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Seen from West Seattle, a group of wooden beams sit in Eliot bay with the city skyline illuminating the horizon.

 

Seattle (i/siˈætl/ see-at-əl) is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge. . . . . . . . . . . . Wikipedia

 

I'll be back. We have a workshop running here from June 20 to 22nd, 2014. Discount deadline for sign up is June 8th.

 

Eric Harness composes his own panorama while I snapped a single row, almost 360 degree sweep of the area. At the left is the glow of the town of Lone Pine. Coincidentally the place where the Milky Way kisses the rocks is also lit because it's the tallest part of the formation and is lit by glow from Lone Pine. Lone Pine adds yet more "ambiance" by also lighting the distant Sierra Mountain range as can be seen up the road.

 

Since none of the photo sharing services do a good job with very wide panoramas, try not to only look at the "default" view.

 

This is a 12 image stitch using Microsoft ICE with post processing to bring up the level of the foreground and tone down the brightness of the sky that results from 40 second exposures at ISO 6400.

 

We captured this after a StarCircleAcademy expedition in Alabama Hills, California. It includes the same central region as my prior shot - though it does look like the stitching had a rough time in the scrub on the hill.

 

[C_210-7341-52]

  

© Copyright 2013, 2014, Steven Christenson

StarCircleAcademy.com

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All rights reserved. Curious what "all rights reserved means?" it means that without written permission you may not: copy, transmit, modify, use, print or display this image in any context other than as it appears in Flickr.

 

ll - T r a v e l B l o g - ll - A l b u m s - ll - I n s t a g r a m - ll

 

Seattle (i/siˈætl/ see-at-əl) is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge. . . . . . . . . . . . Wikipedia

www.photosfromonhigh.com aerial photos Albany NY aerial photos photographer Upstate albanyphotos@yahoo.com 518-495-7983

 

Globalfoundries Saratoga County NY Globalfoundries Albany NY New York Convention Center aerial photos Mercer Development aerial photographer M W ... at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, NY, in ... Did GlobalFoundries just become an 800-pound Fab gorilla?

9/8/2009 by: Theo Valich - Get more from this author

   

ATIC [Advanced Technology Investment Company], technology investment group from the Government of Abu Dhabi, the majority owner of GlobalFoundries announced that the group is making a bid to acquire Chartered Semiconductor.

 

The move is not entirely unexpected, but rather a consequence of events that had nothing to do with semiconductor industry: Chartered Semiconductor is one of golden eggs in Singaporean's government investment arm [Temasek Holdings Pte], who is feeling the pain of global economy slowdown and the changes in companies owned by Temasek were obvious. As Singapore Airlines went through ownership change [now mostly owned by Temasek] the investment arm needed the cash to complete the transaction and Abu Dhabi's ATIC rode into town.

 

ATIC was interested in buying its competition, but when an opportunity like this arises, there isn't much you can do but to take it. The acquisition of Chartered Semi puts GlobalFoundries in a role of an 800-pound gorilla in the contract manufacturing space. First GlobalFoundries signed the deal to manufacture chips for a chip maker [STMicroelectronics], and now the GF owner is buying one of own largest competitors. In fact, until TSMC gets its SOI production up and running, GlobalFoundries is acquiring its second largest competitor in the SOI space [we take that ATIC does not want to buy IBM... for now].

 

In case you're unfamiliar with Chartered semiconductor manufacturing capabilities, the foundry owns six cleanrooms in a giant fab complex in Singapore, with production based on 200mm and 300mm wafers. Total output of the company is also very interesting:

 

Fab 2: 50,000 200mm WSM 600-350nm

Fab 3: 25,000 200mm WSM 350-180nm

Fab 3E: 34,000 200mm WSM in 250-180nm

Fab 5: 24,000 200mm WSM 350-180nm

Fab 6: 39,000 200mm WSM 180-110nm

Fab7: 45,000 300mm WSM 130-40nm [equal to 101,250 200mm wafers]

So, we have 172,000 WSM [wafer starts per month], or around 2,06 million 200mm wafers per year, plus an additional 540,000 300mm wafers. This manufacturing capacity is nothing short of impressive, even though the majority is in less competitive 200mm wafer space. If you would compare Chartered's Fab7 [300mm2 one] to GlobalFoundries' Fab1 complex in Dresden, you might be surprised at the differences in size, since Fab7 is massive: clean room space is as big as whole Module 2 [ex-Fab30/38] and half of Module 1 [ex-Fab36].

 

Yes, it is true that currently "only" 27,000 wafer starts can be in 40nm, but SOI capacity is quite impressive. Inside this advanced 300mm facility Chartered makes Microsoft's Xbox 360 CPUs, some AMD CPUs and some of IBM's Power chips.

 

Clean room space is also quite impressive - six facilities with a grand total of 773,640 square feet [71,871.15 m2]. If you compare that to current manufacturing facilities in Dresden, Module 1 [14,500 m2 - 156,000 sqft] and currently upgrading Module 2 [16,700 m2 - 180,000 sqft], you can see that GlobalFoundries wants to go from 336,000 sqft [31,214 m2] in 2009 to 1.38 million square feet [128,202 m2] of clean room space in 2012.

Divided by wafer size, GlobalFoundries in 2012 could look like this:

 

300mm2 - 120,000 wafer starts per month, 838,000 sqft [77,850 m2] Class 100 clean room

200mm2 - 172,000 wafer starts per month, 541,640 sqft [50,318 m2] Class 100 clean room

All in all, this is quite a significant jump in manufacturing space, as there aren't exactly many contract manufacturers who can or plan to annually output almost 1.5 million 300mm wafers in 2012-2013 frame. In fact, one could put a question that GlobalFoundries is doing this to attract the heavy weights, Microsoft, Sony, Nintendo - but Qualcomm and nVidia as well.

 

Over the past several months, we featured various articles on upcoming chips, but they all have one thing in common: they have to be built on 300mm wafers in order to be profitable. Qualcomm's quad-core ARM System-on-Chip is quite nice, but the company has to have 300mm wafers available to score a profit. Same thing with the 2010-2011 generation of nVidia's Tegra and Texas Instruments OMAP chips.

 

Thus, a foundry has to position itself aggressively and there is no doubt that this move puts GlobalFoundries on the map of TSMC and Intel challenger. While TSMC still has the overall lead in number of wafers it can produce, the numbers here show that GlobalFoundries is catching up and overtaking in 300mm wafer arena - a worrisome trend.

 

The clock isn't exactly stopping there - if we divide the wafers in SOI and non-SOI flavor, GlobalFoundries will be the largest SOI wafer maker, and with a move to optical interconnects starting in 2012-2013 there isn't exactly any doubt what's on the table. ATIC and AMD both want that GlobalFoundries change the semi playing field for good, and this acquisition only confirms that direction.

 

GlobalFoundries can freely disclose all of its plans and there isn't exactly a lot that other competitors can do but to launch massive FUD campaigns which again, would not stand due to engineering excellence shown by former AMD engineering teams, who saved Microsoft's bacon on Xbox 360 yields, for instance.

 

This move also solves one of major pains for GlobalFoundries exec team - no longer journalists and analysts need to ask "who are your customers?", because with the acquisition of Chartered Semi, that list grew by couple of dozen names, including Microsoft and IBM. You can expect that next GlobalFoundries event to feature numerous existing customers, even if they did not sign directly with GlobalFoundries, rather Chartered Semi.

 

ATIC's next move: Buying a wafer supplier?

We wonder what the next step for GlobalFoundries will be, but personally I would not bet against GF acquiring Soitec, as the largest SOI wafer vendor. Intel invested in the firm in 2007, when it became clear that the future chip interconnects [remember Intel Hybrid Silicon Laser demonstration on SOI wafers during IDF Fall 2006?] will require the use SOI wafers. AMD did not react at the time, but with over a trillion USD for investments alone, Abu Dhabi investment groups can easily flex their muscle and put everything they need under one roof.

   

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Related articles:

Intel Lynnfield; Core i5 750 and Core i7 870 Evaluation by: Sean Kalinich

The Future of GlobalFoundries revealed by: Theo Valich

nVidia's 3D Glasses can be found for free by: Theo Valich

Qimonda's starts to dissolve, sell family jewlery [300mm and 200mm Fab] by: Thorsten Wolf

GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Is America Back in Tech? by: Toby Hudon

BSN* presents The Ultimate Workstation: Part I by: Nebojsa Novakovic

Is TSMC getting nervous about GlobalFoundries? by: Thomas Gordon

 

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Advanced Technology Investment Co., the Abu Dhabi company that owns the majority of GlobalFoundries, plans to acquire chip maker Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd.

 

The Singapore-based Chartered Semiconductor would become part of GlobalFoundries, a joint venture with ATIC and Advanced MicroDevices Inc. (NYSE: AMD).

 

GlobalFoundries is building a $4.2 billion manufacturing plant in Malta in Saratoga County. N.Y., about 25 miles north of Albany. It also has operations in Dresden, Germany.

 

It was unclear early Tuesday how the acquisition would affect the Malta operation.

 

ATIC would pay $3.9 billion in cash and debt for the acquisition, the companies said in a joint statement. The transaction is expected to close in late 2009, pending required government and shareholder approvals.

 

GlobalFoundries CEO Doug Grose would head up the combined operations. Chartered (Nasdaq: CHRT) CEO Chia Song Hwee would become chief operating officer and head the integration of both companies, according to the companies.

 

ATIC is a technology investment company wholly owned by the Abu Dhabi government. It owns 66 percent of GlobalFoundries; AMD owns the remaining 34 percent.

 

Singapore’s state-owned investment fund Temasek Holdings owns about 62 percent of Chartered’s shares. The chip maker produces chips for Xbox 360 games and other consoles.

 

“Chartered and GlobalFoundries will be able to draw on each other’s strengths to enable the next generation of semiconductor innovation, utilizing the value of both companies and the intellectual capital of thousands of skilled employees,” said Ibrahim Ajami, CEO of ATIC. GlobalFoundries’ plant in Malta is under construction. It’s expected to employ 1,5000 during the construction phase and 1,6000 permanent and ancillary jobs when it’s running at full capacity in 2010.

 

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The move follows an earlier investment in GlobalFoundries, a joint venture with AMD

John Ribeiro (IDG News Service) 08 September, 2009 06:01:00

Tags: processors, globalfoundries, ATIC, amd

 

Advanced Technology Investment Company (ATIC) of Abu Dhabi has signed a definitive agreement to acquire chip maker Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing of Singapore in a deal valued at S$5.6 billion (US$3.9 billion) in cash and debt, the companies said on Monday.

 

Chartered, a contract chip maker, will become part of GlobalFoundries, the chip manufacturing venture formed by ATIC and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).

 

The CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, will head up the combined operations, while Chartered CEO Chia Song Hwee will become chief operating officer and head the integration of the businesses, ATIC said in a statement.

 

The transaction is expected to close during the fourth quarter of this year. It will require approval by Chartered shareholders and government regulators.

 

ATIC is a technology investment company wholly owned by the government of Abu Dhabi.

 

The acquisition of Chartered will be its second major investment in the semiconductor industry after the deal with AMD.

 

GlobalFoundries has a manufacturing facility in Dresden, Germany, and another under construction in the state of New York.

 

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ATIC hopes to combine Chartered's customer relationships and capabilities in both 8-inch and 12-inch fabrication with GlobalFoundries' technology expertise, capacity, and global footprint.

 

Singapore state-owned investment fund Temasek Holdings, which owns about 62 percent of Chartered’s shares, fully supports the acquisition and has signed an irrevocable undertaking to vote in support of the transaction, the statement said.

 

Chartered also on Monday revised up its guidance for the third quarter of 2009.

 

The company increased its revenue forecast slightly and narrowed its loss forecast compared to guidance given in July, because of an incremental improvement in business.

  

Albany Nanotech Albany NY New York Aerial photos photographer SUNY University TAC Tour Andover Controls Dallas Boston Andover Massachusetts Texas Carrollton West crosby Road 75006 Scheider Electric BIOTECH EMPAC RPI TROY AMD advanced Micro Devices Malta

                   

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Posted: May 28, 2009

Job fair to Help M+W Zander fill 40 project management positions in new chip facility

(Nanowerk News) The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering ("CNSE") of the University at Albany today announced plans to host a Job Fair to assist M+W Zander in building its project management team to support the construction of GlobalFoundries' computer chip manufacturing facility in Malta.

The Job Fair, to be held on Wednesday, June 10 from 5 to 8 p.m. at CNSE's Albany NanoTech Complex, will help recruit candidates for 40 high-tech design and construction management positions, including electrical and mechanical designers, engineers and estimators; construction and design project managers and coordinators; architectural project managers, planners and interns; and, accounting, purchasing, document control and administrative personnel. The positions carry salaries that range from $40,000 to more than $100,000 annually.

Officials from M+W Zander will be on hand to accept resumes and conduct initial interviews on site, with representatives of CNSE also providing assistance at the event. This marks the fifth high-tech job fair to be held at CNSE in just the past three years, with previous events in May 2006, January 2007, September 2007 and October 2008.

Candidates interested in attending and interviewing at the Job Fair are encouraged to pre-register online by visiting cnse.albany.edu/events/jobfair2009.html.

Assembly Majority Leader Ron Canestrari said, "That still another Job Fair is necessary to fill these high-tech positions is a great testament to the investments made in the rapidly growing nanotechnology sector in the Capital Region and New York State. I hope local residents will take full advantage of this opportunity to learn more about exciting careers in the nanotechnology industry."

Assemblyman John J. McEneny said, "The investments in nanotechnology are once again paying dividends in the form of exciting new high-tech career opportunities for residents of Albany and the Capital Region. It is an enormous source of pride to know that New York State is leading the worldwide nanotechnology revolution, which is creating new jobs and attracting new investments."

Rick Whitney, President and CEO of M+W Zander U.S. Operations said, "It is a pleasure to work in partnership with the UAlbany NanoCollege, the world leader in nanotechnology education, research and development, as M+W Zander builds its construction management team to support GlobalFoundries' world-class computer chip manufacturing facility at the Luther Forest Technology Campus. As a company that works on high-tech projects and facilities around the world, there is no question that the Capital Region and New York are recognized globally as the place to be for nanotechnology."

Dr. Alain E. Kaloyeros, Senior Vice President and Chief Executive Officer of CNSE, said, "With the vision, leadership and support of Speaker Silver, Assembly Majority Leader Canestrari, Assemblyman McEneny and the New York State Assembly, M+W Zander has become a valuable partner in building high-tech facilities that are critical to New York's global leadership in nanotechnology education, research and development, and economic outreach. The UAlbany NanoCollege is pleased to host this Job Fair, which will provide exciting career opportunities for local residents, and ensure that M+W Zander has a highly skilled management team in place to build GlobalFoundries' state-of-the-art computer chip manufacturing plant."

 

With headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany, M+W Zander is one of the world's foremost companies for the design and construction of high-tech buildings and cleanroom facilities for research and development, pilot manufacturing, manufacturing, and assembly and testing operations. M+W Zander's Northeastern U.S. headquarters is located at the Watervliet Arsenal, where it employs more than 250 people.

About M+W Zander

The M+W Zander Group offers its customers worldwide integrated life-cycle solutions for high-tech production plants and infrastructure complexes including all necessary service and modernization support. The customer base focuses primarily on leading electronics, photovoltaic, pharmaceutical, chemical, automobile and communication companies, as well as research institutes and universities. The company ranks among the market leaders in various market sectors which include semiconductors, photo-voltaics and pharmaceuticals. MWZ Group GmbH, Stuttgart, manages the global activities of the group as a holding company. The group has three main divisions based on Facility Solutions, Process Solutions and Product Solutions which together generated 2008 revenues of $2.32 billion with a workforce of approximately 4,500.

 

Source: CNSE

Comments

no3rdw says:

Did you take this photo? I did a photosimulation of the nanotech facility expansion based off this very same photo.

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Yes I did. Who supplied the photo to you? I don't remember anyone calling me about this. Only an architect firm in Albany. Let me know. Chris

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

no3rdw says:

Oops, sorry it took a while to get back to you - I just PM'd you about this :)

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Thanks Chris

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Too Much work to do to enter. Chris

Posted 28 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Thanks

Posted 27 months ago. ( permalink )

Donna62 says:

  

A great image, much admired by Donna62 --,

a "FIRST - THE EARTH!" member - www.flickr.com/groups/first-the-earth/

Posted 24 months ago. ( permalink )

 

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President Barack Obama Visits Luther Forest Technology Campus Malta Saratoga County New york GlobalFoundries Breaks Ground in Malta

GlobalFoundries held a groundbreaking ceremony for Fab 2 in Malta, N.Y. The foundry's goal is to have the first tool move in by October 2011, with qualification coming in early 2012 and commercial production by the second half of 2012. The event marks "a significant shift in momentum" for chip manufacturing in the United States, said Norm Armour, Fab 2 general manager.

David Lammers, News Editor -- Semiconductor International, 7/24/2009

As an Albany, N.Y., taxi driver ferried a visitor to the GlobalFoundries Fab 2 groundbreaking ceremony near the village of Malta, he said, "For three years they've been talking about this, but I never thought they would actually build it."

 

Planning began in June 2006, and it was this year on June 19 that GlobalFoundries began clearing portions of its 230-acre site, located ~24 miles from Albany and seven miles from Saratoga Springs. Fab 2 is expected to be making volume silicon by the second half of 2012, employing 1400 directly and an estimated 5000 indirect workers. The spinoff of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD, Sunnyvale, Calif.) has room for two additional modules at the site.

 

Fab 2 General Manager Norm Armour said he watched manufacturing shift from the United States to Asian foundries during his career at LSI Logic Corp., where he spent a decade managing LSI's fab in Gresham, Ore. "We are on the other side, trying to bring manufacturing back to a U.S. fab," Armour said. "It is a significant momentum shift."

 

That shift was supported by a $6B investment in GlobalFoundries by the Abu Dhabi Investment Co. (ATIC). The money will be spent to build Fab 2 at Malta, expected to cost $4.2B, as well as to expand and upgrade the GlobalFoundries Module 2 in Dresden, Germany. The state of New York is providing an estimated $1.2B in subsidies for Fab 2, and is investing additional funding to expand the University at Albany's nearby College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE). AMD contributed its existing manufacturing complex in Dresden as well as other assets, but no cash, providing AMD with access to a new fab without capital outlays.

   

GlobalFoundries Fab 2 will begin production in the second half of 2012.

  

Because the site is not space-constrained, Fab 2 will be a two-level building rather than three-level, said Tom Sonderman, vice president of manufacturing systems technology at GlobalFoundries. All of the wafer production will be on one floor, eliminating the need to move wafers-in-progress (WIP) up and down floors. A "zero footprint storage" approach will put some wafer stockers above the tools, he added. Implant will be located off of the main waffle slab, reducing construction costs, and maintenance shops will be on the upper production floor to further improve efficiencies.

 

Though its labor costs in both Dresden and Malta will be higher than at many Asian fabs, manufacturing innovations will make GlobalFoundries cost-competitive with Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan), according to Sonderman. GlobalFoundries is investing in the midst of a severe downturn, which also will reduce costs compared with the more expensive 24/7 construction schedules used when fabs are built in a hurry. Armour said it may take 18 months to build Fab 2, which is expected to have a 220,000 sq. ft. cleanroom with an option to expand cleanroom space to 300,000 sq. ft. The goal is to have the first tool move in by October 2011, with qualification coming in early 2012 and commercial production by the second half of 2012, a schedule that could be accelerated somewhat "depending on market conditions," Armour said.

 

Sonderman said construction begins at a time "of a lot of pent-up demand for advanced foundry capacity." Fab 2 will start at 28 nm technology, and then bring up a 22 nm SOI process for CPU production. GlobalFoundries will support AMD's manufacturing needs with the current 45 nm production, moving to 32 and 22 nm production. For foundry customers, however, most of the interest is at the half nodes, including 40 nm bulk technology immediately at Dresden and 28 nm high-k/metal gate technology late next year when 28 nm customer designs start to be accepted.

 

Sonderman said GlobalFoundries is accelerating its effort to support 40 nm bulk production, which he said comes as customers express concerns about yields at TSMC. "We definitely want to be a counterbalance to TSMC," Sonderman said, outlining plans to offer, by 2013, 600,000 wspy at Dresden and 400,000 wspy at Fab 2.

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Real estate, Tech Valley, Technology | 2 Comments

RPI spokesman joining GlobalFoundriesApril 2, 2009 at 10:25 am by Larry Rulison

Jason Gorss, the manager of media relations at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, will be joining GlobalFoundries later this month in a communications role.

 

Gorss (right) has been at RPI for several years now. He has a technical and scientific background that helps with his new role with the company, which is building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta called Fab 2 and owns two others in Dresden, Germany.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Jon Carvill said that Gorss’ role will be “more global in nature and focused on our technology.

 

“We will still look to add additional resources specific to Fab 2 in 2009,” Carvill said.

 

The company already has an office in Malta at the Saratoga Technology + Energy Park, which sits within the Luther Forest Technoogy Campus where GlobalFoundries is planning its factory on 222 acres. At least one former General Electric employee is now working there in a human resources position, and additional positions are expected to be filled in the coming months.

 

The new CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, is himself an RPI graduate.

 

The Times Union contacted Gorss this morning by e-mail and he confirmed he is taking the job.

 

“My experience at Rensselaer has given me the rare chance to work with incredibly brilliant people on a wide array of fascinating projects. I am going to miss my colleagues here, but I am excited about the new opportunity with GlobalFoundries,” Gorss said. “It is a perfect fit for someone with my background and interests. I am a technophile at heart, and this job will allow me to immerse myself in some of the most advanced technology on the planet.”05/15/2009 10:10 AM EDT)

  

MALTA, N.Y. — It's rare these days in the semiconductor industry to witness the unfolding of a project on a grand scale. Based on what has been proposed so far, the Global Foundries project backed by Advanced Micro Devices and its partner is precisely that.

 

"We want to be the first truly global semiconductor foundry," said Global Foundries CEO Global Doug Grose at a recent event here, where a ground-breaking ceremony will be held in July.

 

Global Foundries has committed up to $6 billion to develop a new fab to produce chips for AMD and new customers. AMD and partner, Abu Dhabi-backed Advanced Technology Investment Co. (ATIC). "This money is for a five- to seven-year stretch. Our investors [are] in this for the long haul," said Grose.

 

According to Jim McGregor, chief technology strategist at market researcher In-Stat, "Everything for the future depends on GlobalFoundries' ability to land new customers. Unfortunately, I can't predict that."

 

Jim Doran, senior vice president and general manager of AMD's Dresden, Germany, operation, said Global Foundries will use a Sunnyvale, Calif., facility for technology development and producing process design kits. The U.S. site also will be used for designing intellectual property and chip testing and validation.

 

Global Foundries also is engaged with neighbors here like the IBM Alliance on submicron research and development.

 

Global Foundries' 300-mm Fab 1 in Dresden includes a Module 1 used for 45-nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chips; Module 2 is used for 32-nm and beyond bulk CMOS process technology. Both modules are expected to operate at 25,000 monthly wafer starts at full capacity. Module 2 production will ramp up in late 2009.

  

The $4.5 billion Fab 2, a 300-mm manufacturing facility in Saratoga County, N.Y., is expected to come online in 2012 with 35,000 wafer starts per month at full capacity. Fab 2 is expected to create more than 1,400 jobs along with about 5,000 spin-off jobs.

    

Page 2: Global Foundries' big bet takes shape in upstate New York

  

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Global Foundries breaks ground on long-awaited NY fab.

 

The new 300-mm manufacturing facility is expected to bring 1,400 direct semiconductor manufacturing jobs and billions of dollars in economic development to upstate New York.

 

By Suzanne Deffree, Managing Editor, News -- Electronic News, 7/24/2009

Global Foundries today announced it officially broke ground on the construction of Fab 2, a new semiconductor manufacturing facility located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, NY.

 

The construction and ramp-up phases for the new $4.2 billion facility are expected to take approximately three years to complete, with volume production expected in 2012. According to the company, once Fab 2 is completed it will stand as the "most technologically advanced semiconductor manufacturing facility in the world" and the "largest leading-edge semiconductor foundry in the United States."

 

“As today’s chip designers push the boundaries on the next generation of products, there is a growing need for a new approach to design and manufacturing rooted in collaboration and innovation," Hector Ruiz, chairman of Global Foundries, said in a statement. "With Fab 2, Global Foundries moves the semiconductor industry away from the traditional model of isolated regional development and into an era of global hubs of manufacturing and technology expertise.”

 

The new facility is designed to manufacture microprocessors and logic products on 300-mm wafers, Global Foundries said, noting that initial production is expected to ramp at the 28-nm technology node and move to volume manufacturing on the 22-nm node. Fab 2 will work in conjunction with Global Foundries’ Fab 1 facility in Dresden, Germany.

   

Today's ground breaking was long awaited. Indeed, talk of the NY fab began in 2006, years before AMD spun out its manufacturing operations to form Global Foundries in October 2008. AMD saw significant support from the state during its decision and commitment process, including $1.2 billion in incentives. That largest private-public investment in the history of the state included grants, tax credits, and other New York City Empire Zone benefits. In accord with the investment, New York gave AMD a two-year window, from July 2007 to July 2009, to initiate the building of a new 300-mm wafer fabrication facility in Saratoga County, NY.

 

New York's significant support was not unwarranted. New York estimated that the plant will create approximately 1,400 new, direct semiconductor manufacturing jobs at full-scale production, providing an estimated annual payroll of more than $88 million to the upstate region. In addition, the project will create approximately 5,000 new, indirect jobs in the region, offering a sustained estimated total annual payroll of $290 million for all jobs, according to New York's estimates.

 

The state's universities also have several high-tech efforts in play that include AMD and its partners. Most recently, Intel, IBM, and Sematech backed an R&D joint venture with the University at Albany’s College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering center that is expected to add 475 jobs to New York.

 

“New York has worked with Global Foundries for three years to bring this [fab] project to fruition and I am pleased to say that with the groundbreaking of Fab 2, New York and Global Foundries take a lead role in delivering the type of economic growth needed to carry our nation toward sustainable growth,” said Governor David Paterson of New York in the Global Foundries statement. “This initiative not only provides our residents with a source for new jobs, but is integral in positioning New York as a future hub of innovation and an attractive destination for additional investment.”

 

AMD also showed its support at the ground breaking today. "This is an important opportunity to create thousands of jobs and strengthen US competiveness in the high-tech industry," said Dirk Meyer, president and CEO of AMD, in a company statement. “The multi-billion dollar investments in research and development and capacity expansion that Global Foundries is planning strengthen its position as a premier leading-edge semiconductor manufacturing foundry and make it the ideal AMD technology partner to help in bringing our innovative products to market.”

 

Link: www.edn.com/article/CA6672910.html

      

Location and plans:

m + w zander U.S. Operations, Inc. is designing and building the most advanced semiconductor manufacturing complex in the world for GLOBALFOUNDRIES. The Fab 2, Module 1 facility is to be located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in the Towns of Malta and Stillwater, Saratoga County, New York. The realization of this project will be the crowning achievement in the continued development of New York's Tech Valley as a pre-eminent location for technological breakthroughs not only in the field of semiconductors but in nanotechnology, bio-technology, pharmaceuticals and alternative energy as well.

