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Thought I would try and make a double twisted easel card, and just had to use this adorable fluffy cat from stampendous! I coloured him with inktense watercolour pencils . The happiness always sentiment is from stampin up and the Celebrate eacha dn every day sentiment (just adore this font) is by Penny Black. Matts were cut using spellbinders nesting squares and ovals, leaves punch by woodware.

She is the owner of one restaurant near my house. She got this cat from the street 3 months ago. Really cute and lovely cat. ^_^'

 

Nefertiti was the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefertiti and her husband were known for changing Egypt's religion from a polytheistic religion to a monotheistic religion. They believed only in one god, Aten.

 

Nefertiti was also known throughout Egypt for her beauty. She was very proud of her long, swan like neck. Her name roughly translates to the beautiful (or perfect) one has arrived.

 

She had many titles; for example, at Karnak there are inscriptions that read Heiress, Great of Favours, Possessed of Charm, Exuding Happiness, Mistress of Sweetness, beloved one, soothing the king's heart in his house, soft-spoken in all, Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt, Great King's Wife, whom he loves, Lady of the Two Lands, Nefertiti'.

   

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Nefertiti (M.Ö. 14. yüzyıl), Mısır kraliçesi (hd M.Ö. 1379-62), Mısır Firavunu IV. Amenhotep'in (sonradan Akhenaton) eşi, Firavun Tutankhamun'un kayınvalidesidir. Adı "güzelik geliyor" anlamındadır.

 

Nefertiti yasadığı dönemin en güçlü kadınlarından biriydi. Özelliklede Mısır'da. Çünkü Nefertiti kocası Akhenathon yani firavunla aynı düzeyde bulunuyordu. Hatta firavunun uygulaması gereken cezaları ya da yapması gereken işleri yapabilme yetkisi vardı. Bu durumdan halk ve din adamları hiç memnun değildi, çünkü bu Mısır'da alışkın olunan bir uygulama değildi. Tahtta çok uzun süre kalamadıklarından dolayı bu memnuniyetsizlik uzun sürmedi. Akhenaton saraya yayılan salgın bir hastalıktan öldü. Nefertiti de bir süre tahtta kaldı ve yaşama veda etti.

  

 

wikipedia

 

dn:

Misir tatilinden bir hatira, sokakda sakiz gibi yapisan esnaf 120 avrodan kapi acip, fakat "radikal pazarlik" sayesinde 2 avroya satin aldigim bir Misirhatirasi :)

 

This is a 'greetings card' I had made up to give to my Yemeni friends Musher and Basem, after they had taken me out for a fish dinner one evening in al-Balad area of Riyadh. I had invited them over to my hotel the following evening, to hang around and go out for dinner, but they did not turn up. This was disappointing but also understandable given the many cultural uncertainties involved, it being easier for me to meet them on their streets than for them to come over and participate in a lifestyle quite strange to their common experience.

 

I had met Musher when I was in Riyadh in February. He was selling rings on the street and had caughht my eye. We started 'chatting' and he gave me one of his rings.

I had hoped to see him again this time but noticed he was not in his same position as back in February and I had given up looking for him, when sure enough I saw his joyful beady eyes in the crowd. I tapped him on his shoulder and he turned round and recognised me immediately and he also asked after our joint Italian friend, Iskender who had been with me back in February. And, sure enough, before long he had given me yet another of his rings, which can maybe be seen in some of the subsequent pics I have from Saudi.

 

Anyway, we arranged to meet up for dinner that night and I was gald when he turned up with his friend Basem (the chap in the middle on the bottom photo) as he spoke some English. He said he would like an English or a Dutch girla dn could I please find him one. I told him that she would probably like to drink alcohol and that this might be a problem. He just said that he would have to tell them about the bad effects alcohol has on one's body and that she would stop and I said that things are not that easy, as we Europeans are quite aware of the dangers of alcohol to our health and it still does not stop (most of) us.

 

We finished the evening with the massive fruit cocktail on the left.

 

Tuesday evening: just received an sms from Basem. It reads "Eid mubarak This sentence we talking in this holiday muslim which we are in. Mean, I request the happiness and successful to you from Allah. I am sorry for that day when we do not come to you. But of Allah wants, we will meet you in the future."

  

The Durga here is 22 feet tall and this durgotsav puja is the brainchild of Kishnendu Sen..

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Durga puja (pronounced [ˈd̪ʊrɡaː ˈpuːdʒaː]; (listen:About this sound Durga Puja (help·info)); Bengali: দুর্গা পূজা,Oriya: ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା,‘Worship of Durga’), also referred to as Durgotsava (listen:About this sound Durgotsava (help·info)); (Bengali: দুর্গোৎসব, ‘Festival of Durga’), is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and Bijoya Dashami. The dates of Durga Puja celebrations are set according to the traditional Hindu calendar and the fortnight corresponding to the festival is called Devi Paksha (Bengali:দেবী পক্ষ, ‘Fortnight of the Goddess’). Devi Paksha is preceded by Mahalaya (Bengali: মহালয়া), the last day of the previous fortnight Pitri Paksha (Bengali: পিতৃ পক্ষ, ‘Fortnight of the Forefathers’), and is ended on Kojagori Lokkhi Puja (Bengali: কোজাগরী লক্ষ্মী পূজা, ‘Worship of Goddess Lakshmi on Kojagori Full Moon Night’).

 

Durga Puja is widely celebrated in the Indian states of West Bengal,Bihar,Assam, Jharkhand, Orissa and Tripura where it is a five-day annual holiday. In West Bengal and Tripura which has majority of Bengali Hindus it is the biggest festival of the year. Not only is it the biggest Hindu festival celebrated throughout the State, but it is also the most significant socio-cultural event in Bengali society. Apart from eastern India, Durga Puja is also celebrated in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Kashmir, Karnataka and Kerala. Durga Puja is also celebrated as a major festival in Nepal and in Bangladesh where 10% population are Hindu. Nowadays, many diaspora Bengali cultural organizations arrange for Durgotsab in countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, France, The Netherlands, Singapore and Kuwait, among others. In 2006, a grand Durga Puja ceremony was held in the Great Court of the British Museum.[3]

 

The prominence of Durga Puja increased gradually during the British Raj in Bengal.[4] After the Hindu reformists identified Durga with India, she became an icon for the Indian independence movement.[5] In the first quarter of the 20th century, the tradition of Baroyari or Community Puja was popularised due to this. After independence, Durga Puja became one of the largest celebrated festivals in the whole world.

 

Durga Puja also includes the worship of Shiva, who is Durga's consort, and worship of mother nature through nine types of plant (called "kala bou") representing nine divine forms of Goddess Durga [6] is also done in addition to Lakshmi, Saraswati with Ganesha and Kartikeya, who are considered to be Durga's children.[7] Modern traditions have come to include the display of decorated pandals and artistically depicted idols (murti) of Durga, exchange of Bijoya greetings and publication of Puja Annuals.

  

In Bengal, Durga Puja is also called Akalbodhan (Bengali: অকালবোধন, 'untimely awakening of Durga'), Sharadiya Pujo (Bengali: শারদীয়া পুজো , ‘autumnal worship’), Sharodotsab (Bengali: শারদোৎসব, ‘festival of autumn’), Maha Pujo (Bengali: মহা পুজো, ‘grand puja’), Maayer Pujo (Bengali: মায়ের পুজো, ‘worship of the Mother) or merely as Puja or Pujo. In East Bengal (Bangladesh), Durga Puja used to be celebrated as Bhagabati Puja. It is also called Durga Puja in Bihar, Assam, Orissa, Delhi and Madhya Pradesh.[8]

 

Puja is called Navaratri Puja in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Kerala and Maharashtra,[9] Kullu Dussehra in Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh,[10] Mysore Dussehra in Mysore, Karnataka[11] and Bommai Golu in Tamil Nadu and Bommala koluvu in Andhra Pradesh.[12]

[edit] Origin of the autumnal ceremony 'Sharadiya'

Old painting of Durga Puja in Kolkata at Shobhabazar Rajbari

 

The actual worship of the Goddess Durga as stipulated by the Hindu scriptures falls in the month of Chaitra, which roughly overlaps with March or April. This ceremony is however not observed by many and is restricted to a handful in the state of West Bengal.

 

The more popular form, which is also known as Sharadiya (Autumnal) Durga Puja, is celebrated later in the year with the dates falling either in September or October. Since the Goddess is invoked at the wrong time, it is called "Akaal Bodhon" in Bengali.

 

While the most recent revival of the Autumnal worship of Goddess Durga can be traced to revivalist tendencies in the early freedom movement in Bengal, the first such Puja was organised by Raja Nabakrishna Deb of the Shobhabazar Rajbari of Calcutta in honour of Lord Clive in the year 1757. The puja was organised because Clive wished to pay thanks for his victory in the Battle of Plassey. He was unable to do so in a Church because the only church in Calcutta at that time was destroyed by Siraj-ud-Daulah. Indeed many wealthy mercantile and Zamindar families in Bengal made British Officers of the East India Company guests of honour in the Pujas. The hosts vied with one another in arranging the most sumptuous fares, decorations and entertainment for their guests. This was deemed necessary since the Company was in charge of a large part of India including Bengal after the battles of Plassey and Buxar.[13]

[edit] History

Durga Puja, 1809 watercolour painting in Patna Style.

