationen auf den Enthüllungsveranstaltungen ziemlich dürftig. Bis heute weiß keiner, wie die PS4 aussieht oder was sie kosten wird. Microsoft hingegen zeigte die Xbox One auch physisch, verlor sich bei der Präsentation aber in Nebensächlichkeiten - zumindest aus Spielersicht.

Deshalb ist die Marschrichtung für beide Unternehmen klar: Sony muss bei seiner Pressekonferenz am 11. Juni nun endlich die neue Konsolen präsentieren, Microsoft muss am 10. Juni zeigen, dass man in Redmond die Spieler nicht vergessen hat.

  

Gebrauchtspiele und Onlinezwang

Ein Reizthema ist der Gebrauchthandel mit Spielen. Die Zocker möchten weitermachen wie bisher. Ganz anders die Verleger: Sie wollen dabei in Zukunft mitverdienen. Microsoft steht aufseiten der Industrie und hat ein System eingerichtet, das es den Unternehmen erlaubt, bei einem Gebrauchtkauf Umsätze zu generieren.

Vor der E3 gibt es von Microsoft vage Infos: Der Hersteller des Spiels entscheidet demnach, ob sich ein Spiel bei einem teilnehmenden Händler - etwa Gamestop - verkaufen lässt. Dabei vereinbaren beide Parteien gegebenenfalls auch eine Lizenzgebühr, die dann wohl der Käufer tragen dürfte.

Wie Sony das Thema angeht, steht noch nicht fest: Bisher äußerte sich das Unternehmen nicht zum Second-Hand-Markt bei der Playstation 4.

Und dann ist da noch die Geschichte mit dem Online-Zwang. Auch hierzu geht Microsoft vor der Messe ins Detail: Alle 24 Stunden muss die Xbox One mit dem Internet mindestens ein Mal verbunden sein, um nach Updates zu suchen oder Spiele zu verifizieren.

Nutzt man sein Profil auf der Konsole eines Freundes, erfolgt der Check alle 60 Minuten.

Von Sony gibt es vor der Messe noch keine konkreten Infos zu diesem Thema.

    

E3 ohne große Nintendo-Show

Der japanische Hersteller Nintendo überlässt die Showbühne Microsoft und Sony und verzichtet sogar auf eine Pressekonferenz. Angesichts von PS4 und Xbox One hat man mit Wii U und 3DS wohl wenig entgegenzusetzen. Auf der Messe ist Nintendo dennoch - denn für die Konsolen stehen einige Schwergewichte in den Startlöchern: ein 3D-Mario, ein "Mario Kart"-Ableger und das langerwartete neue Zelda-Spiel sind hochgehandelte Kandidaten.

  

Wir werden also gespannt abwarten, was die Spieleindustrie uns im kommenden Jahr bescheren wird.Wer sich die neuste Technik nicht entgehen lassen und sich dafür von seinen Alt- Geräten trennen will, sollte den Service von FLIP4NEW nutzen.

Der führende Ankäufer für gebrauchte Unterhaltungselektronik kauft neben Konsolen und gebrauchten Spielen auch Tablets,Smartphones, Kameras und vieles mehr.

Einfach unverbindlich bei www.flip4new.de ein Preisangebot einholen, kostenfrei verschicken und innerhalb weniger Tage über den Geldeingang freuen.

 

Flip4 GmbH

Nina Richter

Industriestr. 21

 

61381 Friedrichsdorf

Deutschland

 

E-Mail: nina.otto@flip4new.de

Homepage: flip4new.de

Telefon: +49 6172 1794 322

 

Pressekontakt

Flip4 GmbH

Nina Richter

Industriestr. 21

 

61381 Friedrichsdorf

Deutschland

 

E-Mail: nina.otto@flip4new.de

Homepage: flip4new.de

Telefon: +49 6172 1794 322

Microsoft 70-337 Exam

Exam Code:70-337

Exam Name:Voice & Online Services w/ MS Lync Svr 2013 Preview

Updated:2013-05-13

Q & A:96

PDF(Printable Version) $ 67.00

www.needking.com/70-337.html

 

Off-Page SEO (Search Engine Optimization)

 

[caption id="attachment_125" align="alignleft" width="228" caption="Small Business SEO: stand out online"][/caption]

 

In On-Page Small Business SEO we talk about optimizing your site to make it highly relevant to readers and searches for a specific term. On-Page SEO is very important and well within your control. But it is only part of the equation for good search engine rankings.