 

m + w zander is proud to be a leader in this effort and shares this website in order to provide information and the excitement of constructing this most important project with the local and world-wide communities.

 

link: fab2construction.com/

           

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Last edited by Buyckske Ruben; December 6th, 2009 at 03:22 PM.

  

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December 6th, 2009, 03:27 PM #2

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Posts: 1,539 slideshow of construction site:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/aerial-...th/3460543532/

  

Global Foundries' Fab 2: (part 1)

  

all the 3 parts:

    

Link: www.anandtech.com/printarticle.aspx?i=3614

  

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December 13th, 2009, 01:52 PM #3

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Hector Ruiz, the chairman of GlobalFoundries said that the new chip plant is “by far the most significant high-tech investment made in this country in decades.” This plant will produce the most advanced computer chips in the world when it is completed.

      

Having been the construction project manager for AMD’s original Dresden-based fabrication facilities, Globalfoundries has awarded M+W Zander the full turnkey construction contract for Fab 2, currently being built at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, New York. A departure from pervious fab projects, M+W Zander is also responsible for the architectural aspects of the 4 building project. Previously, AMA Group, based in Italy had been the architectural firm responsible for this aspect of the work. The turnkey project is worth approximately €550 million to M+W Zander over the two-year construction schedule.

 

The Fab 2 complex is more than 130,000 square meters (1.45 million square feet), including a 28,000 square meters (300,000 square feet) Class 100 clean room. A ‘spine’ support building is also being built, along with administrative office building and a central utility building (CUB) along with service yards and small support buildings.

 

M+W Zander will also handle general contracting for all of the technical areas to include the manufacturing spaces, building utilities, central utility building and process systems.

LINK: www.fabtech.org/news/_a/mw_za...undries_fab_2/

   

OKT 2009:

          

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December 13th, 2009, 02:04 PM #4

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Impressions inside the fab:

    

Link: blogs.thenational.ae/beep_bee...abu-dhabi.html

        

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December 13th, 2009, 02:10 PM #5

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Posts: 1,539 YOUTUBE FILM about the concurrent Intel.

 

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Fab 32 - Intel's first high-volume 45nm chip factory:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FLBtQC0F0c

 

Very impressive!

  

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Category: GlobalFoundries

Customer-centricMay 3, 2009 at 6:00 am by Larry Rulison

 

Talking about customers, GlobalFoundries is making sure that it treats the customers that it does get the right way.

 

The 1.3 million-square-foot factory it will build in Saratoga County features a special entrance for customers, separate from the visitor entrance. Inside, customers will find a nearly half-acre of space devoted to designing chips for them. GlobalFoundries expects its customer base to grow beyond AMD to include graphics chips companies and those that produce chips used in handheld electronics.

  

Posted in GlobalFoundries | 1 Comment

GlobalFoundries site clearing should be soonApril 30, 2009 at 4:05 pm by Larry Rulison

Although the closing on the sale of 222 acres in Malta at the Luther Forest Technology Campus has been in the final stages now for the last couple of weeks, officials with GlobalFoundries Inc. said again today the deal could be done any day now.

 

The deal will also set in motion a number of events, including the awarding of the first contract to clear the site for a $4.2 billion computer chip factory.

 

In fact, right around the time the sale occurs, GlobalFoundries will send its official commitment letter to the state of New York, making it eligible for $650 million in cash incentives for chip fab construction and research and development activities.

 

Around the same time, GlobalFoundries will make the announcement that it has hired a general contractor. Although not official yet, it’s largely expected that M+W Zander, which built Albany NanoTech, will be given the nod. (more…)

 

Posted in Economic development, GlobalFoundries, Tech Valley, Technology | Add a comment

No Malta meeting for GlobalFoundriesApril 28, 2009 at 10:37 am by Larry Rulison

There will be no Malta Planning Board meeting tonight for GlobalFoundries, the company building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in the town.

 

The town planning board had posted an agenda for the meeting on the town’s Web site, but Town Planning Director Anthony Tozzi said today that the planning board has decided it doesn’t need to meet. It was scheduled to review temporary construction plans for the project.

 

GlobalFoundries is still wrapping up the purchase of 222 acres of land at Luther Forest, and closing is expected later this week or early next week. The planning board doesn’t need to make any approvals until after the closing of that deal, which is why the board decided not to meet.

 

The Malta Planning Board usually meets the third Tuesday of every month, but it has set aside the second and fourth Tuesday of every month for the GlobalFoundries project if needed.

 

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Government | Add a comment

AMD posts loss of $416 millionApril 21, 2009 at 4:55 pm by Larry Rulison

Advanced Micro Devices Inc., the only customer of GlobalFoundries Inc., the company building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta, posted a $416 million loss in the first quarter.

 

Sales totaled $1.177 billion.

 

AMD spun off GlobalFoundries earlier this year and included the results of GlobalFoundries in its consolidated results released today.

 

Those results say GlobalFoundries had sales of $283 million and an operating loss of $141 million.

 

The results also show AMD spent $44 million on the formation of GlobalFoundries during the past two quarters.

 

GlobalFoundries is expected to acquire 222 acres at the Luther Forest Technology Campus any day now and start construction of the chip fab this summer. The plant is expected to start full-scale manufacturing by 2012.

 

Posted in Advanced Micro Devices Inc., General, GlobalFoundries | Add a comment

Malta holding meeting on Luther ForestApril 20, 2009 at 11:48 am by Larry Rulison

The Malta Town Board will hold a workshop and special meeting tonight to make some minor changes to an agreement it has with the Luther Forest Technology Campus.

  

Aerial shows road construction at the Luther Forest site. (Times Union archive)

The meeting comes as it appears that the sale of 222 acres at Luther Forest to GlobalFoundries Inc. for a $4.2 billion computer chip factory could come any day now.

 

It’s unclear if the changes to the agreement with the town, technically a declaration of covenants, conditions and restrictions, are needed so the sale can take place.

 

Malta Supervisor Paul Sausville said this morning that he thought the sale might take place today and he didn’t think the changes – considered minor — had to occur for the sale to go through.

 

Sausville said the document deals with things such as who is responsible for interior roads, sidewalks and lights at the tech park.

 

He said Luther Forest and the town reached an agreement last week, but the town of Stillwater made some minor changes to its version on Thursday, and the two documents have to be identical. The park straddles both towns, although most of the land is located in Malta.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Travis Bullard said the Malta meeting is being held just to make minor revisions. He has said the land deal is imminent.

 

Posted in GlobalFoundries, Government | Add a comment

Luther Forest looking for consultantsApril 16, 2009 at 2:47 pm by Larry Rulison

The nonprofit group developing the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Malta is looking for real estate and construction consultants to provide their expertise as it develops the 1,414-acre business park.

 

Computer chip manufacturer GlobalFoudries Inc. is expected to be the first tenant, taking 222 acres. A deal by the Sunnyvale, Calif.-based firm to acquire the land is due any day now.

 

The Luther Forest Technology Campus Economic Development Corp. issued a request for proposals today for consultants it can use on an as-needed basis.

 

The RFPs are due back April 30. The review process will begin in early May, with selection to take place within a few weeks after that.

 

To see the RFP, click here.

 

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Real estate, Tech Valley, Technology | 2 Comments

RPI spokesman joining GlobalFoundriesApril 2, 2009 at 10:25 am by Larry Rulison

Jason Gorss, the manager of media relations at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, will be joining GlobalFoundries later this month in a communications role.

 

Gorss (right) has been at RPI for several years now. He has a technical and scientific background that helps with his new role with the company, which is building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta called Fab 2 and owns two others in Dresden, Germany.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Jon Carvill said that Gorss’ role will be “more global in nature and focused on our technology.

 

“We will still look to add additional resources specific to Fab 2 in 2009,” Carvill said.

 

The company already has an office in Malta at the Saratoga Technology + Energy Park, which sits within the Luther Forest Technoogy Campus where GlobalFoundries is planning its factory on 222 acres. At least one former General Electric employee is now working there in a human resources position, and additional positions are expected to be filled in the coming months.

 

The new CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, is himself an RPI graduate.

 

The Times Union contacted Gorss this morning by e-mail and he confirmed he is taking the job.

 

“My experience at Rensselaer has given me the rare chance to work with incredibly brilliant people on a wide array of fascinating projects. I am going to miss my colleagues here, but I am excited about the new opportunity with GlobalFoundries,” Gorss said. “It is a perfect fit for someone with my background and interests. I am a technophile at heart, and this job will allow me to immerse myself in some of the most advanced technology on the planet.”

 

Click here to access job opportunities with GlobalFoundries.

 

Posted in Education, GlobalFoundries | 1 Comment

New Fab2 renderings releasedMarch 24, 2009 at 7:41 pm by Larry Rulison

GlobalFoundries Inc. is going to show these new renderings (below) of Fab2 to the Malta Planning Board tonight.

 

GlobalFoundries is planning a $4.2 billion computer-chip factory in the Luther Forest Technology Campus, which sits on land in both Malta and the town of Stillwater.

 

The company is seeking a temporary construction permit tonight after getting approval to start moving soil and trees. That work could begin early next month.

         

Posted in Advanced Micro Devices Inc., GlobalFoundries | Add a comment

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The resources that are available to companies located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus are unparalleled. The Campus is located in the midst of New York’s Tech Valley, a 19-county region in eastern New York that spans from Montreal to New York City. Tech Valley contains more than 1,000 technology companies providing more than 50,000 jobs. Tech Valley companies have a combined economic impact of more than $5 billion and an annual payroll of $2 billion.

 

Located centrally in NY’s Tech Valley, the Luther Forest Technology Campus is the premier site for innovative, high tech companies. The Luther Forest Technology Campus has convenient access to major North American markets, close proximity to industry suppliers, leading universities, and major R&D partners.

  

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"This area (NY’s Capital Region) is really ripe for development with the combination of educational institutions, people and facilities."

-- Hector Ruiz, Chairman of the Board

GLOBALFOUNDRIES

 

Photo credit: Banner image courtesy of University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering. Lower photo: Aerial view of University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering

            

28 Clinton Street Saratoga Springs, NY 12866 USA

  

went to the community open house at the Globalfoundries Fab2 construction site in Malta, New York this morning. Globalfoundries had a nice tent set up with hot coffee, cookies, donuts, etc. It was a good thing because it was raining pretty hard and the gravel parking lot had a lot of water on it. Globalfoundries and M + W Zander had people on-site to answer questions about the project. They had a few large pictures of the construction site inside the tent as well as artist conceptions of the completed building.

 

The actual construction site could be seen from outside the tent. I took a few of my own pictures that you can see below. Double click on any of the pictures to enlarge them. It is a pretty impressive site. You can’t see the construction site from any of the main roads in the area because it is a few miles deep into The Luther Forest. It is on Stone Break Road off of Route 9 in Malta. I doubt that you can get into the actual construction site except for events like this. (Google Maps can’t locate “Stone Break Road, Malta NY”, unless you include the zip code 12020, but Bing.com can find it without the zip code.)

 

By the time I arrived they had run out of “fact sheets” but I was told to check their website and the information would be updated by Tuesday, October 27th. You can find their website at Globalfoundries.com.

 

Hector Ruiz, the chairman of GlobalFoundries said that the new chip plant is “by far the most significant high-tech investment made in this country in decades.” This plant will produce the most advanced computer chips in the world when it is completed.

 

I wrote a previous article about the chip plant in March. You can read it here: Globalfoundries Chip Plant in Saratoga County New York.

  

The refreshment tent at the Globalfoundries Community Open House

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

The construction and eventual operation of this plant will be an economic boost to Saratoga Springs and the surrounding area for years to come. What do you think about the plant? Leave a comment or send me an email. Thanks.

  

Tags: bing.com, chip plant, fab2, GlobalFoundries, google maps, Hector Ruiz, luther forest, m + w zander, malta ny, saratoga springs

 

General, New York State | John Tedder | October 24, 2009 4:03 pm

 

One Response to “The Globalfoundries Chip Plant in Malta, New York”

Daniel Tagliento says:

October 31, 2009 at 1:50 pmThe local “newspapers” lack of in depth investigative reporting was not at all included in their articles!

What was the reason the entire working platform had to be ‘bulldozed’ flat and devoid of mature stands of trees and other fauna?

Waht is the landscaping of the buildings and parking areas supposed to ‘blend’ into the surrounding topography?

Does this ‘platforming’ necessiate storm water retention ponds?

 

At the completion and occupation of the complex will it be eye friendly?

Note: Parssiphany, New Jersy

Buiding Codes insist that Mega-National type complexes remain ‘hidden’ in park like setting closely resembling the natural forest thy found before construction. Ten Billion of many Corporate Headquarters in ten years were build and remain sucessful but accessible by two lane tree stands lined country lane like entrances with multi-storied parking structures and modest designed multi-storied offices etc, all this surrounded by lawns and fields!

For Your Information the Mayor, who had his hand opefor the entire process was found guilty of 23 or the 24 charges, his hand was returning to his pocket with money he should not have had procession of!

Back to the Chase:Tokyo Electron opening in Malta; part of first wave drawn by chip fab

 

It doesn't always rain in Seattle! This view is from Pier 63, looking at the central business district of the City of Seattle in October 1996. During my two-day visit, I only experienced glorious sunny weather, although I understand this was probably exceptional!

 

Pier 63 (built in 1905) has long since lost its sheds. Originally Pier 10, it was known by 1908 as the Holden Dock, but was more commonly known as the Virginia Dock or Virginia Street Dock from its location. It was designed by architect Max Umbrecht and one of its main tenants in the 1910s was Northwest Fisheries, who canned and distributed Alaskan red salmon. An overpass connected the dock to a warehouse on the other side of Railroad Avenue.

 

In 1989, the Seattle Arts Commission and the departments of Community Development and Parks and Recreation recommended that a design team of artists and design professionals be hired to redesign the recently purchased Piers 62 and 63 as an open public space. The piers, with their long history of commerce, labour, and trade, are located on a site originally used by Native Americans for landing their boats, and were seen by the city as a new public access to the waterfront.

 

For many years thereafter, Piers 62 and 63 were the venue for the Summer Nights at the Pier concert series, but the "aged and deteriorating" piers can no longer handle the weight of a stage and a crowd. Seattle has been considering plans to replace both piers since at least 2006.

 

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the US state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in the Pacific Northwest region and the fastest-growing major city in the USA. The metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest in the USA. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 160 km south of the border with Canada.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A Denny and his companions, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on 13 November 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding centre as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush.

 

By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after WWII, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a centre for aircraft manufacturing.

 

The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development. - mainly from Wikipedia.

 

Scanned from a negative

A darkly hilarious postcard by Linh Dinh standing at the end of America: -RT

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Postcard from the End of America: Silicon Valley

 

By Linh Dinh • April 23, 2015

 

Decades ago, I’d show up weekly to clean the Philadelphia apartment of a California transplant. Daughter of a Hollywood executive, Jacqueline confessed she had to escape California because “California women are too beautiful.” To save her self esteem, she had to flee to Philadelphia.

 

Ah, California as the perfect state with the most beautiful people! In spite of mud slides, wild fires and many blase places like Bakersfield and Fresno, California still captures the imagination of not just Americans, but foreigners. With its elaborate landscaping, it imitates Hawaii, even as Hawaii mimics California by laying on strip malls and freeways. Much of California, though, is no tropical paradise but a desert that’s running out of water, and its fresh water crisis has become so severe, it has made salient a hushed up concept, namely the fact that there are limits to growth, and that all resources can become scarce if not run out completely.

 

Newly condemned and mocked for their swimming pools and golf courses, Californians are lashing back by charging, rightly, that other Americans are no less profligate. Though less than 5% of the world’s population, Americans burn up 26% of its oil and 27% of its natural gas. Our houses are larger than anyone’s and still expanding. We have more cumbersome cars than fat drivers. So what, I can hear some of you saying. If we can afford it, then it’s no one’s business, but the problem is we haven’t been able to afford any of this for a while now. We are the world’s biggest debtor nation, lest you forget.

 

Coming into the Bay Area this month, I saw mostly prosperity, however. From San Francisco down into San Jose, there is one affluent city after another, while on the East Bay, there are a few pockets of destitution and squalor, but nothing compared to the hundreds of miles of decay that mark the Rust Belt, for example. Even Oakland is rapidly gentrifying, and becoming very expensive, with the average rent for a one bedroom going for an astounding $3,078! That’s more than three times what I must cough up, with much anxiety and bile, in Philadelphia, and I get two rooms. In this sinking economy, how does the Bay Area become ever more spiffy?

 

Two years ago, I talked to Hung, a Vietnam-born Chinese living in Milpitas, and he dismissed my grim assessment of the US economy as nonsense, “The Chinese and Indians are coming over. They have money and skills. They will keep this economy going.”

 

“What about the locals?” I asked. “Won’t an influx of rich foreigners hurt the poor here?”

 

“No, these Chinese and Indians will create jobs.”

 

“But they will also jack up real estate prices!”

 

“Which is good!”

 

“Not for a renter, though. It’s already too expensive to live here. I mean, look at all the homeless in the Tenderloin.”

 

“You will always have bums. In every society, there are winners and losers. Those bums should be put in work camps and made to be productive.”

 

We were standing in a two-story extension Hung was adding to his home. In the main house, Hung’s aging parents sat mostly in silence on matching recliners. The Mexican construction crew was out to lunch.

 

It is estimated that nearly 20% of the homes being sold in the Bay Area are being snatched up by foreign buyers, paying cash, with about half of them Chinese. In Palo Alto, one of the toniest Bay Area cities, Chinese alone are responsible for more than a quarter of real estate sales. In adjacent Los Altos, the most expensive housing market in the entire country, Chinese buyers don’t shy away from mansions that cost several million dollars, and instead of haggling down, they often pay more than the list price, sometimes six-figure more, just to get what they want. Sometimes a Chinese buyer would buy without having seen the property in person, and he might leave his new home empty for months after purchase. In China, the land under each house cannot be owned outright but only leased from the government for 70 years, with terms for renewal uncertain, and it wasn’t so long ago that private property was seen as the ultimate evil. To protect their wealth, then, the richest Chinese are buying in California. Ken DeLeon advertises in China, then guides visiting Chinese on a tour to inspect palatial homes. To move them around, he has bought not just a Mercedes van but a plane, on which two number 8’s in Chinese have been affixed for luck. To appeal to Chinese buyers, realtors have also asked municipalities to remove the number four from certain addresses. In Chinese, four sounds like death.

 

When the Chinese first came to California in the mid 19th century, they weren’t so feted. Though welcomed by white bosses for their cheap labor, they were despised by the white working class for taking away jobs. Groups such as the Anti-Coolie Association and the Supreme Order of the Caucasians sprung up to oppose the Chinese presence. Organized labor was their sworn enemy. In 1887, Denis Kearney of the California’s Workingmen’s Party gave this address:

 

“Our moneyed men have ruled us for the past thirty years. Under the flag of the slaveholder they hoped to destroy our liberty. Failing in that, they have rallied under the banner of the millionaire, the banker and the land monopolist, the railroad king and the false politician, to effect their purpose.

 

[…] They have seized upon the government by bribery and corruption. They have made speculation and public robbery a science. The have loaded the nation, the state, the county, and the city with debt. They have stolen the public lands. They have grasped all to themselves, and by their unprincipled greed brought a crisis of unparalleled distress […]

 

[…] Land monopoly has seized upon all the best soil in this fair land. A few men own from ten thousand to two hundred thousand acres each. The poor Laborer can find no resting place, save on the barren mountain, or in the trackless desert. Money monopoly has reached its grandest proportions. Here, in San Francisco, the palace of the millionaire looms up above the hovel of the starving poor with as wide a contrast as anywhere on earth.”

 

Sounds like, well, today, so the playbook hasn’t changed, but whereas the American working man now rails against illegal immigrants from Latin America and cheap “slave labor” in Asia, poor white Americans back then felt threatened by the Chinese that were employed all over the West in every sector, mining, railroad, construction, agricultural and domestic help. Kearney:

 

“To add to our misery and despair, a bloated aristocracy has sent to China—the greatest and oldest despotism in the world—for a cheap working slave. It rakes the slums of Asia to find the meanest slave on earth—the Chinese coolie—and imports him here to meet the free American in the Labor market, and still further widen the breach between the rich and the poor, still further to degrade white Labor.

 

These cheap slaves fill every place. Their dress is scant and cheap. Their food is rice from China. They hedge twenty in a room, ten by ten. They are wipped curs, abject in docility, mean, contemptible and obedient in all things. They have no wives, children or dependents.

 

They are imported by companies, controlled as serfs, worked like slaves, and at last go back to China with all their earnings. They are in every place, they seem to have no sex. Boys work, girls work; it is all alike to them.

 

The father of a family is met by them at every turn. Would he get work for himself? Ah! A stout Chinaman does it cheaper. Will he get a place for his oldest boy? He can not. His girl? Why, the Chinaman is in her place too! Every door is closed […] We are men, and propose to live like men in this free land, without the contamination of slave labor, or die like men, if need be, in asserting the rights of our race, our country, and our families.

 

California must be all American or all Chinese. We are resolved that it shall be American, and are prepared to make it so. May we not rely upon your sympathy and assistance?”

 

Fueled by such sentiments, a host of laws were passed against the Chinese that forbade them to become citizens, testify against whites, bring their wives over, marry white women, carry goods using a shoulder pole, live in a crowded room or even dig up the bones of their dead to send back to China. Chinatowns were burnt down and Chinese killed. In 1877, the Chico Enterprise, a newspaper still publishing, warned that eaters of produce picked by Chinese might contract leprosy or diphtheria since these fruit and vegetables had been fertilized by Chinese excrement.

 

The Grass Valley Union, also still extant, warned against hiring Chinese domestic helps, “After establishing himself, the China boy goes to making up his wages. He steals a little every day, and packs his plunder off to his bosses or his cousins. The sugar does not last as it used to, and the tea disappears rapidly. Pies and chops and pieces of steaks have the same course; yet that young heathen looks so innocent and is so saving when he is watched that he is never suspected.” How unfair that white girls had been bumped out by these devious aliens! “He underbids the girls, ruins their reputations as workers, robs his employers to make up his wages and is a cheat and a fraud from top to bottom.”

 

One of the Chinatowns that were burnt down by white arsonists was in Pacific Grove, just over an hour from San Jose. In 1978, I saw a spectacle there that was so strange, I’d keep doubting myself with each remembrance. As the entire town of 15,000 people, nearly all of them white, sat on a beach after dusk, half a dozen white girls dressed as Chinese fairies danced on a barge. All around them, Chinese lanterns bobbled on the darkened sea. Dance over, there was a fireworks show. Writing this Postcard, I researched and found out, finally, that it’s called the Feast of the Lanterns, and this festival was started at exactly the same time Pacific Grove chased out, very violently, all of its Chinese more than a century ago. Whites got rid of the Chinese so some of them could become somewhat Chinese once a year.

 

In the Bay Area, many whites are becoming Chinese in earnest. In San Francisco, there are no less than five Chinese immersion pre-kindergartens, with most of their pupils non-Chinese speakers at home. At Presidio Knolls, for example, only 25% of the students are Chinese-Americans. Paying a dizzying $23,150 annually, students start as young as 2.4 years old, and for those enrolled in kindergarten to second grade, it’s $23,500. At the ChineseAmericanInternationalSchool, tuition is $25,800 for pre-kindergarten through eighth grade. There, half the school day is taught in Mandarin, the other half in English. Nineteen percent of its students are Caucasians, with 41% more multiethnic. Hispanics and Blacks make up 1% each. At the ChineseImmersionSchool at De Avila, the aim is to have its students become fluent in Cantonese, Mandarin and English. To compete in the Pacific Century, it’s best to speak two Chinese languages, ni ting dong ma? If you can only tweet in withered English, ur fck.

 

California’s orientation towards the East has its basis in trades. If China, Hong Kong and Taiwan are counted as one unit, then greater China is California’s biggest customer, to be followed by Mexico, Canada, Japan and South Korea. Each year, the Chinese increase their purchase of California computers, electronics and agricultural products, but it’s not all good thanks to the crippling drought that may only get worse. You see, it takes a gallon of water to produce a single California almond, and 25 gallons to make a bottle of NapaValley wine. The Chinese are in love with both. CNN quotes Linsey Gallagher of the Wine Institute, “Even in remote parts of China, people know about Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, Baywatch, the Golden GateBridge, and it’s always a positive association.”

 

The Chinese aren’t just guzzling California wines, they’re buying California wineries. Yao Ming leads the way. From his company’s website, “In November 2011, Yao Ming, global humanitarian and recently retired NBA star, announced the establishment of his new NapaValley wine company: Yao Family Wines.” Forced to take brief showers, leave their cars unwashed or even swapping their beloved lawns for cacti, tumbleweeds, snakes and scorpions, many locals are grumbling about depleting the state’s precious water so Chinese can munch on roasted almonds and sip an aromatically oaky cabernet sauvignon from the golden state. In a recent article, the Anderson Valley Advertiser points out that 70,000 acres in SonomaCounty are allotted to wine grapes, with only 12,000 for all other food crops. Such a mono culture is a disaster, it warns, “If California’s drought continues, famine may follow.”

 

For some, California’s water crisis would be instantly solved if the state curbed or even banned such water intensive crops as almonds, alfalfa or tomatoes, etc. All over the Central Valley, millions of acres already lay fallow, however, with thousands of workers idle. Unless heavens’ floodgates were to swing wide open really soon, then, a mass exodus will certainly commence. Will Californians be the first American climate change refugees? Anticipating an influx into the Pacific Northwest, a University of Washington professor of atmospheric science, Cliff Mass, jokingly suggests that a fence be built around Oregon and Washington. This will also keep out other Americans fleeing intensified hurricanes, hellish heat waves and sea water flooding into their living room. Speaking of fences, commentator Fred Reed has also predicted that as Hispanics become ever more dominant in California politics, its southern border will be patrolled even more laxly, resulting in a de facto merger with Mexico.

 

On my recent California trip, I had neither the time nor money to stray beyond the Bay Area, and so I encountered mostly happy, confident people. A friend in Fremont even insisted that this whole drought business is but a scare tactic to jack up his water bills. “See those hills,” Giang pointed to Pleasanton Ridge. “Are they green?”

 

“Yes.”

 

“Did anyone water them?”

 

“No.”

 

Giang laughed with deep satisfaction. The fact that it rained hard during two of my five-day stay further proved, in his mind, that this drought brouhaha is nothing but a Jerry Brown con game.

 

“I should have taken a photo of you all dripping wet from walking in the rain!” Giang added, still laughing. In his defense, I can only speculate that my friend’s not all there thanks to a recent, drawn out divorce, loss of home, suicide attempt and a three year spell of unemployment that, mercifully, has just ended.

 

It is all too easy to be upbeat in the Bay Area, however, especially if you’re in the Silicon Valley. Trekking through Santa Clara, Cupertino, Sunnyvale, Mountain View, Fremont and San Jose, I saw mostly neat, beautiful homes with well-kept landscaping. CheeryCupertino High School contrasted so sharply with the grate windowed, prison-like complexes common to Philly, I had to stop and stare. With an average SAT score of 1832, it’s not even the best public high school in town. By comparison, the average score for South Philadelphia High, the one closest to me, is 1045. Cupertino is 63.3% Asian, and the star of Cupertino High’s basketball team is 6’4” junior Ajaypal Singh. He’s averaging 17.5 points, 6.5 rebounds and 1.7 blocks per game.

