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The basic difference between a photograph and a hologram:

 

A photograph is a two dimensional image formed by a lens whereby the image is focused onto light-sensitive material like film or stored digitally and showcased by a two dimensional flat screen monitor display.

 

A hologram is a three dimensional photographic recording of a light field that creates a convincing optical illusion. The holographic reproduction will appear successfully when the interference pattern diffracts the light and is then realigned precisely where the original light field used to be, while simultaneously exhibiting visual depth cues of the original subject thus giving the realistic appearance that the subject is still there.

 

Light diffraction has inspired so many fashion styles.

 

Uber

=Zenith=Chain Elastic Waist Bodysuit

 

Blog post & SLURL.

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5320*2863 resolution version available on 500px.com

 

A beautiful September evening for taking some #longexposure

#night holography #bluehour shots after the rain. At #klippan by the #harbour in #Gothenburg you get a great angle for shooting the #bridge #Älvsborgsbron.

Dirty Pearl

Theoretical results about the Universe suggests that we, like holograms, are made of matter and energy. One may say that from the Universe's quantum physics (black hole theory) perspective.. we 'are' in theory 'holograms' with spacial depth.

 

Hologram

The term is taken from the Greek words holos (whole) and gramma (message or letter).

Unlike 3-D or virtual reality on a two-dimensional computer display, a hologram is a truly three-dimensional and free-standing image.

Theoretically, holograms could someday be transmitted electronically to a special display device in our home.

 

The theory of holography was developed over 60 years ago by inventor Dennis Gabor in the year 1947.

The recent development of laser technology made holography possible.

 

Another low level, wide angle shot in front of the Russian church on the seafront road in Havana, Cuba.

 

If you would like to use any of my photos please contact me and ask permission first.

 

If you want to look at more of my photography you can check my website and social media links below:

 

www.geraintrowland.co.uk

 

Facebook

 

www.facebook.com/geraintrowlandphotography

 

Instagram

 

www.instagram.com/geraint_rowland_photography/

 

Twitter

 

twitter.com/grrphotography

Philadelphia

Minolta X-700

Lomo 100

 

Instagram: @_JustinWolfe_

 

www.justin-wolfe.com

Villa dei Quintili (Roma) - olografie di Setsuko Ishii - per visitare la Villa con l'allestimento di Ishii c'è tempo fino al 28 Ottobre 2007 (gli effetti di luce sulle olografie si vedono comunque solo col sole pieno...)

Berardo Collection, Centro Cultural de Belem, Belem, Lisbon, Portugal

 

Materials : Baquelite telephone lobster in painted wood

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

Early Life

 

Salvador Dalí was born Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí y Domenech on May 11, 1904, in Figueres, Spain, located 16 miles from the French border in the foothills of the Pyrenees Mountains. His father, Salvador Dalí y Cusi, was a middle class lawyer and notary. Salvador's father had a strict disciplinary approach to raising children—a style of child-rearing which contrasted sharply with that of his mother, Felipa Domenech Ferres. She often indulged young Salvador in his art and early eccentricities.

 

It has been said that young Salvador was a precocious and intelligent child, prone to fits of anger against his parents and schoolmates. Consequently, Dalí was subjected to furious acts of cruelty by more dominant students or his father. The elder Salvador wouldn't tolerate his son's outbursts or eccentricities, and punished him severely. Their relationship deteriorated when Salvador was still young, exacerbated by competition between he and his father for Felipa's affection.

 

Dalí had an older brother, born nine months before him, also named Salvador, who died of gastroenteritis. Later in his life, Dalí often related the story that when he was 5 years old, his parents took him to the grave of his older brother and told him he was his brother's reincarnation. In the metaphysical prose he frequently used, Dalí recalled, "[we] resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was probably a first version of myself, but conceived too much in the absolute."

 

Salvador, along with his younger sister Ana Maria and his parents, often spent time at their summer home in the coastal village of Cadaques. At an early age, Salvador was producing highly sophisticated drawings, and both of his parents strongly supported his artistic talent. It was here that his parents built him an art studio before he entered art school.

 

Upon recognizing his immense talent, Salvador Dalí's parents sent him to drawing school at the Colegio de Hermanos Maristas and the Instituto in Figueres, Spain, in 1916. He was not a serious student, preferring to daydream in class and stand out as the class eccentric, wearing odd clothing and long hair. After that first year at art school, he discovered modern painting in Cadaques while vacationing with his family. There, he also met Ramon Pichot, a local artist who frequently visited Paris. The following year, his father organized an exhibition of Salvador's charcoal drawings in the family home. By 1919, the young artist had his first public exhibition, at the Municipal Theatre of Figueres.

 

In 1921, Dalí's mother, Felipa, died of breast cancer. Dalí was 16 years old at the time, and was devastated by the loss. His father married his deceased wife's sister, which did not endear the younger Dalí any closer to his father, though he respected his aunt. Father and son would battle over many different issues throughout their lives, until the elder Dalí's death.

 

Art School and Surrealism

 

In 1922, Dalí enrolled at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid. He stayed at the school's student residence and soon brought his eccentricity to a new level, growing long hair and sideburns, and dressing in the style of English Aesthetes of the late 19th century. During this time, he was influenced by several different artistic styles, including Metaphysics and Cubism, which earned him attention from his fellow students—though he probably didn't yet understand the Cubist movement entirely.

 

In 1923, Dalí was suspended from the academy for criticizing his teachers and allegedly starting a riot among students over the academy's choice of a professorship. That same year, he was arrested and briefly imprisoned in Gerona for allegedly supporting the Separatist movement, though Dalí was actually apolitical at the time (and remained so throughout most of his life). He returned to the academy in 1926, but was permanently expelled shortly before his final exams for declaring that no member of the faculty was competent enough to examine him.

 

While in school, Dalí began exploring many forms of art including classical painters like Raphael, Bronzino and Diego Velázquez (from whom he adopted his signature curled moustache). He also dabbled in avant-garde art movements such as Dada, a post-World War I anti-establishment movement. While Dalí's apolitical outlook on life prevented him from becoming a strict follower, the Dada philosophy influenced his work throughout his life.

 

In between 1926 and 1929, Dalí made several trips to Paris, where he met with influential painters and intellectuals such as Pablo Picasso, whom he revered. During this time, Dalí painted a number of works that displayed Picasso's influence. He also met Joan Miró, the Spanish painter and sculptor who, along with poet Paul Éluard and painter René Magritte, introduced Dalí to Surrealism. By this time, Dalí was working with styles of Impressionism, Futurism and Cubism. Dalí's paintings became associated with three general themes: 1) man's universe and sensations, 2) sexual symbolism and 3) ideographic imagery.

 

All of this experimentation led to Dalí's first Surrealistic period in 1929. These oil paintings were small collages of his dream images. His work employed a meticulous classical technique, influenced by Renaissance artists, that contradicted the "unreal dream" space that he created with strange hallucinatory characters. Even before this period, Dalí was an avid reader of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theories. Dalí's major contribution to the Surrealist movement was what he called the "paranoiac-critical method," a mental exercise of accessing the subconscious to enhance artistic creativity. Dalí would use the method to create a reality from his dreams and subconscious thoughts, thus mentally changing reality to what he wanted it to be and not necessarily what it was. For Dalí, it became a way of life.

 

In 1929, Salvador Dalí expanded his artistic exploration into the world of film-making when he collaborated with Luis Buñuel on two films, Un Chien andalou (An Andalusian Dog) and L'Age d'or (The Golden Age, 1930), the former of which is known for its opening scene—a simulated slashing of a human eye by a razor. Dalí's art appeared several years later in another film, Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound (1945), starring Gregory Peck and Ingrid Bergman. Dalí's paintings were used in a dream sequence in the film, and aided the plot by giving clues to solving the secret to character John Ballantine's psychological problems.

 

In August 1929, Dalí met Elena Dmitrievna Diakonova (sometimes written as Elena Ivanorna Diakonova), a Russian immigrant 10 years his senior. At the time, she was the wife of Surrealist writer Paul Éluard. A strong mental and physical attraction developed between Dalí and Diakonova, and she soon left Éluard for her new lover. Also known as "Gala," Diakonova was Dalí's muse and inspiration, and would eventually become his wife. She helped balance—or one might say counterbalance—the creative forces in Dalí's life. With his wild expressions and fantasies, he wasn't capable of dealing with the business side of being an artist. Gala took care of his legal and financial matters, and negotiated contracts with dealers and exhibition promoters. The two were married in a civil ceremony in 1934.

 

By 1930, Salvador Dalí had become a notorious figure of the Surrealist movement. Marie-Laure de Noailles and Viscount and Viscountess Charles were his first patrons. French aristocrats, both husband and wife invested heavily in avant-garde art in the early 20th century. One of Dalí's most famous paintings produced at this time—and perhaps the best-known Surrealist work—was The Persistence of Memory (1931). The painting, sometimes called Soft Watches, shows melting pocket watches in a landscape setting. It is said that the painting conveys several ideas within the image, chiefly that time is not rigid and everything is destructible.

 

By the mid-1930s, Salvador Dalí had become as notorious for his colorful personality as his artwork, and, for some art critics, the former was overshadowing the latter. Often sporting an exaggeratedly long mustache, a cape and a walking stick, Dalí's public appearances exhibited some unusual behavior. In 1934, art dealer Julian Levy introduced Dalí to America in a New York exhibition that caused quite a lot of controversy. At a ball held in his honor, Dalí, in characteristic flamboyant style, appeared wearing a glass case across his chest which contained a brassiere.

 

Expulsion from the Surrealists

 

As war approached in Europe, specifically in Spain, Dalí clashed with members of the Surrealist movement. In a "trial" held in 1934, he was expelled from the group. He had refused to take a stance against Spanish militant Francisco Franco (while Surrealist artists like Luis Buñuel, Picasso and Miró had), but it's unclear whether this directly led to his expulsion. Officially, Dalí was notified that his expulsion was due to repeated "counter-revolutionary activity involving the celebration of fascism under Hitler." It is also likely that members of the movement were aghast at some of Dalí's public antics. However, some art historians believe that his expulsion had been driven more by his feud with Surrealist leader André Breton.

 

Despite his expulsion from the movement, Dalí continued to participate in several international Surrealist exhibitions into the 1940s. At the opening of the London Surrealist exhibition in 1936, he delivered a lecture titled "Fantomes paranoiaques athentiques" ("Authentic paranoid ghosts") while dressed in a wetsuit, carrying a billiard cue and walking a pair of Russian wolfhounds. He later said that his attire was a depiction of "plunging into the depths" of the human mind.

 

During World War II, Dalí and his wife moved to the United States. They remained there until 1948, when they moved back to his beloved Catalonia. These were important years for Dalí. The Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art in New York gave him his own retrospective exhibit in 1941. This was followed by the publication of his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí (1942). Also during this time, Dalí's focus moved away from Surrealism and into his classical period. His feud with members of the Surrealist movement continued, but Dalí seemed undaunted. His ever-expanding mind had ventured into new subjects.

 

The Dalí Theatre-Museum

 

Over the next 15 years, Dalí painted a series of 19 large canvases that included scientific, historical or religious themes. He often called this period "Nuclear Mysticism." During this time, his artwork took on a technical brilliance combining meticulous detail with fantastic and limitless imagination. He would incorporate optical illusions, holography and geometry within his paintings. Much of his work contained images depicting divine geometry, the DNA, the Hyper Cube and religious themes of Chastity.

 

From 1960 to 1974, Dalí dedicated much of his time to creating the Teatro-Museo Dalí (Dalí Theatre-Museum) in Figueres. The museum's building had formerly housed the Municipal Theatre of Figueres, where Dalí saw his public exhibition at the age of 14 (the original 19th century structure had been destroyed near the end of the Spanish Civil War). Located across the street from the Teatro-Museo Dalí is the Church of Sant Pere, where Dalí was baptized and received his first communion (his funeral would later be held there as well), and just three blocks away is the house where he was born.

 

The Teatro-Museo Dalí officially opened in 1974. The new building was formed from the ruins of the old and based on one of Dalí's designs, and is billed as the world's largest Surrealist structure, containing a series of spaces that form a single artistic object where each element is an inextricable part of the whole. The site is also known for housing the broadest range of work by the artist, from his earliest artistic experiences to works that he created during the last years of this life. Several works on permanent display were created expressly for the museum.

 

Also in '74, Dalí dissolved his business relationship with manager Peter Moore. As a result, all rights to his collection were sold without his permission by other business managers and he lost much of his wealth. Two wealthy American art collectors, A. Reynolds Morse and his wife, Eleanor, who had known Dalí since 1942, set up an organization called "Friends of Dalí" and a foundation to help boost the artist's finances. The organization also established the Salvador Dalí Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida.

 

Final Years

 

In 1980, Dalí was forced to retire from painting due to a motor disorder that caused permanent trembling and weakness in his hands. No longer able to hold a paint brush, he'd lost the ability to express himself the way he knew best. More tragedy struck in 1982, when Dalí's beloved wife and friend, Gala, died. The two events sent him into a deep depression. He moved to Pubol, in a castle that he had purchased and remodeled for Gala, possibly to hide from the public or, as some speculate, to die. In 1984, Dalí was severely burned in a fire. Due to his injuries, he was confined to wheelchair. Friends, patrons and fellow artists rescued him from the castle and returned him to Figueres, making him comfortable at the Teatro-Museo.

 

In November 1988, Salvador Dalí entered a hospital in Figueres with a failing heart. After a brief convalescence, he returned to the Teatro-Museo. On January 23, 1989, in the city of his birth, Dalí died of heart failure at the age of 84. His funeral was held at the Teatro-Museo, where he was buried in a crypt.

 

Source : Bio. Newsletter

Centro de Arte Manuel de Brito, CAMB, Palácio dos Anjos, Algés, Portugal

 

Material:

Collection: Manuel de Brito

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

Frequentou a Escola António Arroio e o curso de Gravador e Litógrafo na Cooperativa de Gravadores Portugueses. Frequentou também o Atelier 17 em Paris, e a Goldsmiths University of London (Holography workshop), como bolseiro da Fundação Gulbenkian. Expõe individual e colectivamente desde 1970.

 

É habitual a sua participação em Feiras de Arte como a Artexpo - New york, LA – Los Angeles, Estampa e Arco – Madrid, Frankfurt, entre outras, e em Bienais Internacionais como a de São Paulo, Ljubljana, Cracóvia, Paris, São Francisco e outras.

 

Já recebeu prémios como a Medalha de Ouro da Associação de Gravadores Espanhóis - Madrid, 1977, o Prémio Nacional de Gravura 1980, Portugal, o Grande Prémio de Gravura na Bienal de Vila Nova de Cerveira de 1982, o Prémio de aquisição na III Exposição de Artes Plásticas da Fundação C. Gulbenkian, 1986, bem como o Prémio Nacional de Gravura – Museu de Gravura Espanhola Contemporânea – Espanha, no ano de 1999, uma Menção Honrosa – Prémio Nacional de Grabado – Calcografia Nacional/Phillip Morris – Madrid – Espanha, 2000.

 

Mais recentemente recebeu o Prémio Júlio Prieto Nespereira, e uma Medalha de Bronze na VIII Bienal Internacional de Grabado Caixanova em 2004, na cidade de Ourense, Espanha.