 

Let's look at how Google and other search engines decide which web pages are the most relevant and authoritative sources of information on a particular topic. Google's massive success has been the result of coming up with a highly efficient and effective approach to doing just that.

 

In much the same way that books, especially academic works, include references and citations to other important, relevant documents, so it is online. Following this line of thinking, if a lot of different web pages link to your web page, your page is more likely to be perceived as relevant or important.

 

What does this mean for your small business website? You need relevant pages linking to yours if you want it to be found on the internet. You need to encourage:

 

Link to your page using the keywords you want to be found for

Links should be relevant to your industry

Links should be the same keywords that buyers use when searching for your business, products or services

 

Now there are hundreds of ways to get these relevant links (called backlinks), but they vary enormously in how effective and how ethical they are. Google frowns upon the manipulation of search results, so unethical methods of getting backlinks can actually get your website penalized or even banned by Google -- definitely not what you want! Creating Google-approved backlinks in an ethical fashion is called "White Hat SEO", while creating deceptive, spam, or unethical backlinks is called "Black Hat SEO".

 

Fortunately, there are a heap of highly ethical, relevant websites we can use to create web pages, articles, comments or social media about your industry or business, with backlinks to your site that Google really loves and totally approves of.

 

Following best-practice SEO (which basically means optimizing every web page and backlink we create for this purpose) will not only improve your site's search engine traffic, it can also attract visitors who are interested in your business (qualified prospects) to your website.

 

Off-Page Small Business SEO Backlink Sources

 

Some of the best sources of ethical, effective, Google-friendly backlinks for small businesses off page seo are:

 

Google Places -- Google's own web pages for your business

Online Business Directories

Online business directories are the internet version of the Yellow Pages. These vary widely in their size, authority and subject matter, with many national directories as well as regionally targeted and industry- specific directories.

Types of local directories suitable for small business SEO include.

 

Local Business Directories

National Business Directories

Industry Business Directories

Internet Business Directories

Telephone Business Directories

 

Most of these make money selling premium listings which, while helpful, are often overpriced. There are also thousands of online website directories. These are targeted at websites rather than businesses. Many of these are free to list on but the links from most are of limited value, with the exception of a handful of very high profile (mostly paid) directories.

Blogs

Blogs (Short for Web-Logs) were initially conceived as online public diaries, but they now include an incredible variety of websites about every conceivable topic. Blogs are ideal for publishing personal interest or industry specific information. Most blogs are free and offer easy setup and a fairly high profile. Blogs can be a very useful tool as part of a broader business online strategy.

 

If you've got something to say, or you are an expert in your field, then a blog can be a great way to voice that and share it with the world. A blog is often time-sensitive, so you might blog about current events in your industry, town or business. These sorts of stories might not fit within a normal business website, so a blog can be a second venue to publish more ephemeral, personal or topical content.

Video

Video is the fastest growing sector of online media, with YouTube now the world's second largest search engine after Google -- well ahead of Yahoo and Microsoft's Bing. Video is easy to consume and is a powerful medium for communicating with prospects, customers and clients.

 

Creating a professional video advertisment for your business used to cost thousands of dollars, and was beyond the reach of most businesses. Now video production is affordable and video is fast becoming a preferred way to reach your market.

Other Online/Interactive Media

While video stands out among online media, many other media have exploded in the last few years. Audio podcasts are now very popular, as are slideshows, ebooks, webinars, apps, games and other new interactive media.