 

At the East West Bookshop in Mountain View, there are notices for lectures with names like “I’m Not Dead, I’m Different” and “My View From Heaven: Life After Death.” Like California itself, some Californians are smirking at physical limits. We’re not dying of thirst, we’re different. With its posh restaurants and cafes, downtown Mountain View exudes wealth. At Scratch, which advertises “comfort food,” a “Midwestern meatloaf” goes for a mere $19. Outside Xanh, an upscale Vietnamese joint, I spotted a notice in Spanish offering a kitchen job.

 

Help wanted signs are all over the SouthBay, in fact, especially at fast food outlets. At Ike’s Love and Sandwiches in Santa Clara, the large “NOW HIRING” poster features a vaguely Asiatic Uncle Sam, with “WE WORK FOR TIPS, AND PHONE NUMBERS!” Plus “Medical/Dental Benefits.” The California minimum wage is $9 an hour, and since most of these jobs only start out at that or a tad more, they have a hard time attracting workers. With competition for diners so fierce, however, bosses can’t offer better. Immigrants tend to open restaurants, and the SouthBay is carpeted with reasonably priced Chinese, Vietnamese, Indian and Mexican eateries.

 

Coming from a city that’s 44% black, I also noticed the scarcity of blacks in the Silicon Valley. The largest ethnic group in Santa ClaraCounty is Asian, at 34.1%, to be followed by white at 33.9% and Hispanic at 26.8%. Blacks make up only 2.9%. As in every other place across this entire country, Hispanics claim the more physical jobs that once went to blacks, just as Chinese used to bump out the lowlier whites. As for the tech jobs, they are dominated by Asians and whites, which makes perfect sense, since these are also the best engineering students anywhere. At super competitive ThomasJeffersonHigh School for Science and Technology in suburban Washington, 70% of the class of 2019 are Asians. In a mixed-race society, the vocational aptitudes of each ethnic group become sharply contested, then delineated against each other. Of course, individuals should always be judged singly, and these larger patterns are not etched in stone. In San Francisco, Tibetans and Central Americans are said to make the best nannies.

 

Americans remember well that nightmarish time when just about every American company outsourced its customer service to India, which gave rise to the term “cyber coolies.” If one had to ask one’s bank or cable company a question, one would be routed to a “Stephanie” or a “Beth” who was actually a Nisha or a Jyotsna in Bangalore. Though Jyotsna was trying her best to sound Midwestern, the conversation would quickly turn awkward, if not aggravating for both sides. “Excuse me, but can you repeat that?” Less conspicuous was the hiring of Indian engineers, and that too ran into problems. The challenge of having Americans and Indians working together in different time zones proved too much of a hassle, thus many outfits tried to send American managers overseas, but since few were willing to go, it was decided that Indians IT workers would be brought here.

 

Ultimately, the reason why so many Indians are thriving in the Silicon Valley is because of their unmatched computer prowess. The CEO of Adobe and co-founder of Hotmail are Indians, as is the Google executive overseeing Android, Chrome and Google Apps. Outside California, the top man at Microsoft is also Indian. One morning I went to FischerPark in Fremont and saw that nearly all of the tennis, basketball and volleyball players were Indians. At the jungle gym, all the kids were Indians. Mostly draped in saris, their grandmoms and moms stood nearby. A couple blocks away, there’s Bombay Pizza House, “Home Of The Curry Pizza.”

 

With no college degree, no science, no math, no coordination, no rah-rah team spirit, no charm, no looks, no nothing, I wouldn’t last half a second in the Silicon Valley, and hiking all over, I also spotted quite a few souls who had been spat out by this sunny, mild yet merciless environment. The Jungle, a massive tent city in San Jose, has been cleared, but each night, there are around 5,000 San Joseans sleeping outside, though they are scattered at roughly 200 spots and less visible. California itself has more homeless people than any other state, and 4.3% of its school children, incredibly, don’t have stable or adequate housing. These kids must sleep in a shelter, a single room with their parents and siblings, a garage, a car or a tent. Fully ten percent of school kids in Sunnyvale, in the heart of Silicon Valley, fall into this miserable category. Needless to say, they aren’t likely to be immersed in any subject, much less Chinese.

 

Meanwhile, luxury condos and homes keep springing up, for besides the infusion of Chinese money, our inflated stock market is benefiting, especially, the many high profile, sexy companies that dot the Bay Area such as Apple, Adobe, Google, Yahoo!, FaceBook, PayPal, Yelp, Netflix and Twitter, etc. Outside of Manhattan, no other region has gained so much from the banksters’ quantitative easing. When this stock mania crashes and burns, the Bay Area will also be charred.

 

Meanwhile, everything seems to be improving, and Twitter has even moved its headquarters into the Tenderloin, San Francisco’s most wretched neighborhood. Located right downtown, in the shadow of City Hall, it’s inevitable that this pocket of transient hotels, urine reeking sidewalks, thousands of homeless, bodegas and cheap Vietnamese eateries would be gentrified. One night, I found myself in The Basement, a hip, happening new bar at Taylor and Turk. It’s co-owned by Lieu, someone from my same high school in East San Jose, although we didn’t know each other then. Though roughly my age, 51, Lieu looks so young, he’s probably carded at every bar not his own, and with my white hair, I’m like his granddad.

 

The Basement used to be occupied by Club 222, with the legendary Black Hawk right next door. (It’s now a parking lot.) Musicians from Miles to Dizzy used Club 222 as a green room before they exited it through the back to enter the jazz club. At The Basement, all the beers are microbrews, with nothing under $5. Lieu doesn’t want the Tenderloin’s riffraff to wander in to order a can of Bud or Miller. “This neighborhood is moving up,” he said.

 

“Ah, man, won’t you miss people defecating on the sidewalks?”

 

“Get that shit out of here!”

 

This night, there was a comedy open mike. I asked Lieu if the poetry slam crowd had approached him.

 

“Yes, but I turned them down.”

 

“Why?”

 

“Poets don’t drink enough.”

 

That’s a sure sign of a collapsing society! The two bartenders were young, pretty women, with one white, one Chinese. The Basement also has a hunky Swedish guy to attract the ladies. Leaving The Basement, I reentered the Tenderloin proper and promptly saw a young yet haggard white woman, in tight jeans and no shoes, just socks, flashing for a black man leaning against a frail, half dead tree. Seeing me, she smiled most crookedly, ran up, turned around, pulled down and leaned over to display her cheeks. Trying to panhandle from me, an older black woman screamed at this exhibitionist to shoo her away. With yuppies and hipsters invading the Tenderloin, it’s hoped that scenes like this will gradually disappear from San Francisco, but if the economy collapses, and it will soon enough, you will see this spread all over.

 

Ah, California, you will turn bone dry and shirk off your weeping children by the millions! Announcing the state’s first ever mandatory restrictions on water usage, Governor Brown reminded us, “For over ten thousand years, some people say twenty thousand years, people lived in California, but the number of those people were never more than 300,000 or 400,000, as far as we know, and they lived much simpler, and they were able to move when a drought occurred, or fires occurred. They could cope. Now, we’re embarked upon an experiment that no one has ever tried, ever, in the history of mankind, and that’s 38 million people, with 32 million vehicles, living at a level of comfort that we all strive to attain.” Weaned from abundant resources, we will have to strive to attain less.

 

In a country where political speeches, elections and even terrorist attacks are but elaborate theatrical productions, California is the longest show running, designed to convince everyone everywhere, and even Californians themselves, that here is the epitome of the American Dream, and that it’s surfing along just fine. Just outside the spotlight, however, are all sorts of frightful omens. The next act will be a scream.

 

Linh Dinh is the author of two books of stories, five of poems, and a novel, Love Like Hate. He’s tracking our deteriorating socialscape through his frequently updated photo blog, Postcards from the End of America.

Note: this photo was published in a Feb 23, 2012 issue of Everyblock NYC for the "customized" region of Central Park.

 

Moving into 2014, the photo was published in an Oct 31, 2014 blog titled "Microsoft One-Ups Apple and Gets a Big(ger) Data Game."

 

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When I think of Central Park, I usually think of trees and grass and bright sunshine. The mental images are green, the temperatures are warm. The season is usually spring or summer, or perhaps the beginning of autumn.

 

If you say, "Central Park in winter," then I think of snow. The mental images are white or gray, like the ones in this Flickr set

that I created a couple years ago. The temperatures are freezing cold.

 

But there are exceptions: while it may not snow in the summer, there are also times in the winter when it doesn't snow. The winter temperatures may still be biting cold, but sometimes the late-afternoon sun dazzles and sparkles. Sometimes there's even a little bit of green in the dead grass on the fields and meadows. Sometimes there's even a little color in the dead trees and the drab, empty branches.

 

The runners, skaters, cyclists, joggers, tourists, after-school students, dog-walkers, and ordinary citizens of New York City make these muted colors "pop" with their outfits -- every conceivable color of the rainbow is included in the tights, the jackets, the helmets, the gloves and mittens, the scarves, the bikes, the boots, the headbands, the earmuffs, and other paraphernalia that they wear. Once upon a time, we would simply don an old pair of black shorts, and a grungy gray sweatshirt to jog in the park ... but those days are gone.

 

I managed to catch some good examples of this a few days ago, when two consecutive days of perfectly sunny weather gave me a chance to wander into the west side of Central Park at 86th Street, and walk east to the point where the inner roadway comes up to the top of a hill (right next to the southwest corner of the Central Park Reservoir, if you're familiar with the area). Facing north, I had the sun behind me for about half an hour before it dropped below the skyline of apartment buildings on Central Park West; and it bathed all of the joggers and cyclists and assorted others in a wonderful warm glow.

 

I took 500+ photos on each of the two afternoons, and winnowed the resulting 1,000+ images down to this modest collection of 50. I've got a couple hundred more that were almost good enough to post on Flickr ... but at least for now, they'll stay on my computer.

 

Enjoy!

Kurban Tulum holds the distinction of being the only person to share a monument with Chairman Mao Zedong in all of China.

 

As the story behind this statue goes, Kurban Tulum, whom the Chinese call Uncle Kurban or Uncle Kuerban (库尔班大叔 kù ěr bān dà shū), was a Uyghur electrician, born in 1883 in the Keriya oasis in what is now Keriya / Yutian County in southern Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China. (There is also a monumental statue of this meeting in the town of Keriya / Yutian.)

 

When the People's Liberation Army marched into Xinjiang, a few years after the 1949 revolution, Tulum was so hopeful, after the deep difficulties under the corrupt Republican officials and the warlords that had held sway in Xinjiang, that he rode more than 1,500 km around the Taklamakan Desert in Xinjiang to the provincial capital of Urumqi on his donkey (or donkey cart) to bring grapes/raisins (or a melon) -- symbolic of the agricultural wealth of this large desert river oasis -- as a symbol of appreciation for Chairman Mao.

 

Seeing a public relations bonanza in the making, the Party officials in Urumqi arranged for him to be flown more than 3,000 km to from Urumqi to Beijing to meet with Mao Zedong.

 

The Chinese government likes to hold up 'Uncle Kurban' as an ideal for Uyghurs, who they believe should welcome the government's policies in Xinjiang. Many Uyghurs resent him for the same reason, perhaps like Native American Indians would view the Lone Ranger's partner Tonto or African Americans would view Uncle Tom.

 

All Chinese children learn the story of Uncle Kurban in school, along with the ditty "Very Happy Uncle Kuerban."

One of China's best-known revolutionary songs carries his name - "Where are you going, Uncle Kuerban?" (库尔班大叔你上哪 Kuerban Dashu Nin Shang Na Er), which you can listen to here at The Old Record (Lao Chang Pian).

 

In 2002, yet another movie was made of the story, "Uncle Kuerban visits Beijing" (库尔班大叔上北京 Kuerban Dashu Shang Beijing), whose story has morphed into the myth of a simple-minded country bumpkin with beatific faith in Mao and the salvation of Communist liberation. See a roughly translated review of this movie. (The Chinese characters used to transliterate the foreign name Kurban are the same as the characters for, and are thus automatically translated as, cabinet and those for his last name Tulum as vomit.)

 

See a photo of the actual meeting, which took place on June 28, 1958, at The Opposite End of China blog.

 

Kurban Tulum was an ethnic Uyghur (also spelled Uighur, Uygur, Uigur and, in Chinese, 维吾尔 Weiwuer). The Uyghurs, who speak a Turkic language and have a Turkic culture closely related to that of the people of neighboring Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, made up more than 90% of the population of Xinjiang at the time of the 1949 revolution, but now make up only about half of the population, due to an intensive government program of migration of Han Chinese into Xinjiang.

 

This monumental statue is in Unity Square in the center of Hotan, an ancient city on the southern rim of the Taklamakan Desert, famed through the centuries for jade, carpets and silk. See 150+ images of Hotan -- including sights, tours, silk workshop, carpet workshop, ancient ruins, hotels, restaurants, and more -- here at Flickr at this collection: Collection: Hotan, Xinjiang, China

 

For much more detailed travel information about Hotan, see Central Asia Traveler on Hotan, with more than 30 pages on sightseeing, transport, hotels, restaurants, history and culture.

 

See a wider perspective photo of this statue in Hotan -- the figures are about 7 meters tall -- at http://big5.am765.com/zt1/ztfl/ypzt/szx/cftj/200711/t20071116_306006.htm.

 

Read more about Keriya / Yutian, Kurban Tulum's home region -- with maps, sightseeing, transport, lodging, and dining details -- at my Central Asia Traveler on Keriya / Yutian page.

 

A building in Ga Tuoluo Zi village, 15 km from the town of Keriya / Yutian, houses a small museum dedicated to Kurban Tulum. (His Uyghur first name, transliterated into Chinese characters, 库尔班, is often rendered by automatically translators as cabinet and last name (turumu or tulumu) as vomit.) See here a few more pictures of the Memorial Building and inside the museum.

China is a likely winner of the information age supply chain through ecommerce

Peace and Ecommerce, A Global Systems View

 

By Linda Lane, MSIM, 2008

Policy, Law, and Ethics in Information Management, University of Washington

 

The Research Diary

Education justifies everything.

Attending a required Masters class “Policy, Law, and Ethics in Information Management” it was only ethical to admit that I worked three months drafting and publishing policy documents for Microsoft, which was now our current class assignment, to research Web based privacy policies and other related documents such as terms of use, conditions of use, code of conduct and learn more about them, with a diary of examples in the wild, and related materials. The educational idea is that we would then be able to contribute meaningfully to creating policy statements, and understand their underlying implications to end users and companies. But I had already done this work professionally, so it would be of questionable value for me to do the coursework on the same topic as if I had never done it before.

 

The instructor of the class, Glenn Von Tersch is that valuable-to-me teacher because he is a rare working professional in the field in which he instructs, he’s an intellectual property lawyer working in California, teaching in person in Seattle, and in my lingo, a local boy made good. Von Tersch assigned me to present information on freedom of speech, a topic I fell in love with, and wanted to research more. But for my final research I needed something else.

 

One of my favorite things to discuss in job interviews, or with anyone in earshot, is that I believe that the networked spread of ecommerce over the Web, filtering into even the poorest nations will aid in understanding through communication; that ecommerce leads to peace. In effect I believed that ecommerce contributes in a direct way to peace because it provides the fuel to grow and maintain the Internet. Also it seemed obvious that people and countries that are invested in and perform transactions with each other are less likely to go war against their own interests. Von Tersch said, “These topics you are interested in have more research value than freedom of speech, because 1st amendment rights have been heavily legislated, written about, and researched.” He mentioned something called “The McDonald’s Effect”, how having a McDonald’s outlet or franchise appears to contribute to peace between countries. So peace and ecommerce became my topic.

 

What I did not expect to discover is in human society war is considered the norm and peace the exception. I did not expect to learn about how ugly the 3rd world poverty creating monster of WTO became according to one economist, even though I live in Seattle where the initial protests were. I was surprised to know how Reganomics theory hangs on, like an old B-grade movie on late night TV, because someone somewhere in the supply chain makes money. I did not expect to find that privacy and intellectual rights are so tightly interwoven, or how they relate to conflict, security, potential world dominance and growth.

 

I had no way to guess that I would enjoy the study of economics – statistical, yes, nicely so, but dull no; as a global topic it is juicy-rotten, full of international spies, botched security, with rogue pirate computer chips, and unintended consequences.

 

Who can accurately predict how patterns of global economics relate to peace, privacy, property rights, policies and their outcome in the one breath away from today, the next 20-40 years? Who would think that China - the nation, McDonalds - the corporation, and Chicago crack dealers and their foot soldiers share so much in common when you view their information through these fascinating multi-dimensional facets?

 

One must be educated to search effectively for information. My knowing about the nature of search is not just intellectual knowledge; this is conditionalized through my own experience of failure to produce relevant search results within massive library databases.

 

My education began with a simple query on the Web “peace + ecommerce” which returned from Google “Theses on the Balkan War,” by Mike Haynes, from the International Socialism Journal, “Capitalism is inherently a competitively expansionist and therefore conflict ridden system” , effectively laying the blame for war on the US and Western capitalist nations and on any one claiming to be fighting a war with good intentions. I read it, thinking I would not see this relate to my project – also surprising very similar material was presented in the global economic books I read later .

 

As mentioned the pursuit of ‘education justifies anything’, like looking at any results, so I also clicked on an article entitled “Dinosaur Extinction linked to change in Dinosaur Culture” I read it, and it made sense that something like author Daniel Quinn’s theory of “The Law of Limited Competition” is an operant factor in global markets today, with war being genocide, and countries struggling to win economically laying waste to the very place they live. A notable example is Beijing, the air pollution capital of the world struggling to host the Olympic Games this year. I stored that URL for future reference. The theory and the reality imply that in the race to catch up and compete in global economics, the Chinese are killing themselves off before they arrive at their desired goal.

 

Then I queried in several of the University of Washington interconnected and extensive library databases on the same thing “peace + ecommerce” and found in all of them, zero returns, “0 Results”. My teacher was surprised and advised me to extrapolate and offer conjecture on what was likely, if few sources were available. I notified a friend studying economics who emailed related articles. Very frustrated I tried related queries and turned up articles on the economies of war . How perverse, I thought. I contacted a librarian through the online tool and chatted with her, explaining my quest. She suggested I query on “economics and public policy”. “How is public policy related to peace and ecommerce?” I asked. “Try Conflict Resolution” she replied.

 

Thus the reason I couldn't find 'peace' is because the term used, in educated facet writers’ metadata which is designed to expose information to search, is 'conflict resolution' or ‘conflict prevention’. Oddly the social implication is that war is the norm. Maybe peace doesn’t exist anywhere. A reason I used 'ecommerce' instead of 'global economics' is due to consulting in that field for technology firms. Searching again returned few meaningful results -- the user interface was strange, very slow, and clunky. I longed for Google .

 

Then I remembered the “McDonald's Effect” our teacher mentioned, and quickly I located a reference on the Web, but it was deeply nested in a staggering number of oddly worded articles. I stopped without uncovering where the concept originated. The next night I searched again, and found the author Thomas Friedman and his related books. I briefly scanned all the related Wikipedia articles. I realized quickly that to become educated enough on my two topics, I had to some understanding of economics. This is because even to scrape by enough to search among the many interrelated topics one needs to know the central facet . Very esoteric topics require specialized language and deep knowledge of the subject.

 

More searches turned up substantial evidence that China lags behind other nations in ecommerce.

 

For years I worked in ecommerce designing interfaces (for Microsoft 2003 and Amazon 2007-2008), and working with supply chain software (as a director of an ecommerce company). But because I didn't realize that one could understand it better, and that it is not as dull as computer science and its requisite cash register receipts , I never tried.

 

The "McDonald's Effect" is named after "The Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention" created by the author Thomas Friedman's slightly in cheek comments and his book, “The Lexus and the Olive Tree” (the update now titled "The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization").

 

Those books lead me to order Amazon ecommerce overnight book delivery, and I read, 'The World Is Flat?: A Critical Analysis of New York Times Bestseller by Thomas Friedman', 'Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything' , 'Making Globalization Work' which reports that there is hope in the world for peace. The Nobel Prize winning author helps the reader extrapolate based on significant knowledge of statistics and global economic analysis through his personal, professional, and academic connections.

 

Common Name Academic Name Book Title

McDonalds Effect Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention,

aka democratic peace theory Lexus and the Olive Tree

 

Dell Theory The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention The World is Flat, A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century

 

peace conflict prevention

ecommerce global economics

 

"In his book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, Thomas L. Friedman proposed The Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention, observing that no two countries with a McDonald's franchise had ever gone to war with one another, a version of the democratic peace theory."

 

"The Dell Theory stipulates: No two countries that are both part of a major global supply chain, like Dell's, will ever fight a war against each other as long as they are both part of the same global supply chain."

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Readings

The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century by Thomas Friedman

Larry Page, Google Co-Founder quoted by Thomas Friedman, p. 179, entire paragraph. “The more global Google’s user base becomes, the more powerful a flattener it becomes…”

 

From Friedman’s conversation with Google’s director of operations in China, Kai-Fu Lee, p. 181 entire paragraph ”In time individuals will have the power to find anything in the world at any time on all kinds of devices – and that will be enormously empowering.”

 

The Quiet Crisis, entire pages 368, 369, chapter on research in China, beating out American innovation in research. “The Chinese government gave Microsoft the right to grant post-docs.” “They work through their holidays because their dream is to get to Microsoft.”

“What are those?” She said the researchers get them from Microsoft every time they invent something that gets patented. How do you say Ferrari in Chinese.”

 

p. 370 “… whether we are going to implement or China is going to beat us to our own plan.” Council on Creativeness, regarding the Innovate America report, comment to Friedman by Deborah Wince-Smith.

 

Introduction p. X, Thomas Friedman, “Of course the world is not flat. But it isn’t round anymore either. I have been using the simple notion of flatness to describe how more people can plug, play, compete, connect, and collaborate with more equal power than ever before – which is what is happening in the world. … the essencial impact of all the technological changes coming together in the world today. … My use of the word flat doesn’t mean equal (as in ‘equal incomes’) and never did. It means equalizing.”

 

The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization by Thomas Friedman

 

Forward to the Anchor Edition, Thomas Friedman, “… my Golden Arches Theory – that no two countries that both have McDonald’s have ever fought a war again each other since the each got their McDonald’s.”

 

p. 7 “When I say that globalization has replaced the Cold War as the defining international system, what exactly do I mean?”

 

p. 8 “The cold war system was symbolized by a single word, the wall … “You can’t handle the truth,” Says Nickleson. “Son we live in a world that has walls…”

 

p. 8 “This Globalization system is also characterized by a single word: the Web. … we have gone from a system built around divisions and walls to a system built around integration and webs.”

 

p. 19 “What is information arbitrage? Arbitrage is a market terms. Technically speaking, it refers to the simultaneous buying and selling of the same securities, commodities or foreign exchange in different markets to predict from unequal prices and unequal information. The successful arbitrageur is a trader that knows…”

 

Chapter 3, p. 29. The Lexus and the Olive Tree

Photo: Jerusalem, December 29, 1998: Simon Biton places his cellular phone up to the Western Wall so a relative in France can say a prayer at the holy site. (Photo: Menahem Kahana, Agence France-Presse) [caused my spontaneous tears]

 

p. 47 “advertising jingle “Let us put a bank in your home” … office … newspaper … bookstore … brokerage firm … factory … investment firm … school in our homes.”

 

The World Is Flat?: A Critical Analysis of New York Times Bestseller by Thomas Friedman by Ronald Aronica and Mtetwa Ramdoo

 

Freakonomics [Revised and Expanded]: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything by Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner

 

Chapter 5 “Why do Drug Dealers Still Live with Their Moms?” p. 89 “So how did the gang work? An awful lot like most American businesses, actually, though perhaps none more so than McDonald’s. In fact, if you were to hold a McDonald’s organizational chart and a Black Disciples org chart side by side, you could hardly tell the difference.”

 

p. 46 “There is a tale, “The ring of Gygnes,” … could any man resist the temptation of evil if he knew his acts could not be witnessed?”

 

p. 58 “Attendance at Klan meetings began to fall … of all the ideas Kennedy thought up to fight bigotry, this campaign was clearly the cleverest. … He turned the Klan’s secrecy against itself by making its private information public: he converted heretofore precious knowledge into ammunition for mockery.”

 

Making Globalization Work by Joseph E. Stiglitz

My favorite – the entire book was used to write this paper.

 

Web Resources

Please view attached Appendix www.crito.uci.edu/pubs/2004/ChinaGECIII.pdf regarding the reasons one study concludes that hold China back in ecommerce.

 

[1] Waiting until the time is right, one is good at something, or has collected all the facts, without making any attempts isn’t effective. I had to begin someplace even if it is incomplete so I started with the World Wide Web. “If something is worth doing well, at all, it is also worth doing poorly.” I am not sure where that quote came from but I read it in an article where someone presented their reasoning.

 

[2] You never know where something will come from in free rights actions or what it will mean later. For example the person at the center of the Alaskan “Bong hits For Jesus” case, Frederick Morse, now teaches English to Chinese students in China. As an adult it appears he has his head on straight in his wish to help others communicate, more so that those he fought in court.

 

From the CNN news article, published June 26, 2007, “In dissent, Justice John Paul Stevens said, "This case began with a silly nonsensical banner, (and) ends with the court inventing out of whole cloth a special First Amendment rule permitting the censorship of any student speech that mentions drugs, so long as someone could perceive that speech to contain a latent pro-drug message." He was backed by Justices David Souter and Ruth Bader Ginsburg.” www.cnn.com/2007/LAW/06/25/free.speech/index.html/ downloaded March 13, 2008

 

[3] Pentagon attack last June stole an "amazing amount" of data” Joel Hruska Published: March 06, 2008 - 07:13PM CT arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20080306-pentagon-attack-la... from “blueton tips us to a brief story about recent revelations from the Pentagon which indicate that the attack on their computer network in June 2007 was more serious than they originally claimed. A DoD official recently remarked that the hackers were able to obtain an "amazing amount" of data.

 

We previously discussed rumors that the Chinese People's Liberation Army was behind the attack. “CNN has an article about Chinese hackers who claim to have successfully stolen information from the Pentagon.” Quoting Ars Technica: "The intrusion was first detected during an IT restructuring that was underway at the time. By the time it was detected, malicious code had been in the system for at least two months, and was propagating via a known Windows exploit. The bug spread itself by e-mailing malicious payloads from one system on the network to another." Via email from Jeremy Hansen on slashdot.org/

 

[4] “Chinese backdoors "hidden in router firmware" Matthew Sparkes, News [Security], Tuesday 4th March 2008 3:17PM, Tuesday 4th March 2008 www.pcpro.co.uk/news/173883/chinese-backdoors-hidden-in-r... The UK's communication networks could be at risk from Chinese backdoors hidden in firmware, according to a security company.

 

SecureTest believes spyware could be easily built into Asian-manufactured devices such as switches and routers, providing a simple backdoor for companies or governments in the Far East to listen in on communications.