 

A 22 de Dezembro de 1997 foi feito Comendador da Ordem do Infante D. Henrique.[1]

 

PRÉMIOS

 

1977 Medalha de Ouro da Associação de Gravadores Espanhóis, Madrid

1980 Prémio Nacional de Gravura 1980, Portugal

1982 Grande Prémio de Gravura na Bienal de Vila Nova de Cerveira 1982, Portugal

1986 Prémio de Aquisição na III Exposição de Artes Plásticas da Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa

1999 Prémio Nacional de Gravura - Museu de Gravura Espanhola Contemporânea, Espanha

2000 Menção Honrosa do Prémio Nacional de Grabado - Calcografia Nacional/Phillip Morris, Madrid

2004 Prémio Julio Prieto Nespereira - Medalha de Bronze, VIII Bienal Internacional de Grabado Caixanova, Ourense

2006 Prémio Internacional de Arte Gráfico Jesús Núñez – Betanzos - A Coruña, Espanha

 

SOURCE: pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_de_Almeida

Centro de Arte Manuel de Brito, CAMB, Palácio dos Anjos, Algés, Portugal

 

Material:

Collection: Manuel de Brito

 

BIOGRAPHY

  

David Fernandes de Almeida ComIH (São Pedro do Sul, 1945 - Lisboa, 2014) foi um artista plástico português.

 

Frequentou a Escola António Arroio e o curso de Gravador e Litógrafo na Cooperativa de Gravadores Portugueses. Frequentou também o Atelier 17 em Paris, e a Goldsmiths University of London (Holography workshop), como bolseiro da Fundação Gulbenkian.

 

Expõe individual e colectivamente desde 1970.

 

É habitual a sua participação em Feiras de Arte como a Artexpo - New york, LA – Los Angeles, Estampa e Arco – Madrid, Frankfurt, entre outras, e em Bienais Internacionais como a de São Paulo, Ljubljana, Cracóvia, Paris, São Francisco e outras.

 

Já recebeu prémios como a Medalha de Ouro da Associação de Gravadores Espanhóis - Madrid, 1977, o Prémio Nacional de Gravura 1980, Portugal, o Grande Prémio de Gravura na Bienal de Vila Nova de Cerveira de 1982, o Prémio de aquisição na III Exposição de Artes Plásticas da Fundação C. Gulbenkian, 1986, bem como o Prémio Nacional de Gravura – Museu de Gravura Espanhola Contemporânea – Espanha, no ano de 1999, uma Menção Honrosa – Prémio Nacional de Grabado – Calcografia Nacional/Phillip Morris – Madrid – Espanha, 2000.

 

Mais recentemente recebeu o Prémio Júlio Prieto Nespereira, e uma Medalha de Bronze na VIII Bienal Internacional de Grabado Caixanova em 2004, na cidade de Ourense, Espanha.

 

A 22 de Dezembro de 1997 foi feito Comendador da Ordem do Infante D. Henrique.

 

SOURCE : Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.

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Last week, I had a chance to be in Budapest for three days, attending a holography conference. Of course, I used that to take a tour of the city.

 

This picture shows, from the castle hill, a view to the chain bridge, towards the basilica in the distance.

 

I like taking city pictures during the blue hour. This one was taken without a tripod, at 50 mm, f5 and 1/2 s exposure time. And it's sharp, but then, I took more than one shot. :) I used my Nikkor 16-85 for this picture.

 

I chose this picture since I liked the dynamics of the cars as additional element, seeing which ones are moving and which ones are waiting in that circle. You can probably see that better using large black magic.

 

Flickr Hive Mind - flexplore - DNA

Camera: Holga 120 CFN

Film: Kodak EKTACHROME 100X Professional

all shalt be reprogram!, your future is nothing but an image of your reflection.

 

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Playing Rush 2112 (Holography edition :)

This is my Grandfathers L75 that I restored a few years back, and started my obsession with LPs.

Dotonbori District, Osaka

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36x30

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At what point did “Nature” (or some ancient genetic engineer) decide to genetically map the mathematical "fractallian" precision onto the body of such a beautiful specimen as the Zebra? Did it just manifest through evolution, or is there something more extraordinary to the puzzle? Some believe there must be a gestalt secret entwined within the matrix of biological information and processing of programmable DNA that is evident in the symbol of the stripes. Could it be a created messenger from an ancient geneticist's cause for aesthetic communication across the ages? To think of the complexity involved in such a theory, boggles the mind and upsets more than the old bromide of which came first...the "white horse" or the dark stripes. Something strange and different goes on when one delves deeply beyond the implied common science.

 

Could the knowledge of non-linear dynamics known by an ancient sentient civilization have genetically manufactured animals, including Zebras, if it had in its possession the basics of Fractal Geometry...could we? In the near future, research will produce a gargantuan amount of geologic and genetic data on the environment and the human genome. Couple this new information with the other leading-edge fields of Holography, Nanotechnology, Super Computers, Virtual Reality, Microbiology, and many more, then use the mathematical loom of Fractals to weave theory into reality, and we may find ourselves face-to-face with a checkered Zebra.

 

Fractua" is Latin for irregular, so Benoit Mandelbrot (an IBM Fellow) coined the name "fractals" (1980) for his new self-similar geometry, which can emulate the visual dictates of the world of chaos and the dimensional reality of natural forms. Fractal Geometry can define reality in a numerical fashion as it exists in the micro and macro realms...thus digitally mapping all being, via quantum manipulation and on-going change factors which are broadcast within the electromagnetic spectrum and throughout eternity.

 

The fact that some students of knowledge seem to miss when entranced by the symbol of the Mandelbrot Set's "island molecule," is that it looks exactly like a silhouetted sitting Buddha. To accidentally stumble upon such synchronism between a mathematical equation for reality and a philosophical icon for life (Buddha) is indeed awesome for those who seek the arcane wisdom of the gods. If the two were truly related, perhaps more investigation would bridge the gaps between ancient religion and modern science. Both are really looking for the same understanding of truthful existence in this Universe. However, the point remains...there are no schools of thought higher than Truth...though its secret is ever fleeting.

 

Issac Asimov reinforced the above by stating that the secrets of the Universe are enfolded in fractals and that the enigma of this constancy will remain forever unknown. Other scientists think otherwise and are in a heated race to frame a fractal-future in a new and fascinating understanding that could finally addresses the concepts of infinite creation through a quantum/holographic/fractal marriage.

The music of stone sings in a massive frequency to slow for our little ears to hear. Its slow waves and tectonic harmonics forming chords of crystal, granite bass and the igneous fire of magmic melody. Indeed the Earth sings to herself and to the other planets as well, a grand chorale of living holography that sets the tune in our DNA.

 

I graduated from Art School as an abstract painter under siege. It was NOT the time to be painting even, never mind painting abstract images. It was the heyday of conceptualism, installation and deconstruction. But I followed my muse, not the trend of the time. My inspirations were Gerhard Richter, Max Ernst and Jules Olitski. This image was created from a photograph of a detail of a crumbling mural, with paint peeling itself off the concrete. It was rich in texture and detail which made it ripe for manipulating. There's always that recalcitrant abstractionist lurking under my surface !!!

 

I'm dedicating this image to Zone Patcher. For the Longest time I have been blown away by his "3D" fractal work. The complexity of it and the sheer, unbridled imagination of it all is something I admire tremendously. I wanted to wait until I had an image that I felt suited him.

 

Music Link: Robert Rich & B. Lustmord, "Hidden Refuge", from their album "Stalker". Rich and Lustmord's music here is a species of ambient music known as "dark ambient" which seeks to create atmospheres of mystery and a kind of dark grandeur, instead of peaceful, lambent washes. "Stalker" is a classic in the genre. ToR Oct 11, 2013.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Gm5M1T41AI

 

Created for "The Hypothetical Awards'" 3rd Annual "Abstract Art Challenge".

 

View Large on Black.

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Kyoto, December 2019

 

Chapter 20

 

Hollow Earth

 

Subterranean regions of the continent excavated in cyclopaean caverns, cathe- dralspace fractal networks, labyrinthine gargantuan tunnels, slow black under- ground rivers, unmoving stygian lakes, pure & slightly luminiferous, slim wa- terfalls plunging down watersmooth rock, cataracting round petrified forests of stalactites & stalagmites in spelunker-bewildering blind-fish complexity & un- fathomable vastness…Who dug this hollow earth beneath the ice foreseen by Poe, by certain paranoid German occultists, Shaverian UFO freaks? Was Earth once colonized in the time of Gondwana or MU by some Elder Race? their reptil- ian skeletons still mouldering in the farthest secret mazes of the cavern system? Sluggish backwaters, dead-end canals, stagnant pools far from the centers of civ- ilization like Little America, Transport City, or Nan Chi Han, down in the dark recesses and boondocks of the Antarctic caves, fungus & albino fern. We suspect them of mutations, amphibian webbed fingers and toes, degenerate habits — Kallikaks of the Hollow Earth, Lovecraftian renegades, hermits, skulking inces- tuous smugglers, runaway criminals, anarchists forced into hiding after the En- tropy Wars, fugitives from Genetic Puritanism, dissident Chinese Tongs & Yel- low Turban fanatics, lascar cave-pirates, pale shiftless whitetrash from the prole- warrens of the industrial domes along Thwait’s Tongue & the Walgreen Coast & Edsel-Ford-Land — the Trogs have kept alive for over 200 years the folk-memory of the Autonomous Zone, the myth that someday it will appear again. . . Taoism, libertine philosophy, Indonesian sorcery, cult of the Cave Mother (or Mothers), identified by some scholars with the Javanese sea/moon goddess Loro Kidul, by others with a minor deity of the South Pole Star Sect, the “Jade God- dess”…manuscripts (written in Bahasa Ingliss the pidgin dialect of the deep caves) contain mangled quotations from Nietzsche & Chuang Tzu. . . Trade con- sists of occasional precious gems and cultivation of white poppy, fungus, over a dozen different species of “magic” mushrooms…Shallow Lake Erebus, 5 miles across, dotted with stalagmitic islets choked with fern & kudzu & black dwarf pine, held in a cave so vast it sometimes creates its own weather…The town belongs officially to Little America but most of the inhabitants are Trogs liv- ing off the Shiftless Dole — & the deep-cave tribal country lies just across the Lake. Riffraff, artists, drug addicts, sorcerers, smugglers, remittance-men & perverts live in crumbling basalt-&-synthplast hotels half-encrusted with pale green vines, along the lakefront, an avenue of squalid cafes, gem emporia guarded by armed ninjas, chinese krill-noodle shops, the crystal-tinselled hall for fusion-gamelan dancers, boys practicing their mudras on sleepy electronic dark blue afternoons to the rippling of synthgongs and metallophones. . . & below the pier perhaps a few desultory bathers along the black beach, genuine low-budget tourists gawking at the shrine behind the bazaar where pallid old Trog pamongs tranced out on fungus drool & roll up their eyes, breathe in the fumes of heavy incense, everything seems suddenly menacingly bright, flickering with signifi- cance. . . a few cases of webbed fingers but the rumors of ritual promiscuity are true enough. I was living in a Trog fishing village across the lake from Erebus in a rented room above the baitshop. . . rural sloth & degenerate superstitious rites of sensual abandon, the larval & unhealthy mysteries of the chthonic mutant downtrodden Trogs, lazy shiftless no-count hicks. . . Little America, so christian & free of mutation, eugenic & orderly, where ev-eryone lives jacked into the fleshless realm of ancient software & holography, so euclidean, newtonian, clean & patriotic — L.A. will never understand this innocent filth-sorcery, this “spir- itual materialism,” this slavery to the volcanic desires of secret cave-boy gangs like laughing flowers jetting with dynamo erections pulsing up pure life curved taut as bows, & the smell of water, pond-scum, nightblooming white flowers, jasmine & datura, urine, children’s wet hair, sperm & mud. . . possessed by cave- spirits, perhaps ghosts of ancient aliens now wandering as demons seeking to renew long-lost pleasures of flesh & substance. Or else the Zone has already been reborn, already a nexus of autonomy, a spreading virus of chaos in its most exuberant clandestine form, white toadstools springing up on the spots where Trog boys have masturbated alone in the dark. . .

 

— Hakim Bey, T.A.Z.

 

Rome, Italy 2015. All rights reserved - © copyright. Visit my website for more: www.dariocestaro.com

Roma, Italy. 2015. All rights reserved - © copyright. Visit my www.dariocestaro.com or Facebook: www.facebook.com/dariocestarostreets

Rome, Italy 2015. All rights reserved - © copyright. Visit my website for more: www.dariocestaro.com

Roma, Italy. 2015. All rights reserved - © copyright. Visit my website for more www.dariocestaro.com

Rome, Italy 2015. All rights reserved - © copyright. Visit my website for more: www.dariocestaro.com

Many researchers believe that physics will not be complete until it can explain not just the behaviour of space and time, but where these entities come from.

  

SAKURAI and his colleagues are convinced that physics will not be complete until it can explain how space and time emerge from something more fundamental — a project that will require concepts at least as audacious as holography. They argue that such a radical reconceptualization of reality is the only way to explain what happens when the infinitely dense 'singularity' at the core of a black hole distorts the fabric of space-time beyond all recognition, or how researchers can unify atomic-level quantum theory and planet-level general relativity — a project that has resisted theorists' efforts for generations.

 

“All our experiences tell us we shouldn't have two dramatically different conceptions of reality — there must be one huge overarching theory,” says SAKURAI

 

Finding that one huge theory is a daunting challenge. Here, SAKURAI explores some promising lines of attack — as well as some of the emerging ideas about how to test these concepts.

  

Gravity as thermodynamics

 

One of the most obvious questions to ask is whether this endeavour is a fool's errand. Where is the evidence that there actually is anything more fundamental than space and time?

 

A provocative hint comes from a series of startling discoveries made in the early 1970s, when it became clear that quantum mechanics and gravity were intimately intertwined with thermodynamics, the science of heat.

 

In 1974, most famously, Stephen Hawking of the University of Cambridge, UK, showed that quantum effects in the space around a black hole will cause it to spew out radiation as if it was hot. Other physicists quickly determined that this phenomenon was quite general. Even in completely empty space, they found, an astronaut undergoing acceleration would perceive that he or she was surrounded by a heat bath. The effect would be too small to be perceptible for any acceleration achievable by rockets, but it seemed to be fundamental. If quantum theory and general relativity are correct — and both have been abundantly corroborated by experiment — then the existence of Hawking radiation seemed inescapable.

 

A second key discovery was closely related. In standard thermodynamics, an object can radiate heat only by decreasing its entropy, a measure of the number of quantum states inside it. And so it is with black holes: even before Hawking's 1974 paper, Jacob Bekenstein, now at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, had shown that black holes possess entropy. But there was a difference. In most objects, the entropy is proportional to the number of atoms the object contains, and thus to its volume. But a black hole's entropy turned out to be proportional to the surface area of its event horizon — the boundary out of which not even light can escape. It was as if that surface somehow encoded information about what was inside, just as a two-dimensional hologram encodes a three-dimensional image.

  

In 1995, Ted Jacobson, a physicist at the University of Maryland in College Park, combined these two findings, and postulated that every point in space lies on a tiny 'black-hole horizon' that also obeys the entropy–area relationship. From that, he found, the mathematics yielded Einstein's equations of general relativity — but using only thermodynamic concepts, not the idea of bending space-time.

 

“This seemed to say something deep about the origins of gravity,” says Jacobson. In particular, the laws of thermodynamics are statistical in nature — a macroscopic average over the motions of myriad atoms and molecules — so his result suggested that gravity is also statistical, a macroscopic approximation to the unseen constituents of space and time.