Social Networking

Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn have gone from a curiosity to totally mainstream in the last few years. The mainstream media, major corporations and even small businesses have taken them up with enthusiasm. Social media can be beneficial for businesses if used selectively and strategically. It can also be a huge time waster and distract companies from other more effective marketing strategies. Social networking is best viewed as a small part of an integrated marketing picture, rather than as a silver bullet for online business. Professional guidance to ensure you are getting a good return on your time and money investment is critical.

Social Bookmarking

Social bookmarking sites (such as Digg, Delicious and Stumbleupon) offer users a way to store, categorise and search their favorite websites, and share them with others. The popularity of these sites can be compared and users can view the sites that others recommend. Submitting your website to social bookmarking sites using accurate tags can help it be found by visitors and search engines, thus increasing its popularity.

Authority Sites

Every industry, topic, hobby, and subject has a range of specialty sites which cater just for that topic: whether it is growing roses, keeping tropical fish, trading stocks, or fixing cars. For example, authority sites in the computer niche include PCWorld.com and CNET.com.au. Many of these sites feature news or magazine style stories, online forums where people can discuss the topic, and help or how to articles. Advertisments and other backlinks on authority sites in your industry will attract visitors and tell search engines that your site is relevant to the authority site.

News Sites

News sites are among the most popular online sites. They are actually threatening real-world newspapers due to their convenience and low/zero cost, forcing a restructure of the news industry. Among the most popular news sites are news aggregators like Google News and Yahoo News. Having a news story published there featuring your business or your team can boost your profile and credibility, as well as driving backlinks and traffic to your site. News stories are often re-published on many other news and industry websites, so your reach is broadened substantially.

Article Directories

Article directories are large websites featuring thousands of articles about a wide range of topics. Some article directories are focused on a niche or theme, but the biggest and most popular directories (Eg. Ezinearticles.com, Goarticles.com) have articles about everything, categorised into different topics. Historically article directories were a great way to promote your business, product or website. However, their value has been eroded following changes in Google's algorithms. Nonetheless, articles are still useful as part of a broader online marketing strategy.

Small Business SEO needs the right strategy, quality content and consistent and careful implementation

Many small businesses can manage to address a few of these areas on their own, but they lack the skills, time, resources and knowledge to implement these on their own in a way that gives them a good return on their investment. Business SEO Australia are experts in Small Business SEO: we have thousands of hours experience in developing small business websites, social media and other online content with a focus on great SEO results, meaning more customers for your business.

 

Contact Business SEO: the Small Business SEO experts today on 07 40320000

protesta dei flickeristi

  

Microsoft vuole comprare Yahoo!

Presentata un'offerta da 44 mld di $

Microsoft lancia un'Opa da 44,6 miliardi di dollari su Yahoo!. A riferirlo è l'agenzia Bloomberg. La proposta per acquistare il gigante del Web è stata fatta dal colosso di Redmond sulla base di una valutazione di 31 dollari ad azione e si prevede una transazione mista cash e titoli. Dopo l'annuncio le azioni di Yahoo! sono schizzate in alto, guadagnando il 53%. No comment dalla Commissione Europea.

 

L'annuncio da parte della numero uno mondiale del software giunge del tutto inaspettato e le sue rinnovate mire su Yahoo!, con cui Microsoft non era riuscita a raggiungere nessun accordo di intesa o fusione nei mesi passati, puntano a consolidare la posizione di Microsoft sul mercato dei servizi online attraverso l'acquisizione di uno dei maggiori protagonisti della rete.

 

BALLMER, A.D. MICROSOFT: SOLUZIONI PIU' INTERESSANTI PER I CONSUMATORI

"Abbiamo un grande rispetto per Yahoo! e insieme possiamo offrire soluzioni sempre più interessanti per i consumatori e per chi su Internet opera e investe in pubblicità, posizionandoci meglio sul mercato online", ha spiegato lo stesso amministratore delegato di Microsoft, Steve Ballmer sottolineando il ritmo di crescita estremamente veloce della raccolta pubblicitaria online, il cui mercato è stimato in crescita dagli oltre 40 miliardi di dollari del 2007 a quasi 80 nel 2010.