Goddess Durga, in one of the Pandals of Calcutta, now Kolkata.

 

A considerable literature exists around Durga in the Bengali language and its early forms, including avnirnaya (11th century), Durgabhaktitarangini by Vidyapati (a famous Maithili poet of 14th century), etc. Durga Puja was popular in Bengal in the medieval period, and records show that it was being held in the courts of Rajshahi (16th century) and Nadia district (18th century). It was during the 18th century, however, that the worship of Durga became popular among the landed aristrocacy of Bengal, the Zamindars. Prominent Pujas were conducted by the landed zamindars and jagirdars, being enriched by emerging British rule, including Raja Nabakrishna Deb, of Shobhabajar, who initiated an elaborate Puja at his residence. Many of these old puja exist to this day. Interestingly the oldest such Puja to be conducted at the same venue is located in Rameswarpur, Orissa, where it has been continuing for the last four centuries since the Ghosh Mahashays from Kotarang near Howrah migrated there as a part of Todarmal's contingent during Akbar's rule. Today, the culture of Durga Puja has shifted from the princely houses to Sarbojanin (literally, "involving all") forms. The first such puja was held at Guptipara - it was called barowari (baro meaning twelve and yar meaning friends)

 

Durga puja mood starts off with the Mahishasuramardini – a two-hour radio programme that has been popular with the community since the 1950s.[14] While earlier it used to be conducted live, later a recorded version began to be broadcast. Bengalis traditionally wake up at 4 in the morning on Mahalaya day to listen to the enchanting voice of the late Birendra Krishna Bhadra and the late Pankaj Kumar Mullick on All India Radio as they recite hymns from the scriptures from the Devi Mahatmyam (Chandi Path).[15] , During the week of Durga Puja, in the entire state of West Bengal as well as in large enclaves of Bengalis everywhere, life comes to a complete standstill. In playgrounds, traffic circles, ponds—wherever space may be available—elaborate structures called pandals 'are set up, many with nearly a year's worth of planning behind them. The word pandal means a temporary structure, made of bamboo and cloth, which is used as a temporary temple for the purpose of the puja. While some of the pandals are simple structures, others are often elaborate works of art with themes that rely heavily on history, current affairs and sometimes pure imagination.

 

Durga Puja Dhak Sample Sound

A 47 second sample of Dhak playing during Durga Puja.

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

 

Somewhere inside these complex edifices is a stage on which Durga reigns, standing on her lion mount, wielding ten weapons in her ten hands. This is the religious center of the festivities, and the crowds gather to offer flower worship or pushpanjali on the mornings, of the sixth to ninth days of the waxing moon fortnight known as Devi Pakshya (lit. Devi = goddess; Pakshya = period; Devi Pakshya meaning the period of the goddess). Ritual drummers – dhakis, carrying large leather-strung dhak –– show off their skills during ritual dance worships called aarati. On the tenth day, Durga the mother returns to her husband, Shiva, ritualised through her immersion into the waters[16]–– Bishorjon also known as Bhaashan and Niranjan

Image of Durga in an early 19th century lithogragh.

 

Today's Puja, however, goes far beyond religion. In fact, visiting the pandals recent years, one can only say that Durgapuja is the largest outdoor art festival on earth. In the 1990s, a preponderance of architectural models came up on the pandal exteriors, but today the art motif extends to elaborate interiors, executed by trained artists, with consistent stylistic elements, carefully executed and bearing the name of the artist.

 

The sculpture of the idol itself has evolved. The worship always depicts Durga with her four children, and occasionally two attendant deities and some banana-tree figures. In the olden days, all five idols would be depicted in a single frame, traditionally called pata. Since the 1980s however, the trend is to depict each idol separately.

 

At the end of six days, the idol is taken for immersion in a procession amid loud chants of 'Bolo Durga mai-ki jai' (glory be to Mother Durga') and 'aashchhe bochhor abar hobe' ('it will happen again next year') and drumbeats to the river or other water body. It is cast in the waters symbolic of the departure of the deity to her home with her husband in the Himalayas. After this, in a tradition called Vijaya Dashami, families visit each other and sweetmeats are offered to visitors (Dashami is literally "tenth day" and Vijay is "victory").

 

Durga Puja commemorates the annual visit of the Goddess with Her children to Her parents' home, leaving finally on the Dashami to be re-united with Shiva. This leaving ceremony is symbolised by the immersion of the idols on Dashami.[8]

 

Durga Puja is also a festivity of Good (Ma Durga) winning over the evil (Mahishasur the demon). It is a worship of power of Good which always wins over the bad.

[edit] Durga Puja Mantra

 

Initially the Puja was organised by affluent families since they had the money to organize the festival. During the late 19th and early 20th century, a burgeoning middle class, primarily in Calcutta, wished to observe the Puja. They created the community or Sarbojanin Pujas.

 

These Pujas are organized by a committee which represents a locality or neighbourhood. They collect funds called "chaanda" through door-to-door subscriptions, lotteries, concerts etc. These funds are pooled and used for the expenses of pandal construction, idol construction, ceremonies etc. The balance of the fund is generally donated to a charitable cause, as decided by the committee. Corporate sponsorships of the Pujas have gained momentum since the late 1990s. Major Pujas in Calcutta and in major metro areas such as Delhi and Chennai now derive almost all of their funds from corporate sponsorships. Community fund drives have become a formality.

 

Despite the resources used to organise a Puja, entry of visitors into the Pandal is generally free. Pujas in Calcutta and elsewhere experiment with innovative concepts every year. Communities have created prizes for Best Pandal, Best Puja, and other categories.

[edit] Creation of the idols

Durga Puja Idol in the making at Kumortuli, Kolkata

 

The entire process of creation of the idols (murti) from the collection of clay to the ornamentation is a holy process, supervised by rites and other rituals. On the Hindu date of Akshaya Tritiya when the Ratha Yatra is held, clay for the idols is collected from the banks of a river, preferably the Ganges. After the required rites, the clay is transported from which the idols are fashioned. An important event is 'Chakkhu Daan', literally donation of the eyes. Starting with Devi Durga, the eyes of the idols are painted on Mahalaya or the first day of the Pujas. Before painting on the eyes, the artisans fast for a day and eat only vegetarian food.

 

Many Pujas in and around Kolkata buy their idols from Kumartuli (also Kumortuli), an artisans' town in north Calcutta.[19]

 

In 1610, the first Durga puja in Kolkata was supposedly celebrated by the Roychowdhuri family of Barisha. Though this was a private affair, community or ‘Baroyari’ Durga puja was started in Guptipara, in Hooghly by 12 young men when they were barred from participating in a family Durga puja in 1761. They formed a committee which accepted subscriptions for organising the puja. Since then, community pujas in Bengal came to be known as ‘Baroyari – ‘baro’ meaning 12 and ‘yar’ meaning friends.In Kolkata, the first ‘Baroyari’ Durga Puja was organized in 1910 by the ‘SanatanDharmotsahini Sabha’ at Balaram Bosu Ghat Road, Bhawanipur. At the same time, similar Baroyari Pujas were held at Ramdhan Mitra Lane and Sikdar Bagan. The Indian freedom struggle also had an influence on Durga puja in Kolkata. In 1926, Atindranath Bose initiated the first ‘Sarbojanin’ Durga puja in which anybody, irrespective of caste, creed and religion, could participate in the festivities. This was consciously done to instill a feeling of unity.[20]

[edit] Environmental impact

Image of Durga being immersed in water. The Murti of Durga is eco-friendly.

Theme based Durga puja

 

Environmental hazards from the materials used to make and color the idols pollute local water sources, as the idols are brought directly into the river at the end of festivities. Efforts are underway to introduce eco-friendly materials to the artisans who make the idols. West Bengal has been credited by its own environmental agency as being possibly the first Indian State to successfully curb the use of hazardous paints. However, by their own account, only two-thirds of the idols made are currently colored with eco-friendly paints.[21]

 

Commercialization of Hindu festivals like Durga Puja in the last quarter of 20th century have become a major environmental concern as devout Hindus want bigger and brighter idols. Environmentalists say the idols are often made from hazardous materials like cement, plastic, plaster of Paris, and toxic paints.[22]

[edit] Theme-based Pujas and pandals

 

Pandals and idols inspired by a particular theme have been the hallmark of many community or Sarbajanin Pujas in Kolkata since the 1990s. Puja committees decide on a particular theme, whose elements are incorporated into the pandal and the idols. Popular themes include ancient civilizations like the Egyptians or Incas. Contemporary subjects like the RMS Titanic and Harry Potter have also been the subject in some pandals.

 

The design and decoration is usually done by art and architecture students based in the city. The budget required for such theme-based pujas is often higher than traditional pujas. They attract crowds and are well-received. Inspired by Kolkata, theme-based pandals are becoming popular in cities in neighbouring states, particularly Orissa (see above). Experimentation with the idols does not happen much outside Calcutta.