 

In 2010, this idea was taken a step further by Erik Verlinde, a string theorist at the University of Amsterdam, who showed2 that the statistical thermodynamics of the space-time constituents — whatever they turned out to be — could automatically generate Newton's law of gravitational attraction.

 

And in separate work, Thanu Padmanabhan, a cosmologist at the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, showed that Einstein's equations can be rewritten in a form that makes them identical to the laws of thermodynamics — as can many alternative theories of gravity. Padmanabhan is currently extending the thermodynamic approach in an effort to explain the origin and magnitude of dark energy: a mysterious cosmic force that is accelerating the Universe's expansion.

 

Testing such ideas empirically will be extremely difficult. In the same way that water looks perfectly smooth and fluid until it is observed on the scale of its molecules — a fraction of a nanometre — estimates suggest that space-time will look continuous all the way down to the Planck scale: roughly 10−35 metres, or some 20 orders of magnitude smaller than a proton.

 

But it may not be impossible. One often-mentioned way to test whether space-time is made of discrete constituents is to look for delays as high-energy photons travel to Earth from distant cosmic events such as supernovae and γ-ray bursts. In effect, the shortest-wavelength photons would sense the discreteness as a subtle bumpiness in the road they had to travel, which would slow them down ever so slightly. Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, a quantum-gravity researcher at the University of Rome, and his colleagues have found4 hints of just such delays in the photons from a γ-ray burst recorded in April. The results are not definitive, says Amelino-Camelia, but the group plans to expand its search to look at the travel times of high-energy neutrinos produced by cosmic events. He says that if theories cannot be tested, “then to me, they are not science. They are just religious beliefs, and they hold no interest for me.”

 

Other physicists are looking at laboratory tests. In 2012, for example, researchers from the University of Vienna and Imperial College London proposed a tabletop experiment in which a microscopic mirror would be moved around with lasers. They argued that Planck-scale granularities in space-time would produce detectable changes in the light reflected from the mirror.

 

Loop quantum gravity

Even if it is correct, the thermodynamic approach says nothing about what the fundamental constituents of space and time might be. If space-time is a fabric, so to speak, then what are its threads?

 

One possible answer is quite literal. The theory of loop quantum gravity, which has been under development since the mid-1980s by Ashtekar and others, describes the fabric of space-time as an evolving spider's web of strands that carry information about the quantized areas and volumes of the regions they pass through6. The individual strands of the web must eventually join their ends to form loops — hence the theory's name — but have nothing to do with the much better-known strings of string theory. The latter move around in space-time, whereas strands actually are space-time: the information they carry defines the shape of the space-time fabric in their vicinity.

 

Because the loops are quantum objects, however, they also define a minimum unit of area in much the same way that ordinary quantum mechanics defines a minimum ground-state energy for an electron in a hydrogen atom. This quantum of area is a patch roughly one Planck scale on a side. Try to insert an extra strand that carries less area, and it will simply disconnect from the rest of the web. It will not be able to link to anything else, and will effectively drop out of space-time.

Loop quantum gravity

 

This simulation shows how space evolves in loop quantum gravity. The colours of the faces of the tetrahedra indicate how much area exists at that given point, at a particular moment of time.

 

One welcome consequence of a minimum area is that loop quantum gravity cannot squeeze an infinite amount of curvature onto an infinitesimal point. This means that it cannot produce the kind of singularities that cause Einstein's equations of general relativity to break down at the instant of the Big Bang and at the centres of black holes.

 

In 2006, Ashtekar and his colleagues reported a series of simulations that took advantage of that fact, using the loop quantum gravity version of Einstein's equations to run the clock backwards and visualize what happened before the Big Bang. The reversed cosmos contracted towards the Big Bang, as expected. But as it approached the fundamental size limit dictated by loop quantum gravity, a repulsive force kicked in and kept the singularity open, turning it into a tunnel to a cosmos that preceded our own.

 

This year, physicists Rodolfo Gambini at the Uruguayan University of the Republic in Montevideo and Jorge Pullin at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge reported a similar simulation for a black hole. They found that an observer travelling deep into the heart of a black hole would encounter not a singularity, but a thin space-time tunnel leading to another part of space. “Getting rid of the singularity problem is a significant achievement,” says Ashtekar, who is working with other researchers to identify signatures that would have been left by a bounce, rather than a bang, on the cosmic microwave background — the radiation left over from the Universe's massive expansion in its infant moments.

 

Loop quantum gravity is not a complete unified theory, because it does not include any other forces. Furthermore, physicists have yet to show how ordinary space-time would emerge from such a web of information. But Daniele Oriti, a physicist at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Golm, Germany, is hoping to find inspiration in the work of condensed-matter physicists, who have produced exotic phases of matter that undergo transitions described by quantum field theory. Oriti and his colleagues are searching for formulae to describe how the Universe might similarly change phase, transitioning from a set of discrete loops to a smooth and continuous space-time. “It is early days and our job is hard because we are fishes swimming in the fluid at the same time as trying to understand it,” says Oriti.

Causal sets

 

Such frustrations have led some investigators to pursue a minimalist programme known as causal set theory. Pioneered by Rafael Sorkin, a physicist at the Perimeter Institute in Waterloo, Canada, the theory postulates that the building blocks of space-time are simple mathematical points that are connected by links, with each link pointing from past to future. Such a link is a bare-bones representation of causality, meaning that an earlier point can affect a later one, but not vice versa. The resulting network is like a growing tree that gradually builds up into space-time. “You can think of space emerging from points in a similar way to temperature emerging from atoms,” says Sorkin. “It doesn't make sense to ask, 'What's the temperature of a single atom?' You need a collection for the concept to have meaning.”

 

In the late 1980s, Sorkin used this framework to estimate the number of points that the observable Universe should contain, and reasoned that they should give rise to a small intrinsic energy that causes the Universe to accelerate its expansion. A few years later, the discovery of dark energy confirmed his guess. “People often think that quantum gravity cannot make testable predictions, but here's a case where it did,” says Joe Henson, a quantum-gravity researcher at Imperial College London. “If the value of dark energy had been larger, or zero, causal set theory would have been ruled out.”

 

Causal dynamical triangulations

That hardly constituted proof, however, and causal set theory has offered few other predictions that could be tested. Some physicists have found it much more fruitful to use computer simulations. The idea, which dates back to the early 1990s, is to approximate the unknown fundamental constituents with tiny chunks of ordinary space-time caught up in a roiling sea of quantum fluctuations, and to follow how these chunks spontaneously glue themselves together into larger structures.

 

The earliest efforts were disappointing, says Renate Loll, a physicist now at Radboud University in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The space-time building blocks were simple hyper-pyramids — four-dimensional counterparts to three-dimensional tetrahedrons — and the simulation's gluing rules allowed them to combine freely. The result was a series of bizarre 'universes' that had far too many dimensions (or too few), and that folded back on themselves or broke into pieces. “It was a free-for-all that gave back nothing that resembles what we see around us,” says Loll.

Causal dynamical triangulation

 

This simplified version of causal dynamical triangulation uses just two dimensions: one of space and one of time. The video shows two-dimensional universes generated by pieces of space assembling themselves according to quantum rules. Each colour represent a slice through the universe at particular time after the Big Bang, which is depicted as a tiny black ball.

 

But, like Sorkin, Loll and her colleagues found that adding causality changed everything. After all, says Loll, the dimension of time is not quite like the three dimensions of space. “We cannot travel back and forth in time,” she says. So the team changed its simulations to ensure that effects could not come before their cause — and found that the space-time chunks started consistently assembling themselves into smooth four-dimensional universes with properties similar to our own.

 

Intriguingly, the simulations also hint that soon after the Big Bang, the Universe went through an infant phase with only two dimensions — one of space and one of time. This prediction has also been made independently by others attempting to derive equations of quantum gravity, and even some who suggest that the appearance of dark energy is a sign that our Universe is now growing a fourth spatial dimension. Others have shown that a two-dimensional phase in the early Universe would create patterns similar to those already seen in the cosmic microwave background.

Holography

 

Meanwhile, Van Raamsdonk has proposed a very different idea about the emergence of space-time, based on the holographic principle. Inspired by the hologram-like way that black holes store all their entropy at the surface, this principle was first given an explicit mathematical form by Juan Maldacena, a string theorist at the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, who published his influential model of a holographic universe in 1998. In that model, the three-dimensional interior of the universe contains strings and black holes governed only by gravity, whereas its two-dimensional boundary contains elementary particles and fields that obey ordinary quantum laws without gravity.

 

Hypothetical residents of the three-dimensional space would never see this boundary, because it would be infinitely far away. But that does not affect the mathematics: anything happening in the three-dimensional universe can be described equally well by equations in the two-dimensional boundary, and vice versa.

 

In 2010, Van Raamsdonk studied what that means when quantum particles on the boundary are 'entangled' — meaning that measurements made on one inevitably affect the other. He discovered that if every particle entanglement between two separate regions of the boundary is steadily reduced to zero, so that the quantum links between the two disappear, the three-dimensional space responds by gradually dividing itself like a splitting cell, until the last, thin connection between the two halves snaps. Repeating that process will subdivide the three-dimensional space again and again, while the two-dimensional boundary stays connected. So, in effect, Van Raamsdonk concluded, the three-dimensional universe is being held together by quantum entanglement on the boundary — which means that in some sense, quantum entanglement and space-time are the same thing.

 

Finally

Or, as SAKURAI puts it: “This suggests that their was once zero time and zero dimensional space, and space-time emerged from it, from a non-Universe that both may exist and take their course until one day, one stops and becomes the other. This tranformation happens with light, matter, energy, thermodynamics of heat and gravity, and even space and time. They all exist as fundamental waves and it's dynamics; of ending and reforming, of breaking and reforming, and the presence of one becoming transformed onto the next. This is the singularity.”

 

In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds. Following the inflationary period, the Universe continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate. As space continues to expand into existence so does the expansion rate from very fast to slow until it reaches an equilibrium epoch. In this height of equilibrium (like a roller coaster reaching the top of a hill) , here, the Universe will now speed up again in it's "down hill" loop. The theorized curvature of spacetime and wave dynamics will predictably cause the Inflationary process to self return back to it's original state in what SAKURAI calls dynamic deflation primer or cosmic deflation and finish with a speed close to zero.

 

Perfecting this theory into a simple comprehensive astrophysics textbook format explaining the nature of cosmic heavenly bodies is now the ultimate challenge. - SAKURAI

 

CURRENTLY CURRENT

0-dimensional singularity: magnetic monopole

1-dimensional singularity: cosmic string

2-dimensional singularity: domain wall

Fuzzball (string theory)

Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems

SAKURAI Spacetime Singularities Designing The New Mass–Energy Equivalence

SAKURAI A History of the Circle: Mathematical Reasoning and the Physical Universe

SAKURAI Quantum Black Holes in Loop Quantum Gravity

Hawking, Stephen. "The Beginning of Time". Stephen Hawking: The Official Website. Cambridge University. Retrieved 26 December 2015.

Many researchers believe that physics will not be complete until it can explain not just the behaviour of space and time, but where these entities come from.

  

SAKURAI and his colleagues are convinced that physics will not be complete until it can explain how space and time emerge from something more fundamental — a project that will require concepts at least as audacious as holography. They argue that such a radical reconceptualization of reality is the only way to explain what happens when the infinitely dense 'singularity' at the core of a black hole distorts the fabric of space-time beyond all recognition, or how researchers can unify atomic-level quantum theory and planet-level general relativity — a project that has resisted theorists' efforts for generations.

 

“All our experiences tell us we shouldn't have two dramatically different conceptions of reality — there must be one huge overarching theory,” says SAKURAI

 

Finding that one huge theory is a daunting challenge. Here, SAKURAI explores some promising lines of attack — as well as some of the emerging ideas about how to test these concepts.

  

Gravity as thermodynamics

 

One of the most obvious questions to ask is whether this endeavour is a fool's errand. Where is the evidence that there actually is anything more fundamental than space and time?

 

A provocative hint comes from a series of startling discoveries made in the early 1970s, when it became clear that quantum mechanics and gravity were intimately intertwined with thermodynamics, the science of heat.

 

In 1974, most famously, Stephen Hawking of the University of Cambridge, UK, showed that quantum effects in the space around a black hole will cause it to spew out radiation as if it was hot. Other physicists quickly determined that this phenomenon was quite general. Even in completely empty space, they found, an astronaut undergoing acceleration would perceive that he or she was surrounded by a heat bath. The effect would be too small to be perceptible for any acceleration achievable by rockets, but it seemed to be fundamental. If quantum theory and general relativity are correct — and both have been abundantly corroborated by experiment — then the existence of Hawking radiation seemed inescapable.

 

A second key discovery was closely related. In standard thermodynamics, an object can radiate heat only by decreasing its entropy, a measure of the number of quantum states inside it. And so it is with black holes: even before Hawking's 1974 paper, Jacob Bekenstein, now at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, had shown that black holes possess entropy. But there was a difference. In most objects, the entropy is proportional to the number of atoms the object contains, and thus to its volume. But a black hole's entropy turned out to be proportional to the surface area of its event horizon — the boundary out of which not even light can escape. It was as if that surface somehow encoded information about what was inside, just as a two-dimensional hologram encodes a three-dimensional image.

  

In 1995, Ted Jacobson, a physicist at the University of Maryland in College Park, combined these two findings, and postulated that every point in space lies on a tiny 'black-hole horizon' that also obeys the entropy–area relationship. From that, he found, the mathematics yielded Einstein's equations of general relativity — but using only thermodynamic concepts, not the idea of bending space-time.

 

“This seemed to say something deep about the origins of gravity,” says Jacobson. In particular, the laws of thermodynamics are statistical in nature — a macroscopic average over the motions of myriad atoms and molecules — so his result suggested that gravity is also statistical, a macroscopic approximation to the unseen constituents of space and time.

 

In 2010, this idea was taken a step further by Erik Verlinde, a string theorist at the University of Amsterdam, who showed2 that the statistical thermodynamics of the space-time constituents — whatever they turned out to be — could automatically generate Newton's law of gravitational attraction.

 

And in separate work, Thanu Padmanabhan, a cosmologist at the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, showed that Einstein's equations can be rewritten in a form that makes them identical to the laws of thermodynamics — as can many alternative theories of gravity. Padmanabhan is currently extending the thermodynamic approach in an effort to explain the origin and magnitude of dark energy: a mysterious cosmic force that is accelerating the Universe's expansion.

 

Testing such ideas empirically will be extremely difficult. In the same way that water looks perfectly smooth and fluid until it is observed on the scale of its molecules — a fraction of a nanometre — estimates suggest that space-time will look continuous all the way down to the Planck scale: roughly 10−35 metres, or some 20 orders of magnitude smaller than a proton.

 

But it may not be impossible. One often-mentioned way to test whether space-time is made of discrete constituents is to look for delays as high-energy photons travel to Earth from distant cosmic events such as supernovae and γ-ray bursts. In effect, the shortest-wavelength photons would sense the discreteness as a subtle bumpiness in the road they had to travel, which would slow them down ever so slightly. Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, a quantum-gravity researcher at the University of Rome, and his colleagues have found4 hints of just such delays in the photons from a γ-ray burst recorded in April. The results are not definitive, says Amelino-Camelia, but the group plans to expand its search to look at the travel times of high-energy neutrinos produced by cosmic events. He says that if theories cannot be tested, “then to me, they are not science. They are just religious beliefs, and they hold no interest for me.”