 

NO COMMENT DI BRUXELLES

Secca la dichiarazione di Jonathan Todd, il portavoce del commissario alla Concorrenza Neelie Kroes, a proposito dell'annuncio: "Non abbiamo alcun commento da fare".

 

QUEL MANCATO MATRIMONIO

"In una lettera indirizzata ai consiglieri di amministrazione, ancora Ballmer ricorda poi il mancato matrimonio di inizio 2007, quando il Cda di Yahoo! aveva dichiarato che "non era allora il momento giusto, dal punto di vista degli azionisti, di avviare discussioni per un'acquisizione".

 

Il maggiore motivo era, all'epoca, la fiducia riposta dal Cda nel "potenziale al rialzo" di Yahoo legato alla strategia avviata. Ma "un anno è passato e lo scenario competitivo non è migliorato", ha affermato Ballmer. Secondo le stime di Microsoft, che per condurre l'acquisizione non dovrà ricorrere a finanziamenti e propone l'alternativa contanti o azioni, l'unione tra i due gruppi potrebbe fruttare sinergie sui costi pari ad almeno un miliardo di dollari.

 

A ingegneri, figure chiave e dipendenti, poi, saranno offerti pacchetti di incentivazione a rimanere all'interno del nuovo gruppo. Gruppo che, se l'operazione andrà in porto, potrebbe nascere nella seconda metà del 2008. La sua capitalizzazione, tenuto conto della chiusura di Microsoft ieri e di quanta valutata oggi Yahoo!, si aggirerebbe intorno a 350 miliardi di dollari.

 

SFIDA A GOOGLE

Microsoft e Yahoo!, insieme, possono lanciare la sfida a Google nel campo della pubblicità online. Sebbene il primo motore di ricerca al mondo non sia mai nominato espressamente, il comunicato del colosso fondato da Gates è abbastanza esplicito in tal senso. "Il mercato della pubblicità online" si legge "sta crescendo molto velocemente, da più di 40 miliardi di dollari nel 2007 a circa 80 miliardi nel 2010". In questo momento, sottolinea Microsoft, "questo mercato è sempre piu' dominato da un solo attore. Insieme, Microsoft e Yahoo! possono offrire una scelta competitiva, soddisfacendo in modo migliore le necessità di clienti e partner".

 

"L'industria" spiega Kevin Johnson, presidente della divisione Platforms & Services di Microsoft "sarà servita in modo migliore con più di un solo forte attore, con più valore e più scelta a pubblicitari, editori e clienti".

  

Currently, receiving you to definitely reply to your current freely given electronic mail is actually extremely hard, how will certainly a company as well as corporation acquire pr releases out and about? Your SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article is unique when compared with your current classic website article. A new website article should be pertinent, appropriate along with exciting, nevertheless you will find there's completely distinct tactic linked to SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article copywriting, in order that it carries a greater prospects for receiving grabbed by the reports corporation as well as web site seeking written content.

 

Website article Copywriting

Create your current website article through an HTML manager.

 

When you are generally generating written content that is to be unveiled on-line, the idea should be able to always be posted on-line. Nevertheless undertaking is really a lot can be more challenging when compared with you would imagine. Employ your current HTML manager throughout 'microsoft' Expression to generate the SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article. It's also possible to pay a visit to the on-line HTML manager.

 

SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION click releaseThe 1st 400 words and phrases must be keyword-rich.

 

Always be search phrase sensible when generating your current website article. Look for a number of essential, pertinent words and phrases as well as words along with make sure that they help your producing. No person would like to go through a new dry out content that will seems to be similar to a new search phrase service when compared with something need to supply exciting data.

 

Decide on 3 pertinent search phrases to work with while anchorman wording backlinks.

 

Anchorman wording backlinks is often a connection to an online site it doesn't offer the true site handle. Alternatively, that they look while understandale words and phrases inside wording of an sentence in your essay that could direct on the pertinent information while engaged. These kind of anchorman wording backlinks need to travel men and women internet plus your written content.

 

Create SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION Website article Web template

Put a couple of quotations for the pertinent origin about them.