 

Rapid growth of competitiveness in theme pandals, and also rapid growth of massive billboards that come up at strategic junctions, prior to Puja and allied commercial activities, has also created a cultural backlash from city's traditional Puja pandals, which now claim, "We do not do theme puja, we do Durga puja,”, according to one hoarding put up in Salt Lake, Kolkata.[23]

[edit] Popular culture specific to the puja

 

Durga Puja is one of the most important events in the Bengali society's calendar. Many Bengali films, albums and books are released to coincide with the Puja. The West Bengal government gives a fortnight of holidays for the Pujas. This time is used in various ways. Many people travel in India or abroad. Gatherings of friends called "Aadda" in Bengali is common in many homes and restaurants. A lot of shopping is done, and retailers cash in on this opportunity with special offers.

 

Visiting pandals with friends and family, talking and sampling the food sold near them is known as pandal hopping. Young people embrace this activity. Pujor Gaan (Songs of Puja) are the Adhunik Bengali songs that come out every year during this time.

[edit] Media Attention

 

TV and radio channels telecast Puja celebrations. Many Bengali channels devote whole days to the Pujas. Bengali and Oriya weekly magazines bring out special issues for the Puja known as "Pujabarshiki" or "Sharadiya Sankhya". These contain the works of many writers both established and upcoming and are thus much bigger than the regular issues. Some notable examples are Anandamela, Shuktara, Desh, Sarodiya Anandabazar Patrika, Sananda, Nabakallol, Bartaman [24]

[edit] Movies

 

The worship of Durga in the autumn (Bengali: শরৎ Shôrot) is the year's largest Hindu festival of Bengal. Durga Puja is also celebrated in Nepal and Bhutan according to local traditions and variations. Puja means "worship," and Durga's Puja is celebrated from the sixth to tenth day of the waning moon in the month of Ashvin (Bengali: আশ্বিন Ashshin), which is the sixth month in the Bengali calendar. Occasionally however, due to shifts in the lunar cycle relative to the solar months, it may also be held in the following month, Kartika (Bengali: কার্তিক). In the Gregorian calendar, these dates correspond to the months of September and October.

Durga idol from a pandal at West Bengal

 

In the Krittibas Ramayana, Rama invokes the goddess Durga in his battle against Ravana. Although she was traditionally worshipped in the spring, due to contingencies of battle, Rama had to invoke her in the autumn akaal bodhan.[26] Today it is this Rama's date for the puja that has gained ascendancy, although the spring puja, known as Basanti Puja [One of the oldest 'sabeki' Basanti Puja is held every year at spring in Barddhaman Pal Bari at Raniganga Bazar, M.K.Chatterjee Rd near Karjon Gate], is also present in the Hindu almanac. Since the season of the puja is autumn, it is also known as (Bengali: শারদীয়া 'Sharodia').

 

The pujas are held over a ten-day period, which is traditionally viewed as the coming of the married daughter, Durga, to her father, Himalaya's home. It is the most important festival in Bengal, and Bengalis celebrate with new clothes and other gifts, which are worn on the evenings when the family goes out to see the 'pandals' (temporary structures set up to venerate the goddess). Although it is a Hindu festival, religion takes a back seat on these five days: Durga Puja in Bengal is a carnival, where people from all backgrounds, regardless of their religious beliefs, participate and enjoy themselves to the hilt.[27]

[edit] Kolkata (Calcutta)

 

In Kolkata alone more than two thousand pandals are set up, all clamoring for the admiration and praise of the populace.[28] The city is adorned with lights. People from all over the country visit the city at this time, and every night is one mad carnival where thousands of people go 'pandal-hopping' with their friends and family. Traffic comes to a standstill, and indeed, most people abandon their vehicles to travel by foot after a point. A special task force is deployed to control law and order. Durga Puja in Kolkata is often referred to as the Rio Carnival of the Eastern Hemisphere.[29]

Durga Puja Kolkata WB India

[edit] Siliguri

 

Hundreds of puja pandals are set up every year in the Siliguri Mahakuma area. The city is adorned with many colourful pandal, glorious "Protima", colourful lighting and sounds. The puja in Saktigarh, Hakimpara, Rabindra Sangha, Rathkhola, Champashari, Central Colony (N.R.I), Silpanchal(Burdwan Road) and Saktigarh Utjal Sangha are famous and the oldest durga puja in this area.

 

Silpanchal Durga Puja committee is recognized as one of the oldest puja is town which was established in 1955 and is famous for the "Protima" and many other social activities they undertake during Pujas.

 

One of the oldest puja in Siliguri is of Swastika Yubak Sangha. It's one of the most crowd gathering puja of the region. The Puja Committee completed its 50th year of celebrations in 2009.

[edit] Chanduli, Katwa

 

One of oldest Durga Puja is held at a village named Chanduli, 12 km from Katwa city, which is more than 350 years old. The Puja is held under the auspices of Mitra bari Debottor estate and here Goddess Durga has two hands visible in place of ten hands. Here, Devi Durga is glorious and famous in this locality. Guptipara

 

In 1790 First Barwary puja held in this village of West Bengal in the district of Hooghly.[30] Great Goswami family of Dhaka is now at Guptipara led by Satyendra Nath Goswami, Roypara.

[edit] Lataguri

Sindur being applied on the forehead of Goddess Durga during Bijaya Dashami.

 

Lataguri is a small village in Jalpaiguri district. It has an old tradition of Durga Puja with lots of joy and cultural values in the heart of the people. Prantik Sangha, Netaji Sangha, Friends Club, Pal Chowdhury Bari (Family Puja) are some of the oldest pujas to name a few. In the day of Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Nabami and Bijoya Dashami people here celebrate it in a grand way with lots of joy. Specially in Prantik Sangha (Post Office Para) they have an old tradition of celebrating "Raksha Raksha" (Prayers offered to Durga to save whole body and mind and to give happiness and prosperity) by exchanging warmth of happiness and respect among the people with touching elder person's feet and hugging each other. After that small sweet balls laddu are distributed among the people. "Raksha Raksha" is celebrated in the day of Bijoya Dashami after idols (murtis) of Goddess Durga with her family are immersed in the most convenient body of water. The members of Pal Chowdhury Bari march to the pond near about half a kilometer for immersion of the goddess by taking it on their shoulder. This tradition has been following for 61 years.

[edit] Berhampore

 

Hundreds of puja pandals are set up every year in the Berhampore, Cossimbazar, Khagra jagdamba mandir (kajal saha & ganesh bhakat MULTIFRESH, Madhupur, Gorabazaar area. All pandal are decorated with lights and sounds. Swarnamoyee, Baganpara, Bishtupur, Madhupur Balark Sangha, Ranibagan, Kadai, Swargadham, Ajana Sangha, Cossimbazar Choto Rajbari are famous and the oldest durga puja from this area. Cossimbazars Puja is the oldest puja which is about 300 years old. All visitors are mostly from Berhampore city and coming through different part of Murshidabad.[31] district and adjacent districts. Specially the Astami and Nabami nights are filled with crowd from different part of the district. Visitors come out on the roads with their family and friends. They enjoy the festival through the night. Also the Bisorjon (immersion of idol) to Bhagarathi River is a beautiful scene. A huge number of visitors gather on the river side (Gorabajar Ghat, Khagra Ghat) to visit the last journey of Durga Pratima. Generally the pandals and idols of Madhupur area win the prizes and famous artists perform during these days. Lighting from Chandan Nagar is done in this area to a great extent to increase the beauty of the Puja nights.

[edit] In other parts of India

[edit] Assam

 

After West Bengal, Assam is the second state where Durga Puja is celebrated popularly and widely. In Silchar more than 300 exhibits, known as pandals, decorated with lights, sculptures and other art forms are created. After Bihu, Durga Puja is the most popular festival of Assam. According to historian Late Benudhar Sarma, the present form of worship of Durga with earthen idol in Assam was started during the reign of Ahom King Susenghphaa or Pratap Singha. The King heard about the festivity, the pomp and grandeur with which the King Naranarayan of Koch Bihar celebrated Durga Puja from one Sondar Gohain, who was under captivity of the Koch raja. King Pratap Singha sent artisans to Koch Bihar to learn the art of idol making. The King organised the first such Durga Puja celebration in Bhatiapara near Sibsagar. This was the first time Durga Puja with earthen idols in Assam was held for the masses, in addition to the worship in Durga temples like Kamakhya, Digheswari Temple, Maha Bhairabi Temple, Ugrotara, Tamreswari Mandir, etc. Subsequently, similar Pujas were celebrated by other Kings and nobles. Nowadays the Durga Puja is mostly a community festival celebrated in all the cities, towns, villages of Assam with great festivity and religious fervour for five days.

[edit] Bihar

 

Durga Puja is one of the major festivals in Patna. Hundreds of pandals are set up with carnivals. The city witnesses a huge surge in visitors in the four days from Maha Saptami. More than 100exhibits, known as pandals, decorated with lights, sculptures and other art forms are created. Ancient Places of Patna Durga Puja includes Bari and Chhoti PatanDevi Maa Shitla Mandir Agamkuan etc.