 

Other physicists are looking at laboratory tests. In 2012, for example, researchers from the University of Vienna and Imperial College London proposed a tabletop experiment in which a microscopic mirror would be moved around with lasers. They argued that Planck-scale granularities in space-time would produce detectable changes in the light reflected from the mirror.

 

Loop quantum gravity

Even if it is correct, the thermodynamic approach says nothing about what the fundamental constituents of space and time might be. If space-time is a fabric, so to speak, then what are its threads?

 

One possible answer is quite literal. The theory of loop quantum gravity, which has been under development since the mid-1980s by Ashtekar and others, describes the fabric of space-time as an evolving spider's web of strands that carry information about the quantized areas and volumes of the regions they pass through6. The individual strands of the web must eventually join their ends to form loops — hence the theory's name — but have nothing to do with the much better-known strings of string theory. The latter move around in space-time, whereas strands actually are space-time: the information they carry defines the shape of the space-time fabric in their vicinity.

 

Because the loops are quantum objects, however, they also define a minimum unit of area in much the same way that ordinary quantum mechanics defines a minimum ground-state energy for an electron in a hydrogen atom. This quantum of area is a patch roughly one Planck scale on a side. Try to insert an extra strand that carries less area, and it will simply disconnect from the rest of the web. It will not be able to link to anything else, and will effectively drop out of space-time.

Loop quantum gravity

 

This simulation shows how space evolves in loop quantum gravity. The colours of the faces of the tetrahedra indicate how much area exists at that given point, at a particular moment of time.

 

One welcome consequence of a minimum area is that loop quantum gravity cannot squeeze an infinite amount of curvature onto an infinitesimal point. This means that it cannot produce the kind of singularities that cause Einstein's equations of general relativity to break down at the instant of the Big Bang and at the centres of black holes.

 

In 2006, Ashtekar and his colleagues reported a series of simulations that took advantage of that fact, using the loop quantum gravity version of Einstein's equations to run the clock backwards and visualize what happened before the Big Bang. The reversed cosmos contracted towards the Big Bang, as expected. But as it approached the fundamental size limit dictated by loop quantum gravity, a repulsive force kicked in and kept the singularity open, turning it into a tunnel to a cosmos that preceded our own.

 

This year, physicists Rodolfo Gambini at the Uruguayan University of the Republic in Montevideo and Jorge Pullin at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge reported a similar simulation for a black hole. They found that an observer travelling deep into the heart of a black hole would encounter not a singularity, but a thin space-time tunnel leading to another part of space. “Getting rid of the singularity problem is a significant achievement,” says Ashtekar, who is working with other researchers to identify signatures that would have been left by a bounce, rather than a bang, on the cosmic microwave background — the radiation left over from the Universe's massive expansion in its infant moments.

 

Loop quantum gravity is not a complete unified theory, because it does not include any other forces. Furthermore, physicists have yet to show how ordinary space-time would emerge from such a web of information. But Daniele Oriti, a physicist at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Golm, Germany, is hoping to find inspiration in the work of condensed-matter physicists, who have produced exotic phases of matter that undergo transitions described by quantum field theory. Oriti and his colleagues are searching for formulae to describe how the Universe might similarly change phase, transitioning from a set of discrete loops to a smooth and continuous space-time. “It is early days and our job is hard because we are fishes swimming in the fluid at the same time as trying to understand it,” says Oriti.

Causal sets

 

Such frustrations have led some investigators to pursue a minimalist programme known as causal set theory. Pioneered by Rafael Sorkin, a physicist at the Perimeter Institute in Waterloo, Canada, the theory postulates that the building blocks of space-time are simple mathematical points that are connected by links, with each link pointing from past to future. Such a link is a bare-bones representation of causality, meaning that an earlier point can affect a later one, but not vice versa. The resulting network is like a growing tree that gradually builds up into space-time. “You can think of space emerging from points in a similar way to temperature emerging from atoms,” says Sorkin. “It doesn't make sense to ask, 'What's the temperature of a single atom?' You need a collection for the concept to have meaning.”

 

In the late 1980s, Sorkin used this framework to estimate the number of points that the observable Universe should contain, and reasoned that they should give rise to a small intrinsic energy that causes the Universe to accelerate its expansion. A few years later, the discovery of dark energy confirmed his guess. “People often think that quantum gravity cannot make testable predictions, but here's a case where it did,” says Joe Henson, a quantum-gravity researcher at Imperial College London. “If the value of dark energy had been larger, or zero, causal set theory would have been ruled out.”

 

Causal dynamical triangulations

That hardly constituted proof, however, and causal set theory has offered few other predictions that could be tested. Some physicists have found it much more fruitful to use computer simulations. The idea, which dates back to the early 1990s, is to approximate the unknown fundamental constituents with tiny chunks of ordinary space-time caught up in a roiling sea of quantum fluctuations, and to follow how these chunks spontaneously glue themselves together into larger structures.

 

The earliest efforts were disappointing, says Renate Loll, a physicist now at Radboud University in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The space-time building blocks were simple hyper-pyramids — four-dimensional counterparts to three-dimensional tetrahedrons — and the simulation's gluing rules allowed them to combine freely. The result was a series of bizarre 'universes' that had far too many dimensions (or too few), and that folded back on themselves or broke into pieces. “It was a free-for-all that gave back nothing that resembles what we see around us,” says Loll.

Causal dynamical triangulation

 

This simplified version of causal dynamical triangulation uses just two dimensions: one of space and one of time. The video shows two-dimensional universes generated by pieces of space assembling themselves according to quantum rules. Each colour represent a slice through the universe at particular time after the Big Bang, which is depicted as a tiny black ball.

 

But, like Sorkin, Loll and her colleagues found that adding causality changed everything. After all, says Loll, the dimension of time is not quite like the three dimensions of space. “We cannot travel back and forth in time,” she says. So the team changed its simulations to ensure that effects could not come before their cause — and found that the space-time chunks started consistently assembling themselves into smooth four-dimensional universes with properties similar to our own10.

 

Intriguingly, the simulations also hint that soon after the Big Bang, the Universe went through an infant phase with only two dimensions — one of space and one of time. This prediction has also been made independently by others attempting to derive equations of quantum gravity, and even some who suggest that the appearance of dark energy is a sign that our Universe is now growing a fourth spatial dimension. Others have shown that a two-dimensional phase in the early Universe would create patterns similar to those already seen in the cosmic microwave background.

Holography

 

Meanwhile, Van Raamsdonk has proposed a very different idea about the emergence of space-time, based on the holographic principle. Inspired by the hologram-like way that black holes store all their entropy at the surface, this principle was first given an explicit mathematical form by Juan Maldacena, a string theorist at the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, who published his influential model of a holographic universe in 1998. In that model, the three-dimensional interior of the universe contains strings and black holes governed only by gravity, whereas its two-dimensional boundary contains elementary particles and fields that obey ordinary quantum laws without gravity.

 

Hypothetical residents of the three-dimensional space would never see this boundary, because it would be infinitely far away. But that does not affect the mathematics: anything happening in the three-dimensional universe can be described equally well by equations in the two-dimensional boundary, and vice versa.

 

In 2010, Van Raamsdonk studied what that means when quantum particles on the boundary are 'entangled' — meaning that measurements made on one inevitably affect the other. He discovered that if every particle entanglement between two separate regions of the boundary is steadily reduced to zero, so that the quantum links between the two disappear, the three-dimensional space responds by gradually dividing itself like a splitting cell, until the last, thin connection between the two halves snaps. Repeating that process will subdivide the three-dimensional space again and again, while the two-dimensional boundary stays connected. So, in effect, Van Raamsdonk concluded, the three-dimensional universe is being held together by quantum entanglement on the boundary — which means that in some sense, quantum entanglement and space-time are the same thing.

 

Finally

Or, as SAKURAI puts it: “This suggests that their was once zero time and zero dimensional space, and space-time emerged from it, from a non-Universe that both may exist and take their course until one day, one stops and becomes the other. This tranformation happens with light, matter, energy, thermodynamics of heat and gravity, and even space and time. They all exist as fundamental waves and it's dynamics; of ending and reforming, of breaking and reforming, and the presence of one becoming transformed onto the next. This is the singularity.”

 

In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds. Following the inflationary period, the Universe continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate. As space continues to expand into existence so does the expansion rate from very fast to slow until it reaches an equilibrium epoch. In this height of equilibrium (like a roller coaster reaching the top of a hill) , here, the Universe will now speed up again in it's "down hill" loop. The theorized curvature of spacetime and wave dynamics will predictably cause the Inflationary process to self return back to it's original state in what SAKURAI calls dynamic deflation primer or cosmic deflation and finish with a speed close to zero.

 

Perfecting this theory, sourcing it into a simple comprehensive astrophysics textbook format explaining the nature of cosmic heavenly bodies with computer simulations and mathematics is now the ultimate challenge . - SAKURAI

 

CURRENTLY CURRENT

0-dimensional singularity: magnetic monopole

1-dimensional singularity: cosmic string

2-dimensional singularity: domain wall

Fuzzball (string theory)

Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems

SAKURAI Spacetime Singularities Designing The New Mass–Energy Equivalence

SAKURAI A History of the Circle: Mathematical Reasoning and the Physical Universe

SAKURAI Quantum Black Holes in Loop Quantum Gravity

Hawking, Stephen. "The Beginning of Time". Stephen Hawking: The Official Website. Cambridge University. Retrieved 26 December 2015.

Bank station London underground.

Picture 026

 

Aliens, Egos & Souls: Who Are We in the Big Picture?

 

Aliens Abduct Egos, Not Souls

 

Contactees boast of their special relationship with STO (Service-to-Others) aliens. Abductees claim that they are forcefully taken, then physically and psychologically abused by STS (Service-to-Self) aliens. Milabs (military abduct-tees) receive similar treatments from black project personnel. Specialists tell us that millions of humans are presently involved in such programs, whether they know it or not and want it or not. I have met many of them throughout the 44 years that I have researched this subject and I know fully well that the phenomenon is real – and a crucial chapter of humanity’s history.

 

A World of Illusion and Lies

 

What can be truly called ‘real’? In fact, we live in a world of illusion where nothing we see, hear, or feel is true. Our experiences are totally deformed by our three ego-governed bodies: 1) The mental body with its false belief systems and distorted thoughts; 2) The vital (astral, emotional) body with its desires, yearnings, passions, and lusts; 3) The physical body with its animal needs and atavistic[1] habits. Nowadays, the new item on the long list of abductee complaints is soul abduction. After being taken from bed to an underground lab or a spaceship, a ‘victim’ is put on a table and plugged to a special black box. With the use of advanced technologies and rituals, a reptilian entity – called a demon by those with a more religious mindset – is inserted into them. In the pre-technological days, this would have been called demonic possession. The scenarios can be more elaborate still. What some people call a human ‘soul’ can be pulled out of a body and transferred to one of the following: 1) A look-alike clone with super-human abilities; 2) Another human; 3) A human-alien hybrid (hubrid); 4) An alien. The possibilities are endless. In some New Age circles, temporarily-possessed individuals have been presented in a positive light and fashionably called channelers. Even more mystically glamourous are walk-ins, who are actually fully-possessed humans. Now, I am not suggesting that such scenarios are all lies. Au contraire, it is as real as it gets! The sudden disappearance of a person, their subsequent personality changes, the physical marks, the missing time, the implanted microchips, poltergeist phenomena, and many more obvious confirmations prove that something very dramatic did take place and, in many instances, keeps taking place over and over. The main problem is that we are missing some crucial information and this stops us from fully understanding the phenomenon of abductions. And with understanding comes power – the power to change things.

 

Let us look at the phenomenon in a different light. Our present knowledge of Homo sapiens – its history, physiology, and psychology – comes from Western thinking and linear-time scientific research and experimentation. Yet, we shun or consider as passé thousands of years of advanced studies in human consciousness that have accumulated in Asian countries, especially India. My preferred researchers on the subject, by far, are Aurobindo (Ghose) and The Mother (Mirra Alfassa). To their vision of humanity, I will add that of Personocratia[2], in order to see abductions with a new mindset.

 

Humans Are Very Elaborate Beings

 

We are taught in our elite-controlled schools that we are simply made up of a physical body with hormones to control our emotions and a brain to generate thoughts and take decisions. If we have a religious mindset, we might add that this body carries a soul. If we are spiritually inclined, we will also add a spirit to the lot. Body + soul + spirit. That is as far as most curious people will go. So, when a person faces the abduction of an invisible part of herself while her physical body remains in bed, she immediately thinks her ‘soul’ or her ‘spirit’ has been stolen. Well, humans are much, much more complicated than that. The disinformation brought about by religion, then scientific materialism, and lastly, New Age ‘spirituality’, has completely falsified our notion of ourselves. In fact, each one of us is made up of five completely different types of vibrations, each containing subsets: five-parts-of-human

 

Spirit: the Supreme Being, individualized, outside of space-time, forever the same;

Soul: that same individualized spirit, but evolving in space-time;

Mental body: a mental form constantly exchanging with the multiple worlds of thoughts;

Vital body: a vital form in continuous relation with the worlds of vital energies and emotions;

Physical body: a physical form perpetually connected with the material and etheric worlds.

 

There is one unique individual spirit per being, whether rock, plant, animal, alien, entity, or human – anywhere in the universe. It is both inside and above each individual. Souls are very different. They are a specialty of Earth, which is the planet focusing on the evolution of souls. Other planets have other purposes. To evolve in matter, souls need the dense material vibrations of Earth’s space-time matrix. That is why souls keep coming back there, life after life. Souls are not imprisoned – they plan each new earthly life with an intensity of purpose that we cannot imagine, since to us, our present life is more like hell than heaven. Who would want to come here, with concentration camps, chemtrails, eugenics, mind control, GMOs and nanotechnology, to name a few? Really! Yet, souls do want to incarnate here despite the present situation. It is the only place where they can evolve exactly the way they want.