 

These kind of quotations might be through the boss, seller or possibly a favorite buyer. You'll be able to adequately create a new offer inside SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article web template that may be abundant in search phrases, after which it inquire your phone speaker in the offer to make sure that that they can acknowledge along with would likely let you placed these kind of words and phrases of their jaws.

 

Introduce at the least 1 photograph along with 1 online video.

 

Developing a photograph along with online video accessible in your SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article implies that you've by now accomplished 95% in the help anyone employs the idea while written content thus to their site. Men and women handling written content internet sites are generally occupied; your a lesser amount of operate they must accomplish using positing written content on-line, greater they may employ your current website article.

 

Supply your current SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article a new stand alone optimized concept.

 

Quite often, while seeing a new website article inside huge steady stream involving files, that many of us discover will be the concept. If you need to visitors to go through your current relieve, allow them to have the knowledge that they have to quickly sea food the idea out of your pond involving data, plus the wish to go through the idea.

 

Post your current SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article.

 

After your current website article is completed, post along with send out the idea for you to site using audience you are aimed towards, and also for you to on-line website article hubs. You'll find countless no cost SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article submitting internet sites; mail these people out and about for you to possibly you'll be able to to get the best benefits.

 

Use A good Website article Assistance

 

Regardless if you cannot have a chunk on the website article via outside the house advertising, don’t be anxious; there exists even now a fantastic probability that your particular customers arrive over anyone, your current website article plus your organization by conducting a straightforward look for with all the optimized search phrases for ones SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article. Use a good SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMISATION website article assistance similar to Affect Serp Professional to aid you. www.influenceenginemarketer.com/seo-press-release/

The Software-Collision took place above the german township Salzbergen lying on the river Ems. It is a virtual & accidental reenactment of a historical event that once took place there: The air raid on Salzbergen's main factory, the Oil-Refinery which was shelled by '(491) 250#' bombs released out of B24 aeroplanes on August 26th 1944.

Sixty years later a newspaper edited in Lingen, once the capital of the southern, lower-saxonian River-Ems-Province, the 'Lingener Tagespost', singles out & blows up this story into a kind of Guernica-Terror-Attack agitating their readers with a kind of Dresden-Atrocity-Propaganda :

» The World War II put an end to the peaceful development. Already exactly sixty years ago today, on 26th August 1944, american bombers were lying the refinery in ruins by approximately 4.000 bombs .« \\ 'Der Zweite Weltkrieg beendete den friedlichen Aufbau. Vor nunmehr fast auf den Tag genau 60 Jahren, am 26. August 1944, legten amerikanische Bomber mit rund 4000 Bomben die Raffinerie in Schutt und Asche.'(03.09.2004).

One of the things the story-tellers & history-ignoramuses from Lingen deliberately still keep quiet about:

The then proprietor of that industry-complex, the Wintershall AG, represented by General Director, Mr. Rosterg, sponsored Himmler's SS. On September 21st,1943, the lobbyist contributed to Himmler's circle of friends ('Freundeskreis Himmler') another money amount of '100.000.-RM' [_ p.42 of the documentation: Topography of Terror, Gestapo, SS and Reichssicherheitshauptamt on the »Prinz-Albrecht-Terrain«, Berlin 1989, edited by Reinhard Rürup _].

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Google Earth crashed with Internet Explorer after being updated to version 4.2.0181.2634 (beta); but Photoshop could yet be started. So there was the lucky chance to - take this screenshot & invent the neologism 'crashot' (crashshot).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

August 26th,1944 (in history)

 

Adam von Trott zu Solz

1909: Prussian nobleman with huguenot ancestors. Sohn des preußischen Kultusministers August von Trott zu Solz.

1931: Promotion mit der Dissertation "Hegels Staatsphilosophie und das internationale Recht".

1933-1936: Contacts with socialistic resistance groups.

1935: Veröffentlicht eine Auswahl der politischen und journalistischen Schriften Heinrich von Kleists. Warnt mittels der Schrift "Fragment: An die Zeitgenossen" vor Judenverfolgung.