[edit] Gujarat

 

Navaratri is devoted to Amba mataji. In some homes, images of mataji are worshiped in accordance with accepted practice. This is also true of the temples, which usually have a constant stream of visitors from morning to night. The most common form of public celebration is the performance of garba and dandia-ras/ras-garba (a form of garba with sticks), Gujarat's popular folk-dance, late throughout the nights of these nine days in public squares, open grounds and streets.[32]

[edit] Jharkhand

 

Durga Puja is celebrated with many carnivals. The festival mood starts from Mahalaya, a huge surge in visitors is witnessed during the last four days of the festival, arriving from cities like Jamshedpur (TATA), Ranchi, Dhanbaad, etc. There are so many pandals as like as at Kolkata and Cuttack which makes interesting and enjoyful in these days at there. Some of highlighted Pandals are:

  

My little cousin Jonina has no problem with the camera. In fact, she absolutely loves the attention. She has now dubbed me her "Camera Boy". Lovely. :P

 

More at my blog.

 

The World Through My Eyes

lols dn't know why its called happiness. should have taken it when it was all lit up.

  

wish you

all happiness

prosperity peace

hope harmony

good luck..

to live life happily

you need gods

bounty blessings

more than big bucks

compassion humility

when you fill a beggars

empty stomach..

think of them before

you sit at hakkasan

ordering wine peking duck

dont make a mountain

of a hillock ..

   

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Durga puja (pronounced [ˈd̪ʊrɡaː ˈpuːdʒaː]; (listen:About this sound Durga Puja (help·info)); Bengali: দুর্গা পূজা,Oriya: ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା,‘Worship of Durga’), also referred to as Durgotsava (listen:About this sound Durgotsava (help·info)); (Bengali: দুর্গোৎসব, ‘Festival of Durga’), is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and Bijoya Dashami. The dates of Durga Puja celebrations are set according to the traditional Hindu calendar and the fortnight corresponding to the festival is called Devi Paksha (Bengali:দেবী পক্ষ, ‘Fortnight of the Goddess’). Devi Paksha is preceded by Mahalaya (Bengali: মহালয়া), the last day of the previous fortnight Pitri Paksha (Bengali: পিতৃ পক্ষ, ‘Fortnight of the Forefathers’), and is ended on Kojagori Lokkhi Puja (Bengali: কোজাগরী লক্ষ্মী পূজা, ‘Worship of Goddess Lakshmi on Kojagori Full Moon Night’).

 

Durga Puja is widely celebrated in the Indian states of West Bengal,Bihar,Assam, Jharkhand, Orissa and Tripura where it is a five-day annual holiday. In West Bengal and Tripura which has majority of Bengali Hindus it is the biggest festival of the year. Not only is it the biggest Hindu festival celebrated throughout the State, but it is also the most significant socio-cultural event in Bengali society. Apart from eastern India, Durga Puja is also celebrated in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Kashmir, Karnataka and Kerala. Durga Puja is also celebrated as a major festival in Nepal and in Bangladesh where 10% population are Hindu. Nowadays, many diaspora Bengali cultural organizations arrange for Durgotsab in countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, France, The Netherlands, Singapore and Kuwait, among others. In 2006, a grand Durga Puja ceremony was held in the Great Court of the British Museum.[3]

 

The prominence of Durga Puja increased gradually during the British Raj in Bengal.[4] After the Hindu reformists identified Durga with India, she became an icon for the Indian independence movement.[5] In the first quarter of the 20th century, the tradition of Baroyari or Community Puja was popularised due to this. After independence, Durga Puja became one of the largest celebrated festivals in the whole world.

 

Durga Puja also includes the worship of Shiva, who is Durga's consort, and worship of mother nature through nine types of plant (called "kala bou") representing nine divine forms of Goddess Durga [6] is also done in addition to Lakshmi, Saraswati with Ganesha and Kartikeya, who are considered to be Durga's children.[7] Modern traditions have come to include the display of decorated pandals and artistically depicted idols (murti) of Durga, exchange of Bijoya greetings and publication of Puja Annuals.

  

In Bengal, Durga Puja is also called Akalbodhan (Bengali: অকালবোধন, 'untimely awakening of Durga'), Sharadiya Pujo (Bengali: শারদীয়া পুজো , ‘autumnal worship’), Sharodotsab (Bengali: শারদোৎসব, ‘festival of autumn’), Maha Pujo (Bengali: মহা পুজো, ‘grand puja’), Maayer Pujo (Bengali: মায়ের পুজো, ‘worship of the Mother) or merely as Puja or Pujo. In East Bengal (Bangladesh), Durga Puja used to be celebrated as Bhagabati Puja. It is also called Durga Puja in Bihar, Assam, Orissa, Delhi and Madhya Pradesh.[8]

 

Puja is called Navaratri Puja in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Kerala and Maharashtra,[9] Kullu Dussehra in Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh,[10] Mysore Dussehra in Mysore, Karnataka[11] and Bommai Golu in Tamil Nadu and Bommala koluvu in Andhra Pradesh.[12]

[edit] Origin of the autumnal ceremony 'Sharadiya'

Old painting of Durga Puja in Kolkata at Shobhabazar Rajbari

 

The actual worship of the Goddess Durga as stipulated by the Hindu scriptures falls in the month of Chaitra, which roughly overlaps with March or April. This ceremony is however not observed by many and is restricted to a handful in the state of West Bengal.

 

The more popular form, which is also known as Sharadiya (Autumnal) Durga Puja, is celebrated later in the year with the dates falling either in September or October. Since the Goddess is invoked at the wrong time, it is called "Akaal Bodhon" in Bengali.

 

While the most recent revival of the Autumnal worship of Goddess Durga can be traced to revivalist tendencies in the early freedom movement in Bengal, the first such Puja was organised by Raja Nabakrishna Deb of the Shobhabazar Rajbari of Calcutta in honour of Lord Clive in the year 1757. The puja was organised because Clive wished to pay thanks for his victory in the Battle of Plassey. He was unable to do so in a Church because the only church in Calcutta at that time was destroyed by Siraj-ud-Daulah. Indeed many wealthy mercantile and Zamindar families in Bengal made British Officers of the East India Company guests of honour in the Pujas. The hosts vied with one another in arranging the most sumptuous fares, decorations and entertainment for their guests. This was deemed necessary since the Company was in charge of a large part of India including Bengal after the battles of Plassey and Buxar.[13]

[edit] History

Durga Puja, 1809 watercolour painting in Patna Style.

Goddess Durga, in one of the Pandals of Calcutta, now Kolkata.

 

A considerable literature exists around Durga in the Bengali language and its early forms, including avnirnaya (11th century), Durgabhaktitarangini by Vidyapati (a famous Maithili poet of 14th century), etc. Durga Puja was popular in Bengal in the medieval period, and records show that it was being held in the courts of Rajshahi (16th century) and Nadia district (18th century). It was during the 18th century, however, that the worship of Durga became popular among the landed aristrocacy of Bengal, the Zamindars. Prominent Pujas were conducted by the landed zamindars and jagirdars, being enriched by emerging British rule, including Raja Nabakrishna Deb, of Shobhabajar, who initiated an elaborate Puja at his residence. Many of these old puja exist to this day. Interestingly the oldest such Puja to be conducted at the same venue is located in Rameswarpur, Orissa, where it has been continuing for the last four centuries since the Ghosh Mahashays from Kotarang near Howrah migrated there as a part of Todarmal's contingent during Akbar's rule. Today, the culture of Durga Puja has shifted from the princely houses to Sarbojanin (literally, "involving all") forms. The first such puja was held at Guptipara - it was called barowari (baro meaning twelve and yar meaning friends)

 

Durga puja mood starts off with the Mahishasuramardini – a two-hour radio programme that has been popular with the community since the 1950s.[14] While earlier it used to be conducted live, later a recorded version began to be broadcast. Bengalis traditionally wake up at 4 in the morning on Mahalaya day to listen to the enchanting voice of the late Birendra Krishna Bhadra and the late Pankaj Kumar Mullick on All India Radio as they recite hymns from the scriptures from the Devi Mahatmyam (Chandi Path).[15] , During the week of Durga Puja, in the entire state of West Bengal as well as in large enclaves of Bengalis everywhere, life comes to a complete standstill. In playgrounds, traffic circles, ponds—wherever space may be available—elaborate structures called pandals 'are set up, many with nearly a year's worth of planning behind them. The word pandal means a temporary structure, made of bamboo and cloth, which is used as a temporary temple for the purpose of the puja. While some of the pandals are simple structures, others are often elaborate works of art with themes that rely heavily on history, current affairs and sometimes pure imagination.

 

Durga Puja Dhak Sample Sound

A 47 second sample of Dhak playing during Durga Puja.

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

 

Somewhere inside these complex edifices is a stage on which Durga reigns, standing on her lion mount, wielding ten weapons in her ten hands. This is the religious center of the festivities, and the crowds gather to offer flower worship or pushpanjali on the mornings, of the sixth to ninth days of the waxing moon fortnight known as Devi Pakshya (lit. Devi = goddess; Pakshya = period; Devi Pakshya meaning the period of the goddess). Ritual drummers – dhakis, carrying large leather-strung dhak –– show off their skills during ritual dance worships called aarati. On the tenth day, Durga the mother returns to her husband, Shiva, ritualised through her immersion into the waters[16]–– Bishorjon also known as Bhaashan and Niranjan

Image of Durga in an early 19th century lithogragh.