 

Humans Suffer From Multiple Personality Disorder

 

The huge majority of people cannot be aware of either soul or spirit, which vibrate too fast for our regular consciousness. To some extent, most know their three bodies (mental, vital and physical) – at least the more concrete parts of these. However, each body contains numerous egoic personalities that occupy a certain portion of the space-time territory. Where do these come from? Every time a fear awakens in me, I automatically create a partially-conscious envelope around it. The more often this particular fear comes up, the bigger and more personalized this protected layer gets. So, we all suffer from multiple personality disorder. It is just more severe in some than others. Most of us actually have hundreds such personalities, but the dominant ones stand out more than the others. When I say ‘I’, it is only one of the many ‘me’ that is talking at that moment and temporarily controlling my body. I take each one of these personalities to be me because they are using the same vehicle to go around, the same eyes to see, mouth to talk, and ears to hear. Basically, my body is a big bus full of different types of people. None of them understands the highway code. The only one who knows how to drive is my soul. It is patiently sitting at the back of the bus, waiting for the driver’s seat to be empty, but, there is always an egoic personality behind the wheel. Sometimes, the bus gets stopped by a highway bandit: an alien, a demon, a djinn or another type of hungry entity. This being grabs one of the people on the bus and leaves (‘soul’ abduction) or gets onto the bus and tries to drive the vehicle in a new direction (demonic possession). However, nobody can abduct the driver-soul, because it has free will and it is invincible. If the bus crashes (physical death), the driver-soul leaves to rest and plan its new incarnation, but egoic personalities keep on living for a while still. They all go in different directions. Those vibrating at the level of the subtle physical (etheric) hang around for a while, but dissolve pretty fast, since their energies cannot remain for long after their physical vessel has died. The vital egoic personalities go into their corresponding vital (also called emotional or astral) worlds and take longer to dissolve. The mental egoic personalities leave for the mental worlds and take even longer to disappear. These false parts of me still think that they are ‘me’, but they are simply partially-conscious bundles of crystallised energy. If they are not ‘fed’ on a regular basis, they eventually stop existing, but this may take years, sometimes hundreds of years, if they are good at vampirizing humans or other entities from their own worlds. In the subtle worlds, the war for energy is on 24/7, but the notion of time-space differs from one world to the next. Meanwhile, my soul is still alive and well. It is the only immortal part of me in the game of space-time. (Remember that my spirit is outside space-time.) My multiple egoic personalities remain perpetually connected to their corresponding universal worlds, which are swarming with forces and entities. Our bodies are basically public squares where beings, forces, passions, desires, emotions, thoughts, and ideas pour in and out. There is not much there that I can truthfully call ‘me’. Even the cells of my physical body keep being replaced every day. So What Part of Me Can I Call “I”? My soul! Let’s make things clear. A soul is a soul is soul! There are no captive souls, damned souls, lost souls, fallen souls, redeemed souls, and so on. This describes the state of vital or mental egoic personalities that have left the physical body after death and continue ‘living’ in their corresponding vibrational worlds. According to the belief systems of these egoic personalities, they can create their own hell, purgatory, or heaven – at least for a while. They may get stuck there for various lengths of time, and are often used by aliens and/or demons for a variety of purposes: food source, usable container’ to inhabit in order to perform certain tasks, etc. Eventually, but this may take hundreds, even thousands of years of our time, these egoic personalities figure out that they can accept dissolution. They agree to die and allow their energies to join with the Supreme. But that is not a real person dying. It is a temporary, partially-conscious bundle of energy that continues to think it is called Mrs. Smith or Mr. Jones. The real soul is something totally different. It is the Supreme Being, individualized and evolving in space-time. Its evolution can only take place on Earth, which is the planet that has been designed to house this very particular type of divine experience. A crucial part of its evolution starts when it incarnates into a human body for the first time. Because this type of vehicle carries a more advanced mind than that of animals, the soul now has access to an advanced mind. It just went from a Volkswagen (dolphin, elephant, monkey, cat) to a Lamborghini (human) and now rides in a vehicle with ‘free’ will! Indeed, human bodies are the only ones with the ability to go against nature. Unlike other animal and biological alien species, they do not have to blindly obey a deva (the ruling god of a species). That particularity has proven to be both a curse and a blessing. When a physical human body dies, its subtle physical (etheric) component dies off in about seven days. The many personalities of the vital body take various times, according to many different factors. Mental personalities last longer, but eventually dissolve also. Meanwhile, the soul takes a separate road after the physical body dies. We cannot see it leave the body, because its vibrations are much too fast. It simply retires in its own world of perfect truth and bliss. Its evolution stops for a while, until it is ready to come back into a new earthbound human body.

 

True Free Will

 

The only time we can really talk about ‘free’ will is when an egoic personality chooses freely to go against the regular program of its corresponding world – with its laws, forces, and entities – and decides to do the soul’s biding. This free will is exercised every time I let go of an old attachment or an obsolete role, or when I do something that I am afraid of doing. In this way, a fear is dissolved, along with the egoic personality that has formed itself around it. The particular territory that was controlled by that personality now becomes souled. This is how, during each life, the soul is able to grow and gain more territory. What it collects becomes immortal and totally pure, while keeping the particularities of its own vibrational world. After many incarnations on Earth inside human bodies, the soul has gathered around itself an immortal triple body, what Aurobindo calls a psychic being and Personocratia, a souled body. This is how a human soul slowly grows, just like a chick inside an egg. The physical flesh-and-bone human body is simply its most external shell. This immortal soul is not attached to anything from its earlier incarnations. Previous parents, children, lovers, roles, reputation, career, race, culture, religion, power, money, prestige, and possessions are no longer important. Egoic personalities are the ones that remain attached to past lifetimes or present-life family members, lovers, or accomplishments. The soul never looks back. It is forever looking forward, to its next evolutionary sequence.

 

Spirit is Spirit is Spirit

 

Another totally-misconceived word is ‘spirit’. People talk about the world of spirit as opposed to the world of matter. For most spiritual seekers, anything that is not measurable by human senses or their technological extensions becomes spiritual. Entities of any invisible world and all wandering egoic personalities become ‘spirits’. Nothing could be further from the truth! Most ghosts are actually the egoic personalities of dead people or entities from the subtle worlds who are using the shape of the departed to feed on the living or use them for specific purposes. Yet, we call ghosts ‘spirits’ of the dead. Elementals of the subtle physical worlds are named nature ‘spirits’, and aggressive etheric or vital entities, demon ‘spirits’. In reality, spirit is the original divine vibration that precedes, generates, and inhabits all forms, beings, and forces found in an infinity of vibrational worlds – tangible and intangible, temporal and timeless. “It is the original and eternal source of all. Spirit is everywhere and inside everything. It lies beyond birth and death, and is forever unchanging.” (Personocratia’s Booklet 3: Religion towards…Idessity). In reality, there is one sole spirit that expresses itself both universally and individually at the same time. This phenomenon is called holography: each part contains the whole. The mixed-up vocabulary and false notions used in religions, cults, and most spiritualities has been purposely jumbled to keep us misinformed and easier to control.

 

Most Aliens Are Not Extraterrestrials

 

Many abductees describe their captors as Small Grey aliens with two large black eyes. These are actually cloned organic robots used as avatars[1] for other interdimensional aliens falling in numerous categories: Tall Greys, Reptilians, Mantids, Snakes, Nordics, and many more. Most of these Small Greys are made in secret laboratories inside DUMBs (Deep Underground Military Bases), which should actually be called DUMABs (Deep Underground Military-Alien Bases), since aliens are deeply involved in running the show. Abductees have described many types of aliens. However, there is no way of knowing if these are: 1) Clones from DUMABs; 2) Inhabitants of deep cave systems; 3) Inner Earth dwellers (Agartha – hollow Earth theory); 4) Beings from secret bases on the moon, Venus, Mars, Saturn, or other planets of our solar system; 5) Beings from other star systems or galaxies; 6) Beings from parallel dimensions; 7) Beings from the past or the future. The choice is yours! But never take their word for granted, since many if not most are shape shifters and inveterate liars who know more about human psychology than the best psychologists and car salesmen. Most aliens cannot endure the extremely dense frequency of Earth, so they have to use avatars to go around. These can be: 1) Artificial life forms (e.g. Small Greys); 2) Clones of real aliens that have been genetically modified to endure the Earth’s environment; 3) Human-alien hybrids (hubrids); 4) Possessed human clones; 5) Microchipped humans; 6) Mind-controlled humans; 7) Possessed humans; 8) Any combination of these. Therefore, you can no longer think that an alien automatically comes from another planet. Nor can you be sure that a regular-looking human is not a hubrid or a person controlled by an alien, demonic entity, or something even weirder. In a world of lies, even the most inspiring human guru, beautiful angel, wise ascended master, or gentle alien can hide the most wicked, deceitful, lustful, treacherous demon. I will be able to tell the difference if I am blinded by false beliefs and desperately looking for a savior. Worse still, abductees (taken away without their consent) and contactees (taken willingly) have alien experiences that often turn out to be non-physical and mixed with mind control. Many are being fed a false alien scenario, which is downloaded directly into their brain. They remember interacting with aliens, but these could simply be military personnel or demons of the vital worlds taking a special shape and saying the lies that best suit their purpose. Demons are extremely skillful at using bodies as avatars, since they cannot manifest physically. They have the choice of inhabiting humans, hubrids, aliens, clones of all types, biorobots, animals, plants, magical objects, etc. This works best above cosmo-telluric power places (stargates), especially where sacred geometry increases their power of manifestation: cathedrals, castles, standing stones, pyramids, crop circles, etc. The whole phenomenon of alien life is riddled with misconceptions, disinformation, and out-and-out lies. And the human mind is so limited, that there is no way we can really understand what is going on. One thing is sure: if you see an alien and it tells you it comes from another planet or galaxy, your best bet is to assume that it is lying! As for their crafts, most physical UFOs are man-made and the human elite owns technology that is thousands of years in advance of what is officially disclosed. As sci-fi author Arthur C. Clarke wrote: “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” Those UFOs that are not man-made are much more ethereal than we imagine. Such UFOs can shapeshift into whatever form is needed for the purpose at hand: hot air balloon, flying saucer, cloud, airplane, bird, angel, dragon, etc.

All Humans Are Hubrids

Shapeshifting Beyonce

 

Shapeshifting Beyonce

 

What do Obama and Beyonce have in common? They are probably hubrids: human-alien hybrids. Actually, all humans are hubrids, since Homo sapiens was modified many times in the past by aliens and their masters to suit their purpose. That explains the various races on the planet. Obama, Beyonce and most of the famous and powerful are improved hubrids that are more ‘possessable’, thus easily controlled by their owners. Their abnormally-large vital bodies allow them to be charismatic (Pope Francis) and to perform occult tricks (Chris Angel). Contactees, abductees and milabs are often such hubrids and most of them have psychic powers that are put in the service of their masters. Whether the being possessing a hubrid is an alien or a demon makes no difference. The problem is that we keep bowing down to them and offering them our vital energy in various forms: awe, admiration, lust, jealousy, envy, anger, hate, obedience, reverence, etc. There is no reason for them to stop this power game, since we give them what they crave. If we want things to change, we will have to change ourselves. We cannot count on the lies and deceptions of aliens and their demonic buddies. The problem is that we do not know who we really are. We still consider ourselves lesser than aliens and invisible entities. Nothing could be further from the truth. It’s time that we acknowledge our true identity!

 

Aliens and Demons Live in the World of Illusion

 

Many researchers in the field claim that aliens-demons or ADs (let us link them together, as they work as partners) have been running the show for millions of Earth years, both on our planet and elsewhere in the universe. They call the highest level of control the demiurge, a term first coined by Plato and later adopted by the Gnostics. Others call this top honcho Lucifer or the Great Architect. Christians call it God and Muslims, Allah. It is the god in charge of the mental, vital, and physical worlds that are in relation with planet Earth. I like to call it the god of illusion. As we saw earlier, a human being living on Earth owns a very special soul that grows from one incarnation to the next and a special body that is able to host this soul. There have been so many combinations and alterations in the earthbound human body in the past millennia that it can no longer be ruled by a single deva (god of a species). Thus, a human being only has one real boss: its soul, the Supreme Being individualized in space-time. This means that the unlimited, omnipotent, omniscient creator of the whole universe lies hidden inside humans in an individualized format. It can tell each person what to do and creates for each one exactly what is needed to advance its agenda, both on an individual and a universal basis. Realize that humans are individual creators – not because they have an advanced mind, but because they have an advanced soul! On the other hand, most ADs have much more powerful minds than humans and they have access to the subtle worlds. They can ‘read’ what some call the akashic records, where everything that has happened since the inception of the universe is stored, including all possible pasts, presents, and futures. Therefore, ADs can easily get information, but they are limited to their own level of consciousness. They can only decipher deformed versions of the truth. Unlike humans, they do not have access to advanced souls. So, they are stuck in the illusion. They need to feed themselves (often on us) and they eventually die, even if some live for thousands, even millions of years. And with death come fear, hierarchy, war, lies, and deceit.

 

Humans Are Not Victims

 

With such powerful souls, humans are not the victims of aliens or demons. They are creators and willing participants in a cosmic experiment. The latter is taking place only on Earth, but its repercussions affect the whole universe. Astronomically speaking, our planet may appear like a small piece of cosmic dust floating among countless galaxies, a tiny grain of sand on a Bahamian beach. However, on a spiritual level, “Earth is the concentrated symbol of the universe. It is much easier to work on one point than to work in a diluted immensity … For the facility and the necessity of the work, the whole universe has been concentrated and symbolically condensed in a grain of sand called Earth.” (The Mother, Entretiens, 1953, my translation) Souls have agreed upon the procedure of this special experiment on Earth. To our souls, the present earthly scenario is going according to expectations. Whatever the elite does, whatever laws it passes on compulsory schooling, smart meters or vaccinations, despite the number of concentration camps it builds and children it rapes, kills and eats in satanic ceremonies, despite GMOs, chemtrails, HAARP, and nanotechnology, it follows the Supreme Being’s plan. There is really nothing to worry about. Yet, there is something we must do – we must change ourselves! We are not, have never been, will never be victims. We are creators!

True Trinity: Creator, Creature and Grace are one and the same

 

Humans are a trinity: 1) Spirit, the creator of the video game; 2) Soul, the player pushing buttons on the video console; 3) Body, the avatar in the game, with its three main tools – mental, vital, and physical. The trouble is I have forgotten who I really am. I simply think of myself as the avatar in a multi-dimensional game of Dungeons and Dragons. And I swear at the Dungeon Master (god of illusion) when things do not go according to my little egoic mind’s plan. If my soul enlarges, I get to choose an improved avatar for the next incarnation. The more lives my soul experiences, the more evolved it gets, and the better its control on the three bodies.

 

So, I am never a victim, I am both the creator (spirit) and the player of the game (soul). Yet, I act as if I was strictly the avatar (body) in the game – and I am terrified of dying! However, as a soul, I am immortal and as a spirit, I am timeless. Whatever happens in the game allows my soul to grow in consciousness and enlarge its souled body. And for a soul, the game can be a lot of fun. My soul lives in bliss at all times, whether it is in a body or in between bodies. Ego, the temporary cluster of personalities attached to my present avatar-body, is the one who follows the WSAD program – Work-Suffer-Age-Die. So, when I experience fear, any type of fear, I can automatically conclude that I am identifying with ego, and not soul.

 

Etheric Personalities Are Not Souls

 

Most people mistake their souls with either their etheric body or their vital body. Let me explain. All of us are aware of our physical bodies, or at least the concrete part of it. The subtle physical part is often called the etheric body and is well known to healers, dowsers, and shamans. The door connecting our physical body to the etheric body and its corresponding world is the first chakra, below the vertebral column. The etheric body houses several personalities, which are often mistakenly, called the ‘soul’. They can easily interact with the world of the subtle physical, the realm of electromagnetic and scalar energies, elementals (gnomes, undines, sylphs, salamanders) and other nature ‘spirits’, crytozoological creatures (sasquatch, lake monsters, chupacabras, mothmen, etc.). Most real aliens pop in and out of this etheric realm (Greys, Reptilians, Mantids, Nordics). This is especially true of those who are more physical. They feed on human flesh, blood, or secretions, reproduce sexually or through cloning, have babies, and use technology to travel around and accomplish tasks.