1939, Juni: Wenige Monate vor Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs engagiert sich Trott in Großbritannien für einen Plan zur Verhinderung oder wenigstens zur Verzögerung des Kriegs. Er wird dabei u.a. vom britischen Premierminister Arthur Neville Chamberlain empfangen. (--> Appeasement)

1940: Employment in Hitler's Foreign Office (department counter-intelligence).

1941 ff: Contacts with the conservative resistance group 'Kreisauer Kreis'. He consented "that only the re - Christianization of Germany could preserve it from complete barbarism",

1943 (Juni): Neben Fragen der neuen, auf kleine und mittlere Betriebe zugeschnittenen Wirtschaftsverfassung und der Bestrafung der NS-Verbrechen vor einem internationalen Gerichtshof wurden auf der dritten Kreisauer Haupttagung im Juni 1943 die Grundlagen künftiger deutscher Außenpolitik unter der Leitung von Trott diskutiert. Zur Sicherung des Friedens wurde eine gesamteuropäische Ordnung und eine europäische Föderation von den meisten Mitgliedern befürwortet.

1944: Turned out to be an internal résistant after the unsuccessful plot of July 20th 1944, and was hanged on August 26th 1944 in Berlin's Plötzensee prison.

 

Charles de Gaulle enters Paris on August 26th 1944.

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

bombard fr. bombarder, de. bombardieren, es.bombardear, it.bombardare, ru.бомбардировать

bomber fr. bombardier, it. bombardiere, es.bombardero, de. Bomber, jp. 爆撃機, ch.轰炸机, ar.الانتحاري

bombardment fr.bombardement, de. Bombardierung, es.bombardeo, ru.Обстрел, jp.衝突,ch.轰击, ar.القصف

 

----------------------- Google Earth 4.2.0181.2634 (beta) Build-Datum Aug 21 2007 Build-time 16:41:33 Renderer DirectX 8 Microsoft Windows XP (Service Pack 2) Graphics Driver 000010DE (00006.00014.00010.09424) Max. Texture 4096x4096 Server kh.google.com -----------------------------------

 

Was zeigt Google Earth wirklich?

Guernica »My whole life as an artist has been nothing more than a continuous struggle against reaction and the death of art.«, Pablo Picasso, 1937

 

▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

 

Image-back-up-posts with backlinks

(google search results: 1.590/1790 on 6th/13th Feb 2011)

(flickr-views: 2.225/2255 on 6th/13th Feb 2011)

─► about us @ Deutsches Historisches Museum Berlin

─► crash-screen-over-salzbergen-artifact @ tumblr

─► crash-screen-over-salzbergen-artifact @ SPRYWII with 'subtitle' '(c) foreign investment in real property'

─► crash screen over salzbergen job openings @ openingreference

─► bombarder @ music.podfire

─► Salzbergen @ hotelnavigator

 

-----------------

13th February 2015 @ 10h35m .... 19,972 views, 7 faves

8th April 2015 @ 10h35m .............. 24,133

Frankfurt, 9. Juli 2013 - INTERXION HOLDING NV (NYSE: INXN), ein führender europäischer Anbieter von Carrier- und Cloud-neutralen Rechenzentrumsdienstleistungen für Colocation, hat heute das Whitepaper "IT-Herausforderungen in der Mobilen Community" veröffentlicht. Es beschreibt die IT-Herausforderungen bei der Bereitstellung mobiler Services in Echtzeit sowie die Strategien, um diese zu bewältigen.

 

Das Whitepaper basiert auf einer qualitativen Studie, die Interxion und FirstPartner bei Service-Providern und Netzwerkbetreibern durchgeführt haben. Sie untersucht den Einfluss von Deployment-Entscheidungen von IT-Infrastruktur auf die Bereitstellung von mobilen Business-Services. Aus den Ergebnissen schließt das Whitepaper, dass expandierende Mobile Service Provider aus der Kombination von privater IT-Infrastruktur und Public Cloud Services - also einem hybriden Ansatz - von einem erheblichen Mehrwert profitieren.