 

Today's Puja, however, goes far beyond religion. In fact, visiting the pandals recent years, one can only say that Durgapuja is the largest outdoor art festival on earth. In the 1990s, a preponderance of architectural models came up on the pandal exteriors, but today the art motif extends to elaborate interiors, executed by trained artists, with consistent stylistic elements, carefully executed and bearing the name of the artist.

 

The sculpture of the idol itself has evolved. The worship always depicts Durga with her four children, and occasionally two attendant deities and some banana-tree figures. In the olden days, all five idols would be depicted in a single frame, traditionally called pata. Since the 1980s however, the trend is to depict each idol separately.

 

At the end of six days, the idol is taken for immersion in a procession amid loud chants of 'Bolo Durga mai-ki jai' (glory be to Mother Durga') and 'aashchhe bochhor abar hobe' ('it will happen again next year') and drumbeats to the river or other water body. It is cast in the waters symbolic of the departure of the deity to her home with her husband in the Himalayas. After this, in a tradition called Vijaya Dashami, families visit each other and sweetmeats are offered to visitors (Dashami is literally "tenth day" and Vijay is "victory").

 

Durga Puja commemorates the annual visit of the Goddess with Her children to Her parents' home, leaving finally on the Dashami to be re-united with Shiva. This leaving ceremony is symbolised by the immersion of the idols on Dashami.[8]

 

Durga Puja is also a festivity of Good (Ma Durga) winning over the evil (Mahishasur the demon). It is a worship of power of Good which always wins over the bad.

[edit] Durga Puja Mantra

 

Initially the Puja was organised by affluent families since they had the money to organize the festival. During the late 19th and early 20th century, a burgeoning middle class, primarily in Calcutta, wished to observe the Puja. They created the community or Sarbojanin Pujas.

 

These Pujas are organized by a committee which represents a locality or neighbourhood. They collect funds called "chaanda" through door-to-door subscriptions, lotteries, concerts etc. These funds are pooled and used for the expenses of pandal construction, idol construction, ceremonies etc. The balance of the fund is generally donated to a charitable cause, as decided by the committee. Corporate sponsorships of the Pujas have gained momentum since the late 1990s. Major Pujas in Calcutta and in major metro areas such as Delhi and Chennai now derive almost all of their funds from corporate sponsorships. Community fund drives have become a formality.

 

Despite the resources used to organise a Puja, entry of visitors into the Pandal is generally free. Pujas in Calcutta and elsewhere experiment with innovative concepts every year. Communities have created prizes for Best Pandal, Best Puja, and other categories.

[edit] Creation of the idols

Durga Puja Idol in the making at Kumortuli, Kolkata

 

The entire process of creation of the idols (murti) from the collection of clay to the ornamentation is a holy process, supervised by rites and other rituals. On the Hindu date of Akshaya Tritiya when the Ratha Yatra is held, clay for the idols is collected from the banks of a river, preferably the Ganges. After the required rites, the clay is transported from which the idols are fashioned. An important event is 'Chakkhu Daan', literally donation of the eyes. Starting with Devi Durga, the eyes of the idols are painted on Mahalaya or the first day of the Pujas. Before painting on the eyes, the artisans fast for a day and eat only vegetarian food.

 

Many Pujas in and around Kolkata buy their idols from Kumartuli (also Kumortuli), an artisans' town in north Calcutta.[19]

 

In 1610, the first Durga puja in Kolkata was supposedly celebrated by the Roychowdhuri family of Barisha. Though this was a private affair, community or ‘Baroyari’ Durga puja was started in Guptipara, in Hooghly by 12 young men when they were barred from participating in a family Durga puja in 1761. They formed a committee which accepted subscriptions for organising the puja. Since then, community pujas in Bengal came to be known as ‘Baroyari – ‘baro’ meaning 12 and ‘yar’ meaning friends.In Kolkata, the first ‘Baroyari’ Durga Puja was organized in 1910 by the ‘SanatanDharmotsahini Sabha’ at Balaram Bosu Ghat Road, Bhawanipur. At the same time, similar Baroyari Pujas were held at Ramdhan Mitra Lane and Sikdar Bagan. The Indian freedom struggle also had an influence on Durga puja in Kolkata. In 1926, Atindranath Bose initiated the first ‘Sarbojanin’ Durga puja in which anybody, irrespective of caste, creed and religion, could participate in the festivities. This was consciously done to instill a feeling of unity.[20]

[edit] Environmental impact

Image of Durga being immersed in water. The Murti of Durga is eco-friendly.

Theme based Durga puja

 

Environmental hazards from the materials used to make and color the idols pollute local water sources, as the idols are brought directly into the river at the end of festivities. Efforts are underway to introduce eco-friendly materials to the artisans who make the idols. West Bengal has been credited by its own environmental agency as being possibly the first Indian State to successfully curb the use of hazardous paints. However, by their own account, only two-thirds of the idols made are currently colored with eco-friendly paints.[21]

 

Commercialization of Hindu festivals like Durga Puja in the last quarter of 20th century have become a major environmental concern as devout Hindus want bigger and brighter idols. Environmentalists say the idols are often made from hazardous materials like cement, plastic, plaster of Paris, and toxic paints.[22]

[edit] Theme-based Pujas and pandals

 

Pandals and idols inspired by a particular theme have been the hallmark of many community or Sarbajanin Pujas in Kolkata since the 1990s. Puja committees decide on a particular theme, whose elements are incorporated into the pandal and the idols. Popular themes include ancient civilizations like the Egyptians or Incas. Contemporary subjects like the RMS Titanic and Harry Potter have also been the subject in some pandals.

 

The design and decoration is usually done by art and architecture students based in the city. The budget required for such theme-based pujas is often higher than traditional pujas. They attract crowds and are well-received. Inspired by Kolkata, theme-based pandals are becoming popular in cities in neighbouring states, particularly Orissa (see above). Experimentation with the idols does not happen much outside Calcutta.

 

Rapid growth of competitiveness in theme pandals, and also rapid growth of massive billboards that come up at strategic junctions, prior to Puja and allied commercial activities, has also created a cultural backlash from city's traditional Puja pandals, which now claim, "We do not do theme puja, we do Durga puja,”, according to one hoarding put up in Salt Lake, Kolkata.[23]

[edit] Popular culture specific to the puja

 

Durga Puja is one of the most important events in the Bengali society's calendar. Many Bengali films, albums and books are released to coincide with the Puja. The West Bengal government gives a fortnight of holidays for the Pujas. This time is used in various ways. Many people travel in India or abroad. Gatherings of friends called "Aadda" in Bengali is common in many homes and restaurants. A lot of shopping is done, and retailers cash in on this opportunity with special offers.

 

Visiting pandals with friends and family, talking and sampling the food sold near them is known as pandal hopping. Young people embrace this activity. Pujor Gaan (Songs of Puja) are the Adhunik Bengali songs that come out every year during this time.

[edit] Media Attention

 

TV and radio channels telecast Puja celebrations. Many Bengali channels devote whole days to the Pujas. Bengali and Oriya weekly magazines bring out special issues for the Puja known as "Pujabarshiki" or "Sharadiya Sankhya". These contain the works of many writers both established and upcoming and are thus much bigger than the regular issues. Some notable examples are Anandamela, Shuktara, Desh, Sarodiya Anandabazar Patrika, Sananda, Nabakallol, Bartaman [24]

[edit] Movies

 

The worship of Durga in the autumn (Bengali: শরৎ Shôrot) is the year's largest Hindu festival of Bengal. Durga Puja is also celebrated in Nepal and Bhutan according to local traditions and variations. Puja means "worship," and Durga's Puja is celebrated from the sixth to tenth day of the waning moon in the month of Ashvin (Bengali: আশ্বিন Ashshin), which is the sixth month in the Bengali calendar. Occasionally however, due to shifts in the lunar cycle relative to the solar months, it may also be held in the following month, Kartika (Bengali: কার্তিক). In the Gregorian calendar, these dates correspond to the months of September and October.

Durga idol from a pandal at West Bengal

 

In the Krittibas Ramayana, Rama invokes the goddess Durga in his battle against Ravana. Although she was traditionally worshipped in the spring, due to contingencies of battle, Rama had to invoke her in the autumn akaal bodhan.[26] Today it is this Rama's date for the puja that has gained ascendancy, although the spring puja, known as Basanti Puja [One of the oldest 'sabeki' Basanti Puja is held every year at spring in Barddhaman Pal Bari at Raniganga Bazar, M.K.Chatterjee Rd near Karjon Gate], is also present in the Hindu almanac. Since the season of the puja is autumn, it is also known as (Bengali: শারদীয়া 'Sharodia').