 

Vital Personalities Are Not Souls

 

Astral projection of a vital personality Most people mistake vital egoic personalities with the soul, because these are easy to feel through desires and emotions. Such personalities can easily detach from the physical body to visit the vital worlds. They do so when their unwilling human host is sleeping (dreams) or daydreaming. A willing human can allow her vital personalities to detach deliberately through astral projection, or by using psychoactive drugs (LSD, ecstasy, ayahuasca), sound patterns (drumming, binaural beats, music), magic rituals, remote viewing technology, and so on. When you hear people talk about ‘astral-soul matrix’ or ‘soul-body consciousness’, they are referring to one of many vital personalities. These remain attached to the physical body with what is called a silver chord. If this is cut, a large part of the vital body leaves the physical body, which may die unless another vital personality is forcefully inserted: demon, reptilian or other alien, etc. Such replacements are done regularly in secret laboratories, to create interdimensional spies (astral operators) who gather information and even possess other humans. Some abductees and milabs say that their ‘souls’ have been imprisoned inside Faraday cages (electrified metal enclosures) or similar technologies. There is NO way such procedures can work on a real soul, which vibrates at an extremely high frequency and is not affected by electromagnetic and scalar fields. Yet, this is entirely possible for etheric and low vital entities and egoic personalities.

 

Mental Personalities Are Not Spirit

 

As mental egoic personalities vibrate at a higher frequency, they are often equated with spirit. The so-called negative entities that live there cannot access the physical world directly. These mental demons (called asura in Sanskrit – Hinduism) use the vital demonic hierarchies and STS aliens of the subtle physical realm to do their job. Our mental egoic personalities are thought forms crystallised around specific beliefs or dogmas, whether religious, moral, or scientific. Most of these have been programmed into us soon after birth and many are intergenerational, dating back thousands of years. Through atavism, they are carried inside invisible portions of the parental DNA. Mental egoic personalities can be modified in many ways (education, media), but they cannot be technologically controlled or abducted like vital personalities. Yet, alien-created religious beliefs can influence humans drastically and stop them from truly understanding their external and internal environments. Be aware that such religious disinformation also includes scientific materialism, which is full of false assumptions. We have been taught that there are invariable physical laws: gravity, inertia, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, etc. Others talk about universal and cosmic laws. Actually, these are all false, and many have already been proven wrong. In reality, there is only one law: higher frequencies have precedence over lower ones. Therefore, mental personalities are able to affect our vital personalities directly, and the latter can control etheric ones. This also means that soul has priority over mind. Now, that is interesting! Because their frequencies are higher than those of etheric and vital realms, mental vibrations are often mistaken for spiritual vibrations. Some even call the Supreme Being the ‘Universal Mind’. In doing so, they remain at the level of mind, with its worlds of division, right/wrong duality, ethical conduit, justice for all, etc. A very limited and falsified vision of reality, whose vibrations are very low as compared to the highest vibrations of the Supreme Being, which exist far beyond mind, in what Aurobindo calls the supramental (beyond mind) worlds.

 

Homo Sapiens is a Transitional Being

 

Acanthostega Homo sapiens was never meant to last forever as an animal species. Just like the Acanthostega was the transition between fish and amphibians and the Archaeopterix was the short-lived temporary species between reptiles and birds, humanity is an intermediate link between two reigns: animality and divinity. This leap is much bigger than just another new species, genus, or any other taxonomic category manifesting for the first time. It is bigger than passing from the non-living mineral to the living vegetal kingdom. We are talking about a new being, with “a body made up of a new matter that has unlimited and instantaneous creative powers.”[1] A divine being with all of the divine attributes! Aurobindo describes this new matter as “more fluid than a gas and harder than a diamond”. (Evening Talks) Don’t worry about the survival of our species. With chemtrails, GMOs, radiation, pesticides, rampant Satanism, the New World Order, the medical mafia (vaccines, cancer and AIDS treatments, toxic pharmaceuticals), nuclear radiation, and mind control, Homo sapiens is doomed. It has served its purpose and is now finishing its mandate. No problem. We are not humans – we are souls getting ready to switch from a gas-guzzling Hummer-type human body to a free-energy stargate-jumping divine body. Nothing to cry about!

 

The Answer is Not Technological, Chemical or Magical

 

Please, don’t read my car analogy wrong. I am not saying that the answer is technological. Quite the opposite! Technology is simply a lazy person’s answer to her dreams of infinite powers. I would rather continue to use limited and limiting devices (computers, cell phones, microchips, free energy machines) than become who I really am: an omniscient, omnipotent, invincible, immortal, all-loving being! The use of technology actually slows down the evolution of consciousness, unless it is soul-guided. The manifestation of a divine being made up of divine matter does not rely on transhumanism and its GRIN technologies – Genetics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Nanotechnology. Nor is the solution chemical, through drug-induced states of consciousness or by other artificial or magical means (ayahuasca, LSD, numerology, Kabbalah, binaural beats, rituals, sacrifices). We cannot force the evolution of consciousness in such a way, and even less the transformation of human into divine beings. Neither can such a change be provoked by an external facilitator, through a Oneness Blessing (deeksha), despite Amma Bhagavan’s claim, founder of the Oneness University: “Man cannot make it on his own; it has to be given to him.” Indeed, but not by another human. Rather, the body must surrender its free will to its soul and follow its injunctions blindly. So, forget any type of external help: shamanism, reiki, drugs, magic, gurus, religions, mystery schools, secret societies, channelling, walk-ins, ley lines, and sacred sites. In the past, these helped the evolution of consciousness. Now, they hinder our transformation.

No, Thanks!

 

Let us go back to the subject of abductions, aliens, and demonic entities. As a human being, I am perpetually bathing in subtle worlds brimming with forces and beings of all types. Personally, I am not a milab, abductee, or contactee, but like all humans, I am surrounded by invisible beings who attempt to influence me and feed on me – 24/7. However, whether they are human, alien, demonic, I am never a victim. I am always a participant. The solution is obvious: I must learn to say “no, thanks!” to all those entities. “No, thanks. And don’t bother asking again.” Refusing their offers and repelling their attacks works only if I am sincere. In most cases, one or more of my egoic personalities agree to play the game, whether it is physical or subtle in nature. One part of me wants the contact or abduction in order to feel wanted and special. This fulfills my desire to be more powerful and important than other ‘normal’ humans who do not face such ordeals. Abductees and contactees are told they have been ‘chosen’. Milabs are taken by the military because they are already abductees whose occult powers can be used to participate in delicate missions. To be liberated from military/alien/demonic influence, I must dissolve the egoic personalities that profit from their actions. These parts of me must accept to die and I have to face the void. I must continue living while I have the impression of being nothing. A very uncomfortable experience! The problem is that I identify with my ego, not my soul. I remain so attached to my present-day egoic personalities that I cannot imagine being anything else. Who am I if I am no longer a milab/abductee/contactee? Surrendering my free will to my soul, that part of me about which I know nothing, that I cannot hear and hardly feel, requires immense courage. Aurobindo summarizes this quite well: “Ego must disappear and be replaced by the true spiritual person, the central being, and life itself must be turned towards the fulfillment of the Divine in terrestrial existence; it must feel a Divine Force awaking within it and become an obedient instrumentation of its purpose.” (The Synthesis of Yoga by Aurobindo)

 

The Transformation Happens Here and Now

 

There have been many advanced civilizations before ours. Every time humanity on Earth became too technological or magical, and erred away from its mission – the manifestation of a divine being made out of divinized matter – some cosmic event brought about a planet cleansing. The destruction of Atlantis and Noah’s Great Flood are simply two recent ‘resets’. Courtney Brown, a remote viewing specialist, summed it up well in a recent interview: “You need a million years of uninterrupted growth for a civilization to really mature and do something. You can’t grind it down to a pulp every twenty-five thousand years or sixty thousand years and expect it to start all over again, where there is no memory of what happened before. And this is what happens regularly [on Earth]… We have these pole shifts that happen regularly, we have these coronal mass ejections that happen every two thousand years that ruin all the electrical stuff… This is not a good planet to have a long-term civilization on.” You are right, Courtney, but it is a perfect planet for the evolution of souls and the creation of a new reign in matter! What is coming now is not a ‘reset’. It is an apocalypse, a Greek word that means “revelation, disclosure of what has been concealed”. The present climatic and geological changes on Earth and other planets of our solar system are evident proof that something big is coming. However, it is much more than just a regular mass-extinction event, much bigger than the end of a cycle. It is the end of ALL cycles! It is the beginning of a new kingdom: divine beings made out of divine matter and living divine lives outside of the space-time illusion. For the divine chicks to hatch, they must break their shells. This has already started in the invisible realms, but we cannot yet see it in the concrete material world. In order for the shells to crack open, we need a critical mass of human beings who surrender to their souls and allow the immensely powerful energies of spirit to transform their mortal and limited human bodies into immortal, unlimited divine bodies. When this critical mass is reached, aliens and entities that have been feeding on humans will simply disappear. Now, you finally understand why they are so desperate at stopping this emergence of divine beings by all means possible: microchipping, hybridization, GMOs, chemtrails, radiation, abductions, etc. With their time machines, they are able to see the future. They know that they will not succeed. They can only delay the inevitable. Even if the transformation of willing humans into divine beings is inescapable, we need to participate willingly to the birthing process. How can we help? Each one of us needs to say “No, thanks!” to the skillful maneuvers of ADs. And don’t think that Jesus, son of God, or any other past spiritual teachers, can help you. This may have worked in the past, but that time is over. Don’t expect either that good, STO aliens (Service-To-Other) will tell us how to get the job done. They can no longer help, because this is a first-time-ever event. Only our souls know how to proceed, and they are hidden inside our bodies! Our transformation into divine beings rests in our own hands. We must refuse to participate as willing contactees, abductees, or milabs, even if it means the death of our physical bodies. After all, as humans, we own immortal, forever-evolving souls. Aliens and demons don’t! We do not need to be afraid. They do! All spiritual people are quick to admit that they are divine. Well, it’s time to walk our talk – and trust our souls, at all costs!

 

Sources: [1] Explained in more detail in Personocratia Booklet #1: Evolution towards… the New Species This article is offered under Creative Commons license. It’s okay to republish it anywhere as long as attribution bio is included and all links remain intact. ~~ Help Waking Times to raise the vibration by sharing this article with the buttons below…

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Clubs: Light Music, Dance, Tea Ceremony, Holography

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Jesus Christ, you go to a dance event, and some pack of goddamned pricks come out of the woodwork and suck the life out of it with their stupid cameras flashing in your face... WHAT THE HELL IS WRONG WITH YOU PARASITES! NOBODY WANTS PHOTOS AT A DANCE EVENT! GO THE HELL AWAY!

 

I don't go to as many dance events as I used to.

Some of them happen at the same time as others.

Some of them happen too late. Or too early.

Some of them are places where I know I'm not welcome.

Not that I'm saying I need my ass kissed or praises sung.

God, that annoys me. I'm just some idiot with a decent rig and good reflexes.

You people who make this stuff are the artists.

Well, most of them.

Some of them are... well, let's just say that I try to challenge myself to find a moment of magic and motion and emotion to capture, and then there's trying to polish a...

Nah.

Let's just say I'm tired or went to the bathroom or just didn't get a good angle.

Kinda like not getting a good angle of a car wreck.

No need to be... what did she say?

Negativity. My negativity.

Feh. I look good in black.

 

Who the hell needs this stuff, anyway?

I mean, the optimum way of preserving these forms of art is video

Maybe holography, if that were available.

Or at the very least, a repository of acts with animesh figures.

My photos strip out the motion and the music and the actual choreography.

They're just a slice from the cadaver, I suppose.

And not the whole, living breathing being.

 

This photo could fit the definition of art, right?

(The caption, at least. It's written art.)

But what of the photos in which I capture the art of others?

Heck, those prim photographers are someone else's art, right?

The outfit, the key, the hair... all by others.

Assembled by me, but still...

Did you make your own canvas? Paint? Brushes?

What makes art art?

 

And I find myself asking...

Who am I doing this for?

Why am I doing this?

What am I trying to do?

If I keep doing it, maybe I'll find the answers.

THE NEW GENERATION OF OPTIC IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES OF UNLIMITED RESOLVING POWER.

 

The World's First View of SAKURAI's Precise Subatomic Spectroscopy and The Comparisons of These Antimatter Elements Against Their Hydrogen/Helium Counterparts.

  

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its precise value is 299,792,458 metres per second (approximately 3.00×108 m/s), since the length of the metre is defined from this constant and the international standard for time. According to special relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all matter and hence information in the universe can travel. It is the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as electrons, light, and gravitational waves, travel in a vacuum. Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial reference frame of the observer. In the theory of relativity, c interrelates space and time, and also appears in the famous equation of mass–energy equivalence E = mc2.

 

The speed at which light propagates through transparent materials, such as glass or air, is less than c; similarly, the speed of radio waves in wire cables is slower than c. To slow the speed of light even further, especially for image capture, shown, SAKURAI has redefined the way electrons and light may travel by the use of a medium called S1A3 (see also SAKURAI S1A3) and a process called Initial Boundary Reduction (reducing the electron orbital diameter). The ratio between c and the speed v at which light travels in a material is called the refractive index n of the material (n = c / v). For example, for visible light the refractive index of glass is typically around 1.5, meaning that light in glass travels at c / 1.5 ≈ 200000 km/s; the refractive index of air for visible light is about 1.0003, so the speed of light in air is about 299700 km/s (about 90 km/s slower than c). In a medium such as with S1A3, the velocity of an electron can now be reduced to c / 99.2 without having any boundary effects such as atomic instability or driving reactions such as nuclear fission and / or fusion. For this to happen, a containment field was provided using CERN Alpha facility and provided for an environment that may be described similar to that of the core of the Sun, but sustained for only short periods.

 

Further, cryogenics attachment and stochastic cooling provided for low temperatures and high performance / results.

 

For many practical purposes, electrons, light, and other electromagnetic waves will appear to propagate instantaneously, but for long distances and very sensitive measurements, their finite speed has noticeable effects. In communicating with distant space probes, it can take minutes to hours for a message to get from Earth to the spacecraft, or vice versa. The light seen from stars left them many years ago, allowing the study of the history of the universe by looking at distant objects. The finite speed of light also limits the theoretical maximum speed of computers, since information must be sent within the computer from chip to chip. The speed of light can be used with time of flight measurements to measure large distances to high precision. Likewise, and currently, short distances, such as with the the orbital of an electron, are also made with precision, With this technological breakthrough and method and with still further refinements using the Antiproton Decelerator and dense electron gas orbital vacuum, we at SAKURAI produced this image.

 

Ole Rømer first demonstrated in 1676 that light travels at a finite speed (as opposed to instantaneously) by studying the apparent motion of Jupiter's moon Io. In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell proposed that light was an electromagnetic wave, and therefore traveled at the speed c appearing in his theory of electromagnetism. In 1905, Albert Einstein postulated that the speed of light c with respect to any inertial frame is a constant and is independent of the motion of the light source. He explored the consequences of that postulate by deriving the special theory of relativity and in doing so showed that the parameter c had relevance outside of the context of light and electromagnetism.

 

After centuries of increasingly precise measurements, in 1975 the speed of light was known to be 299792458 m/s with a measurement uncertainty of 4 parts per billion. In 1983, the metre was redefined in the International System of Units (SI) as the distance travelled by light in vacuum in 1/299792458 of a second. As a result, the numerical value of c in metres per second is now fixed exactly by the definition of the metre.

 

The next significant step forward

In 1931 the physicist Paul Dirac proposed that every particle of matter should have an antimatter counterpart. But shortly after the big bang, most of the antimatter disappeared, leaving behind the tiny portion of matter that constitutes the universe we live in today. What happened to swing the balance away from antimatter is one of the greatest puzzles in physics.