 

Peter Knapp, Geschäftsführer von Interxion Deutschland, kommentiert: "Aufgrund des schnellen Wachstums mobiler Kanäle und der immer komplexeren Bereitstellung mobiler Services müssen CTOs neue Faktoren bei der Installation von IT-Infrastrukturen berücksichtigen. Sie stehen heute vor der Herausforderung mobile Services mit Echtzeit-Performance und internationalem Zugang bereitzustellen - ohne Kompromisse bei Service-Qualität, Compliance oder Sicherheit einzugehen."

 

Das Whitepaper zeigt verschiedene Strategien, um diese Anforderungen zu erfüllen. So ist die Nutzung von Public Cloud Services besonders wichtig für neu gegründete Unternehmen, später sind dagegen Hybrid Cloud-Lösungen oder Colocation Services empfehlenswerter. Unabhängig vom

gewählten Sourcing-Modell für die IT-Infrastruktur ist die optimale Anbindung zwischen Mobile Service Provider und Content-Anbieter geschäftskritisch. Daher stellt die Integration der IT-Infrastruktur in gut angebundenen Rechenzentren einen entscheidenden Erfolgsfaktor dar.

 

Richard Warren, Managing Director von FirstPartner und Co-Autor des Whitepapers, sagt: "Unsere Studie zeigt, dass Mobile Service Provider die Zufriedenheit ihrer Kunden verbessern können, wenn sie ihre Server optimal mit allen Partnern und Lieferanten verbinden, die an der Bereitstellung ihrer mobilen und Online-Services beteiligt sind."

 

www.interxion.com/de/branchen/telekommunikation/it-heraus...

 

Über Interxion

Interxion (NYSE: INXN) ist ein führender europäischer Anbieter von Carrier- und Cloud-neutralen Rechenzentrums-Dienstleistungen für Colocation und betreibt insgesamt 34 Rechenzentren in 11 europäischen Ländern. Interxions energieeffiziente Rechenzentren sind in einem standardisierten Design errichtet und bieten ein Höchstmaß an Sicherheit und Verfügbarkeit zum Betrieb geschäftskritischer Anwendungen. Durch den Zugang zu mehr als 450 Festnetz- und Mobilfunkbetreibern, Internetserviceanbietern (ISPs) und 18 europäischen Internetaustauschknoten hat Interxion Hubs für Cloud, Content, Finance und Connectivity geschaffen, welche die Etablierung von Ökosystemen für Branchen-Cluster nachhaltig fördern. Weitere Informationen über Interxion finden Sie unter www.interxion.de

  

About FirstPartner:

FirstPartner is a research and go to market agency focused on helping technology based companies understand market opportunities and launch customer centric propositions. With deep experience in telecoms, media, commerce and IT sectors, our client base includes Vodafone, Oracle, BT, and Microsoft.

We are based in the UK but have global capabilities undertaking research and project work across Europe, North America, The Middle East and Asia. For more information please visit www.firstpartner.net

 

Pressekontakt:

Interxion Pressekontakt: Interxion Deutschland GmbH, Frank Sattler, Hanauer Landstraße 298, 60314 Frankfurt, Tel.: 069 / 40 147-120, Fax: 069 / 40 147-159, E Mail: franks@interxion.com

 

Fink & Fuchs Public Relations AG, Jan Krüger, Berliner Straße 164, 65205 Wiesbaden, Tel.: 0611 / 74 131-937, Fax: 0611 / 74 131-22, E-Mail: jan.krueger@ffpr.de

 

Interxion Deutschland GmbH

Frank Sattler

Hanauer Landstraße 298

 

60314 Frankfurt am Main

Deutschland

 

E-Mail: interxion@ffpr.de

Homepage: www.interxion.de

Telefon: 0 69 4 01 47-120

 

Pressekontakt

Fink & Fuchs Public Relations AG

Jan Krüger

Berliner Straße 164

 

65205 Wiesbaden

Deutschland

 

E-Mail: jan.krueger@ffpr.de

Homepage: www.ffpr.de

Telefon: 0611-74131-937

293

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