 

The pujas are held over a ten-day period, which is traditionally viewed as the coming of the married daughter, Durga, to her father, Himalaya's home. It is the most important festival in Bengal, and Bengalis celebrate with new clothes and other gifts, which are worn on the evenings when the family goes out to see the 'pandals' (temporary structures set up to venerate the goddess). Although it is a Hindu festival, religion takes a back seat on these five days: Durga Puja in Bengal is a carnival, where people from all backgrounds, regardless of their religious beliefs, participate and enjoy themselves to the hilt.[27]

[edit] Kolkata (Calcutta)

 

In Kolkata alone more than two thousand pandals are set up, all clamoring for the admiration and praise of the populace.[28] The city is adorned with lights. People from all over the country visit the city at this time, and every night is one mad carnival where thousands of people go 'pandal-hopping' with their friends and family. Traffic comes to a standstill, and indeed, most people abandon their vehicles to travel by foot after a point. A special task force is deployed to control law and order. Durga Puja in Kolkata is often referred to as the Rio Carnival of the Eastern Hemisphere.[29]

Durga Puja Kolkata WB India

[edit] Siliguri

 

Hundreds of puja pandals are set up every year in the Siliguri Mahakuma area. The city is adorned with many colourful pandal, glorious "Protima", colourful lighting and sounds. The puja in Saktigarh, Hakimpara, Rabindra Sangha, Rathkhola, Champashari, Central Colony (N.R.I), Silpanchal(Burdwan Road) and Saktigarh Utjal Sangha are famous and the oldest durga puja in this area.

 

Silpanchal Durga Puja committee is recognized as one of the oldest puja is town which was established in 1955 and is famous for the "Protima" and many other social activities they undertake during Pujas.

 

One of the oldest puja in Siliguri is of Swastika Yubak Sangha. It's one of the most crowd gathering puja of the region. The Puja Committee completed its 50th year of celebrations in 2009.

[edit] Chanduli, Katwa

 

One of oldest Durga Puja is held at a village named Chanduli, 12 km from Katwa city, which is more than 350 years old. The Puja is held under the auspices of Mitra bari Debottor estate and here Goddess Durga has two hands visible in place of ten hands. Here, Devi Durga is glorious and famous in this locality. Guptipara

 

In 1790 First Barwary puja held in this village of West Bengal in the district of Hooghly.[30] Great Goswami family of Dhaka is now at Guptipara led by Satyendra Nath Goswami, Roypara.

[edit] Lataguri

Sindur being applied on the forehead of Goddess Durga during Bijaya Dashami.

 

Lataguri is a small village in Jalpaiguri district. It has an old tradition of Durga Puja with lots of joy and cultural values in the heart of the people. Prantik Sangha, Netaji Sangha, Friends Club, Pal Chowdhury Bari (Family Puja) are some of the oldest pujas to name a few. In the day of Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Nabami and Bijoya Dashami people here celebrate it in a grand way with lots of joy. Specially in Prantik Sangha (Post Office Para) they have an old tradition of celebrating "Raksha Raksha" (Prayers offered to Durga to save whole body and mind and to give happiness and prosperity) by exchanging warmth of happiness and respect among the people with touching elder person's feet and hugging each other. After that small sweet balls laddu are distributed among the people. "Raksha Raksha" is celebrated in the day of Bijoya Dashami after idols (murtis) of Goddess Durga with her family are immersed in the most convenient body of water. The members of Pal Chowdhury Bari march to the pond near about half a kilometer for immersion of the goddess by taking it on their shoulder. This tradition has been following for 61 years.

[edit] Berhampore

 

Hundreds of puja pandals are set up every year in the Berhampore, Cossimbazar, Khagra jagdamba mandir (kajal saha & ganesh bhakat MULTIFRESH, Madhupur, Gorabazaar area. All pandal are decorated with lights and sounds. Swarnamoyee, Baganpara, Bishtupur, Madhupur Balark Sangha, Ranibagan, Kadai, Swargadham, Ajana Sangha, Cossimbazar Choto Rajbari are famous and the oldest durga puja from this area. Cossimbazars Puja is the oldest puja which is about 300 years old. All visitors are mostly from Berhampore city and coming through different part of Murshidabad.[31] district and adjacent districts. Specially the Astami and Nabami nights are filled with crowd from different part of the district. Visitors come out on the roads with their family and friends. They enjoy the festival through the night. Also the Bisorjon (immersion of idol) to Bhagarathi River is a beautiful scene. A huge number of visitors gather on the river side (Gorabajar Ghat, Khagra Ghat) to visit the last journey of Durga Pratima. Generally the pandals and idols of Madhupur area win the prizes and famous artists perform during these days. Lighting from Chandan Nagar is done in this area to a great extent to increase the beauty of the Puja nights.

[edit] In other parts of India

[edit] Assam

 

After West Bengal, Assam is the second state where Durga Puja is celebrated popularly and widely. In Silchar more than 300 exhibits, known as pandals, decorated with lights, sculptures and other art forms are created. After Bihu, Durga Puja is the most popular festival of Assam. According to historian Late Benudhar Sarma, the present form of worship of Durga with earthen idol in Assam was started during the reign of Ahom King Susenghphaa or Pratap Singha. The King heard about the festivity, the pomp and grandeur with which the King Naranarayan of Koch Bihar celebrated Durga Puja from one Sondar Gohain, who was under captivity of the Koch raja. King Pratap Singha sent artisans to Koch Bihar to learn the art of idol making. The King organised the first such Durga Puja celebration in Bhatiapara near Sibsagar. This was the first time Durga Puja with earthen idols in Assam was held for the masses, in addition to the worship in Durga temples like Kamakhya, Digheswari Temple, Maha Bhairabi Temple, Ugrotara, Tamreswari Mandir, etc. Subsequently, similar Pujas were celebrated by other Kings and nobles. Nowadays the Durga Puja is mostly a community festival celebrated in all the cities, towns, villages of Assam with great festivity and religious fervour for five days.

[edit] Bihar

 

Durga Puja is one of the major festivals in Patna. Hundreds of pandals are set up with carnivals. The city witnesses a huge surge in visitors in the four days from Maha Saptami. More than 100exhibits, known as pandals, decorated with lights, sculptures and other art forms are created. Ancient Places of Patna Durga Puja includes Bari and Chhoti PatanDevi Maa Shitla Mandir Agamkuan etc.

[edit] Gujarat

 

Navaratri is devoted to Amba mataji. In some homes, images of mataji are worshiped in accordance with accepted practice. This is also true of the temples, which usually have a constant stream of visitors from morning to night. The most common form of public celebration is the performance of garba and dandia-ras/ras-garba (a form of garba with sticks), Gujarat's popular folk-dance, late throughout the nights of these nine days in public squares, open grounds and streets.[32]

[edit] Jharkhand

 

Durga Puja is celebrated with many carnivals. The festival mood starts from Mahalaya, a huge surge in visitors is witnessed during the last four days of the festival, arriving from cities like Jamshedpur (TATA), Ranchi, Dhanbaad, etc. There are so many pandals as like as at Kolkata and Cuttack which makes interesting and enjoyful in these days at there. Some of highlighted Pandals are:

  

Inspired by Danny. Here's to more happiness to BOTH of us!

 

Strobist info:

 

SB600 w/6" snoot on its side 8 inches from the fortune cookie, to right of camera 1/128 power

 

SB600 w/ 12" above and to left of camera, 2' from subject, 1/16 power

 

triggered by Nikon CLS

  

Our soul is going beyond nature,,,

Looking for Peace, Art, Love And Happiness.....

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So dn't forget to draw ur sign everywhere & anywhere...

To build ur Happiness by Remembering u !!!!

 

Written by ME =P

Identifier: pathwayoflifeint00talm

Title: The pathway of life ; Intended to lead the young and the old into paths of happiness, and to prepare them for a holy companionship with him whose kingdom is as boundless as his love

Year: 1894 (1890s)

Authors: Talmage, T. De Witt (Thomas De Witt), 1832-1902

Subjects: Christian life and character

Publisher: Philadelphia, Pub. and manufactured by Historical Pub. Co. for the Christian Herald

Contributing Library: Princeton Theological Seminary Library

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Text Appearing Before Image:

ers, if sin is discord and righteousness is harmony, let us get out of the oneand enter the other. After our dreadful Civil War was over, and in the summer of i86g, a greatnational peace jubilee was held in Boston, and, as an elder of my church had beenhonored by the selection of some of his music to be rendered on that occasion, Iaccompanied him to the jubilee. Forty thousand people sat and stood in thegreat Colosseum erected for that purpose. Thousands of wind and stringed instru-ments. Twelve thousand trained voices. The masterpieces of all ages rendered,hour after hour, and day after day—Handels Judas Maccabaeus, Spohrs Last Judgment, Beethovens Mount of Olives, Ha3^dns Creation, Men-delssohns Elijah, Meyerbeers Coronation March, rolling on and up insurges that billowed against the heavens. The mighty cadences within wereaccompanied on the outside by the ringing of the bells of the city and cannon onthe commons, in exact time with the music, discharged by electricity, thundering

 

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A POEM OF LOVE. (371) 37^ THE PATHWAY OF LIFE. their awful bars of a harmony that astounded all nations. Sometimes I bowedmy head and wept. Sometimes I stood up in the enchantment, and sometimesthe effect was so overpowering I felt I could not endure it. When all the voices were in full chorus, and all the batons in full wave, andall the orchestra in full triumph, and a hundred anvils under mighty hammerswere in full clang, and all the towers of the city rolled in their majestic sweetness,and the whole building quaked with the boom of thirty cannon, Parepa Rosa,with a voice that will never again be equaled on earth until the archangelic voiceproclaims that time shall be no longer, rose above all other sounds in her render-ing of our national air, the Star-Spangled Banner. It was too much for a mortal,and quite enough for an immortal, to hear, and while some fainted, one w^omanlyspirit, released under its power, sped away to be with God. O Lord, our God, quickly usher in the whole worl

  

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1. sing a song, 2. #43/365 ... flickr pickr, 3. Czech Vocab Rival Krystina - scott koch, 4. 300: leave with me, 5. day 44, 6. Day 94: In Which I Shed My Hoboesque Covering

7. omg! sun!!!, 8. Day 95: In the Shadows, 9. Path through the tree arches..., 10. Bride in Water, 11. beams, 12. ...