 

Astronomers search for antimatter in space, but was hard to come by on Earth. In order to study it, physicists had to make it themselves. And because antimatter annihilates in a flash of energy when it interacts with regular matter, storing it presented a challenge.

 

Creating Antihydrogen and Antihelium

 

The antimatter counterpart to the simplest atoms, hydrogen and helium, is a neutral antihydrogen and antihelium atom, which consists of a positively charged positron orbiting a negatively charged antiproton and double that for helium.

 

In 1995, physicists of the CERN and associate specialists at SAKURAI announced that they had successfully created the first atoms of antihydrogen and antihelium. The antiparticles were highly energetic; each one travelled at nearly the speed of light over a path of 10 metres and then annihilated with ordinary matter after about forty billionths of a second. While creating the antihydrogen / helium was a major achievement, the atoms were too energetic —too “hot”— and did not lend themselves to easy study.

 

In order to understand antimatter atoms, CERN / SAKURAI physicists needed more time to interact with them. So they developed techniques to capture and trap anti hydrogen / helium for longer periods. The Antiproton Decelerator established at CERN in the late 1990s began providing slower moving, lower-energy antiprotons for antimatter experiments such as ATHENA, ATRAP and ALPHA.

 

In these experiments, electric and magnetic fields hold the antiprotons separate from positrons in a near-perfect vacuum that keeps them away from regular matter. The antiprotons pass through a dense electron gas, which slows them down further.

 

When the energy is low enough, ALPHA physicists use the electric potential to nudge the antiprotons into a cloud of positrons suspended within the vacuum. The two types of charged antiparticles combine into low-energy antihydrogen atoms. Since antihydrogen atoms don’t have an electric charge, the electric field can no longer hold them in place. So instead, two superconducting magnets generate a strong magnetic field that takes advantage of the antihydrogen’s magnetic properties. If the antihydrogen atoms have a low enough energy, they can stay in this magnetic “bottle” for a long time.

 

Currently the only way to know whether antimatter was actually trapped is to let it annihilate with regular matter. When the magnets are switched off, the antihydrogen atoms escape their trap and quickly annihilate with the sides of the trap. Silicon detectors pick up the energetic flare to pinpoint the antiatom’s position. Only then can the physicists be sure that they had trapped antihydrogen / helium.

 

Trapping Antimatter at CERN / SAKURAI

 

In MAY 2007, ALPHA reported that it had succeeded in trapping antimatter atoms for over 16 minutes. On the scale of atomic lifetimes, this was a very long time — long enough to begin to study their properties in detail. By precise comparisons of hydrogen / helium and anti hydrogen / helium, several experimental groups hope to study the properties of anti hydrogen / helium and see if it has the same spectral lines as hydrogen / helium. One group, AEGIS, will even attempt to measure g, the gravitational acceleration constant, as experienced by anti hydrogen / helium atoms. Side-by-side SAKURAI imaging comparisons / results, once-and- for-all, have shown EXACT LIKENESS OF ANTIMATTER AND MATTER EVENTS. DISCREPANCIES WERE THAT THEY WOULD AND MUST HAVE BEEN TAKEN PLACE IN THE SAME LOCATION AT THE SAME TIME EXPERIENCE. QUANTUM FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF TIME AND SPACE PREDICATE THIS. HERE THE PREDECESSOR HAD A BIT MORE TIME IN COMPARISON.

  

The longer these experiments can trap antihydrogren, the more accurately they can measure it, and physicist will be closer to demystifying antimatter.

 

Accelerating Quantum Science for The World of Tomorrow - SAKURAI -

  

This content is archived on the CERN Document Server

Current updates related to engineering and repairs ongoing on electrical installations at CERN

 

2 May 2016 – The LHC went into standby on Friday last week following an electrical perturbation at point 8, caused by a small animal

Vibration tests for High-Luminosity LHC project begin

 

17 Dec 2015 – In preparation for civil engineering work for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, vibration measurements have been carried out near the LHC

Engineers refine protection system for LHC magnets

 

3 Sep 2015 – During this week's planned technical stop, engineers modify the electrical system that protects magnet components from high current

A superconducting shield for astronauts

 

5 Aug 2015 – Magnetic shielding technology developed at CERN could protect astronauts from cosmic radiation in space

First technical stop for the LHC

 

11 Jun 2015 – The first planned technical stop of the LHC started Monday, with five days of maintenance work scheduled for the accelerator and its experiments.

  

Engineering

Cryogenics: Low temperatures, high performance

Pulling together: Superconducting electromagnets

Powering CERN

A vacuum as empty as interstellar space

Radiofrequency cavities

Stochastic cooling

Superconductivity

Storing antimatter

Restarting the LHC: Why 13 Tev?

About CERN

How a detector works

Computing

Experiments

© Copyright CERN / SAKURAI 2016

  

INTRODUCTION and The Bohr Model

The most important properties of atomic and molecular structure may be exemplified using a simplified picture of an atom that is called the Bohr Model. This model was proposed by Niels Bohr in 1915; it is not completely correct, but it has many features that are approximately correct and it is sufficient for much of our discussion. The correct theory of the atom is called quantum mechanics; the Bohr Model is an approximation to quantum mechanics that has the virtue of being much simpler.

 

A Planetary Model of the Atom

The Bohr Model is probably familar as the "planetary model" of the atom illustrated in the adjacent figure that, for example, is used as a symbol for atomic energy (a bit of a misnomer, since the energy in "atomic energy" is actually the energy of the nucleus, rather than the entire atom). In the Bohr Model the neutrons and protons (symbolized by red and blue balls in the adjacent image) occupy a dense central region called the nucleus, and the electrons orbit the nucleus much like planets orbiting the Sun (but the orbits are not confined to a plane as is approximately true in the Solar System). The adjacent image is not to scale since in the realistic case the radius of the nucleus is about 100,000 times smaller than the radius of the entire atom, and as far as we can tell electrons are point particles without a physical extent.

 

This similarity between a planetary model and the Bohr Model of the atom ultimately arises because the attractive gravitational force in a solar system and the attractive Coulomb (electrical) force between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons in an atom are mathematically of the same form. (The form is the same, but the intrinsic strength of the Coulomb interaction is much larger than that of the gravitational interaction; in addition, there are positive and negative electrical charges so the Coulomb interaction can be either attractive or repulsive, but gravitation is always attractive in our present Universe.)

 

The Orbits Are Quantized

The basic feature of quantum mechanics that is incorporated in the Bohr Model and that is completely different from the analogous planetary model is that the energy of the particles in the Bohr atom is restricted to certain discrete values. One says that the energy is quantized. This means that only certain orbits with certain radii are allowed; orbits in between simply don't exist.

 

Take, for example such, quantized energy levels for the hydrogen atom; these levels are labeled by an integer n that is called a quantum number. The lowest energy state is generally termed the ground state. The states with successively more energy than the ground state are called the first excited state, the second excited state, and so on. Beyond an energy called the ionization potential the single electron of the hydrogen atom is no longer bound to the atom. Then the energy levels form a continuum. In the case of hydrogen, this continuum starts at 13.6 eV above the ground state ("eV" stands for "electron-Volt", a common unit of energy in atomic physics).

  

Although this behavior may seem strange to our minds that are trained from birth by watching phenomena in the macroscopic world, this is the way things behave in the strange world of the quantum that holds sway at the atomic level.

 

One of the implications of these quantized energy states is that only certain photon energies are allowed when electrons jump down from higher levels to lower levels, producing the hydrogen spectrum. The Bohr model successfully predicted the energies for the hydrogen atom, but had significant failures that were corrected by solving the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom

 

Atomic Excitation and De-excitation

Atoms can make transitions between the orbits allowed by quantum mechanics by absorbing or emitting exactly the energy difference between the orbits. SAKURAI captures for the first time the spectrum of an atomic excitation state caused by absorption of a photon and an atomic de-excitation caused by emission of a photon.

 

Excitation by absorption of light and de-excitation by emission of light

In each case the wavelength of the emitted or absorbed light is exactly such that the photon carries the energy difference between the two orbits. This energy may be calculated by dividing the product of the Planck constant and the speed of light hc by the wavelength of the light. Thus, an atom can absorb or emit only certain discrete wavelengths (or equivalently, frequencies or energies.

 

The speed of light electron orbital system disperse multiple weights of mass simultaneously including zero point, thus producing a full spectrum of colors at all points and levels and also emitting multiple point energies of mass ranges simultaneously in multiple boundary locations and multiple vectors....and the science is continuing.

 

-SAKURAI

  

Introduction Part 2 -The Basics of Quantum Mechanics/Waves and Modes

 

Many misconceptions about quantum mechanics may be avoided if some concepts of field theory and quantum field theory like "normal mode" and "occupation" are introduced right from the start. They are needed for understanding the deepest and most interesting ideas of quantum mechanics anyway. Questions about this approach are welcome on the talk page.

  

Waves and modes

A wave is a propagating disturbance in a continuous medium or a physical field. By adding waves or multiplying their amplitudes by a scale factor, superpositions of waves are formed. Waves must satisfy the superposition principle which states that they can go through each other without disturbing each other. It looks like there were two superimposed realities each carrying only one wave and not knowing of each other (that's what is assumed if one uses the superposition principle mathematically in the wave equations).

 

Examples are acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves (light), but also electronic orbitals, as explained below.

A standing wave is considered a one-dimensional concept by many students, because of the examples (waves on a spring or on a string) usually provided. In reality, a standing wave is a synchronous oscillation of all parts of an extended object at a definite frequency, in which the oscillation profile (in particular the nodes and the points of maximal oscillation amplitude) doesn't change. This is also called a normal mode of oscillation. The profile can be made visible in Chladni's figures and in vibrational holography. In unconfined systems, i.e. systems without reflecting walls or attractive potentials, traveling waves may also be chosen as normal modes of oscillation (see boundary conditions).

 

A phase shift of a normal mode of oscillation is a time shift scaled as an angle in terms of the oscillation period, e.g. phase shifts by 90° and 180° (or π / 2 {\displaystyle \pi /2} \pi /2 and π {\displaystyle \pi } \pi ) are time shifts by the fourth and half of the oscillation period, respectively. This operation is introduced as another operation allowed in forming superpositions of waves (mathematically, it is covered by the phase factors of complex numbers scaling the waves).

  

Helmholtz ran an experiment which clearly showed the physical reality of resonances in a box. (He predicted and detected the eigenfrequencies.

 

SAKURAI's experiments with standing and propagating waves. Electromagnetic and electronic modes

 

Planck was the first to suggest that the electromagnetic modes are not excited continuously but discretely by energy quanta h ν proportional to the frequency. By this assumption, he could explain why the high-frequency modes remain unexcited in a thermal light source: The thermal exchange energy k B T is just too small to provide an energy quantum h ν if ν is too large. Classical physics predicts that all modes of oscillation (2 degrees of freedom each) — regardless of their frequency — carry the average energy k B T, which amounts to an infinite total energy (called ultraviolet catastrophe). This idea of energy quanta was the historical basis for the concept of occupations of modes, designated as light quanta by Einstein, also denoted as photons since the introduction of this term in 1926 by Gilbert N. Lewis.

 

An electron beam (accelerated in a cathode ray tube similar to TV) is diffracted in a crystal and diffraction patterns analogous to the diffraction of monochromatic light by a diffraction grating or of X-rays on crystals are observed on the screen. This observation proved de Broglie's idea that not only light, but also electrons propagate and get diffracted like waves. In the attracting potential of the nucleus, this wave is confined like the acoustic wave in a guitar corpus. That's why in both cases a standing wave (= a normal mode of oscillation) forms. An electron is an occupation of such a mode.

 

An electronic orbital is a normal mode of oscillation of the electronic quantum field, very similar to a light mode in an optical cavity being a normal mode of oscillation of the electromagnetic field. The electron is said to be an occupation of an orbital. This is the main new idea in quantum mechanics, and it is forced upon us by observations of the states of electrons in multielectron atoms. Certain fields like the electronic quantum field are observed to allow its normal modes of oscillation to be excited only once at a given time, they are called fermionic. If you have more occupations to place in this quantum field, you must choose other modes (the spin degree of freedom is included in the modes), as is the case in a carbon atom, for example. Usually, the lower-energy (= lower-frequency) modes are favoured. If they are already occupied, higher-energy modes must be chosen. In the case of light, the idea that a photon is an occupation of an electromagnetic mode was found much earlier by Planck and Einstein, see below.

 

Processes and particles

All processes in nature can be reduced to the isolated time evolution of modes and to (superpositions of) reshufflings of occupations, as described in the Feynman diagrams (since the isolated time evolution of decoupled modes is trivial, it is sometimes eliminated by a mathematical redefinition which in turn creates a time dependence in the reshuffling operations; this is called Dirac's interaction picture, in which all processes are reduced to (redefined) reshufflings of occupations). For example in an emission of a photon by an electron changing its state, the occupation of one electronic mode is moved to another electronic mode of lower frequency and an occupation of an electromagnetic mode (whose frequency is the difference between the frequencies of the mentioned electronic modes) is created.

 

Electrons and photons become very similar in quantum theory, but one main difference remains: electronic modes cannot be excited/occupied more than once (= Pauli exclusion principle) while photonic/electromagnetic modes can and even prefer to do so (= stimulated emission).

 

This property of electronic modes and photonic modes is called fermionic and bosonic, respectively. Two photons are indistinguishable and two electrons are also indistinguishable, because in both cases, they are only occupations of modes: all that matters is which modes are occupied. The order of the occupations is irrelevant except for the fact that in odd permutations of fermionic occupations, a negative sign is introduced in the amplitude.

 

Of course, there are other differences between electrons and photons:

 

The electron carries an electric charge and a rest mass while the photon doesn't.

In physical processes (see the Feynman diagrams), a single photon may be created while an electron may not be created without at the same time removing some other fermionic particle or creating some fermionic antiparticle. This is due to the conservation of charge

  

Mode numbers, Observables and eigenmodes

 

The system of modes to describe the waves can be chosen at will. Any arbitrary wave can be decomposed into contributions from each mode in the chosen system. For the mathematically inclined: The situation is analogous to a vector being decomposed into components in a chosen coordinate system. Decoupled modes or, as an approximation, weakly coupled modes are particlularly convenient if you want to describe the evolution of the system in time, because each mode evolves independently of the others and you can just add up the time evolutions. In many situations, it is sufficient to consider less complicated weakly coupled modes and describe the weak coupling as a perturbation.

 

In every system of modes, you must choose some (continuous or discrete) numbering (called "quantum numbers") for the modes in the system. In Chladni's figures, you can just count the number of nodal lines of the standing waves in the different space directions in order to get a numbering, as long as it is unique. For decoupled modes, the energy or, equivalently, the frequency might be a good idea, but usually you need further numbers to distinguish different modes having the same energy/frequency (this is the situation referred to as degenerate energy levels). Usually these additional numbers refer to the symmetry of the modes. Plane waves, for example — they are decoupled in spatially homogeneous situations — can be characterized by the fact that the only result of shifting (translating) them spatially is a phase shift in their oscillation. Obviously, the phase shifts corresponding to unit translations in the three space directions provide a good numbering for these modes. They are called the wavevector or, equivalently, the momentum of the mode. Spherical waves with an angular dependence according to the spherical harmonics functions (see the pictures) — they are decoupled in spherically symmetric situations — are similarly characterized by the fact that the only result of rotating them around the z-axis is a phase shift in their oscillation. Obviously, the phase shift corresponding to a rotation by a unit angle is part of a good numbering for these modes; it is called the magnetic quantum number m (it must be an integer, because a rotation by 360° mustn't have any effect) or, equivalently, the z-component of the orbital angular momentum. If you consider sharp wavepackets as a system of modes, the position of the wavepacket is a good numbering for the system. In crystallography, the modes are usually numbered by their transformation behaviour (called group representation) in symmetry operations of the crystal, see also symmetry group, crystal system.