 

"Organisations should change their security policies and procedures immediately," says Ken Munro, managing director of SecureTest. "This is a very real loophole that needs closing. The government needs to act fast."

 

"Would they buy a missile from China, then deploy it untested into a Western missile silo and expect it to function when directed at the Far East? That's essentially what they're doing by installing network infrastructure produced in the Far East, such as switches and routers, untested into government and corporate networks."

 

Late last year MI5 sent a letter to 300 UK companies warning of the threat from Chinese hackers attempting to steal sensitive data. Reports at the time suggested that both Rolls Royce and Royal Dutch Shell had been subjected to "sustained spying assaults".

 

The issue has been debated by government for some time. In 2001, the then foreign secretary Robin Cook, warned that international computer espionage could pose a bigger threat to the UK than terrorism.

 

[5] Chip Piracy Might End With Public Key Cryptography. A Web Exclusive from Windows IT Pro Mark Joseph Edwards, Security News, InstantDoc #98491, Windows IT Pro “A group of researchers from two universities have proposed a way to prevent chip piracy. The technique uses public key cryptography to lock down circuitry.

 

In a whitepaper published this month, Jarrod A. Roy and Igor L. Markov (of the University of Michigan) and Farinaz Koushanfar (of Rice University) outline the problem and details of how their proposed technology will help solve it.

 

Chip designers sometimes outsource manufacturing and that opens the door to piracy, should someone copy the design plans. The copied plans are then used to created 'clone' chips for a wide range of devices, including computers, MP3 players, and more.

 

"Pirated chips are sometimes being sold for pennies, but they are exactly the same as normal chips," said Igor Markov, associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan. "They were designed in the United States and usually manufactured overseas, where intellectual property law is more lax. Someone copies the blueprints or manufactures the chips without authorization."

 

The groups propose the use of public key cryptography, which would be embedded into circuitry designs. Each chip would produce its own random identification number, which would be generated during an activation phase. Chips would not function until activated, and activation would take place in a manner somewhat similar to that seen with many applications in use today. Via email from Jeremy Hansen.Original source - EPIC: Ending Piracy of Integrated Circuits Jarrod A. Roy, Farinaz Koushanfar‡ and Igor L. Markov, The University of Michigan, Department of EECS, 2260 Hayward Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2121, Rice University, ECE and CS Departments, 6100 South Main, Houston, TX 77005 www.eecs.umich.edu/~imarkov/pubs/conf/date08-epic.pdf March 06, 2008

 

[6] Chapter 5 “Why do Drug Dealers Still Live with Their Moms?” p. 89 “So how did the gang work? An awful lot like most American businesses, actually, though perhaps none more so than McDonald’s. In fact, if you were to hold a McDonald’s organizational chart and a Black Disciples org chart side by side, you could hardly tell the difference.”

 

[7] Mike Haynes, Theses on the Balkan War, “Capitalism is inherently a competitively expansionist and therefore conflict ridden system” Issue 83 of INTERNATIONAL SOCIALISM JOURNAL Published Summer 1999 Copyright © International Socialism, pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj83/haynes.htm/ accessed March 3, 2008.

 

[8] Readings p.7 “When I say that globalization has replaced the Cold War as the defining international system, what exactly do I mean?” p. 8 “The cold war system was symbolized by a single word, the wall … “You can’t handle the truth,” Says Nicholson. “Son we live in a world that has walls…”p. 8 “This Globalization system is also characterized by a single word: the Web. … we have gone from a system built around divisions and walls to a system built around integration and webs.”

 

“What is information arbitrage? Arbitrage is a market term. Technically speaking, it refers to the simultaneous buying and selling of the same securities, commodities or foreign exchange in different markets to predict from unequal prices and unequal information. The successful arbitrageur is a trader that knows…”

 

[9] Shared by miles on Feb 13, 2006 3:39 pm that I located through a mail.google.com/mail/?ui=1&realattid=f_fdn935gd&a...

[10] “As it gears up to host the 2008 Olympic Games Beijing has been awarded an unwelcome new accolade: the air pollution capital of the world.Satellite data has revealed that the city is one of the worst environmental victims of China's spectacular economic growth, which has brought with it air pollution levels that are blamed for more than 400,000 premature deaths a year” www.guardian.co.uk/news/2005/oct/31/china.pollution

 

[11] “What we call ‘war’ is not all bad,” according to Virginia Johnson a former governmental planning consultant, who reminded me, “Without conflict there is no life. You don’t want 'perfect peace' there is no movement. The human standard is actually what we broadly call 'war'; because without conflict, change, motion, growth we would learn nothing, we would have nothing, we would be dead.” Personal conversation, March 14, 2008, Seattle, Washington

 

[12] Readings Larry Page, Google Co-Founder quoted by Thomas Friedman, p. 179, entire paragraph. “The more global Google’s user base becomes, the more powerful a flattener it becomes…”

 

[13] Ranganathan, faceted classification, Five Laws of Library Science, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S._R._Ranganathan, www.boxesandarrows.com/view/ranganathan_for_ias Personality, Matter, Energy, Space, and Time. (PMEST)

Personality—what the object is primarily “about.” This is considered the “main facet.”

Matter—the material of the object

Energy—the processes or activities that take place in relation to the object

Space—where the object happens or exists

Time—when the object occurs

 

[14] www.crito.uci.edu/pubs/2004/ChinaGECIII.pdf

 

[15] I learned about supply chain management mainly from the supply chain wizard Marc Lamonica, Regional Chief Financial Officer at Sutter Connect, www.sutterconnect.org/, and our mutual friend Web entrepreneur and ecommerce product engineer Adam Kalsey, and Sacramento State University teacher Stuart Williams, of Blitzkeigsoftware.net, blitzkriegsoftware.net/StuartWilliams/default.asp

 

[16] Introduction to Computer software classes in the 1970s consisted of FORTRAN cash register receipt programming, which is by implication is what ecommerce actually does.

 

[17] Freakonomics is a must read book of comedy and connections.

 

[18] Golden Arches, definition on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Arches, accessed March 13, 2008

 

[19] Readings “The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century” by Thomas Friedman, p. 421

 

[20] Readings p. 19 “What is information arbitrage? Arbitrage is a market term. Technically speaking, it refers to the simultaneous buying and selling of the same securities, commodities or foreign exchange in different markets to predict from unequal prices and unequal information. The successful arbitrageur is a trader that knows…”

 

[21] “Conservation groups say acid rain falls on a third of China's territory and 70% of rivers and lakes are so full of toxins they can no longer be used for drinking water.” Satellite data reveals Beijing as air pollution capital of world, Jonathan Watts in Beijing The Guardian, Monday October 31 2005, www.guardian.co.uk/news/2005/oct/31/china.pollution

 

[22] “…After watching Jobs unveil the iPhone, Alan Kay, a personal computer pioneer who has worked with him, put it this way who has worked with him, put it this way: "Steve understands desire." ... Fortune CNN Magazine March 5, 2008, money.cnn.com/2008/03/02/news/companies/elkind_jobs.fortu...

accessed March 5, 2008

 

[23] Mac Margolis, “How Brazil Reversed the Curse, Latin America used to suffer the deepest gap between rich and poor. Now it is the only region narrowing the divide. Upwardly Mobile: Middle-class Brazilians” www.newsweek.com/id/67850 NEWSWEEK Nov 12, 2007 Issue

 

[24] Mike Haynes, Theses on the Balkan War, “Capitalism is inherently a competitively expansionist and therefore conflict ridden system” Issue 83 of INTERNATIONAL SOCIALISM JOURNAL Published Summer 1999 Copyright © International Socialism, pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj83/haynes.htm/ accessed March 3, 2008. “The optimism that the end of the Cold War might lead to a new world order has been shown to be false. The hope that it would release a peace dividend that would enable a new generosity in international relations has been belied by experience, as some of us sadly predicted it would.3 Though the arms burden has declined, there has been no outpouring of aid to Eastern Europe, no new 'Marshall Plan'. The result has been that the burden of change has fallen on the broad masses of the population, wrecking lives across the old Soviet bloc in general and in one of its poorest components in south eastern Europe in particular. According to the World Bank, the number of people living in poverty (defined as having less than $4 a day) in the former Soviet bloc has risen from 14 million in 1990 to 147 million in 1998.4 Worse still, the advanced countries have continued to reduce further the miserly sums they devote to aid to the even poorer areas of the world. The OECD countries are rhetorically committed to an aid target of 0.7 percent of their output. In 1990 they gave 0.35 percent, and by 1997 the figure had fallen to 0.22 percent, with the United States under this heading giving 0.09 percent of its output, a figure in startling contrast to the expenditure devoted to destruction.”5

 

[25] Readings p. 46 “There is a tale, “The ring of Gygnes,” … could any man resist the temptation of evil if he knew his acts could not be witnessed?”

 

[26] Readings p. 58 “Attendance at Klan meetings began to fall … of all the ideas Kennedy thought up to fight bigotry, this campaign was clearly the cleverest. … He turned the Klan’s secrecy against itself by making its private information public: he converted heretofore precious knowledge into ammunition for mockery.”

 

Some of the research in this paper on piracy, was provided by Jeremy Hansen of Seattle, Washington, USA. Mr. Hansen's email regarding economics served to inform me on this topic. Teacher: Glenn Von Tersch.

SS.......EXAMPLES HERE OF HOW YOUR OUT OF CONTROL CRIMINAL GOVERNMENT IS USING YOUR OWN TAX DOLLARS TO STEAL YOUR FREEDOM FROM YOU....AND WHEN YOUR PERSONAL LIST GETS LONG ENOUGH......WELL OF COURSE THEN YOU'RE A PROBLEM AND YOU CAN NOW BE ARRESTED WITHOUT WARRANT.... HELD INDEFINITELY WITHOUT TRIAL AND ALL OF YOU AND YOUR FAMILYS ASSESTS SEIZED ..... ALL AS I SAID ....WITHOUT WARRANT WITHOUT ANY REASON GIVEN..........JUST DISAPPEARED.......POOF! ................BYE BYE ..GONE BABY GONE

 

TIME TO WAKE THE F*CK UP AMERICA IT'S WAY WAY PAST 1984........

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10 Examples Of How "Big Brother" Is Steadily Creeping Into Our Daily Lives

Submitted by Michael Snyder of The American Dream blog,

 

Virtually everything that you do is being watched. Do you drive a car? Do you watch television? Do you use a cell phone? As you do any of those things, information about you is being recorded and tracked. We live at a time when personal privacy is dying. And it is not just governments that are doing this. In fact, sometimes private companies are the biggest offenders. It turns out that gathering information about all of us is very, very profitable. And both government entities and private companies are going to continue to push the envelope when it comes to high tech surveillance until people start objecting to what they are trying to do. If we continue down the path that we are currently on, it is inevitable that we will end up living in an extremely restrictive “Big Brother” police state where basically everything that we do is very closely watched, monitored, tracked and controlled. And such a day may be much closer than you think. The following are 10 examples of how “Big Brother” is steadily creeping into our daily lives…

 

#1 Our cars are rapidly being transformed into high tech “Big Brother” surveillance devices. In fact, a push is being made to require all new vehicles to include very sophisticated black box recorders…

  

As if the government wasn’t already able to track our movements on the nation’s highways and byways by way of satellites, GPS devices, and real-time traffic cameras, government officials are now pushing to require that all new vehicles come installed with black box recorders and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, ostensibly to help prevent crashes.

 

Yet strip away the glib Orwellian doublespeak, and what you will find is that these black boxes and V2V transmitters, which will not only track a variety of data, including speed, direction, location, the number of miles traveled, and seatbelt use, but will also transmit this data to other drivers, including the police, are little more than Trojan Horses, stealth attacks on our last shreds of privacy, sold to us as safety measures for the sake of the greater good, all the while poised to wreak havoc on our lives.

 

Black boxes and V2V transmitters are just the tip of the iceberg, though. The 2015 Corvette Stingray will be outfitted with a performance data recorder which “uses a camera mounted on the windshield and a global positioning receiver to record speed, gear selection and brake force,” but also provides a recording of the driver’s point of view as well as recording noises made inside the car. As journalist Jaclyn Trop reports for the New York Times, “Drivers can barely make a left turn, put on their seatbelts or push 80 miles an hour without their actions somehow, somewhere being tracked or recorded.” Indeed, as Jim Farley, Vice President of Marketing and Sales for Ford Motor Company all but admitted, corporations and government officials already have a pretty good sense of where you are at all times: “We know everyone who breaks the law, we know when you’re doing it. We have GPS in your car, so we know what you’re doing.”

 

#2 A new Michigan law will ban thousands of preppers and small farmers from owning farm animals. What are they going to do next? Ban us from growing our own food?

 

#3 Have you ever collected anything? If so, the FBI might swoop in and grab your collection someday even if you have not committed a crime. If you think that this sounds crazy, you should consider what happened to a man named Don Miller recently…

 

FBI agents Wednesday seized “thousands” of cultural artifacts, including American Indian items, from the private collection of a 91-year-old man who had acquired them over the past eight decades.

 

An FBI command vehicle and several tents were spotted at the property in rural Waldron, about 35 miles southeast of Indianapolis.

 

The FBI did not have any evidence that a crime had been committed prior to seizing the collection, and Mr. Miller has not been arrested or charged with any crime. The FBI says that it is going to catalog the collection “to determine whether some of the items might be illegal to possess privately”…

 

The aim of the investigation is to determine what each artifact is, where it came from and how Miller obtained it, Jones said, to determine whether some of the items might be illegal to possess privately.

 

#4 A father of a 4-year-old girl has been told that he will no longer be allowed to send healthy homemade lunches with his daughter when she attends her pre-kindergarten program because they conflict with federal guidelines.

 

#5 Do you watch television? Well, if you have a newer television there is a very good chance that your television is watching you as well…

 

In November, the British tech blogger Doctorbeet discovered that his new LG Smart TV was snooping on him. Every time he changed the channel, his activity was logged and transmitted unencrypted to LG. Doctorbeet checked the TV’s option screen and found that the setting “collection of watching info” was turned on by default. Being a techie, he turned it off, but it didn’t matter. The information continued to flow to the company anyway.

 

#6 A plan that is being proposed in Fairfax County, Virginia would ban “frequent and large gatherings at neighborhood homes“. This would include parties, scout gatherings and home Bible studies.

 

#7 At a public school in Florida, a 12-year-old boy has been banned from reading the Bible during “free reading time”…

 

A Florida schoolteacher humiliated a 12-year-old boy in front of an entire class after she caught him reading the Bible during free reading time.

 

The teacher at Park Lakes Elementary School in Fort Lauderdale ordered Giovanni Rubeo to pick up the telephone on her desk and call his parents.

 

As the other students watched, the teacher left a terse message on the family’s answering machine.

 

“I noticed that he has a book—a religious book—in the classroom,” she said on the recording. “He’s not permitted to read those books in my classroom.”

 

#8 In the USSA, a young child cannot even build a tree fort with his friends without the threat of being confronted by the police state. Just consider what happened to one little fifth-grade boy down in Georgia a few weeks ago…

A fifth-grader says he was terrified when a police officer pointed a gun at him and his friends while they built a tree fort.

   

Omari Grant, 11, said he and his friends often play in a wooded area behind his home and were building a fort when a neighbor in the next subdivision called police to complain about what the boys were doing.

 

But no one anticipated what Omari and his mother say happened next.

   

“I guess the release of tension was like, ‘Mom, he had a gun in my face, Mommy. Mommy, he had a gun in my face,’” said Janice Baptiste, Omari’s mother.

 

The officer reportedly used very filthy language as he pointed his gun at the boys, and he forced them to get out of the tree and lay down on the ground…

  

“I was thinking that I don’t want to be shot today, so I just listened to what they said,” Omari said.

   

Omari said the officer holding his gun also used foul language and made him and his friends lay down on the ground.

   

“I learned that they’re supposed to help you not make you feel scared to even come outside,” Omari said.

 

#9 People like to joke about “the eye in the sky”, but it is no joke. Technology that was originally developed for “blanket surveillance” during the Iraq war is now returning home…

  

Persistent Surveillance Systems has developed a surveillance camera on steroids. When attached to small aircraft, the 192-megapixel cameras record the patterns of the planetary life they fly over for hours at a time.

   

According to the Washington Post, this will give the police and other customers a “time machine” they can simply rewind when they need it. Placed strategically at the highest points of any town or city, these cameras could provide the sort of blanket surveillance that’s hard to avoid. The inventor of the camera, a retired Air Force officer, helped create a similar system for the city of Fallujah, the site of two of the most violent battles of the U.S. occupation of Iraq. It’s just one example of how wartime surveillance technologies are returning home for “civilian use.”

 

#10 Have you ever purchased storable food? If so, you should know that it is now considered to be “suspicious activity” in some areas of the country. Just check out what is happening in New York state…

  

1-866 SAFE NYS is part of Safeguard New York, an NY State counterterrorism program that uses promotional material to encourage citizens to report people for engaging in “suspicious activity….which makes them stand out from others”.

   

An accompanying letter provided by the state trooper listed such “suspicious activity” as the purchase of MREs (Meals Ready to Eat), flashlights, weather proof ammunition, night vision equipment, match containers, or gas masks.

 

For even more examples like this, please see my previous article entitled “19 Signs That America Is Being Systematically Transformed Into A Giant Surveillance Grid“.

 

Sadly, most Americans are totally oblivious to all of this.

 

Most Americans are so addicted to entertainment and to their electronic devices that they have no idea what is going on in the real world.

 

I came across the following video entitled “Look Up” on YouTube earlier today. I think that it does a great job of showing what our obsession with our electronic devices is doing to us. Watch it for yourself and see what you think…

  

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19 Signs That America Is Being Systematically Transformed Into A Giant Surveillance Grid

By Michael Snyder, on September 24th, 2012

 

You are being watched. The control freaks that hold power in the United States have become absolutely obsessed with surveillance. They are constantly attempting to convince the American people that we are all “safer” when virtually everything that we do is watched, monitored, tracked and recorded. Our country is being systematically transformed into a giant surveillance grid far more comprehensive than anything George Orwell ever dreamed of. If you still believe that there is such a thing as “privacy” in this day and age, you are being delusional. Every single piece of electronic communication is monitored and stored. In fact, they know that you are reading this article right now. But even if you got rid of all of your electronic devices, you would still be constantly monitored. As you will read about below, a rapidly growing nationwide network of facial recognition cameras, “pre-crime” surveillance devices, voice recorders, mobile backscatter vans, aerial drones and automated license plate readers are constantly feeding data about us back to the government. In addition, private companies involved in “data mining” are gathering literally trillions upon trillions of data points about individual Americans each year. So there is no escape from this surveillance grid. In fact, it has become just about impossible to keep it from growing. The surveillance grid is expanding in thousands of different ways, so even if you stopped one form of surveillance you would hardly make a dent in the astounding growth of this system. What we desperately need is a fundamental cultural awakening to the importance of liberty, freedom and privacy. Without such an awakening, the United States (along with the rest of the planet) is going to head into a world that will make “1984″ by George Orwell look like a cheery story about a Sunday picnic.

 

The following are 19 signs that America is being systematically transformed into a giant surveillance grid….

 

#1 New Software That Will Store And Analyze Millions Of Our Voices

 

Did you know that there is software that can positively identify you using your voice in just a matter of seconds?

 

Law enforcement authorities all over the U.S. are very eager to begin using new Russian software that will enable them to store and analyze millions of voices….

  

‘Voice Grid Nation’ is a system that uses advanced algorithms to match identities to voices. Brought to the US by Russia’s Speech Technology Center, it claims to be capable of allowing police, federal agencies and other law enforcement personnel to build up a huge database containing up to several million voices.

 

When authorities intercept a call they’ve deemed ‘hinky’, the recording is entered into the VoiceGrid program, which (probably) buzzes and whirrs and spits out a match. In five seconds, the program can scan through 10,000 voices, and it only needs 3 seconds for speech analysis. All that, combined with 100 simultaneous searches and the storage capacity of 2 million samples, gives SpeechPro, as the company is known in the US, the right to claim a 90% success rate.

 

#2 Unmanned Aerial Drones Will Be Used Inside The U.S. To Spy On You

 

Unmanned aerial drones have been used with great success by the U.S. military overseas, and now the U.S. government is promoting their use to local law enforcement authorities all over America.

 

The following is from a recent GAO report….

  

“Domestically, state and local law enforcement entities represent the greatest potential users of small UAS [unmanned aircraft systems] in the near term because they can offer a simple and cost effective solution for airborne law enforcement activities”

 

That report also discussed how there are 146 different models of these drones made by 69 different companies throughout the United States….

  

“According to an industry trade group, local law enforcement can potentially choose from about 146 different types of small UAS being manufactured by about 69 different companies in the U.S.”

 

Since our overseas wars are slowing down, somebody has got to keep these drone companies in business.

 

So the goal is to eventually have thousands of these drones spying on all of us.

 

In the years ahead, our skies will likely be filled with these things. Many of them are incredibly quiet and can gather information about you from far above. In fact, one could be directly over your home right now and you may never even know it.

 

In fact, the U.S. government is already using some of these unmanned drones to quietly spy on farmers in Nebraska and Iowa according to a recent article by Kurt Nimmo….

  

Obama’s Environmental Protection Agency is using aerial drones to spy on farmers in Nebraska and Iowa. The surveillance came under scrutiny last week when Nebraska’s congressional delegation sent a joint letter to EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson.

 

On Friday, EPA officialdom in “Region 7” responded to the letter.

 

“Courts, including the Supreme Court, have found similar types of flights to be legal (for example to take aerial photographs of a chemical manufacturing facility) and EPA would use such flights in appropriate instances to protect people and the environment from violations of the Clean Water Act,” the agency said in response to the letter.

 

#3 High Tech Government Scanners That Can Secretly Scan You From 164 Feet Away

 

A new scanner that has just been developed can scan your body, your clothes and your luggage from 164 feet away.

 

According to Gizmodo, these very creepy scanners will soon be used at airports and border crossings all over America….

  

Within the next year or two, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security will instantly know everything about your body, clothes, and luggage with a new laser-based molecular scanner fired from 164 feet (50 meters) away. From traces of drugs or gun powder on your clothes to what you had for breakfast to the adrenaline level in your body—agents will be able to get any information they want without even touching you.

 

And without you knowing it.

 

The technology is so incredibly effective that, in November 2011, its inventors were subcontracted by In-Q-Tel to work with the US Department of Homeland Security. In-Q-Tel is a company founded “in February 1999 by a group of private citizens at the request of the Director of the CIA and with the support of the U.S. Congress.” According to In-Q-Tel, they are the bridge between the Agency and new technology companies.

 

Their plan is to install this molecular-level scanning in airports and border crossings all across the United States.

 

#4 The DNA Of Newborn Babies Born All Over The United States Is Systematically Collected

 

These days, the invasion of our privacy begins just after birth.

 

Did you know that the DNA of almost every newborn baby in the United States is systematically collected and stored in databases? Unfortunately, most new parents don’t even realize what medical personnel are doing when this takes place….

  

The DNA of virtually every newborn in the United States is collected and tested soon after birth. There are some good reasons for this testing, but it also raises serious privacy concerns that parents should know about.

 

States require hospitals to screen newborns for certain genetic and other disorders. Many states view the testing as so important they do not require medical personnel to get parents’ express permission before carrying it out. To collect the DNA sample, medical personnel prick the newborn’s heel and place a few drops of blood on a card. There is one question that new parents rarely ask: What happens to the blood spots after the testing is done? This is where newborn screening becomes problematic.

 

#5 Twitter Is Being Used To Monitor You

 

Hopefully you understand by now that nothing you do on the Internet will ever be private again.

 

According to a recent article by Susanne Posel, Twitter is being used as a law enforcement tool more than it ever has been before….

  

Twitter has released a report confirming that the US government leads the world in requesting information on their citizens. The Transparency Report shows the US government has made requests that are infringing on American privacy rights. Twitter states that “we’ve received more government requests in the first half of 2012, as outlined in this initial dataset, than in the entirety of 2011.”

 

#6 Your Cell Phone Is Spying On You

 

If you want to have no privacy whatsoever, own a cell phone and carry it around with you constantly.

 

Your cell phone is constantly tracking everywhere that you go and it is constantly making a record of everything that you do with it.

 

For example, did you know that authorities are using cell phones to record the identities of people that attend street protests?

 

The following is what one private investigator recently told a stunned audience….

  

One of the biggest changes is the ability to track your physical location. I’m sorry I came in at the end of the previous talk. I heard them talk about surveying cell phones with a drone, in a wide area — this is something that is done routinely now. I can tell you that everybody that attended an Occupy Wall Street protest, and didn’t turn their cell phone off, or put it — and sometimes even if they did — the identity of that cell phone has been logged, and everybody who was at that demonstration, whether they were arrested, not arrested, whether their photos were ID’d, whether an informant pointed them out, it’s known they were there anyway. This is routine.

 

At this point, law enforcement authorities are requesting information from cell phone companies about individual Americans over a million times a year as a recent Wired article detailed….

  

Mobile carriers responded to a staggering 1.3 million law enforcement requests last year for subscriber information, including text messages and phone location data, according to data provided to Congress.

 

#7 Students Are Increasingly Being Tracked By RFID Microchips

 

RFID microchips are increasingly becoming a part of our every day lives. In fact, some school districts are now using them to track school attendance. Just check out what is happening in one school district down in Texas….

  

Northside Independent School District plans to track students next year on two of its campuses using technology implanted in their student identification cards in a trial that could eventually include all 112 of its schools and all of its nearly 100,000 students.

 

District officials said the Radio Frequency Identification System (RFID) tags would improve safety by allowing them to locate students — and count them more accurately at the beginning of the school day to help offset cuts in state funding, which is partly based on attendance.

 

#8 Spy Cams In Hospitals To Monitor Handwashing

 

Would you want a surveillance camera watching you in the restroom?

 

Don’t laugh – this is actually happening in some places. The following is from a recent Natural News article….

  

Here goes the last great American sanctuary from intrusion- bathrooms with spy cams. Going to the bathroom has now been monitored in a hospital in NY where sensors were placed on the doors to identify workers entering and exiting and cameras placed to view sinks to insure proper hand hygiene.

 

#9 Spyware That Monitors The Behavior Of Government Workers

 

According to the Washington Post, the federal government is now actually using advanced spyware to closely monitor the behavior of some government employees while they are at work….

  

When the Food and Drug Administration started spying on a group of agency scientists, it installed monitoring software on their laptop computers to capture their communications.

 

The software, sold by SpectorSoft of Vero Beach, Fla., could do more than vacuum up the scientists’ e-mails as they complained to lawmakers and others about medical devices they thought were dangerous. It could be programmed to intercept a tweet or Facebook post. It could snap screen shots of their computers. It could even track an employee’s keystrokes, retrieve files from hard drives or search for keywords.

 

#10 The NSA Warrantless Surveillance Programs

 

Virtually every single electronic communication in the world (including all phone calls, all faxes, and all emails) is intercepted and recorded by an international surveillance network run by the NSA and several other large international intelligence agencies.

 

For a long time this was an “open secret” that everyone kind of knew about but that nobody ever did anything about.