13. Delicado..., 14. j5, 15. What Did You Do Today?, 16. Autumn!, 17. the inspiration, 18. Day 320: Light in the attic.

19. beach = happiness, 20. Terence playing with some lenses, 21. Sunrise love on the playa, 22. seattle, 23. I can see you shining bright, 24. diagonal

25. Argh., 26. home grown scrambled eggs, 27. Soleil, 28. Sneaky, 29. 10.05.07 - 359/365: 600 Post-It Notes, 30. DAY 340: SOTTS GOES TO HOLLYWOOD

31. Day 237 of 365, 32. As Light as Air, 33. Flickr Love, 34. Day 251/365......think pink, 35. Untitled, 36. IMG_7999-Edit-2-Edit

 

---

 

felt like time to share more treasures... please, share the love.... go, visit, comment, and fave as the clickr leads you! ;)

 

I can't begin to explain how amazing it is to be surrounded by such talent and beauty in this place we all love.

 

(again, no repeats... so as to spread the show so to speak!)

 

[Created with fd's Flickr Toys.]

one of these days, i might actually have pictures for you to look at. but for now, you'll have to look at other people's photos that i've looked at.

 

anybody got a pillow i could borrow? i need it for under my desk.

Our little grandson and his parents. Obviously Aaron came into our world to lightened up our lifes. Which he really does! When I took this photo he was just three days old.

Title: Florists' review [microform]

Identifier: 5205536_46_3

Year: 1912 (1910s)

Authors:

Subjects: Floriculture

Publisher: Chicago : Florists' Pub. Co

Contributing Library: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  

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Tbmnwtlata ivlioM oMrOs «ppMr on th* pm»s eanrlnc Oils bMtf • •>• vc«9«rtd to flO mrdan ~**** flromotlMr.flaftotaforloo«l<l«llT«nrontli«iiau«l'

 

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FOREIGN SECTION C. ENGELMANN Member American Florists'Telegraph Delivery Association. Life Member S. A. F. Member American Carnation Society. Member New York Florists' Oob. Orders for England, Scotland and Ireland taken care of by C. ENOELMANN. Florist. Saffron Walden. Essex. ENGLAND. Cables: E:nfl[elmann, Saflronwalden(2 words only) Orders for the French Riviera and Monte Carlo taken care of by C. ENGELMANN. Etablissement Hor- ticole "Carnation," Saint-Laurent-du- Var, near Nice. FRANCE. CaUca: Carnation. Saint-Laorent-dn-Var (2 words only) Liverpool, England DINGLEYS, Ltd., Florists SHEFFIELD, ENGLAND WM. ARTINDALE & SON FLORISTS SEEDSMEN NURSERYMEN Manchester, England DINGLEYS, Ltd., Florists SCOTLAND ORDERS NOW TO LEIGHTON, Florist, GLASGOW Scotland's Only Member F. T. D. in becoming great. These methods can be best gained by close and systematic organization. In these days we hear of a florists' labor union in Washington that is part of the American Federation of Labor. A walk-out in all of the greenhouses of the country is not a remote possibility, for labor unions grow quickly. These are only a few of the needs to be met by this new organization. Have we any organization that is now coping with themt If we have I am not familiar with it. Forestalling Gluts. Let us look at the mission of the or- ganization. Part of it is to regulate production. For instance, as I am writ- ing this we are ^\iai passing through a gladiolus glut; the finest kind of stock is being sold at a price that hardly pays for the handling of it, to say nothing of the cost of production. But, you will say, how is organization going to remedy this? Well, your business has now reached a stage where, in the large flower centers, a permanent secretary for the local growers' organization should be kept, whose business it would be to know approximately what each of the members was going to grow dur- ing a given season and in this way esti- mate the production of a special line of stock, comparing this estimate with the previous season's market. In this way an immense amount of waste could be eliminated. But I can hear some saying that the writer is a dreamer and asking what flower center could afford to pay a secretary permanently to do such work. I reply that one man cannot fill ■•^, -V » »> I Happily Some Of Us Like The Aspen Will Never Grow Up By mall this morning came a letter from a friend In Colorado enclosing a delightful little bit of printed matter entitled: "The Aspen Will Never Grow Up," by Bnos A. Mills. It la so full of charm, and withal a moral, that it would be pure selfishness on my part not to share it with you. So here it is: "The bare-legged Quaking Aspen, with its restless, childlike ways, is a little tree that is good to know. Look for it with bare-legged children, playing along a brook, or knee-deep among wild Howers. Alone, it seems lonely and trembling, as though just a little afraid in this big, strange world. But generally a number of aspens play together. Their leaves are ever shaking and Jumping in the sunshine, or whispering. and listening to secrets in the moonlight. One autumn day I came upon a circle of merry little aspens who were using a grand old pine for a Maypole to dance around. Kach little aspen wore its gayest colors. "Some were in gowns of new-made cloth of gold. "For an instant their golden leaves were still; they had paused to glance at me; then they romped merrily on, and the old pine stood still in the sunlight. "The aspen's Joyous activity, dancing out of one thing into another, expresses the bounding, boundless hopefulness of youth. "Never is it serious. "The aspen will never grow up!" All of which kind of makes a fellow think that mayhap some of us grow old a long time before we are old. What a thing it is to keep the crispness, and optimism of youth, tempered Just a bit by the wisdom that should come with years! Flowers being the symbols of youth and happiness, sort of reckon we can sell more flowers if, like the aspen, we never really grow up. New York's Favorite Flower Shop Fifth. Avenue at 58th Street the position of secretary alone; he will need a staff of assistants. There is another point to be con- sidered, and that is cooperative buying. For instance, at the organization re- cently of one of these locals, which the writer attended, this question was gone into; space will only permit me to cite one instance, automobile tires. It was demonstrated by correspondence with one of the most reliable tire factoriM in the country that $10 could be saved on a single tire; this means $40 on a set. In other words, with such an or- ganization in existence, the companies would be obliged to solicit but one central buying agency instead of the individuals that make up its member- ship. When we think of coal, fertilizer, hose, insecticides, glazing materials and

  

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Identifier: brethrenatwo184150moor

Title: Brethren at Work, The (1880)

Year: 1880 (1880s)

Authors: Eshelman, M.M. Harrison, S.J. Stein, J.W. Moore, John H.

Subjects: Church of the Brethren--Periodicals

Publisher: Lanark, Ill.

Contributing Library: Bridgewater College, Alexander Mack Memorial Library

Digitizing Sponsor: LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation

  

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fEt^lfEU Vol. V.

 

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Lanark, 111., March 16, 1880. No 11. GENERAL dGE^TTS von THE BRETHREK AT WORK TRACT SUCIKTY. Ohio. D. B, M«ulMr,W.jT,Mlwn., r»Daniel V.nlniM, Vlrtou, HIJ a. Ploty. Loogmonl, Ci>\aJobn MMigsr, C*nv (iuriu, III-lot. BflBJrttk - N - J^l.nWI.^Mi.H»rT,&„„,III u. Brow«. Prt.„, ot.con.J. \V. !<..<ith»,«cl, LlBcolnvlH„ [nil D. D. OltwiD, Nortjomo. UiW.C TmIw. MU UurTl«, Ia. S.Mohlnr. CnrttnU*, 11. TABLE OP CONTENTS. SECOND Page—Heaven is my Home, steiii aiulliny Deli/ile. Third Iaqb—Five He(isoiis for AttenOiiic Iuti-lic Worship. IMi-ssed una Thpy wliich Dn IliaComniuiRlmeiitH Bel-wnen Vou uml Me. FititbKrpenlancp, Oljeilji-nee. Foi RTH Page—EitHwriiil Xotee. Decline of Chris-tiiinity. To Corrfsiioiidents. Fifth Page—The Desijrn aiid Form of Cliris-tiHii liiiplism. Domestic Happiness. A ilaptistInculeiit, Sixth Page—Beautiful Land of Hone. Pearlsand Rosea. Put Xlieia in tlie Lumlwr Koom, TonGood to be Lost. Maxima of the Hotli8ChihH.Heading. Aiiouucements