 

The mode numbers thus often refer to physical quantities, called observables characterizing the modes. For each mode number, you can introduce a mathematical operation, called operator, that just multiplies a given mode by the mode number value of this mode. This is possible as long as you have chosen a mode system that actually uses and is characterized by the mode number of the operator. Such a system is called a system of eigenmodes, or eigenstates: Sharp wavepackets are no eigenmodes of the momentum operator, they are eigenmodes of the position operator. Spherical harmonics are eigenmodes of the magnetic quantum number, decoupled modes are eigenvalues of the energy operator etc. If you have a superposition of several modes, you just operate the operator on each contribution and add up the results. If you chose a different modes system that doesn't use the mode number corresponding to the operator, you just decompose the given modes into eigenmodes and again add up the results of the operator operating on the contributions. So if you have a superposition of several eigenmodes, say, a superposition of modes with different frequencies, then you have contributions of different values of the observable, in this case the energy. The superposition is then said to have an indefinite value for the observable, for example in the tone of a piano note, there is a superposition of the fundamental frequency and the higher harmonics being multiples of the fundamental frequency. The contributions in the superposition are usually not equally large, e.g. in the piano note the very high harmonics don't contribute much. Quantitatively, this is characterized by the amplitudes of the individual contributions. If there are only contributions of a single mode number value, the superposition is said to have a definite or sharp value.

  

The Basics of Wave-Particle Duality.

If you do a position measurement, the result is the occupation of a very sharp wavepacket being an eigenmode of the position operator. These sharp wavepackets look like pointlike objects, they are strongly coupled to each other, which means that they spread soon.

 

Measurements

 

In measurements of such a mode number in a given situation, the result is an eigenmode of the mode number, the eigenmode being chosen at random from the contributions in the given superposition. All the other contributions are supposedly eradicated in the measurement — this is called the wave function collapse and some features of this process are questionable and disputed. The probability of a certain eigenmode to be chosen is equal to the absolute square of the amplitude, this is called Born's probability law. This is the reason why the amplitudes of modes in a superposition are called "probability amplitudes" in quantum mechanics. The mode number value of the resulting eigenmode is the result of the measurement of the observable. Of course, if you have a sharp value for the observable before the measurement, nothing is changed by the measurement and the result is certain. This picture is called the Copenhagen interpretation. A different explanation of the measurement process is given by Everett's many-worlds theory; it doesn't involve any wave function collapse. Instead, a superposition of combinations of a mode of the measured system and a mode of the measuring apparatus (an entangled state) is formed, and the further time evolutions of these superposition components are independent of each other (this is called "many worlds").

 

As an example: a sharp wavepacket is an eigenmode of the position observable. Thus the result of measurements of the position of such a wavepacket is certain. On the other hand, if you decompose such a wavepacket into contributions of plane waves, i.e. eigenmodes of the wavevector or momentum observable, you get all kinds of contributions of modes with many different momenta, and the result of momentum measurements will be accordingly. Intuitively, this can be understood by taking a closer look at a sharp or very narrow wavepacket: Since there are only a few spatial oscillations in the wavepacket, only a very imprecise value for the wavevector can be read off (for the mathematically inclined reader: this is a common behaviour of Fourier transforms, the amplitudes of the superposition in the momentum mode system being the Fourier transform of the amplitudes of the superposition in the position mode system). So in such a state of definite position, the momentum is very indefinite. The same is true the other way round: The more definite the momentum is in your chosen superposition, the less sharp the position will be, and it is called Heisenberg's uncertainty relation.

 

Two different mode numbers (and the corresponding operators and observables) that both occur as characteristic features in the same mode system, e.g. the number of nodal lines in one of Chladni's figures in x direction and the number of nodal lines in y-direction or the different position components in a position eigenmode system, are said to commute or be compatible with each other (mathematically, this means that the order of the product of the two corresponding operators doesn't matter, they may be commuted). The position and the momentum are non-commuting mode numbers, because you cannot attribute a definite momentum to a position eigenmode, as stated above. So there is no mode system where both the position and the momentum (referring to the same space direction) are used as mode numbers.

  

The Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation etc.

As in the case of acoustics, where the direction of vibration, called polarization, the speed of sound and the wave impedance of the media, in which the sound propagates, are important for calculating the frequency and appearance of modes as seen in Chladni's figures, the same is true for electronic or photonic/electromagnetic modes: In order to calculate the modes (and their frequencies or time evolution) exposed to potentials that attract or repulse the waves or, equivalently, exposed to a change in refractive index and wave impedance, or exposed to magnetic fields, there are several equations depending on the polarization features of the modes:

  

Electronic modes (their polarization features are described by Spin 1/2) are calculated by the Dirac equation, or, to a very good approximation in cases where the theory of relativity is irrelevant, by the Schrödinger equation]] and the Pauli equation.

Photonic/electromagnetic modes (polarization: Spin 1) are calculated by Maxwell's equations (You see, 19th century already found the first quantum-mechanical equation! That's why it's so much easier to step from electromagnetic theory to quantum mechanics than from point mechanics).

Modes of Spin 0 would be calculated by the Klein-Gordon equation.

  

Consequences

 

It is much easier and much more physical to imagine the electron in the atom to be not some tiny point jumping from place to place or orbiting around (there are no orbits, there are orbitals), but to imagine the electron being an occupation of an extended orbital and an orbital being a vibrating wave confined to the neighbourhood of the nucleus by its attracting force. That's why Chladni's figures of acoustics and the normal modes of electromagnetic waves in a resonator are such a good analogy for the orbital pictures in quantum physics. Quantum mechanics is a lot less weird if you see this analogy. The step from electromagnetic theory (or acoustics) to quantum theory is much easier than the step from point mechanics to quantum theory, because in electromagnetics you already deal with waves and modes of oscillation and solve eigenvalue equations in order to find the modes. You just have to treat a single electron like a wave, just in the same way as light is treated in classical electromagnetics.

 

In this picture, the only difference between classical physics and quantum physics is that in classical physics you can excite the modes of oscillation to a continuous degree, called the classical amplitude, while in quantum physics, the modes are "occupied" discretely. — Fermionic modes can be occupied only once at a given time, while Bosonic modes can be occupied several times at once. Particles are just occupations of modes, no more, no less. As there are superpositions of modes in classical physics, you get in quantum mechanics quantum superpositions of occupations of modes and the scaling and phase-shifting factors are called (quantum) amplitudes. In a Carbon atom, for example, you have a combination of occupations of 6 electronic modes of low energy (i.e. frequency). Entangled states are just superpositions of combinations of occupations of modes. Even the states of quantum fields can be completely described in this way (except for hypothetical topological defects).

 

As you can choose different kinds of modes in acoustics and electromagnetics, for example plane waves, spherical harmonics or small wave packets, you can do so in quantum mechanics. The modes chosen will not always be decoupled, for example if you choose plane waves as the system of acoustic modes in the resonance corpus of a guitar, you will get reflexions on the walls of modes into different modes, i.e. you have coupled oscillators and you have to solve a coupled system of linear equations in order to describe the system. The same is done in quantum mechanics: different systems of eigenfunctions are just a new name for the same concept. Energy eigenfunctions are decoupled modes, while eigenfunctions of the position operator (delta-like wavepackets) or eigenfunctions of the angular momentum operator in a non-spherically symmetric system are usually strongly coupled.

 

What happens in a measurement depends on the interpretation: In the Copenhagen interpretation you need to postulate a collapse of the wavefunction to some eigenmode of the measurement operator, while in Everett's Many-worlds theory an entangled state, i.e. a superposition of occupations of modes of the observed system and the observing measurement apparatus, is formed. - SAKURAI

 

Dominion Theatre

 

The Dominion Theatre is a West End theatre and former cinema located on Tottenham Court Road, close to St Giles Circus and Centre Point, in the London Borough of Camden.

  

The Dominion was home to the long-running musical “We Will Rock You” played at the theatre from 14 May 2002 until 31 May 2014. It was also home to the London auditions of Britain's Got Talent and from February to April 2016 to War of the Worlds.

 

Over several years, the theatre has undergone a rolling programme of refurbishment which has included reclaiming the area above the main foyer as a studio for rehearsals or events (2008), and reclaiming the offices in Nederlander House, which were originally part of the theatre but had been rented as commercial office space. Within this area, originally listed on the theatre plans as a 'Boardroom', a new Boardroom space has been created (2011). Following the closure of We Will Rock You, the theatre remained dark for 15 weeks, during which time owners undertook a mass programme of refurbishment, including replacing carpets, painting and restoring architectural features, refurbishing seats, renovating the 'front of house' toilets and bars, and updating much of the backstage facilities, including the flying system. This £6 million restoration programme was completed in 2017 with the unveiling of a brand new double-sided LED screen, the largest and highest resolution projecting screen on the exterior of a West End theatre.

 

Since re-opening on 16 September 2014, the Dominion Theatre has been home to a number of short run musicals and spectaculars, including Evita (September 2014), White Christmas (November 2014), Lord of the Dance (March 2015) and the London premiere of Elf (October 2015). Since March 2017, the Dominion Theatre is home to An American in Paris, with booking extending to January 2018.

 

In addition to hosting musicals in recent years, the theatre has also hosted a number of regular charity events, including MADTrust's West End Eurovision (2012, 2013, 2014) and West End Heroes (2013, 2014, 2015). The brainchild of current General Manager, David Pearson, 'West End Heroes' was produced by the theatre and brought together stars from current West End Shows, with musicians, from all the armed forces. The second event, in 2014, was hosted by Michael Ball.

  

Construction and restoration

  

Construction of The Dominion began in March 1928 with a design by W and TR Milburn and a budget of £460,000. The site was the location of the former Horse Shoe Brewery, which was the site of the 1814 London Beer Flood. The first performance was 3 October 1929. The Tottenham Court Road façade features a ground level entry sheltered by a broad marquee with the second through fourth levels framed by large pilasters. The central portion is concave and faced with Portland stone. A three-bay bow window extends the height of the second and third storeys and is surmounted by sculpture of two griffins. Behind the griffin statue are three square openings which hold decorative iron grates. The griffins were removed in 1932 to mount an aeroplane for the musical Silver Wings. The remainder of the bow window was hidden during the run of ‘We Will Rock You’ by a large shimmer curtain and statue of Freddie Mercury. These elements were reinstalled as part of the restoration. In addition to restoring the Tottenham Court Road façade, the stonework and windows of the dressing room block at the rear of the theatre were cleaned and replaced.

 

When the Dominion was built, it was linked to the building on Great Russell Street now known as Nederlander House. This building had been separated from the theatre and rented as office space for many decades. In 2011, the Dominion spent £200K reinstating the connection between the theatre, with this building returning its use to that the original theatre builders intended. It is now home to the theatre management offices plus a refurbished Boardroom space on the top floor. This Boardroom is marked as such on the original 1929 plans and it is now being hired out by the theatre's Dominion Events department for meeting, training and conference bookings. Other areas above the main foyer, which the Rank Organisation converted to office space, have been restored and now house 'The Studio' a rehearsal and audition space.

 

The auditorium currently has a seating capacity of 2,069 in two tiers of galleries, down from the 1940 capacity of 2,858 following the closure many decades ago of the upper circle. The theatre retains its 1920s light fittings and art deco plasterwork.

 

History

After initial success, including the London premiere of Charlie Chaplin's City Lights in February 1931, with Chaplin himself attending, the theatre began a financial slide until the company was liquidated 30 May 1932. In 1933, Associated Provincial Picture Houses assumed control of the facility and adapted the auditorium for films. In 1940, Associated became part of the Rank Organisation.

 

The Dominion temporarily closed because of the Blitz early in October 1940 and reopened on 12 January 1941. Its first major live show was The Judy Garland Show which ran for a month in 1957 and it has been a popular venue for musical theatre since. Soon after, the theatre received a Todd-AO system with two Philips 70mm / 35mm projectors and a 45 feet (14 m) wide screen.

 

After World War II, the theatre hosted both movies and live shows. Rodgers and Hammerstein's South Pacific opened 21 April 1958 and played four years and 22 weeks. In 1963, Elizabeth Taylor appeared at the European opening of Cleopatra which played for almost two years. On March 29th 1965 The Sound Of Music film was screened here until June 29th 1968, The longest run of screenings of the film at any venue in the world.

 

During the 1980s, it became a popular venue for music concerts. It was where Tangerine Dream recorded its album Logos in 1982, which contains a tribute tune called "Dominion". Dolly Parton filmed her 1983 concert at the Dominion and released it as a television special, Dolly in London. Other performers to appear during this era included Duran Duran, Adam and The Ants, Billy Bragg, Bon Jovi, The Boomtown Rats, Boy George, David Bowie, Ian Drury and the Blockheads, Manfred Mann, Sinead O’Connor, Thin Lizzy, U2 and Van Morrison. In 1986, the Dominion hosted the musical Time, whose producers altered the interior extensively to accommodate the production.

 

Since the early 1990s the Dominion has hosted several musicals including a new production of Grease by David Ian and Paul Nicholas, Scrooge: The Musical, Matthew Bourne's Swan Lake, Disney's Beauty and the Beast, a return of Grease, and Notre Dame de Paris. Bernadette The Musical, by Maureen and Gwyn Hughes, played briefly in 1990.

 

The Dominion hosted the Royal Variety Performance 1992 through 1996 and in 2000 and 2001.

 

In 2002, the hit stage musical We Will Rock You, based on the songs of Queen, created by Queen guitarist Brian May and drummer Roger Taylor together with British comedian Ben Elton opened. The show was scheduled to close in October 2006 before embarking on a UK tour, but due to popular demand was extended indefinitely. In 2012, to celebrate the tenth anniversary of We Will Rock You, the theatre created the Freddie Mercury Suite, which displays pictures from the Queen singer's lifetime. This area was previously housed memorabilia of Judy Garland. In March 2014, producers announced that We Will Rock You would close June 2014.

 

The Theatre played host to a "re-imagined" production of Jeff Wayne's Musical Version Of The War Of The Worlds from February to April 2016 and featured direction by Bob Thompson, an onstage orchestra conducted by Jeff Wayne and Liam Neeson as the Journalist in 3D holography.

 

Ownership

The Dominion has had a variety of owners during its history. The Rank Organisation and Apollo Leisure operated it from 1988 to 1999. In 1999, SFX Entertainment acquired Apollo Leisure and in 2001 Clear Channel Entertainment, part of the US based multinational, purchased SFX. Clear Channel spun-off its venues as Live Nation UK who operated Clear Channel's venues on behalf of the Nederlander Organization. On 23 October 2009 the Nederlander Organization took full control of the venue, purchasing Live Nation's portion of ownership. [Wilipedia ]

Roma, Italy. 2015. All rights reserved - © copyright. Visit my website for more www.dariocestaro.com

Rome, Italy 2015. All rights reserved - © copyright. Visit my website for more: www.dariocestaro.com

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