 

Fortunately, the Electronic Frontier Foundation is now fighting back, and they have three former NSA employees on their side….

  

Three whistleblowers – all former employees of the National Security Agency (NSA) – have come forward to give evidence in the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s (EFF’s) lawsuit against the government’s illegal mass surveillance program, Jewel v. NSA.

 

In a motion filed today, the three former intelligence analysts confirm that the NSA has, or is in the process of obtaining, the capability to seize and store most electronic communications passing through its U.S. intercept centers, such as the “secret room” at the AT&T facility in San Francisco first disclosed by retired AT&T technician Mark Klein in early 2006.

 

“For years, government lawyers have been arguing that our case is too secret for the courts to consider, despite the mounting confirmation of widespread mass illegal surveillance of ordinary people,” said EFF Legal Director Cindy Cohn. “Now we have three former NSA officials confirming the basic facts. Neither the Constitution nor federal law allow the government to collect massive amounts of communications and data of innocent Americans and fish around in it in case it might find something interesting. This kind of power is too easily abused. We’re extremely pleased that more whistleblowers have come forward to help end this massive spying program.”

 

According to one of the whistleblowers, the NSA “has the capability to do individualized searches, similar to Google, for particular electronic communications in real time through such criteria as target addresses, locations, countries and phone numbers, as well as watch-listed names, keywords, and phrases in email.”

 

#11 Pre-Crime Surveillance Technology

 

Did you think that “pre-crime” was just something for science fiction movies?

 

Unfortunately, that is no longer the case. A company known as BRS Labs has developed “pre-crime surveillance cameras” that they claim can identify potential terrorists and criminals even before they strike.

 

Yes, this sounds like a bunch of nonsense, but some law enforcement authorities are taking this quite seriously. In fact, dozens of these ”pre-crime surveillance cameras” are being put up at major transportation hubs all over San Francisco….

  

In its latest project BRS Labs is to install its devices on the transport system in San Francisco, which includes buses, trams and subways.

 

The company says will put them in 12 stations with up to 22 cameras in each, bringing the total number to 288.

 

The cameras will be able to track up to 150 people at a time in real time and will gradually build up a ‘memory’ of suspicious behaviour to work out what is suspicious.

 

#12 Mobile Backscatter Vans

 

Do you think that you can get away from the TSA scanners by simply refusing to fly and by avoiding all U.S. airports?

 

Don’t be so sure.

 

In fact, law enforcement authorities all over the country will soon be driving around in unmarked vans looking inside your cars and even under your clothes using the same backscatter technology currently being used by the TSA at U.S. airports….

  

American cops are set to join the US military in deploying American Science & Engineering’s Z Backscatter Vans, or mobile backscatter radiation x-rays. These are what TSA officials call “the amazing radioactive genital viewer,” now seen in airports around America, ionizing the private parts of children, the elderly, and you (yes you).

 

These pornoscannerwagons will look like regular anonymous vans, and will cruise America’s streets, indiscriminately peering through the cars (and clothes) of anyone in range of its mighty isotope-cannon. But don’t worry, it’s not a violation of privacy. As AS&E’s vice president of marketing Joe Reiss sez, “From a privacy standpoint, I’m hard-pressed to see what the concern or objection could be.”

 

#13 Automated License Plate Readers

 

In a previous article, I discussed a Washington Post article that detailed how automated license plate readers are now being used to track the movements of a vehicle from the time that it enters Washington D.C. to the time that it leaves….

  

More than 250 cameras in the District and its suburbs scan license plates in real time, helping police pinpoint stolen cars and fleeing killers. But the program quietly has expanded beyond what anyone had imagined even a few years ago.

 

With virtually no public debate, police agencies have begun storing the information from the cameras, building databases that document the travels of millions of vehicles.

 

Nowhere is that more prevalent than in the District, which has more than one plate-reader per square mile, the highest concentration in the nation. Police in the Washington suburbs have dozens of them as well, and local agencies plan to add many more in coming months, creating a comprehensive dragnet that will include all the approaches into the District.

 

#14 Data Mining

 

Private companies are almost more eager to invade your privacy than the government is.

 

In fact, there are a whole bunch of very large corporations that are making a fortune by gathering every shred of information about you that they possibly can and selling that information for profit. It is called “data mining“, and it is an industry that has absolutely exploded in recent years.

 

One of the largest data mining companies is known as Acxiom. That firm has actually compiled information on more than 190 million people in the United States alone….

  

The company fits into a category called database marketing. It started in 1969 as an outfit called Demographics Inc., using phone books and other notably low-tech tools, as well as one computer, to amass information on voters and consumers for direct marketing. Almost 40 years later, Acxiom has detailed entries for more than 190 million people and 126 million households in the U.S., and about 500 million active consumers worldwide. More than 23,000 servers in Conway, just north of Little Rock, collect and analyze more than 50 trillion data ‘transactions’ a year.

 

#15 The Growing Use Of Facial Recognition Technology

 

Most Americans do not realize this, but the use of facial recognition technology has absolutely exploded in recent years.

 

For example, did you know that there are now 32 states that use some type of facial recognition technology for DMV photos?

 

That is why they give you such strict instructions when you get your DMV photo taken. They want your photo to be able to work with the database.

 

But the government is not the only one using creepy facial recognition technology. The following is from a recent article by Naomi Wolf….

  

A software engineer in my Facebook community wrote recently about his outrage that when he visited Disneyland, and went on a ride, the theme park offered him the photo of himself and his girlfriend to buy – with his credit card information already linked to it. He noted that he had never entered his name or information into anything at the theme park, or indicated that he wanted a photo, or alerted the humans at the ride to who he and his girlfriend were – so, he said, based on his professional experience, the system had to be using facial recognition technology. He had never signed an agreement allowing them to do so, and he declared that this use was illegal. He also claimed that Disney had recently shared data from facial-recognition technology with the United States military.

 

Yes, I know: it sounds like a paranoid rant.

 

Except that it turned out to be true. News21, supported by the Carnegie and Knight foundations, reports that Disney sites are indeed controlled by face-recognition technology, that the military is interested in the technology, and that the face-recognition contractor, Identix, has contracts with the US government – for technology that identifies individuals in a crowd.

 

#16 Rapid DNA Testing

 

But what law enforcement authorities like even better than facial recognition technology is DNA testing.

 

The following is from a recent article by Ellen Messmer….

  

It’s been the FBI’s dream for years — to do near-instant DNA analysis using mobile equipment in the field — and now “Rapid DNA” gear is finally here.

 

The idea is that you simply drop into the system a cotton swab with a person’s saliva, for example, and the “Rapid DNA” machine spits out the type of DNA data that’s needed to pin down identity. Now that such equipment exists, the FBI is pushing to get it into the hands of law enforcement agencies as soon as possible.

 

#17 The FBI’s Next Generation Identification System

 

It was recently announced that the FBI is spending a billion dollars to develop a “Next Generation Identification System” that will combine the most advanced biometric identification technologies to create a database superior to anything that law enforcement in the United States has ever had before….

  

The US Federal Bureau of Investigation has begun rolling out its new $1 billion biometric Next Generation Identification (NGI) system. In essence, NGI is a nationwide database of mugshots, iris scans, DNA records, voice samples, and other biometrics, that will help the FBI identify and catch criminals — but it is how this biometric data is captured, through a nationwide network of cameras and photo databases, that is raising the eyebrows of privacy advocates.

 

Until now, the FBI relied on IAFIS, a national fingerprint database that has long been due an overhaul. Over the last few months, the FBI has been pilot testing a facial recognition system — and soon, detectives will also be able to search the system for other biometrics such as DNA records and iris scans.

 

#18 The NYPD’s Domain Awareness System

 

Local law enforcement agencies around the country are also spending big bucks to upgrade their surveillance capabilities. The new “Domain Awareness System” that the NYPD just put in was described in a recent article by Neal Ungerleider….

  

The New York Police Department is embracing online surveillance in a wide-eyed way. Representatives from Microsoft and the NYPD announced the launch of their new Domain Awareness System (DAS) at a lower Manhattan press conference today. Using DAS, police are able to monitor thousands of CCTV cameras around the five boroughs, scan license plates, find out the kind of radiation cars are emitting, and extrapolate info on criminal and terrorism suspects from dozens of criminal databases … all in near-real time.

 

But don’t think that you are getting off the hook if you don’t live in New York City. The truth is that Microsoft has big plans for putting in these kinds of systems nationwide.

 

#19 Trapwire

 

Did you know that a huge network of incredibly advanced spy cameras is currently being installed nationwide?

 

Yes, I know that it sounds like something off of a television show, but this is actually true. It is called “Trapwire”, and I described this emerging system in one of my recent articles….

  

“You are being watched. The government has a secret system – a machine – that spies on you every hour of every day.” That is how each episode of “Person of Interest” on CBS begins. Most Americans that have watched the show just assume that such a surveillance network is completely fictional and that the government would never watch us like that. Sadly, most Americans are wrong. Shocking new details have emerged this week which prove that a creepy nationwide network of spy cameras is being rolled out across the United States. Reportedly, these new spy cameras are “more accurate than modern facial recognition technology”, and every few seconds they send back data from cities and major landmarks all over the United States to a centralized processing center where it is analyzed. The authorities believe that the world has become such a dangerous place that the only way to keep us all safe is to watch what everyone does all the time. But the truth is that instead of “saving America”, all of these repressive surveillance technologies are slowly killing our liberties and our freedoms. America is being transformed into an Orwellian prison camp right in front of our eyes, and very few people are even objecting to it.

 

An RT article was one of the first news sources to reveal some of the shocking details about this new program….

  

Former senior intelligence officials have created a detailed surveillance system more accurate than modern facial recognition technology — and have installed it across the US under the radar of most Americans, according to emails hacked by Anonymous.

 

Every few seconds, data picked up at surveillance points in major cities and landmarks across the United States are recorded digitally on the spot, then encrypted and instantaneously delivered to a fortified central database center at an undisclosed location to be aggregated with other intelligence. It’s part of a program called TrapWire and it’s the brainchild of the Abraxas, a Northern Virginia company staffed with elite from America’s intelligence community. The employee roster at Arbaxas reads like a who’s who of agents once with the Pentagon, CIA and other government entities according to their public LinkedIn profiles, and the corporation’s ties are assumed to go deeper than even documented.

 

So after reading all of the information above, is there anyone out there that still doubts that America is being transformed into a giant surveillance grid?

 

The frightening thing is that there is a large percentage of the American people that are aware of many of these things, but they are convinced that these technologies are actually making society “better” and “safer”.

 

We desperately need to wake up America while there is still time. Please share this article with your family, your friends and your social media contacts on the Internet.

 

If we can get enough people to wake up, perhaps there is still enough time to turn this country in a different direction.

 

Will the final chapters of our history be a complete and total nightmare or will the final chapters of our history be the greatest chapters of all?

 

The choice, America, is up to you.

 

Cambridge, England, 14 December 2012--MP Real Estate, acting on behalf of Ignis Asset Management, have secured a sale of The Platinum Building on St John’s Innovation Park, Cambridge, to St John’s College, Cambridge for £7.11 million.

 

St John’s Innovation Park is located on the north side of Cambridge at the junction of the A14 and A10, opposite the Cambridge Science Park. The prime multi-let long leasehold office/R&D property is located at the heart of the Innovation Park and extends to 40,842 sq ft over ground and 2 upper floors.

 

The building is let to five tenants: Teraview Limited, Telstra Limited, Ensors LLP, Amantys Limited and Light Blue Optics, and produces an income of £681,500 per annum. A small 2,500 sq ft suite at ground floor is currently vacant.

 

The sale price reflects a net initial yield of 9.00%.

 

Andrew McGahey, Director, MP Real Estate commented: “We are pleased to have secured a disposal of this asset for our client, meeting their pricing and timing expectations in what remains a challenging market.”

 

Commenting on the sale, Stuart Paterson of Ignis Real Estate said “Our strategy to sell before the year end has been achieved, and MP Real Estate worked tirelessly to meet our goals. We are very pleased with the outcome.”

 

Ignis Asset Management was represented by MP Real Estate and Lambert Smith Hampton, whilst the purchaser was represented by Savills.

 

MP Real Estate

 

MP Real Estate is a new specialist Property Investment and Development consultancy based in Cambridge.

 

Directors Andrew McGahey and Neil Perrin offer a bespoke service that is both personal and efficient, with client care a priority.

 

Andrew was recently Head of Lambert Smith Hampton’s Cambridge office and specialises in Investment purchases, funding and sales, acting for many of the major UK institutional investors and high net worth individuals. He has recently been involved in the funding of the new Microsoft Research building on Station Road, which Microsoft will occupy later this year, and the purchase of the multi-let St Andrew’s House.

 

Neil is formerly the Head of Mixed Use development at Savills Cambridge office and works with clients that include Aldi, Premier Inn, Costa Coffee and Marstons. He has recently acquired the former Barclays Bank in Bene’t Street, Cambridge for Kings College and is working on Octagon Park in Ely and The Arcade in Walthamstow - two major mixed-use development schemes.

 

Between them, they have over fifty years experience within the property industry and will principally focus on client requirements in the south-east and eastern region.

 

Commenting on the formation of MP Real Estate, Andrew said: “Neil and I have worked closely together over a number of years, and are both focused on delivering a high quality service to our clients.”

 

Neil commented: “It seemed a very logical fit for the two of us to team up. We are able to provide our clients with a fully dedicated service through the challenges of the development and funding process.”

 

MP Real Estate is based in central Cambridge at Millers Yard, Mill Lane.

 

For more information, please contact:

 

Andrew McGahey

 

MP Real Estate

23 Millers Yard

10/11 Mill Lane

Cambridge

CB2 1RQ

 

Telephone: 01223 755110

Mobile: 07834 566739

E-mail: amcgahey@mprealestate.co.uk

 

Neil Perrin

Telephone: 01223 755110

Mobile: 07539 582582

E-mail: nperrin@mprealestate.co.uk

 

Website: www.mprealestate.co.uk

 

The Platinum Building, St John’s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS

 

THE ELITE CAMBRIDGE BUSINESS CIRCLE

 

The Elite Cambridge Business Circle is an association founded in 2009 by some of the top companies in Cambridgeshire.

 

Its purpose is to publicise its members, and to celebrate and promote the wealth and rich diversity of entrepreneurial talent and business excellence that abounds here within the county boundaries of Cambridgeshire.

 

Frazer Coogans Commercial Solicitors senior partner Norman Geddes is executive chairman of the Elite Cambridge Business Circle, and managing director is public relations consultancy Fame Publicity Services proprietor Murdoch MacDonald.

 

www.frazercoogans.co.uk

 

Issued by:

 

Murdoch MacDonald

Fame Publicity Services

10 Miller Road

AYR, Ayrshire

Scotland KA7 2AY

 

E-mail FamePublicity@aol.com

Web: www.CambridgeshireBusinessNews.com

Telephone: 01292 281498

Mobile: 07833 667322

Barcelona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia and the second largest city in Spain, with a population of 1,615,908 in 2008, while the population of the Metropolitan Area was 3,161,081. It is the central nucleus of the Urban Region of Barcelona, which relies on a population of about 5.5 million. It is located on the Mediterranean coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs and is limited to the west by the Serra de Collserola ridge (512 m/1,680 ft).

Barcelona is a major economic centre with one of Europe's principal Mediterranean ports, and Barcelona International Airport is the second largest in Spain after Madrid-Barajas Airport. Founded as a Roman city, Barcelona became the capital of the Counts of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, it became one of the most important cities of the Crown of Aragon. Besieged several times during its history, Barcelona is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination and has a rich cultural heritage. Particularly renowned are architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner that have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The city is well known in recent times for the 1992 Summer Olympics. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona.

As the capital of Catalonia, Barcelona houses the seat of the Catalan government, known as the Generalitat de Catalunya; of particular note are the executive branch, the parliament, and the Supreme Court of Catalonia. The city is also the capital of the county (comarca) of the Barcelonès.

 

Barcellona è una città (1.595.110 abitanti, area urbana: 5.327.872 abitanti della Spagna, capoluogo della Catalogna, una regione autonoma della parte nord-orientale dello stato, oltre che capoluogo dell'omonima provincia e della comarca del Barcelonès. È la seconda città della Spagna per numero di abitanti. Nel 1992 fu sede dei Giochi Olimpici estivi. Nel 2004, a Barcellona, fu ospitato per la prima volta assoluta il Forum Universale delle Culture. Forte del turismo, del porto e della vicinanza alla Francia (160 km da Le Perthus), la città vide la sua già prospera economia impennarsi dopo i giochi olimpici del 1992. La città è il secondo maggior centro industriale e finanziario della Spagna dopo Madrid, nonché il maggior porto commerciale e turistico e uno dei maggiori d'Europa. L'incremento demografico ripreso nel 2001 dopo qualche anno di calo è la dimostrazione più evidente che la città è il vessillo di una Spagna in fermento, ben lontana dagli anni di drammatica povertà patiti durante gli anni della dittatura di Franco

 

Font : Wikipedia

 

With "Windows Movie Maker"," Photo story 3 for Windows" or other similar program it is possible assemble the ours photos in beautiful slide show with appropriate soundtrack ... The result is splendid....90 second of beauty

www.flickr.com/groups/838527@N23/

 

Con "Windows Movie Maker"," Photo story 3 per Windows" o altro programma similare è possibile montare la nostre foto con una opportuna colonna sonora...Il risultato è splendido......90 secondi di bellezza

www.flickr.com/groups/838527@N23/

  

MINKA NEWS FLASH! If by mistake we have sent this email please reply 'remove'

   

Selección de músicos tocarán en el Arch Inka por Año Nuevo

       

Nos acaban de confirmar que ya está lista la gran sorpresa para recibir al

2009. Varios de los mejores exponentes de ritmos afro-latinoamericanos se han

juntado para hacer una de las mejores fiestas. Invitamos a nuestros lectores

a una jarana diferente. No solo habrá salsa, cumbia y otros ritmos del popular

DJ Gustavo, sino que se mostrará una selección de los mejores talentos en

   

MUSICA AFRO-LATINA DEL CARIBE Y DEL PACIFICO

   

Cameron McBride, cuya orquesta Blue Havanna hace unas semanas repletó en su

concierto en Waterloo, ha ensamblado a reconocidos talentos que han deleitado

a grandes audiencias en los escenarios más exclusivos y que tocan en bandas

como Manos Negras, Ayer y Hoy, Blue Havanna y Cuba Mía.

 

En el mismo día en que se conmemora el 50 aniversario de la revolución cubana:

que mejor cosa que pasarla con lo mejor de la música cubana y con artistas

especializados en las melodías de origen afro que van desde el Caribe hasta

la costa pacífica.

     

Los fondos recolectados servirán para crear la web de Minka News como el primer

y único diario digital de los iberoamericanos del Reino Unido, en el cual se

informe día a día lo que pasa en la comunidad y todos puedan exponer sus actividades.

     

AFRO SON

 

Así se llama esta selección de expertos en Son (ritmo tan popular en CUBA,

REPUBLICA DOMINICANA, COLOMBIA, VENEZUELA, MEXICO Y AMERICA CENTRAL), Bolero

(TODA AMERICA LATINA), Festejo y Landó (PERU) y otros ritmos negros de América

Latina.

     

Mire la calidad de los artistas:

 

Dora De La Cruz - (Perú) – La principal vocalista afro-criolla del Reino Unido.

Ella es una connotada miembro de la familia De La Cruz, apellido que es sinónimo

mundial de la mejor música afro-peruana.

 

Marco Valencia (Chile) - Tres Cubano

Camilo Menjura (Colombia) - Guitarra

Cameron McBride (Inglaterra) - Bajo

Félix Apolaya (Perú) - Cajón

Mario (Perú) – Congas

     

Los mejores artistas irán al Arch Inka a encontrarse y fortalecer al ambiente:

 

Ya han asegurado su presencia Sofía Buchuk, Rubén H, el poeta Alfredo Cordal,

bailarines de SOMOS PERU, etc.

     

Atención dominicanos

     

Miguel Zorrilla, convoca a todos sus compatriotas, a todos sus clientes en

los domingos dominicanos y en las fiestas dominicanas y a la juventud que él

entrena en boxeo, béisbol y lucha libre a que no falten esa noche en el Inka,

el punto de encuentro de todos los dominicanos.

   

Atención ecuatorianos

 

Vamos a festejar la llegada del 2009 en que se conmemora el bicentenario del

levantamiento de Quito, el primer grito de la independencia latinoamericana

y el inicio de las celebraciones por el bicentenario de la emancipación de

todo el continente

     

VEA LOS RITMOS QUE SE TOCARA EN EL INKA:

   

SonDe Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libreSon es un término que se refiere a...

 

Música

 

• Son: el nombre común de varios géneros musicales de origen afro-caribeño-mestizo

que se cultivan en varios países de la cuenca del mar Caribe, también es música

de Guatemala realizada con la marimba, entre los que se cuentan:

 

• República Dominicana

• Colombia:

 

• Vallenato, aire musical de este genero colombiano

 

• Cuba:

 

• Son cubano

• Son montuno

 

• México:

 

• Huapango, llamado son huasteco

• Son istmeño, del istmo de Tehuantepec

• Son abajeño, de la sierra Gorda de Querétaro Arteaga, Guanajuato y San Luis

Potosí

• Son jarocho, de la costa del Sotavento veracruzano

• Son calentano, de la región de Tierra Caliente, en México

• Son de artesa, un género musical de los afromestizos de la Costa Chica de

Guerrero

• Son de concheros, cultivado por algunas cofradías de grupos nahuas o mestizos

del centro de México

• Son arribeño, cultivado en la Meseta Tarasca, de Michoacán

• Son de mariachi, el género del que fue nativo la orquesta musical conocida

como mariachi, propia del occidente de México (Jalisco, Colima y Nayarit)

• Chilena, un género de origen sudamericano cultivado en la costa de Guerrero

y Oaxaca

 

• Nicaragua

 

• Son nica, derivado del bambuco colombiano

 

FestejoDe Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

 

El festejo fue la danza representativa del negro criollo en la costa peruana.

Instrumentos musicales para esta danza debieron ser originalmete tambores de

cuero, el que luego se reemplazó con el cajón y la maraca por la quijada de

burro, agregándole guitarra y canto. Los versos del festejo siempre fueron

de asunto festivo, de allí su nombre.

 

Es característico las repetidas pasadas tras periodos de cuatro u ocho compases

y al estribillo coral de la fuga. Es posible que originalmente haya sido danza

masculina de solista, improvisando pasos y contorsiones acrobáticas con toda

libertad de espíritu y sin regla coreográfica alguna. Puede ser observada en

su forma más tradicional en Cañete y Chincha.

     

Bolero

 

El Bolero es un ritmo con raíces españolas, reinventado en varios países hispanoamericanos

de la cuenca del Caribe como CubaMéxico, Colombia, Perú, Venezuela y otros.

 

La llamada «resurrección» del bolero realizada por Luis Miguel, Carlos Cuevas,

Guadalupe Pineda, Alejandro Fernández, Charlie Zaa, Rodrigo de la Cadena, Edith

Márquez o Mijares, si bien tiene méritos propios, fue también la consecuencia

de un ambiente previo plagado de romanticismo, que era indiscutiblemente heredero

de las glorias doradas del bolero.

   

Landó (music)

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaLandó is an Afro-Peruvian form of music

in the musica criolla genre. Its unique sound had been likened to the American

blues genre.

 

Influences

 

Landó developed from a dance in Angola called londu that came with slaves when

they arrived in Brazil. Even today, in Brazil, the Angolan influenced londo

is played. Hence, the Landó is a mix of both Spanish and African rhythms. It

features a slower tempo and call and response vocalization. The signature instrument

of the Landó is the cajon, a box-like drum. This instrument was improvised

by West Africans, who had to give up their instruments when arriving in South

America.

 

Today

 

The Landó is still a very popular musical style in Peru. Peruvian musician

Eva Ayllon is one of its most popular performers along, with the band Perú

Negro.

   

LANDO es un ritmo típico de la costa peruana y perteneciente al folklore negro.Tiene

un ritmo muy complejo acompañado principalmente por el Cajón y los bordones

de la Guitarra Criolla. EL Landó , se destáca por ser gran parte de la cultura

peruana,en sí, es un producto de la epoca colonial española. Sus raices, claro

está, son africanas

   

TODOS A FESTEJAR EN EL INKA

          

EL ARCH INKA QUEDA EN EL 202 COLDHARBOUR LANE, SW9.

 

A pocas cuadras de Brixton, Camberwell, el Kings Hospital y el Hotel Loughborough,

natigua capital de la salsa en Londres.

 

A solo 20 metros del Overground de Loughborough Junction (el tren va de Sutton

a Luton y en 2 minutos se conecta con Elephant and Castle, en 4 con la City

y en menos de 10 con King Cross)

 

Buses que le dejan casi en la puerta: P4, 35, 45 y 345. Preguntar al chofer

por el Paradero de Loughborough Junction.

 

Zona segura, con parqueo gratis y en la misma acera donde vino al mundo John

Mayor, el primer ministro de 1991-1997

 

VEA EN EL MAPA:

 

maps.google.es/maps?q=202 COLDHARBPOUR LANE SW9&rls=com.microsoft:es&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&startIndex=&startPage=1&um=1&sa=N&tab=wl

TODOS AQUELLOS QUE QUIERAN PASAR NAVIDAD ESTAN INVITADOS HOY AL ARCH INKA

Y AL FIESTA

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the east and south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and south and the Caribbean Sea to the east.

Costa Rica, which translates literally as "Rich Coast", constitutionally abolished its army permanently in 1949. It is the only Latin American country included in the list of the world’s 22 older democracies. Costa Rica has consistently been among the top Latin American countries in terms of the Human Development Index, and ranked 54th in the world in 2007. The country is ranked 3rd in the world, and 1st among the Americas, in terms of the 2010 Environmental Performance Index.

In 2007 the Costa Rican government announced plans for Costa Rica to become the first carbon neutral country by 2021.According to the New Economics Foundation, Costa Rica ranks first in the Happy Planet Index and is the "greenest" country in the world.

 

History

In Pre-Columbian times the Native Americans in what is now Costa Rica were part of a cultural complex known as the "Intermediate Area," between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions.

For nearly three centuries, Spain & Dalia Founded it administered the region as part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala under a military governor. The Spanish optimistically called the country "Rich Coast". Finding little gold or other valuable minerals in Costa Rica, however, the Spanish turned to agriculture.

The small landowners' relative poverty, the lack of a large indigenous labor force, the population's ethnic and linguistic homogeneity, and Costa Rica's isolation from the Spanish colonial centers in Mexico and the Andes—all contributed to the development of an autonomous and individualistic agrarian society. Even the Governor had to farm his own crops and tend to his own garden due to the poverty that he lived in. An egalitarian tradition also arose. This tradition survived the widened class distinctions brought on by the nineteenth century introduction of banana and coffee cultivation and consequent accumulations of local wealth.

 

Federal Republic of Central America

Costa Rica joined other Central American provinces in 1821 in a joint declaration of independence from Spain. After a brief time in the Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide and Mexican Empire) Costa Rica became a state in the Federal Republic of Central America (see: History of Central America) from 1823 to 1839. In 1824 the capital was moved to San José, but following a rivalry with Cartago that was violent. Although the newly independent provinces formed a Federation, border disputes broke out among them, adding to the region's turbulent history and conditions. Costa Rica's northern Guanacaste Province was annexed from Nicaragua in one such regional dispute.

 

Following independence, Costa Ricans found themselves with no regular trade routes to get their coffee to European markets. This was compounded by transportation problems - the coffee-growing areas were on the Pacific Coast, and before the Panama Canal was opened, ships from Europe had to sail around Cape Horn in order to get to the Pacific Coast. This was overcome in 1843, when, with the help of William Le Lacheur, a Guernsey merchant and shipowner, a regular trade route was established.

 

In 1856, William Walker, an American filibuster began incursions into Central America. After landing in Nicaragua, he proclaimed himself president of Nicaragua and re-instated slavery. He intended to expand into Costa Rica and after he entered Costa Rican territory, Costa Rica declared war. Led by Commander in Chief of the Army of Costa Rica, President Juan Rafael Mora Porras, the filibusters were defeated and forced out of the country. Costa Rican forces followed the filibusters into Rivas, Nicaragua, where in a final battle, William Walker and his forces were finally pushed back. Juan Santamaría, a drummer boy who lost his life torching the filibusters' stronghold, was killed in this final battle, and is today remembered as a national hero.

 

Democracy

An era of peaceful democracy in Costa Rica began in 1889 with elections considered the first truly free and honest ones in the country's history.

 

Costa Rica has avoided much of the violence that has plagued much of Central America. Since the late nineteenth century, only two brief periods of violence have marred its democratic development. In 1917-19, Federico Tinoco Granados ruled as a dictator, and, in 1948, José Figueres Ferrer led an armed uprising in the wake of a disputed presidential election. In 1949, José Figueres Ferrer abolished the army; and since then, Costa Rica has been one of the few countries to operate within the democratic system without the assistance of a military.

 

With more than 2,000 dead, the 44-day Costa Rican Civil War resulting from this uprising was the bloodiest event in twentieth-century Costa Rican history, but the victorious junta drafted a constitution guaranteeing free elections with universal suffrage and the abolition of the military. Figueres became a national hero, winning the first election under the new constitution in 1953. Since then, Costa Rica has held 12 presidential elections, the latest in 2006.

 

Once a largely agricultural country, the twin pillars of Costa Rica's current economy are technology and eco-tourism. Costa Rica's major source of export income is technology based. Microsoft, Motorola, Intel and other technology related firms have established operations in Costa Rica. Local companies create and export software as well as other computer related products. Tourism is growing at an accelerated pace and many believe that income from this tourism may soon become the major contributor to the nation's GDP. Traditional agriculture, particularly coffee and bananas, continues to be an important contributor to Costa Rica's export income. Land ownership and wealth is widespread and the population enjoys a relatively high standard of living.

 

Geography

Costa Rica is located on the Central American isthmus, 10° North of the equator and 84° West of the Prime Meridian. It borders the Caribbean Sea (to the east) and the North Pacific Ocean (to the west), with a total of 1,290 kilometres (800 mi) of coastline, 212 km (132 mi) on the Caribbean coast and 1,016 km (631 mi) on the Pacific.

Costa Rica also borders Nicaragua to the north (309 km or 192 mi of border) and Panama to the south-southeast (639 km or 397 mi of border). In total, Costa Rica comprises 51,100 square kilometres (19,700 sq mi) plus 589 square kilometres (227 sq mi) of territorial waters.

The highest point in the country is Cerro Chirripó, at 3,819 metres (12,530 ft), and is the fifth highest peak in Central America. The highest volcano in the country is the Irazú Volcano (3,431 m or 11,260 ft). The largest lake in Costa Rica is Lake Arenal.

Costa Rica also comprises several islands. Cocos Island (24 square kilometres / 9.3 square miles) stands out because of its distance from continental landmass, 300 mi (480 km) from Puntarenas, but Calero Island is the largest island of the country (151.6 square kilometres / 58.5 square miles). Costa Rica protects 23% of its national territory within the Protected Areas system. It also possesses the greatest density of species in the world.

 

Other Info

Oficial Name:

Republica de Costa Rica

 

Independence:

from Spain (via Mexico) September 15, 1821

- from the UPCA 1838

 

Area:

51.100km2

 

Inhabitants:

5.100.000

 

Languages:

Boruca [brn] 5 women (1986 SIL). 30 to 35 nonfluent speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1991). Southern coast between Playa Bonita and Golfito. Alternate names: Borunca, Burunca, Brunca, Brunka. Classification: Chibchan, Talamanca Nearly extinct.

More information.

 

Bribri [bzd] 11,000 (2002). Ethnic population: 12,172 (2000). Southern, along Lari, Telire, and Uren rivers, Canton of Talamanca, Limón Province; Canton of Buenos Aires, Puntarenas Province. Alternate names: Talamanca. Dialects: Salitre-Cabagra, Amubre-Katsi, Coroma. Closest to, but unintelligible to speakers of Cabécar, Guatuso, and Teribe. At least 3 major dialects which are inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. Classification: Chibchan, Talamanca

More information.

 

Cabécar [cjp] 8,840 (2000). 7,072 monolinguals (80%). Ethnic population: 9,308 (2000). Turrialba Region. Alternate names: Chirripó. Dialects: Chirripó, Telire, Estrella, Ujarrás. Classification: Chibchan, Talamanca

More information.

 

Costa Rican Sign Language [csr] Dialects: May be related to Providencia Sign Language. Lexical similarity 60% with ASL. Classification: Deaf sign language

More information.

 

Limón Creole English [jam] 55,100 in Costa Rica (1986). East of San José, principally along the railroad between Siquirres and Limón, and south of Limón along the road. Alternate names: Southwestern Caribbean Creole English. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western

More information.

 

Maléku Jaíka [gut] 750 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,074 (2000). Northern. Alternate names: Guatuso. Classification: Chibchan, Rama

More information.

 

Plautdietsch [pdt] 100 in Costa Rica (1974 Minnich). Sarapiqui area. Alternate names: Low German, Mennonite German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon

More information.

 

Spanish [spa] 3,300,000 in Costa Rica (1995). Alternate names: Español, Castellano. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

More information.

 

Teribe [tfr] 5 in Costa Rica (1991 SIL). Ethnic population: 35 to 300 in Costa Rica (1991 SIL). Southeastern, north coast. Alternate names: Terraba. Classification: Chibchan, Talamanca

More information.

  

Extinct languages

Chorotega [cjr] Extinct. Ethnic population: 795 (2000). Some from the ethnic group live near Tuturrialba. They were originally from the Guanacaste Region near the Nicaraguan border. Some were also in El Salvador and Honduras. Alternate names: Choluteca, Mangue, Diria, Orotina. Dialects: Chorotega, Diria, Nagrandan, Nicoya, Orisi, Orotinya (Orotina). Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chiapanec-Mangue

 

Capital city:

San José

 

Meaning countrys name:

The name, meaning "rich coast" in Spanish, given by the Spanish explorer Gil González Dávila.

 

Description Flag:

The flag of Costa Rica was officially adopted on November 27, 1906. However, the blue, white and red horizontal design was created and used since 1848 when Costa Rica left the Federal Republic of Central America and declared itself a Sovereign Republic. Pacífica Fernández, wife of the president, José María Castro Madriz created it inspired on the colors of the French Flag. The state and war flag and ensign includes the coat of arms of Costa Rica, while the civil ensign (there is no civil flag) omits the coat of arms and is shorter.

The blue color stands for the sky, opportunities, idealism and perseverance. The white color stands for peace, wisdom and happiness. The red color stands for the blood spilt by martyrs for independence, as well as the warmth and generosity of the people. The stripes are in the ratio 1:1:2:1:1. The flag of Costa Rica is very similar to the flag of Thailand, which was adopted 11 years later. It also closely resembles the flag of North Korea.

 

Coat or arms:

The Coat of Arms of Costa Rica depicts an essential simplification of the nation. The two ships on either side represent the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean, both of which border Costa Rica. The ships also represent the maritime history of the country. The three mountains represent the three major mountain ranges of Costa Rica, and also stand to show the location of the country relative to the two bodies of sea. The current coat of arms has seven stars on it to stand for the seven provinces of Costa Rica. On the sides, small golden beads can be seen; these were put here in representation of the Costa Rican coffee, which for a long time was the largest line of production and exportation in the country. They are golden because in Costa Rica, coffee is sometimes referred to as "El Grano de Oro" or "The Bead of Gold". The above arms are older, and have five stars that represent the nations that had made up the United States of Central America in the early 19th century; the Costa Rican design is modified after the old Central American Federal coat of arms. The name of the nation is on a white banner at the top of the shield, above this is another blue scroll that says "America Central".

 

Motto:

"Vivan siempre el trabajo y la paz"

 

National Anthem: Noble patria, tu hermosa bandera

 

Noble patria, tu hermosa bandera

expresión de tu vida nos da;

bajo el límpido azul de tu cielo

blanca y pura descansa la paz.

 

En la lucha tenaz,

de fecunda labor

que enrojece del hombre la faz,

conquistaron tus hijos

labriegos sencillos

eterno prestigio, estima y honor.

 

¡Salve, oh tierra gentil!

¡Salve, oh madre de amor!

Cuando alguno pretenda

tu gloria manchar,

verás a tu pueblo valiente y viril,

la tosca herramienta en arma trocar.

 

Salve oh Patria tú pródigo suelo,

dulce abrigo y sustento nos da;

bajo el límpido azul de tu cielo

¡vivan siempre el trabajo y la paz!

 

English

 

Noble homeland, your beautiful flag

Express for us your life:

Under the limpid blue of your skies,

Peace reigns, white and pure.

In the tenacious battle of fruitful toil,

That brings a glow to men's faces,

Your sons, simple farm hands,

Gained eternal renown, esteem and honour,

Gained eternal renown, esteem and honour.

Hail, gentle country!

Hail, loving mother!

If anyone should attempt to besmirch your glory,

You will see your people, valiant and virile,

Exchange their rustic tools for weapons.

Hail, O homeland! Your prodigal soil

Gives us sweet sustenance and shelter.

Under the limpid blue of your sky,

May peaceful labour ever continue.

 

Internet Page: www.costarica.com

www.costaricaparati.com

 

C.R. in diferent languages

 

eng | afr | arg | ast | bre | cat | cym | dan | est | eus | fin | fra | frp | gla | glg | hau | hun | ina | jnf | nld | nor | por | ron | rup | scn | sme | spa | srd | swa | swe | vor | wln: Costa Rica

cor | dsb | fao | fry | hsb | jav | kin | lin | lit | mlg | mlt | pap | run | smg | sqi | tgl | tur | zza: Kosta Rika

ces | hat | hrv | lav | slk | slv: Kostarika

aze | crh | kaa | tuk | uzb: Kosta-Rika / Коста-Рика

deu | ltz | nds: Kostarika / Koſtarika; Costa Rica / Coſta Rica

ita | lld | roh: Costa Rica; Costarica

bos | slo: Kostarika / Костарика

pol | szl: Kostaryka

bam: Kɔsitarika

epo: Kostariko

fur: Cueste Riche

gle: Cósta Ríce / Cósta Ríce

glv: Yn Coose Berçhagh

ibo: Kọstarika

ind: Kosta Rika / كوستا ريكا

isl: Kosta Ríka; Kostaríka

kmr: Kosta-Rîka / Коста-Р’ика / کۆستا ڕیکا

kur: Kosta Rîka / کۆستا ریکا

lat: Costa Richa; Costarica; Ora Opulenta

mol: Costa Rica / Коста-Рика

msa: Costa Rica / كوستا ريكا

nrm: Riche-Côte

oci: Còsta Rica

que: Kustarika

rmy: Kosta Rika / कोस्ता रिका

tet: Kostarrika

vie: Cốt-xta Ri-ca

vol: Kostarikän

wol: Kosta Riika

abq | alt | che | chm | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mon | rus | tyv | udm: Коста-Рика (Kosta-Rika)

bak | tat: Коста-Рика / Kosta-Rika

bel: Коста-Рыка / Kosta-Ryka

bul: Коста Рика (Kosta Rika)

chv: Костӑ-Рикӑ (Kostă-Rikă)

kaz: Коста-Рика / Kosta-Rïka / كوستا-ريكا

kbd: Коста-Рикэ (Kosta-Rikă)

mkd: Костарика (Kostarika)

oss: Костӕ-Рикӕ (Kostä-Rikä)

srp: Костарика / Kostarika

tgk: Коста-Рика / کاسته ریکه / Kosta-Rika

ukr: Коста-Рика (Kosta-Ryka); Коста-Ріка (Kosta-Rika)

ara: كوستاريكا (Kūstārīkā); كستاريكا (Kustārīkā)

fas: کستاریکا (Kostārīkā); کوستاریکا (Kostārīkā)

prs: کوستاریکا (Kōstārīkā)

pus: کوسټاريکا (Kosṫārīkā); کوستاريکا (Kostārīkā)

uig: كوستارىكا / Kostarika / Коста-Рика

urd: کوسٹا ریکا (Kosṫā Rīkā); کوسٹاریکا (Kosṫārīkā)

div: ކޮސްޓަރިކާ (Kosṫarikā); ކޮސްޓަރީކާ (Kosṫarīkā)

heb: קוסטה-ריקה (Qôsṭah-Rîqah)

lad: קוסטה ריקה / Kosta Rika

yid: קאָסטאַריקאַ (Kostarika)

amh: ኮስታ ሪካ (Kosta Rika)

ell: Κοσταρίκα (Kostaríka); Κόστα-Ρίκα (Kósta-Ríka)

hye: Կոստա Ռիկա (Kosta Ṙika); Կոստա Րիկա (Kosta Rika)

kat: კოსტა-რიკა (Kosta-Rika)

hin: कोस्टारीका (Kosṭārīkā); कास्टारिका (Kāsṭārikā); कोस्टा रिका (Kosṭā Rikā)

nep: कोस्टारिका (Kosṭārikā)

ben: কোস্টা রিকা (Kosṭā Rikā); কোস্টারিকা (Kosṭārikā)

pan: ਕਾਸਟਾਰੀਕਾ (Kāsṭārīkā)

kan: ಕೊಷ್ಟಾ ರಿಕ (Koṣṭā Rika)

mal: കോസ്റ്റാറിക്ക (Kōsṟṟāṟikka); കോസ്റ്ററിക്ക (Kōsṟṟaṟikka)

tam: கொஸ்தாரிக்கா (Kostārikkā); கோஸ்டாரிகா (Kōsṭārikā)

tel: కోస్టారీకా (Kōsṭārīkā); కొస్టా రికా (Kosṭā Rikā)

zho: 哥斯達黎加/哥斯达黎加 (Gēsīdálíjiā)

jpn: コスタ・リカ (Kosuta Rika); コスタリカ (Kosutarika)

kor: 코스타리카 (Koseutarika)

bod: ཁོ་ས་ཏ་རི་ཁ་ (Kʰo.sa.ta.ri.kʰa.)

mya: ကုိစတာရီးကား (Kosátaẏìkà)

tha: คอสตาริกา (Kʰɔ̄ttārikā)

khm: កូស្តារីកា (Kūstārīkā)

 

Home > China > 05Mao, Early...

LONG MARCH AND YENAN: HARDSHIPS, SUFFERING, FLIRTING, PLANNING, MYTH AND REALITY

 

LONG MARCH

  

With the 1927 split between the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the CCP began to engage in armed struggle against the Chiang regime. The Red Army was established in 1927, and after a series of uprisings and internal political struggles, the CCP announced the establishment in 1931 of the Chinese Soviet Republic under the chairmanship of Mao in Jiangxi Province in south-central China.

  

In 1934, after suffering a string of defeats and a series of deadly annihilation campaigns by Chiang’s armies, the fledgling Communist Party and three Red Armies found themselves pinned down in the mountains of Jiangxi Province in southern China. After the Nationalist launched a powerful offensive, Mao made a decision for the Communists and Red Armies to break out of Jiangxi and flee their southern bases and retreat and meet up with Communist forces in Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia in northern China. This retreat became known as the Long March even though is was not one march, but several marches made up of different contingents of Communist armies on their way to the north. During the event Mao consolidated his hold over the CCP. In 1935 he became chairman, a position he held until his death in 1976.

  

The Long March is portrayed as China’s version of Valley Forge, where a group endured extreme hardship and overcame impossible odds to succeed in a final victory and help found a nation. In reality it wasn’t a march , or even strategic retreat: the soldiers ran for their lives, trying just to stay alive, pursued not only by the Kuomintnag but also by the militias and armies of local landlords. Forced to evacuate their camps and homes, the participants were mostly Communist soldiers and government. There were only 35 women, the spouses of high leaders. During the Long March, Mao finally gained unchallenged command of the CCP, ousting his rivals and reasserting guerrilla strategy.

  

The Long March is said to have lasted 368 days and covered 9,650 kilometers (about 6,000 miles). It began in Jiangxi on October 16, 1934 and crossed 24 rivers, 18 mountain ranges (5 covered with snow) and 11 provinces before it ended at the caves of Yenan (Yennan, Yanan) on the edge of the Gobi desert in northern China. During the march, 235 days were occupied by day marches and 18 by night marches. The army averaged a skirmish a day and spent 15 days in major battles.

  

Bloody Revolution 1Of the nearly 80,000 marchers who started the journey only 6,000 made it to Yenan. Of the 200,000 participated in the march—with many joining the march after it began—40,000 reached Yenan. Among the survivors were nearly all the high ranking Communist officials in Chinese government for the next 40 years—Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Lin Biao and Deng Xiaoping. On their way north, the Communist redistributed land to the peasants, organized guerilla groups and armed the peasants with captured Kuomintang weapons.

  

The Long March is recalled fondly with great idealism as a time when tens of thousands of Chinese peasant selflessly volunteered to join the fight. Hundreds of nationalist films and documentaries have been made about the event. It is difficult to determine fact from fiction. As of 2008 only about 500 Long March veterans remained alive. For generations they were considered heroes. Today some young Chinese regarded them as puppets of Communist propaganda.

  

Good Websites and Sources: Wikipedia article Wikipedia ; Paul Noll site paulnoll.com ; Chinese Government Account of Events chinadaily.com; Long March Remembered china.org.cn ; Long March map china.org.cn ; Communist China Posters of the Long March Landsberger Posters ; Books: The Long March by Edmund Jocelyn and Andree McEwen (2006) and The Long March by Sun Shuyun, based in accounts from 40 of 500 participants that were still alive in 2005. Links in this Website: WARLORDISM AND CHIANG KAI-SHEK Factsanddetails.com/China ; EARLY COMMUNISTS IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; MAO, HIS EARLY LIFE, TACTICS AND REVOLUTION Factsanddetails.com/China ; JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; CHINA AND WORLD WAR II Factsanddetails.com/China ; COMMUNISTS TAKE OVER CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China

  

Major Events and Myths of the Long March

  

Bloody Revolution 2 The Long March began in October 1934, when the First Red Army set out from Yudu in Jiangxi province. They would eventually traverse some 12,500 km over 370 days and arrive in Wuqi, Shaanxi province on Oct 19, 1935. Pursued by the numerically superior Kuomintang army, the Long Marchers often had to cross difficult terrains, snowy mountains and swamps. Fatigue, hunger and sickness claimed many lives, and only one-tenth of the force that left Jiangxi completed the Long March.

  

Events and names familiar to Chinese include the Zunyi Conference, where Mao consolidated his leadership of the Red Army; Zhangjiajie, in Hunan province, the starting point of the Second Red Army's Long March; and Jiajin Mountain in Sichuan province, the first snow mountain on the route and the place where the First Red Army joined forces with the Fourth Red Army. The Red Army traversed the areas of many ethnic groups, including Miao, Dong, Qiang, Tibetan, Hui and Mongolian.

  

Arthur Waldron, a professor of history at the University of Pennsylvania wrote, “In the 1930s, the two sides came to blows, as Chiang launched a series of encirclement campaigns against the rural base areas where the Communists were steadily building a state-within-a-state. The last of these campaigns, in 1934, proved so successful that the Communists had to break through the Nationalist lines and flee to the Northwest.” [Source:Arthur Waldron, a professor of history at the University of Pennsylvania, China Brief (Jamestown Foundation), October 22, 2009]

  

The march began with a simple order to retreat from bloody battle in Fujian and move on as quicky as possible. Burdened by heavy equipment Mao’s forces moved slowly and were quickly caught by the Kuomintang. One survivor remembered the leaders telling the wounded, “If you can walk, then go. If you cannot, you will be left behind.” Medics remember leaving wounded behind because there were simply too many of them to carry.

   

Long March route The first major obstacle of the Long March occurred in the mountainous region of West Yunnan, where the Yangtze River passes through a series of gorges with thousand-foot-high cliff wall. The Nationalists thought they had the Red Army trapped when they secured all the ferries that crossed the river. According to Communist lore a Red Army commando force captured a Kuomintang group at a ferry crossing after marching 85 miles in 24 hours. Dressed in Kuomintang uniforms the commandos crossed the river and persuaded the nationalist troops on the other side to send of over the ferryboats. In the middle of the night the Red Army crossed the Yangtze, established a fort on the other side and secured their route to the north. [Source: People's Almanac]

  

The next major obstacle was the Tatu (Dadu) River in western Sichuan. Mao's plan was to beat the Nationalists to the river by tying them up in an area inhabited by the Lolo, a hill tribe notorious for its hatred of the Chinese. After convincing the Lolo that the Kuomintang were their bitter enemy, the Red Army took a short cut across Lolo land to the Tatu River. If the Lolo had not allowed them to this the Red Army would have been forced to march through Tibet. [Source: People's Almanac]

  

The Red Army first tried to cross the flooding Dadu River at Anshunchnag but were unable to so and then trekked 130 kilometers over trackless Himalayan foot hills to Luding, a small settlement in a Himalayan valley not far form the Sichuan-Tibet border

  

In May 1935 the Kuomintang troops arrived before the Communists at Luding Bridge, 120-meter chain link footbridge that spanned the Dadu Rive. According to legend, by the time the Communists got to the bridge it had all of its planks removed and was guarded by a regiment of Kuomintang soldiers armed with machine guns. At night 22 brave Communist commandos, the story goes, went across the bridge--in some places hanging from the chains and pulling themselves forward hand over hand with grenades in their teeth--and captured the bridge, allowing the marchers to proceed. Mao later told Edgar Snow that the crossing the Dadu River was the single most important event of the Long March. Of the 80,000 soldiers that began the march in 1934, 20,000 made it as far as Luding Bridge.

  

Red Army Soldiers on the Long March

  

Mao Guangrong joined the Red Army as a destitute 15-year-old orphan. During the battle to defend the Communist base at Yan'an, a bullet tore through Mao Guangrong's back and came out through his groin. It took five men to hold him down as they stuffed the wound with cloth to staunch the bleeding; the only treatment the troops could muster as they found against enemy forces. But nine months later, he was back in battle against Chiang Kai-shek's. Nationalists. It was simple; if the People's Liberation Army won the civil war, ‘we could have shelter and land. And we wouldn't suffer starvation. And we wouldn't be oppressed.’ [Source: Tania Branigan, The Guardian, September 27, 2009]

  

Mao Guangrong, a soldier who joined the Red Army when he was a destitute 15-year-old orphan, told The Guardian,’Chairman Mao was a very simple person; he didn't wear smart clothes. He used old clothes we made ourselves and they had patches. After he finished his meals, he would walk out and talk to ordinary people... it wasn't like now, when it's so difficult to meet leaders.’ [Source: Tania Branigan, The Guardian, September 27, 2009]

  

Mao Guangrong told The Guardian,’After one village had turned red, we would start the propaganda work about what should be done next; what kind of people should be killed; despotic gentry, [harsh] landlords and local tyrants,’ Mao Guangrong recalled. ‘Also, beggars needed to be killed, because they didn't live on their own labor. ‘It was very easy to kill somebody. If you said anything reactionary they would kill you and if you didn't follow their leadership they killed you.’ [Source: Tania Branigan, The Guardian, September 27, 2009]

  

Deng Xiaoping and the Leaders of the 8 Route Army

  

Life on the Long March

  

The Communists are said to have traded opium for supplies and forced women to leave behind newborn children with peasant families out of concern that crying babies would endanger the troops.

  

While many officers rode on horses, soldiers walked. Many were proud of their uniforms and kept their spirits up singing songs with lines like “Play the violins!” Set up the revolutionary government!” Edmund Jocelyn, author of the 2006 book The Long March, told the Los Angeles Times, the “marchers recall the Red Army as like joining a new family. They fell in love with the Chinese Party. That love carried them through the abusive relationship that was to come.”

  

When the marchers stopped Mao reportedly tended his vegetable garden along with other peasants.

  

A few women on the Long March were allowed to fight as guerrillas, but most did supply and support work. A young woman by the name of Kuo Chun-Ching disguised herself as a man and received the Red army's highest decoration after she was wounded in battle.

  

Suffering on the Long March

  

The soldiers were often hungry, on the verge of starving, some times eating grass and woody plants they could forage. In the winter they suffered in the cold. One Long March medic who talked to the Los Angeles Times recalled getting hit by a nighttime snowstorm before he and his comrades could build a fire or set up a ten, While the members of the climbed beneath a pile of canvas and huddle together, one young soldier insisted on keeping watch. By morning he had frozen to death.

  

At the Battle of Xing River, Mao’s division lost half of its numbers. Survivors remembered wading neck-deep in ice-old water and watching bodies of slain comrades float by as enemy planes dropped bombs on them. Many froze to death in their wet uniforms.

  

During the winter crossing of a mountain pass by one battalion, more than 300 soldiers became snow blind. Medics recall the difficulty in finding vegetables and herbs in the middle of winter needed to help them.

     

Hardships in Sichuan on the Long March

  

During the summer of 1935 the Long March passed though the Great Snowy Mountains of Sichuan where Mao wrote, "on Pao-tung Kand peak alone, one army lost two thirds of its transport animals. Hundreds fell down and never got up again."

  

Later, the Red Army was almost defeated when the Kuomintang advanced on them after factional fighting between Red Army forces led by Mao and forces commanded by Zhang Kua-tao, one of Mao's main rivals wihin the party. To escape the Red Army advanced through the mountains of western Sichuan where they were forced to steal from hostile native tribes to survive. "To get one sheep," Mao later wrote, "cost the life of one comrade." [Source: People's Almanac]

  

In September the Red Army passed through the steppes of central China where many perished from starvation and disease during a period of unusually strong rains. Describing this phase of the march, Zhou Enlai later wrote: "For us, the darkest time in history was during our Long March...especially when we crossed the Great Grasslands near Tibet. Our condition was desperate. We not only had nothing to eat, we had nothing to drink. Yet we survived and won victory."

  

People slept in shelters made from bushes tied together and subsisted on wild roots and herbs. Despite the heavy rains safe drinking was in short supply and some marchers were forced to drink their own urine. By the time the red Army arrived on the Kansu Plains there were only about 6,000 people left. [Source: People's Almanac]

  

End of the Long March

   

Long March in Yenan On October 25, 1935 the Long March ended when the southern Red Army joined the northern Red Army in Yenan in northern China. The participants in the Long March were not sure where and when their journey was to end. There were frequent debates as to what the final destination would be.

  

The end of the Long March was not some great “promised land” but rather was an impoverished corner of the Gobi desert that could barely support its own population let alone the Red Armies.

  

Soldiers didn’t have enough clothes to keep them warm. Women were ordered to return because there wasn’t enough food to feed them. Barely a month after the marchers were told their journey was over they were told to pack up and prepare to continue. The kidnaping of Chiang Kai -shek by one of his own generals is what saved them. One of the terms for his release was recognition of the Communists as legitimate, so a united Chinese force could devote its attention to the Japanese.

  

But even then the march wasn’t over for the 21,000 troops under the leadership of Kuo-tao, one of Mao’s main rivals. Their mission was to get help from the Soviets on their border with western China. But Mao purposely gave them contradictory orders, allowing them to be trapped by a Muslim warlord. Only 400 reached the border. The rest were killed or captured.

  

Truth Behind the Long March

  

It is hard to call the Long March a great victory, The Communist Army was largely on the run and when it fought a battle it was usually defeated, suffering huge losses. Many historians think the Chiang Kai-shek allowed the Communist to escape. Six weeks after the Long March began Mao’s army was reduced from 86,000 to 30,000 troops at the Battle on Xiang River. At most 15,000 died; the rest fled.

  

Many of the reported events of the Long Mrach, it seems, never happened or were exaggerated. The Luding Bridge incident appears to be a complete fabrication. There were no Nationalist troops at the bridge and there was no battle: only a skirmish with no casualties. The local warlord, who controlled the bridge and hated Chiang Kai-shek, let Mao's army pass and was later made a minister in the Communist government.

  

Many questions have been raised about the original story line. The distance covered now appeared to have been 6000 miles not 8000 miles and some question whether it lasted until 1936.

  

Mao's role in the Long March was often inaccurately reported. It has often beem claimed that he walked the entire 6,000 mile distance but in fact he was carried much of the way on a litter by porters and used the time to read. While Mao’s troops suffered huge losses, not a single senior party member was killed or even seriously wounded.

  

The Long March was third longer than was necessary as Mao dragged the Red Army in a huge loop so he could go near the Soviet border to receive arms because the Soviets said that whoever made first contact with them would be recognized as the leader of the Chinese Communist Party.

  

Luding Bridge

It also appears not all the participants of the Long March were enthusiastic volunteers. Some were press ganged captives. Sun Shuyun, author of a book on the Long March, interviewed one man who said he was barely into his teens when he was forced to join the Red Army and he only did so because his father was arrested and would not be released until the man agreed to join the army. The man thought of deserting but stayed on because he feared being caught and executed.

  

Driven by desperation and hunger, the armies took hostages for ransom. Purges continued until there were practicably no officers left to command battles

  

Legacy of the Long March

  

Even though the Red Army lost most its men during the Long March, the event was a turning point for the Communist Revolution. According to popular lore, the Communist forces and the People's Liberation Army (Red Army) were battered and worn but defiant. Self-sacrifice and compassion shown towards civilians made the Communists into heros. Over the next decade the Red Army regrouped, drew new recruits and wore down and ultimately defeated Chiang Ka-shek’s forces.

  

What motivated the marchers? A top general at the time later told Sun, “I had nor idea then and now. I doubt that even Mao knew what it was.” For the general, a survivor who rose up from extreme poverty, communism was a beautiful dream that gave him hope for a more just and advanced society.

   

Deng Xiaoping Around the Time of the Long March

According to a poem by Mao Zedong:

  

The Red Army, never fearing the challenging Long March,

Looked lightly on the many peaks and rivers,

Wu Meng's range rose, lowered, rippled,

And green-tiered were the rounded steps of Wu Meng

Warm-beating the Gold Sand River's

waves against the rocks,

And cold the iron chains of Tatu bridge,

A thousand joyous li of fresh snow on Min Shan

And then, the last pass vanquished, the Armies smiled.

  

The Long March has been preserved in exhibitions, ballets, books, a seven-part made-for-television movie, and even a Long March video game. The 60th anniversary of the event was commemorated with a television special featuring dancing soldiers with bayonets and a motorcade on a theater stage with an actor playing Deng Xiaoping waving through the sunroof. The Communist party reportedly has plans to build a Long March theme park in central Hunan province.

  

Communists in Yenan

  

As a final destination, Mao selected southern Shaanxi Province, where some 8,000 survivors of the original group from Jiangxi Province (joined by some 22,000 from other areas) arrived in October 1935. The Communists set up their headquarters at Yenan, where the movement would grow rapidly for the next ten years. Contributing to this growth would be a combination of internal and external circumstances, of which aggression by the Japanese was perhaps the most significant. Conflict with Japan, which would continue from the 1930s to the end of World War II, was the other force (besides the Communists themselves) that would undermine the Nationalist government. [Source: The Library of Congress]

  

At Yan'an and elsewhere in the "liberated areas," Mao was able to adapt Marxism-Leninism to Chinese conditions. He taught party cadres to lead the masses by living and working with them, eating their food, and thinking their thoughts. The Red Army fostered an image of conducting guerrilla warfare in defense of the people. Communist troops adapted to changing wartime conditions and became a seasoned fighting force. Mao also began preparing for the establishment of a new China. In 1940 he outlined the program of the Chinese Communists for an eventual seizure of power. His teachings became the central tenets of the CCP doctrine that came to be formalized as Mao Zedong Thought. With skillful organizational and propaganda work, the Communists increased party membership from 100,000 in 1937 to 1.2 million by 1945. [Ibid]

  

Mao Flirts and Waits After the Long March

   

Mao in Yenan in 1937

The Mao set up a military command post in Yenan and directed the Communist army for the 13 years from there. Young people from all over China came to Yenan to join the revolution or simply catch a glimpse of history. Mao spent his time in Yenan reading and relaxing, discussing poetry and plans of equality between the sexes with attractive women, and encouraging revolutionaries such as Zhu De and Zhou Enlai to take up ballroom dancing. In Yenan Mao developed the Yenan Rectification campaign, aimed at purifying beliefs of new recruits to the Communist Party and ensuring their loyalty and fealty to Mao as the ultimate authority. The campaign was a precursor to grander and more destructive purges that occurred when the Communists took power.

  

According the book Mao's Brothers and Sisters," Mao's second wife He Zichen became enraged with her husband's flirtation with an American journalist named Agnes Smedly and her beautiful Chinese translator Lily Wu. According to the book the two women "became the target of all the female comrades."

  

One night He reportedly burst in on Mao and Wu while they were talking about poetry and called Mao a "rotten egg" who "wants to usurp me with capitalist dances." She pulled Wu's hair "until her head started bleeding" and got into a fight with Smedly after calling her an "imperialist" who was "to blame for everything." Smedly reportedly said He was "weak and monastic, an unsuitable companion for a revolutionary leader."

  

Mao fine tuned many methods of political terror—purging real and imagined enemies—that would serve him well when he was leader of China. He also sold opium to raise money for his army.

  

Sidney Rittenberg and Other Westerners in China in the Long March Period

  

Most people in the West had never heard of Mao until he was interviewed by American journalist Edgar Snow. Snow's book Red Star Over China made both men well known. Snow was later kicked out of China and prohibited from entering the country until 1960. In 1970 he was the first journalist to report that Mao wanted to meet Nixon. In 1972, Snow died, attended by doctors sent by Zhou Enlai.

  

The West was also not aware of Kuomintang atrocities until another famous American journalist, Theodore White, reported that Chiang Kai-shek's army warehouses overflowed with grain while people in the Hunan province were starving to death, and eating bark and leaves to survive.

  

Another famous Western associated with Mao was Sidney Rittenberg. Born in South Carolina, he lived in China for 35 years, shared rice gruel in a cave with Mao, and taught him about American life. He served as Communist Party functionary and as an advisor to the Gang of Four during the Cultural Revolution and spent 16 years in Chinese jails in solitary confinement after being falsely accused of spying. Today he is regarded as one of the leading China experts in the United States. Among those who have sought his advise, counsel and help are Bill Gates and executives with Intel and Levi Strauss.

  

Sidney Rittenberg, the first American to join the Chinese Communist Party, turned 91 in August 2012. A documentary— “The Revolutionary”—released around that time, Mark McDonald,of the New York Times wrote, “describes how a kid from Charleston, South Carolina, ended up in a mountain cave playing gin rummy with Mao Zedong” and later held up through two long stints in Communist prisons, enduring long stretches in solitary, “sitting there with your own potential madness sitting across from you, watching you, knowing it’s either you or him.” [Source: Mark McDonald, IHT Rendezvous Blog, New York Times, July 10, 2012]

  

“McDonald wrote on the IHT Rendezvous Blog: “Rittenberg took an interesting career path, to say the least. Arriving in China as a language expert for the U.S. military just as World War II was ending, he stayed behind after the war to join the Communist revolution. A Chinese state television account says Mr. Rittenberg had a come-to-Communism moment when he was still in the military. He was outraged when he heard that a rickshaw puller had received just $14 in compensation from the Chinese Nationalist government when his child was killed by a drunk driver, an American surgeon. In a recent TedX video interview, Mr. Rittenberg said he felt he was “fulfilling an historical need” and was excited by the chance to have “my finger on the pulse of history.” [Ibid]

  

“Known in China as Li Dunbai — the phonetic expression of Rittenberg — he trekked to the Communist guerrillas’ mountain sanctuary of Yan’an in 1946. He met Mao the day he arrived, he said, and came to know him and the inner circle of senior Communist leaders who were hunkered down there. At night they played gin rummy, horsed around and watched Laurel and Hardy films. The leaders used him to polish and edit their messages into perfect English. He later translated some of Mao’s writings — the Chairman even autographed his Little Red Book — and he worked for the New China News Agency and Radio Peking. [Ibid]

  

“Mr. Rittenberg has always acknowledged that he was smitten with the Communist party, especially in its relief efforts with the poor. “It was clean as a whistle,” he said in a Guardian interview, noting that the leaders in the early days lived simply and ate frugally.In 1956 Mr. Rittenberg married a Chinese woman, Wang Yulin, after professing his feelings — against the advice of friends — in a love letter. Still married, now living in Fox Island, Washington, they have three daughters and a son. [Ibid]

  

“In all, Mr. Rittenberg spent 34 years in China, from the Communists’ victory in the revolution through the horrors of the Great Leap Forward, the ensuing famine and the Cultural Revolution. In various interviews over the years he has seemed sad, wistful, angry and ashamed of the excesses and damage of those years. In the preface to his autobiography, he said that he, like others, had “walked the Communist Road in the hope of creating a new and better world.” “But at the same time I want to paint a clear picture of the evils that ensued,” he wrote. “I saw them. I lived with them. In some cases — to my shame and chagrin today — I participated in them.” The autobiography, written with the journalist Amanda Bennett, is titled “The Man Who Stayed Behind.” [Ibid]

  

“In the new film, he says that a revolution “is not like inviting guests to dinner. It can’t be that civilized, that gracious, that courteous, that gentle.” And so it went — not gently — for Mr. Rittenberg personally. His first prison stint came when Joseph Stalin asked Mao to arrest him as an agent of U.S. imperialism who had been sent to sabotage the Chinese revolution. His jailers drugged him to keep him edgy, awake, sleep-deprived. “You’re supposed to break down and confess,” he said. “I broke down, but I had nothing to confess. So it’s kind of awkward.” His second prison term came at the behest of Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing. “A fantastic woman,” he said of Madame Mao in one interview, whereupon his wife interjected, “A horrible woman.” [Ibid]

  

“Mr. Rittenberg spent a total of 16 years in prison in China, and now says with a rueful grin, “I hate to be a whiner, but it was too long.” Released in 1977, he returned to the United States in 1979 for a vacation and wrote an essay for The Times about his initial impressions. Mr. Rittenberg left China with his family for good in 1980. [Ibid]

  

“An article in the New York Times by Gary Rivlin in 2004 detailed how Mr. Rittenberg had become a much sought-after consultant for firms looking to do business in China. His client list has since included Intel, Nextel, Microsoft and the like. “We can see just about anybody we need to see in China because people are curious to meet me,” Mr. Rittenberg said of his continuing access to Chinese business and political leaders. John Zagula, a Washington venture capitalist, was one of those who took counsel from Mr. Rittenberg. “If he bears scars from his time in prison,” Mr. Zagula said, “those are scars that he somehow has turned to be positive for him. He’s vital. He’s engaged. He has a BlackBerry. He’s totally with it. He knows what’s going on in the world.” [Ibid]

  

“A BBC interviewer asked Rittenberg in 2011last year whether a Communist Party exists today.“Not by any definition I know of,” he replied. “Today you don’t find much morality.” [Ibid]

  

Long March Tourism

   

Long March Luding Bridge

propaganda poster Mu Qian wrote in the China Daily, “When the Red Army trekked through some of China's most remote and treacherous areas during their Long March, they could never have imagined the same route would become part of the travel itinerary for travelers 70 years later. Today, many places along the Long March have become tourist destinations as China tries to boost "red tourism". The National Tourism Administration recently selected the "Long March Route" as one of 12 national tourism routes. [Source: Mu Qian, China Daily, June 9, 2011]

  

On the website of China Travel Service, "red tours" rank at the top of themed tours, above "folklore tours" and "international horticultural exposition tours". The itineraries offered by the company cover many areas of the Long March - from Jiangxi province, its starting point, through Guizhou, Yunnan and Sichuan, to Shaanxi, where the Red Army ended its journey. China CYTS Tours launched its "Year of Red Tourism" in 2011 with the theme, "Retracing the Long March". Its first group of tourists went to Guizhou's Long March sites such as Loushanguan, Chishui and Maotai.

  

"With an increase in living standards, people are looking for a more spiritual travel experience," says Ge Qun, vice-president of China CYTS Tours. "The reason 'red tourism' has become more popular is that Chinese people want to know more about history." Equipped with better infrastructure, many of these areas are more accessible today, and their natural beauty is attracting some travelers.

  

Places where important events during the Long March happened are now hot destinations on "red tours", such as the former site of the Zunyi Conference which consolidated Mao Zedong's leadership of the Red Army, and Luding Bridge where the Red Army crossed the Dadu River in 1935. On the Long March, the Red Army traversed the areas of many ethnic groups, including Miao, Dong, Qiang, Tibetan, Hui and Mongolian. Their diverse cultures are also one of the attractions of tour itineraries related to the Long March.

  

Zhangjiajie, in Hunan province, was the starting point of the Second Red Army's Long March. With its breathtaking rock formations, the area is one of the most popular tourist sites in China and was the setting for many scenes in the blockbuster Avatar. Jiajin Mountain in Sichuan province, the first snow mountain on the route of the Long March and the place where the First Red Army joined forces with the Fourth Red Army, is now a national forest park known for its rich botanical and zoological resources.

  

Red Rock Treks is a company set up by Englishman Ed Jocelyn, who retraced the entire marches of the First and Second Red Army on foot, in 2002-03 and 2005-06, and who co-authored the book The Long March, which was published in five languages in 2006-07.

  

Detailing the itinerary he designs for foreign travelers interested in the Long March, Jocelyn says: "From a Tibetan village in the valley of the Blackwater River, we will first cross two of the great snow mountains of western Sichuan province. At 4,450 meters, the pass over the second of these is the highest point of Mao's entire march. ..We then enter the infamous grasslands, a vast region of prairies, swamps and bogs more than 3,400 meters above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where hundreds of Mao's soldiers perished in 1935.

  

"Finally, we explore the ancient and long-disused trail into Northwest China via the stunning valleys of Lawa and Baozuo. Accompanied by a Tibetan horse team, we will trek and live alongside yak herders whose way of life has changed little for hundreds of years...This is a true exploration not just of history, but also of a country and culture rarely seen by outsiders."

  

Image Sources: Ohio State University, Agnes Smedley and Landsberger Posters www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/

  

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

  

Page Top

  

© 2008 Jeffrey Hays

  

Last updated January 2013

 

from www.google.com.hk/imgres?imgurl=http://factsanddetails.co...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

■Rosa García nació en Madrid en 1965. Casada y madre de tres niños.

■CEO de Siemens España desde el 1 de octubre de 2011.

■Miembro del Consejo de Administración de Banesto, Bolsas y Mercados Españoles (BME).

■Miembro del Consejo Rector de la Asociación para el Progreso de la Dirección (APD).

■Licenciada en Matemáticas, con más de 25 años de experiencia en la industria de las Tecnologías de la Información.

■El potencial de la Innovación es para ella la gran palanca de mejora de la vida de las personas y la sociedad y lo que le ha motivado a incorporarse a Siemens.

■Vuelve a España con el propósito de desarrollar desde Siemens un importante papel en el desarrollo sostenible de su país y de ayudar a la recuperación económica.

 

Trayectoria Profesional:

■Sus primeros años como profesional los desarrolló en multinacionales como NEC en Alemania y WordPerfect en España.

■En 1991 empezó en Microsoft Ibérica como Directora de Soporte Técnico.

■En 1995 se fue a la sede central de Microsoft en Redmond (EE.UU.) para colaborar directamente con el actual CEO y Presidente, Steve Ballmer, como Directora de Proyectos Estratégicos Corporativos.

■En 2000, Rosa García fue nombrada Directora General Corporativa de Ventas y Marketing de Partners de Microsoft.

■En mayo de 2002 volvió a España como Presidenta de Microsoft Ibérica. En sus seis años en el cargo la compañía triplicó su volumen de negocio y consiguió ser reconocida como la mejor empresa para trabajar en España.

■En julio de 2008 fue nombrada Vicepresidenta de Microsoft Western Europe para la nueva división de Consumo & Online. Su área de responsabilidad incluía el negocio de Windows Consumer, Windows Mobile, Windows Live y MSN en los catorce países que integran la región.

■Miembro del Fórum de Alta Dirección.

■Numerosos premios: Premio Áster a la Trayectoria Profesional (ESIC), Premio a la Mujer Directiva (FEDEPE); Directivo del Año (AED), Mujer Directiva (ASEME).

■Directivo del Año por las revistas ComputerWorld y Computing y Premio Nacional.

■Alares a la Conciliación de la Vida Laboral, Familiar y Personal en la categoría de Directivos.

IMG_1145 The Asp: a Toxic Caterpillar

 

I still am having a lot of trouble getting my macros in focus.

 

images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sciencenewsblo...

  

The Asp: a Toxic Caterpillar

 

The Asp, also known as a Puss Moth Caterpillar, is a dangerous pest that many people are unaware of since caterpillars and moths are typically seen as harmless. The Asp can be found in Texas and other southern states. The UT Houston Medical School offers a webpage with more information about these unusual caterpillars including an explanation of why they are a serious health risk.

 

Puss moth caterpillars can pose a genuine health hazard. Intense, throbbing pain develops immediately or within five minutes of contact with the caterpillar. Stings on the arm may also result in pain in the axillary (armpit) region. Erythematous (blood-colored) spots may appear at the site of the sting. Other symptoms can include headaches, nausea, vomiting, intense abdominal distress, lymphadenopathy, lymphadenitis, and sometimes shock or respiratory stress. Pain usually subsides within an hour and spots disappear in a day or so -- however, with a larger dose of the venom, it is not uncommon for the symptoms to last up to 5 days.

 

More information can be found on this website which refers to the asp as the most toxic caterpillar in the U.S. An article on PubMed explains more about the health risk from Asps:

 

The most frequently reported caterpillar envenomation in Central Texas is by the puss caterpillar or "asp," Megalopyge opercularis. This caterpillar is described by patients and physicians as inflicting intense radiating pain. The intensity of symptoms may be underestimated leading to undertreatment. Adequate treatment protocols have been lacking and those in use are not very successful.

 

Cambridge, England, 14 December 2012--MP Real Estate, acting on behalf of Ignis Asset Management, have secured a sale of The Platinum Building on St John’s Innovation Park, Cambridge, to St John’s College, Cambridge for £7.11 million.

 

St John’s Innovation Park is located on the north side of Cambridge at the junction of the A14 and A10, opposite the Cambridge Science Park. The prime multi-let long leasehold office/R&D property is located at the heart of the Innovation Park and extends to 40,842 sq ft over ground and 2 upper floors.

 

The building is let to five tenants: Teraview Limited, Telstra Limited, Ensors LLP, Amantys Limited and Light Blue Optics, and produces an income of £681,500 per annum. A small 2,500 sq ft suite at ground floor is currently vacant.

 

The sale price reflects a net initial yield of 9.00%.

 

Andrew McGahey, Director, MP Real Estate commented: “We are pleased to have secured a disposal of this asset for our client, meeting their pricing and timing expectations in what remains a challenging market.”

 

Commenting on the sale, Stuart Paterson of Ignis Real Estate said “Our strategy to sell before the year end has been achieved, and MP Real Estate worked tirelessly to meet our goals. We are very pleased with the outcome.”

 

Ignis Asset Management was represented by MP Real Estate and Lambert Smith Hampton, whilst the purchaser was represented by Savills.

 

MP Real Estate

 

MP Real Estate is a new specialist Property Investment and Development consultancy based in Cambridge.

 

Directors Andrew McGahey and Neil Perrin offer a bespoke service that is both personal and efficient, with client care a priority.

 

Andrew was recently Head of Lambert Smith Hampton’s Cambridge office and specialises in Investment purchases, funding and sales, acting for many of the major UK institutional investors and high net worth individuals. He has recently been involved in the funding of the new Microsoft Research building on Station Road, which Microsoft will occupy later this year, and the purchase of the multi-let St Andrew’s House.

 

Neil is formerly the Head of Mixed Use development at Savills Cambridge office and works with clients that include Aldi, Premier Inn, Costa Coffee and Marstons. He has recently acquired the former Barclays Bank in Bene’t Street, Cambridge for Kings College and is working on Octagon Park in Ely and The Arcade in Walthamstow - two major mixed-use development schemes.

 

Between them, they have over fifty years experience within the property industry and will principally focus on client requirements in the south-east and eastern region.

 

Commenting on the formation of MP Real Estate, Andrew said: “Neil and I have worked closely together over a number of years, and are both focused on delivering a high quality service to our clients.”

 

Neil commented: “It seemed a very logical fit for the two of us to team up. We are able to provide our clients with a fully dedicated service through the challenges of the development and funding process.”

 

MP Real Estate is based in central Cambridge at Millers Yard, Mill Lane.

 

For more information, please contact:

 

Andrew McGahey

 

MP Real Estate

23 Millers Yard

10/11 Mill Lane

Cambridge

CB2 1RQ

 

Telephone: 01223 755110

Mobile: 07834 566739

E-mail: amcgahey@mprealestate.co.uk

 

Neil Perrin

Telephone: 01223 755110

Mobile: 07539 582582

E-mail: nperrin@mprealestate.co.uk

 

Website: www.mprealestate.co.uk

 

The Platinum Building, St John’s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS

 

THE ELITE CAMBRIDGE BUSINESS CIRCLE

 

The Elite Cambridge Business Circle is an association founded in 2009 by some of the top companies in Cambridgeshire.

 

Its purpose is to publicise its members, and to celebrate and promote the wealth and rich diversity of entrepreneurial talent and business excellence that abounds here within the county boundaries of Cambridgeshire.

 

Frazer Coogans Commercial Solicitors senior partner Norman Geddes is executive chairman of the Elite Cambridge Business Circle, and managing director is public relations consultancy Fame Publicity Services proprietor Murdoch MacDonald.

 

www.frazercoogans.co.uk

 

Issued by:

 

Murdoch MacDonald

Fame Publicity Services

10 Miller Road

AYR, Ayrshire

Scotland KA7 2AY

 

E-mail FamePublicity@aol.com

Web: www.CambridgeshireBusinessNews.com

Telephone: 01292 281498

Mobile: 07833 667322

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

AFRICA -Dr.C.K.Atal, United Nations consultant - Africa,1993

 

INTERNATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS

41.INTERNATIONAL BASE – He has resided in USA (1954 to 1958) as a US resident (status green card), worked as Chairman/associate Professor grade at Nebraska, USA, and migrated to Indian citizenship, going against the trend of brain drain. He has worked for about 8 -9 years internationally as UN consultant (including 7 years in field south East Asia, base Vietnam, 1985 - 92). He has extensively travelled to 30-35 countries internationally as UN consultant, as CSIR consultant or mission consultant to major organizations in countries in Asia, SE Asia, Europe, USA, Africa etc.

42.INTERNATIONAL CONSULTANCIES-(Serial no 43-65, MISSION CONSULTANT to world organizations, also See countries traveled Serial no 68). The various scientific interactions are for Eli Lilly-USA, Polish Academy of Sciences, British Council, Organization Of African Unity (OAU), West Indies, Burma Government, Vietnam Government, Bangladesh Government, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), USFDA, Soviet Academy of Sciences, University of Texas, USA (lecture at Pharmaceutical Sciences department), UK University of Exeter (Commonwealth Foundation, Univ. Grants Commission), University of Munchen, Germany, SAARC scientific conference (Sri Lanka), France, Bulgaria etc.

43.UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL CONSULTANCIES- See details in mission consultant, UN Passport records (laissez passer).

A.WHO (Bangladesh), WHO (USA), FAO (non wood forest products), APPOINTED/SELECTED FOR UN PROJECT IN AFGHANISTAN (project postponed for technical/safety reasons due to instability in the region), UN HEADQUARTERS (VIENNA, AUSTRIA) for formulating UN projects in Vietnam,UNITED NATIONS -AFRICA (for identifying viable projects in Africa),

B.UNDP, UNIDO-VIETNAM - five United Nations projects costing approximately about 10 to 13 million US dollars.

•HERBAL-MEDICINES.

•ESSENTIAL-OILS.

•DYES-&-PIGMENTS.

•AROMA-CHEMICALS.

•HIGH VALUE ROSIN & TURPENTINE.

MISSION CONSULTANT TO MAJOR INTERNATIONAL WORLD ORGANISATIONS

CONSULTANCY, ADVISOR, PROJECT LEADER, IDENTIFYING AND IMPLEMENTING PROJECTS, TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, SCIENTIFIC INTERACTION, FELLOWSHIP, LECTURES, CHAIRING INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES ETC

44.USA (1957-58,) - ELI LILLY SUMMER FELLOWSHIP, USA - on selection & development of high yield strains of Clavicaps purpurea and submerged culture of Clavicaps purpurea .Other visits in 1974, 1981, 1992, 2004.

45.USA,National science foundation,1974-two months

46.POLAND (Nov,1972) – POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES/ INSTITUTE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY - headed by the Polish Director, Dr. Kocor (pronounced as kochur) invited Dr. Atal for lecture (Chemistry of Natural Products) & technology demonstration in several institutes of Poland in 1972. www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6506006811/

47.WEST INDIES- CARRIBEAN AREA (1979) - (expert on behalf of COMMON WEALTH RESEARCH COUNCIL-BRITISH COUNCIL, TRINIDAD TOBAGO)-, Distillation techniques & technology demonstration, lectures, introduction of lemon grass oils etc.

48.GERMANY (UNIVERSITY OF MUNCHEN /MUNICH)-(Nuclear research institute) invited Dr. Atal as a solar energy consultant, visited Germany in 1978 & 1985.

49.FRANCE (1980) - STRASBOURG INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH CONGRESS -to chair the international conference “International Research Congress on natural products as medicinal agents”, on July, 6-12, 1980.

50.BULGARIA (1981) - SOFIA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, -to chair a session on the international conference on “Chemistry and Biotechnology of biologically active natural products” and Rose oil, on 22 Sept, 1981.

51.GREECE-delivered a special lecture at international symposium on Aromatic plants.

52.BURMA (1981) – GOVERNMENT OF BURMA (Rangoon), (presently Myanmar): To set up Menthol distillation plant , transfer of technology for production of bold crystals of Menthol from Mentha arvensis, setting up a menthol pilot plant & demonstration unit (Menthol extraction plant) and training techniques. The Pharmaceutical research Department of Central Research Organization (CRO), Burma was provided Diosgenin – Progesteron plant at Hmaw-Bi, Rangoon. www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6824106944/in/photostr... www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6970421821/in/photostream

53.USA (Oct 1981) FOUR WEEKS –He was appointed as international consultant to USA in his capacity as one of the leading world authorities on Crotalaria.

A.WHO (WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION)- World Health Organization was the primary agency to appoint him as WHO expert consultant on toxicology, particularly on Crotalaria and its toxicity and sent him to USA as consultant to other agencies.

B.USFDA (BUREAU OF FOODS, US FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION) – USFDA-Division Of Toxicology as consultant on toxicology, for division of chemistry and physics, & division of toxicology, bureau of foods, USFDA , regarding toxicity studies / human toxicity particularly by Crotalaria mixed in food chain/ Pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing seeds.

C.PAHO (PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION) - WHO appointed him as consultant on toxicology for PAHO as well as USFDA simultaneously.

54.RUSSIA AND TASHKENT, (1981) - Soviet academy of sciences: invited Dr. Atal for lecture and technology demonstration.

55.WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION

A.USA CONSULTANCY - as noted above.

B.BANGLADESH CSIR- as noted below.

56.SELECTED FOR UN PROJECT IN AFGHANISTAN (around 1983-84) –due to prevailing instability, project was suspended/postponed for safety reasons.

57.BANGLADESH GOVERNMENT (1984) - for helping Bangladesh CSIR, for technology demonstration to upgrade/modernize their Pharmaceutical formulations, like Chavanprash. (See NEXT HEADING-WHO below).

58.WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) 1984 – (Refer to Bangladesh Govt. Above) appointed him as consultant to help establish technology institutes for Bangladesh Govt. (CSIR). (See above topic).

59.UNITED KINGDOM (1984) -University of Exeter (Commonwealth Foundation / University Grants Commission) invited Dr. Atal for lecture tours. A Holland tour also was included in this tour.

60.UNITED NATIONS (VIENNA, AUSTRIA) (1984 /85) for identifying projects in developing countries like South East Asia, Vietnam. Project was handled by Mrs. Cheknovorian who offered Dr. Atal to implement these projects in Vietnam as UN chief consultant and which was soon accepted by Dr. Atal.

61.UNIDO/UNDP,VIETNAM ( BASE S. E. ASIA - seven years, 1985-1992)- For peer reviews on UN contributions by a distinguished international UN consultant, www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/5737077185/in/photostream Dr. Atal was Chief technical advisor (Chemical Technologist in UN roster) for five projects funded by United Nations costing about 11-13 million US dollars implemented and commissioned in Vietnam ( field area South East Asia). He implemented the projects successfully, on time schedule and within budget.

•PROJECT-DP/VIE/80/032-HANOI-VIETNAM,(HERBAL-MEDICINES).

•PROJECT-DP/VIE/84/010-HANOI-VIETNAM,(ESSENTIAL-OILS).

•PROJECT-DP/VIE/85/001-HO CHI MINH CITY-VIETNAM(DYES & PIGMENTS).

•PROJECT-DP/VIE/86/033-HO CHI MINH CITY - VIETNAM(AROMA CHEMICALS).

•PROJECT-DP/VIE/TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH VALUE ROSIN & TURPENTINE. This resulted in high quality production of several natural plant based products, with huge socioeconomic and industrial benefit. The projects were successful socioeconomically. For example, in the very first year of its production, the sales of Eucalyptus oil crossed the million dollar mark in international market due to its strict quality control. Other examples include Bixa orellana (butter yellow) Berberine factories, Curcumin/ turmeric factory, dyes, essential oils, aroma chemicals, cultivation techniques, field’s establishment, and many other projects. More projects were offered to him but he returned to India

62.VIETNAM GOVERNMENT (1985-1992) Institutes of Vietnam ,examples like Institute of Materia Medica (Hanoi) headed by Madam Knu were upgraded with latest technology and scientific infrastructure at both Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh, all funded by UN. (Serial no 42, UNIDO/UNDP 1985-1992). He developed large cultivation farms and factories for medicinal and aromatic plants at Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City), for projects like berberine from Berberis, curcumin from rhizomes of Curcuma longa / haldi and many other projects for Vietnam government. . (See above topic).

63.USA-HOUSTON TEXAS UNIVERSITY (1992) - Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences for lecture on biologically active molecules at the University institute.

64.POLISH HERBAL PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY “HERBAPOL” (post 1992) for identifying joint ventures with India, complimentary task.

65.UN - AFRICA CONSULTANCY-- FOR UN PROJECTS (1993) –See OAU BELOW www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6506000399/

66.AFRICA-ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU-1993) - to help in development of Africa by formulation of United Nations funded developmental projects in Africa, Mozambique, Swaziland, and Maputo.(see above topic).

67.UNIDO / FAO (FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION) PROJECT - ON NON WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS - SIX MONTHS PROJECT FOR, UNITED NATIONS (1994) (FAO UN PROJECT TF/GLO/94/009/11-01) –assigned as international expert to prepare UN project lead paper /keynote address on non wood forest products for “International Symposium on Forestry” on occasion of World forestry day at Djakarta, Indonesia. The compilation is published by UN/FAO-Viale dells Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. (International Expert Consultation on non wood forest products, 1995), article 4.2.1 (Processing, refinement and value addition of non wood forest products –T. De Silva and C.K. Atal)).

A.http://www.fao.org/docrep/v7540e/v7540e00.htm

B.http://www.fao.org/docrep/v7540e/V7540e18.htm

68.SAARC SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE (COLOMBO, SRI LANKA)–MEMBER OF INTERNATIONAL DELEGATION OF EXPERTS FROM SAARC COUNTRIES HELD AT SRI LANKA , 1995- international experts scientific conference of SAARC countries at SAARC Colombo scientific Conference held in 1995,third week of October.

OTHER SIGNIFICANT INTERNATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS

69.WORLD AUTHORITY ON CROTALARIA –

A.Solving the outbreak of mysterious Phoolan bimari disease (epidemic of swelling of body in Sarguja district in Madhya Pradesh, India). Several teams investigated this baffling disease, including All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. It was being attributed to some new disease of infectious etiology. This was solved by Dr. Atal when the cause was suspected and subsequently found to be toxicity by crotalaria seeds as food adulterant .It was covered in the national news. A team under Dr. Prabhay Singh Jamwal was deputed to the affected area with the instructions to collect all weeds in the fields particularly focusing on suspect Crotalaria. The team returned with several specimens but was unable to find Crotalaria. However on closer scrutiny the rogue plant was identified by Dr. Atal based on examination of unusually tiny but typical seeds of the plant among the sample specimens brought. Further research confirmed the toxicity due to Crotalaria plant.

B.Numerous serial research publications on Crotalaria have been published.

C.On the basis of these numerous publications , WHO appointed Dr. Atal as expert on Crotalaria toxicity and deputed him as consultant to USA, (Oct, 1981) for division of Chemistry and Physics and Division of Toxicology, Bureau of Foods, Food & Drug Administration (FDA) USA / and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO-USA). Dr. Atal then conducted several lecture tours all over USA (wherever Toxicology work was going on) for toxic plant residues and adulteration in foods and cereals, isolation, detection of hepatotoxins in food chain, especially Crotalaria toxin which had caused morbidity / mortality in USA.

70.INTERNATIONAL IMPACT OF WORK-. Dr. Atal, a student of internationally acclaimed Pharmacognosist Prof. A.E. Schwarting (USA), has been one of the leading International multidisciplinary Pharmacognosists. He was a based internationally as green card US resident and as UN consultant for several projects internationally for about 12-13 years. He served as international multidisciplinary consultant to numerous major international organizations, world bodies, several countries and several United Nations organizations. Multiple multimillion US dollars UN projects successfully implemented/formulated by him have resulted in significant international socioeconomic benefits for the developing world like Vietnam. His drug development projects (Serial no 92-104, drug discovery) include internationally marketed formulations like Sallaki by Gufic (India, Europe, other countries) and Debelysin by Herbapol (Ukraine, Byelorussia, Poland etc). He has several “first reporting’s in the world” and new pioneering concepts in science, like discovery of plant immunomodulators (from rasayanas) and concept of bioenhancers in medical science. It has led to official launching of world’s first bioenhanced TB drug Risorine on world TB day 2011, which was also presented to world dignitary Mr. Bill Gates (Chairman, Microsoft), by Government of India at Delhi. As a world authority on Crotalaria he was invited as consultant to USA (by USFDA, PAHO, WHO) on Crotalaria toxicity. He has also held many international patents. He has also taught internationally in department of biosciences, Nebraska, USA and U. Conn, USA. His international reference books are inevitably found in libraries globally in plant research institutes and extensively quoted internationally in research studies. These are also used in post graduate Pharmacy teaching institutes all over India (refer author writer). His numerous research articles in prominent international journals are also extensively quoted internationally as references. He has been on panel of the prestigious “International Journal of Ethno-Pharmacology”, by Elsevier, Ireland. (Serial no 184-211, author, writer).He has delivered lectures in several countries, chaired international conferences and his UN compilation was presented on world forest conference at Indonesia.

COUNTRIES TRAVELLED FOR INTERNATIONAL INTERACTIONS

71.COUNTRIES TRAVELLED- Conferences, Consultancies, Lectures, Advisory, Collaborations, Travel tourism –(about 30-35 countries travelled, in alphabetical order, passport data) are Austria /Vienna-(1983, 1984, 1986, and more visits), America (USA-1954-57, 1974, 1981, 1992, 2004), Africa, Mozambique , Swaziland, Maputo, Britain (1974,1984, 1979,1992), Bulgaria / Sophia-For Rose Oil,(Sep, 1981), Burma/Rangoon(Myanmar)-(1981), Bangladesh (1984), Belgium (1958) , Canada (1974, 2004), Czechoslovakia (1978, 1981, 1993??), Cambodia / Ankorwat (1992), Egypt /Cairo-Port Said-(1954), France (1980) , Greece (1981), Germany / Munchen, Deutschland-(1978, 1985), Hungary / Budapest (1972), Hong Kong (1986, 1988), Holland (1978, 1984, 1985),Italy, Indonesia / Bali, Djakarta , Jogjakarta(1992), Lebanon , Macau (Portugal Island 1988), Marseilles /Azure Blue Coast, Philippines /Manila – (1991), Poland (1972, 1978, 1981, 1993) Pakistan- (Place Of Birth), Rome, Sri Lanka (1995), Singapore (1987, 1992), Sudan, Switzerland (1993), Tashkent, Thailand - (Multiple Visits) ,USSR / Tashkent (1981), Vietnam (Multiple), West Indies (Trinidad And Tobago-1979),Andaman Nicobar islands(India).

72.INTERNATIONAL LECTURE TOURS, KEYNOTE ADRESSES Examples include lectures in five cities and various institutes of Hungary / Warsaw, Poland on invitation from Polish academy of Organic Chemistry headed by the Director Dr. Kocor, (pronounced kochur),lecture on biologically active molecules in 1992 in Houston University, Department of Pharmaceutical sciences, Houston, Texas, USA on invitation by Dr. Vishnu Das Gupta of same department, lectures in Vietnam (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh) and in 1991 he accompanied Vice Minister, Ministry of Health, Vietnam Government, on a trip to India on educational, scientific tours. On 7th Feb 1991, he was a resource speaker on fractional distillation of essential oils with Mr. Salvador Fanaga and Mrs. A. Punruckvong at the Second UNIDO workshop on essential oil industry at Manilla, Philippine. He conducted several lectures in USA, Germany, UK, USSR, France, and West Indies (on essential oil distillation technology and solar drying). SEMINARS – he has organized, attended, participated and lectured in national and international seminars. Dr. Atal’s compilation/monograph on non wood forest products under UN consultancy was presented as a key note address on the World Forestry conference at Indonesia (delivered by Silva). He delivered keynote address at RRL, Jammu on event of Workshop on Radioimmunoassay, silver jubilee celebrations of RRL, Jammu, Dec, 1-6, 1982, inaugurated by Prof. J. S. Bajaj, HOD (Medicine), AIIMS, Delhi, and delivered keynote address on the first National symposium on Survey and Cultivation of edible mushrooms in India, the welcome keynote address was delivered by him. Jamia Hamdard, 2003 - Delivered keynote address at ‘Pharmacy week’ in Nov 2003 at Jamia Hamdard (newsletter , Jamia Hamdard “spreadsheet” march 2004 issue) –Theme of the week was “Pharmacists for the promotion of future free of Tobacco(page 2 Para 2- flashback). www.jamiahamdard.edu/PDF/News Letter_JH.pdf He has delivered multiple lectures on History of India, particularly Punjab history.

 

INDIA-SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

 

INDIA- Tea, Hops, Rural Development Projects, Xanthotoxins, Essential Oil Industry, Mint, Agro Industries, Pharmaceutical industry, Calcium gluconaterutin, Solid herbal extracts, vanillin, liquor lignin, straw/mill board, trisodium orthophosphate, turpentine, cellulose derivatives, solar dryers, borax plant, fruit vegetable processing, chhang technology, Fisheries, aquaculture , Sericulture, Leather , Fur ,wool, suedes, chamois, Tanning, Chinchilla / rabbit farming , rabbit wool, fast growing tree species , mass forestation , large scale plantation of fast growing tree species, Willow, Cash crops, paper pulp/board technology, pine needle , pine wool, pine boards, Mushroom farming, ethnopharmacology studies, food technology, J&K Mountain Cheese (maash kalari), termite control , eradicating superstition.

In India, he has established new industries or helped transform the import dependency in some existing industries into mass production and export, leading to generation of wealth for the country, including rural society and rural based industry. This has been achieved through science and technology research and development, agro industries, drug discovery/drug development, essential oil industry, award winning work in economic transformation of rural masses, rural and industrial technology development, utilization of waste into viable useful industry with added ecological benefit, resultant benefit to the industries based on plant and rural sciences, discoveries, processes development, all plant sciences, breeding and propagation technology ,turnkey jobs etc. Rural development projects resulted in socioeconomic transformation of the rural masses which won recognition like the FICCI award presented by the honorable President of India, UN grants and several other awards. Several plant based drugs like Xanthotoxin and many others helped India become self sufficient in technology and saved the precious foreign exchange reserves, particularly in the financially stressful seventies and eighties and beyond till date. Research in Essential oils from plants particularly Mint, Ocimum, Cymbopogan, etc used in health formulations, food industry, and essential oil industry helped change the socioeconomic status of the industry as well as rural masses. Developing technology for bold crystals of mint for the first time in India and introducing high mint yielding plants resulted in a sort of green revolution in mint which is now a massive thriving industry today. Introducing and establishing expensive Hops successful in India for the first time changed the socioeconomic status of the rural people of the hills. Implementations of recommendations of Sadasivan committee, of which Dr. Atal was a core member, helped the struggling tea industry from international competition. Projects on submerged fermentation initiated in June 1975, won the Andhra Pradesh prize (Serial no 7, award section) at the import substitution competition for developing process for production of Gibberellic acid.

 

161.TECHNOLOGIST, SADASIVAN COMMITTEE FOR REVIVING THE INDIAN TEA INDUSTRY- appointed as a prominent member and Technologist of Sadasivan committee (1976), Ministry of Commerce, Government of India to prepare report and give recommendations for improving tea production cost effectively in the face of rising global competition (especially from countries like Kenya, Sri Lanka & Indonesia).Implemented recommendations had a very good boosting effect on the sagging tea industry, thereby rescuing the tea industry from international competition.(See Current science, Vol 81, No. 7, October 2001, page 845, last paragraph- T. S. Sadasivan - A tribute, www.iisc.ernet.in/currsci/oct102001/845.pdf www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6506102687/in/photostr... www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6970444265/in/photostream

162.ESTABLISHING NUMEROUS INDUSTRIES IN INDIA-Numerous pilot plant scale and commercial factory scale industries were established all over India based on the numerous technologies developed by RRL Jammu. (Serial no 152-159, processes developed).

163.CONSULTANCIES BY RRL ALL OVER INDIA -Examples include Calcium gluconate by fermentation (through NRDC-at Srinagar), plantation of rutin bearing Eucalyptus spp. at Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, manufacture of solid herbal extracts units (Delhi based Alok pharmaceuticals), vanillin from sawdust(Bombay), straw/mill board unit(Taran Taran, Punjab), cultivation of Clocimum and Jamrosa, downstream end products eugenol, geraniol (Jammu), cellulose derivatives esp. microcrystalline cellulose carboxymethyl cellulose (Amritsar and also Bombay), bolder crystals of menthol (Delhi), trisodium orthophosphate (Jammu), turpentine fractionating unit, liquor lignin waste from paper pulp industry (Madras), modification of resin refining kettle (Jammu).

164.INTRODUCTION OF TURN KEY SYSTEM FIRST TIME AT RRL, JAMMU -for processes developed, RRL adopted the turn key system, a useful tool to the end user (industry). www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6952344393/in/photostr... Examples are technology of Diosgenin, (Govt. of Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Burmese Government provided through govt. based organization NRDC), Menthol (Burma through NRDC), Hops (J&K and Himachal Pradesh), Pine needle board (Himachal Govt), etc. The turn-key process includes providing all the steps involved to establish a location including the site selection, space utilization, technology, construction, coordination and complete working installation

165.DEVELOPMENT OF FAR FLUNG REMOTE AREAS OF JAMMU KASHMIR, INDIA- difficult or inaccessible areas like Kargil and Ladakh were provided rural training, solar dryers, borax plant, fruit vegetable processing, chhang technology (Ladakh beer),etc. www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6970221243/in/photostr...

166.JAMMU , KASHMIR AND LADAKH, INDIA (FICCI AWARD,UN GRANTS AWARD)- Numerous projects like Fisheries, aquaculture , Sericulture, Leather , Fur ,wool, suedes, chamois, Tanning, Chinchilla / rabbit farming , rabbit wool, fast growing tree species , mass forestation , large scale plantation of fast growing tree species, Willow, Cash crops, paper pulp/board technology, pine needle & pine wool, Indian mint and Hops industry(a major socioeconomic breakthrough in brewery industry), Mushroom farming, solar drying technology especially in Ladakh and far flung areas of Kargil, extraction of Borax in Ladakh (PUGA valley) using geothermal energy, agro technology, ethnopharmacology studies, food technology, J&K Mountain Cheese (maash kalari), termite control , eradicating superstition - oham shikni in some areas of J&K), use of environment friendly alternate energy, forestation drives, environment pollution control (apple pomice was a pollutant , discarded / dumped in the river Jhelum in J&K as a waste which contributed to the environmental pollution. RRL in collaboration with the Army Horse and mule division designed and set up 20 foot tall silos for fermenting the Pomace to produce nitrogen rich feed for the mules and thereby preventing river pollution).For award of UN grants for rural work in J&K, Serial no 8, award section. www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6972288641/in/photostream www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6824267612/in/photostr...

167.ESTABLISHING AND DEVELOPING FIRST HOPS INDUSTRY SUCCESSFULLY IN INDIA (JAMMU, KASHMIR & HIMACHAL)-India developed the Hops technology and established Hops industry successfully for the first time in India. As a result there was a significant saving in foreign reserve (import substitution) which was earlier consumed in import of expensive Hops. See Prof. P. N. Mehra award. www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/5782130675/sizes/l/in/... www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6506235095/in/photostream books.google.com/books?id=Y3Y_AAAAYAAJ&source=gbs_sim...

168.HIMACHAL PRADESH, INDIA- pine needles Fiber board factories (a first in the world), with turpentine as a parallel by product, establishing CSIR complex at Palampur (now called IHBT) in 1983, appointed as first head this institute , establishing first Hops industry in India, including Lahul area of Himachal Pradesh. Tea industry in Himachal and India was also greatly helped by the efforts of Dr. Atal (See Sadasivan committee).Rutin industry in Himachal Pradesh is mentioned in next point below.

169.BIOFLAVONOID “RUTIN INDUSTRY”- As more and more high yielding species of Eucalyptus as a source for Rutin were discovered in the world, the best raw material source came from dried E. macrorhynea leaves (10-12% w/w yield) primarily used in Australia. The Imported seeds of Eucalyptus macrorhynea were found to perform best in salubrious climate of Palampur in the state of Himachal Pradesh and the leaves were found to give higher yield of Rutin as compared to Australian raw material sources. This was a big commercial breakthrough as Indian species were very low in Rutin content and the high yielding imported variety performed equivalent or better in Indian climate .A factory for production of Rutin was set up at Dhanaulti / areas near Pathankot to supply Rutin to Pharmaceutical industry. Palampur branch of RRL played a leading role in popularizing cultivation of Eucalyptus macrorhynea for the very first time in India. (Serial no 105-112,first reporting in India). Dr. Atal also propagated the coppicing method (including Eucalyptus species) to increase the yield of plant raw material leaves tremendously contributing to further increasing the quantity of finished product.

170.SIKKIM , INDIA 1984-85, Dr. Atal was invited by the Sikkim State as a consultant to identify the raw materials, viable projects from the forest and the state with industrial potential. Several ideas and projects were identified and a project report was handed over to the Sikkim Government / Hon. Hon. Governor Shri Talae Yar Khan for implementation.

171.PIONEERING WORK IN ESSENTIAL OIL AND AROMA CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN INDIA AND INTERNATIONALLY (AS UN CONSULTANT) - (Serial no 115,essential oils).

172.CONTRIBUTIONS IN SUCCESSFUL MINT INDUSTRY IN INDIA-( Serial no 115, Essential oils). Dr. Atal developed and promoted technology for manufacture of bold crystals of mint / mark into boards, a big boost to the mint industry in India. Japanese mint industry became “Rs 100 million” industry by the beginning of 1980’s, and the Tarai area of UP state alone was a 10 crore per annum industry in the mid eighties. India became self sufficient in mint in mid 1980’s. Today China and India are world leaders in mint after further boosting efforts put in by CIMAP in the nineteen nineties. Japanese mint has become the single largest essential oil crop of the country. He also was appointed as international consultant in mint technology in 1981(Burma).

173.DEVELOPMENT OF MINT INDUSTRY IN BURMA 1981–invited as CSIR consultant to the Burmese Government on the mint technology, Menthol distillation plant, transfer of technology for production of bold crystals of Menthol from Mentha arvensis, setting up a pilot plant / demonstration unit (Menthol extraction plant) and imparting training techniques to Burmese scientists.

174.DIOSGENIN INDUSTRY IN INDIA - Dioscorea deltoidea and solasodine as new source of production of Diosgenin, a steroidal compound which is the feed raw material for synthetic production a variety of many steroidal hormones. Diosgenin ex D. deltoida & D. mexicana for supply of diosgenin as a raw material to Pharmaceutical industry for manufacture of steroidal therapeutic agents –several factories were set up for commercial production of diosgenin with technical knowhow ,establishing turnkey projects with chemical engineering know how, particularly 16-DP technologies were transferred to government of West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.

175.DIOSGENIN TECHNOLOGY / INDUSTRY IN BURMA 1981- Pharmaceutical research Department of Central Research Organization, Burma was provided Diosgenin –Progesterone plant and technology at Hmaw-Bi, Rangoon. www.flickr.com/photos/13059662@N06/6970421821/in/photostr...

176.UN CONSULTANT TO BANGLADESH GOVERNMENT, 1984 - for helping Bangladesh CSIR, for technology demonstration, for upgrading/modernising their Pharmaceutical formulations, examples like chavanprash. repository.searo.who.int/handle/123456789/14829

177.PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY)- DRUGS IN THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MARKET– Sallaki (Gufic pharmaceutical company -India and international marketing), two Antitubercular formulations Risorine / Risorine kit (Cadila Pharma), Debelysin(Herbapol of Poland, international marketing),Livzone(Hind Chemicals),and others. (see details in drug discovery).

178.CONSULTANT TO UN HEAD OFFICE AT VIENNA, AUSTRIA- 1984 –for formulating projects for Vietnam.

179.CONSULTANT FOR UNDP, UNIDO AND VIETNAM GOVERNMENT –for implementing multiple multimillion US dollars projects in Vietnam.

180.UNITED NATIONS – RRL, JAMMU TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER-pilot plants based on technologies developed at RRL, Jammu under Dr. Atal for distillation and fractionation of Aroma chemicals and natural dyes were later fabricated, Installed and commissioned on turnkey basis under UNIDO projects implemented at Vietnam under Dr. Atal.

181.UN CONSULTANCY FOR PROJECTS IN AFRICA -1993 – for projects recommendations in African countries.

182.ANDAMAN NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA –Prepared a report on viability of large scale herbal farms (medicinal and aromatic) in Andaman Nicobar islands, Port Blair (1993), as a part of consultancy for Khaitan Industries.

183.INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMMES -many scientific exchange programmes were organized between Vietnam, United Nations, India and many other countries. Similarly these were also carried out in his capacity as director of RRL Jammu, like the Soviet delegation of Pharmaceutical experts under Mr. A. I. Vinogradov visited RRL in March 1982 and appreciated the work done at RRL.

184.SOME SIGNIFICANT TECHNOLOGIES DISCUSSED ELSEWHERE

A.Xanthotoxins from two plant sources – till early 1970s it was being imported into India. After technology was developed by Dr. Atal, it led to a significant savings in import and is being exported to European and other countries. See first reporting in India.

B.Submerged Culture, Gluconates, Giberellins Etc – Significant savings in import, See Award section.

C.Conversions of waste into viable utilizable Industry- Serial no 142-146, environment conservation, See first reporting in the world, See FICCI Award.

 

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...

The goldfinch breeds across Europe, North Africa, and western and central Asia, in open, partially wooded lowlands. It is resident in the milder west of its range, but migrates from colder regions. It will also make local movements, even in the west, to escape bad weather. It has been introduced to many areas of the world.

 

I spotted a pair of these in our garden this morning.

 

I think I prefer these without the black outline. Any thoughts?

Seattle is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an estimated 652,405 residents as of 2013, Seattle is the largest city in both the State of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America and the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of around 3.6 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the 8th largest port in the United States and 9th largest in North America in terms of container handling.

 

The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to its current site and named "Seattle" in 1852, after Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.

 

Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. By 1910, Seattle was one of the 25 largest cities in the country. However, the Great Depression severely damaged the city's economy. Growth returned during and after World War II, due partially to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The city developed as a technology center in the 1980s, with companies like Amazon.com, Microsoft and T-Mobile US based in the area. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Since then, Seattle has become a hub for green industry and a model for sustainable development.

 

Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, there were nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene developed the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock style grunge.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Crea