  

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Identifier: withworldspeople05ridp

Title: With the world's people : an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social evolution, and present conditions and promise of the principal families of men : together with a preliminary inquiry on the time, place and manner of the beginning

Year: 1912 (1910s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects:

Publisher: Washington, D.C. : C.E. Ridpath

Contributing Library: University of California Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Internet Archive

  

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NKIND. mitted to us by tradition and history ofthe primitive state of the Hebrew fa-thers give us idyl after Prevalence of . ^ • thepastoraiiife idyl, composed in many in-stances with poetic skill, ofthe manner of life of the progenitors ofIsrael in the patriarchical age. Therethey are upon the open plain with theirflocks and herds. There are their tents,pitched now in this place and now inthat, according to the abundance of na- resources of clan life were easily andabundantly obtained. We are here face to face with the firstquestion of importance in ccmsideringthe ethnic life of the people, and thatis, the food supply by which the givenpeople is supported. The sources of foodsustenance of life is the ^^^1;^°:^^^,first of all considerations. Hebrews.All that a man hath will he give in ex-change for his life. The first concernof men in all conditions whatsoever is toprovide the re.sources by which their ex-istence is to be preserved from day today. Hunger is the first disciplinarian

 

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FLOCKS AND HERDS.—CoiNHNG the Sheep.—Dn.ivn by Paul Hardy, fiom a photograph. ture or the exigency of the season. Theclan abides together. Anon it dividesinto several clans. The outdoor life isprevalent. The indoor life is almostunknown. The absence of civilizinginstitutions is compensated by longevity,freedom, and happiness. Doubtless itwas, on the whole, an estate of plenty.The tradition of that far age has nothingto say of disease, and nothing of want,except in the rare instance of famine.So long as the earth did her part, the of the world—the first teacher of man-kind—a hard master, but not withoutgenerosity and benevolent instincts forthe human race. In common with their kindred racesthe Hebrew^s had their first dependenceupon their flocks and herds. The latterabounded. We must remember thatthe Syrian plains Avere then a new coun-try. Vast is the difference between thenew country and the old—between theexuberance, the grassy wealth, the wild- THE HEBREWS.—F.VOLUTION O

  

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Identifier: rubaiyatbodleian00omar

Title: The Ruba'iyat of Omar Khayyam : being a facsimile of the manuscript in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, with a transcript into modern Persian characters. Translated, with and introd. and notes, and a bibliography, and some sidelights upon Edward Fitzgerald's poem

Year: 1898 (1890s)

Authors: Omar Khayyam Omar Khayyam., Mss Omar Khayyam. Rubaiyat. English. Heron-Allen Heron-Allen, Edward, 1861-1943

Subjects: FitzGerald, Edward, 1809-1883

Publisher: London : H. S. Nichols

Contributing Library: University of California Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Internet Archive

  

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leian MS. and the Lucknow lithographed edition by W. Theobjective dn-ra that commences the first line makes the meaning of the Bodleianquatrain almost hopelessly obscure, or, rather, makes literal translation impossible,and the ft-ra^ which begins the rubai in P. does not help us. W. has graspedthe meaning, but his charming lines do not exactly represent the Persian.B. ii. reads^i7_ya,3 as one might say, as it were, which makes sense and hasthe authority of age. 1. L. reads Torment grows not on every shoot of (the Tree of)Knowledge. s 2. B. ii., L. and the Paris MS. read Because in this path no one isperfect.^j «^-,o ^^ (4) 15. (3) ^..^U J .^^ J (2) lo^ (1) )/ v^ite* JW* ji j-^ ^J^ () o^ ^^j (***^ S5>*~^ f**^ •^ ^ (^) ^-/ (:) W {) —;>^ —^ vT-f «b ^.j^ ^ U) () Transcript and Translation ^31 S^w-w8 fcs-Jj j] ^^ ^j ^jC« ^Ubfas ««>.<. .....TlfcJ) l^^ ^5**^ VcS^ 5JJ^ *ifc LTl?^ v.5-^ y^ >J^ »^J 5[; ^„^»3 fc::...—J ^) dkS fcc-. l\j jUh

 

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^^c^jf^y/A > . y waste not thou this moment if thy heart be not mad/for the value^ of the remainder of this life is not manifest. 13. Now that there is a possibility of happiness ^ for the world,every living heart-^ has yearnings towards the desert,upon every bough is the appearance of Moses hand,^in every breeze is the exhalation of Jesus breath.^ 14.For him for whom the fruit ot the branch of truth has not grown,^the reason is that he is not firm in the Road. 132 Notes 3. The precise meaning of this Hne in this place is obscure. I take it tomean that men shake the loose bough that bears the fruit of knowledge in vain.L. reads: Everyone has struck the loose bough with impotent hand.i Thevariant in the Paris MS. takes us no further. 4. Meaning, life begins anew each day, and the Last Day will be identicalwith the Day of Creation. 15- This quatrain is one of the few that seem to be linked with a preceding orsubsequent one. This again only occurs in the Paris, Bankipur and BodleianMS

  

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gull flying over the waves

The Doors - Light My Fire

www.youtube.com/watch?v=deB_u-to-IE

 

Gautama Buddha

 

from Wikipedia

 

Gautama Buddha

Buddha in Sarnath Museum (Dhammajak Mutra).jpg

 

A statue of the Buddha from Sarnath, 4th century CE

 

Born c 63 BCE or c. 480 BCE[1][2]

Lumbini, Shakya Republic (according to Buddhist tradition)[note 1]

Died c. 483 BCE or c. 400 BCE (aged 80)

Kushinagar, Malla Republic (according to Buddhist tradition)[note 2]

Other names Siddhartha Gautama, Shakyamuni

 

Known for Founder of Buddhism

Predecessor Kassapa Buddha

Successor Maitreya

Parent(s)

 

Śuddhodana (father)

Maya (mother)

 

Part of a series on

Buddhism

Dharma Wheel.svg

 

Gautama Buddha

Chinese name

Chinese 佛陀

[show]Transcriptions

Burmese name

Burmese ဂေါတမ ဗုဒ္ဓ

Vietnamese name

Vietnamese alphabet Tất-đạt-đa Cồ-đàm

Thai name

Thai พระพุทธเจ้า

Korean name

Hangul 부처

[show]Transcriptions

Japanese name

Kanji 釈迦

Hiragana しゃか

[show]Transcriptions

Bengali name

Bengali গৌতম বুদ্ধ

Nepali name

Nepali गौतम बुद्ध

Sanskrit name

Sanskrit गौतम बुद्ध

 

Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha,[note 3] or simply the Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage,[3] on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.[web 2] He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE.[4][note 4]

 

Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement[5] common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala.[4][6]

 

Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened or divine[7] teacher who attained full Buddhahood, and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.

 

Contents

 

1 Historical Siddhārtha Gautama

2 Traditional biographies

2.1 Biographical sources

2.2 Nature of traditional depictions

3 Biography

3.1 Conception and birth

3.2 Early life and marriage

3.3 Renunciation and ascetic life

3.4 Awakening

3.5 Formation of the sangha

3.6 Travels and teaching

3.7 Mahaparinirvana

3.8 Location of Gautama Buddha's death and parinirvana

3.9 Relics

4 Physical characteristics

5 Nine virtues

6 Teachings

6.1 Use of Brahmanical motifs

6.2 Tracing the oldest teachings

6.3 Dhyana and insight

6.4 Earliest Buddhism

6.5 Later developments

7 Other religions

7.1 Vietnam

7.2 Western world

8 Depiction in arts and media

9 Notes

10 References

10.1 Printed sources

10.2 Online sources

11 Further reading

12 External links

 

Historical Siddhārtha Gautama

Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha.

 

Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most accept that he lived, taught and founded a monastic order during the Mahajanapada era during the reign of Bimbisara (c. 558 – c. 491 BCE),[8][9] the ruler of the Magadha empire, and died during the early years of the reign of Ajasattu, who was the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara.[10][11] Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha's lifetime coincided with the flourishing of influential Śramaṇa schools of thoughts like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Jainism, and Ajñana.[12] Brahmajala Sutta records sixty-two such schools of thought. It was also the age of influential thinkers like Mahavira, Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, and Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, as recorded in Samaññaphala Sutta, whose viewpoints the Buddha most certainly must have been acquainted with.[13][14][note 5] Indeed, Sariputta and Moggallāna, two of the foremost disciples of the Buddha, were formerly the foremost disciples of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, the skeptic;[15] and the Pali canon frequently depicts Buddha engaging in debate with the adherents of rival schools of thoughts. Thus, Buddha was just one of the many śramaṇa philosophers of that time.[16] There is also evidence to suggest that the two masters, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, were indeed historical figures and they most probably taught Buddha two different forms of meditative techniques.[17] While the general sequence of "birth, maturity, renunciation, search, awakening and liberation, teaching, death" is widely accepted,[18][page needed] there is less consensus on the veracity of many details contained in traditional biographies.[19][20]

 

The times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as circa 563 BCE to 483 BCE.[1][21] More recently his death is dated later, between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium on this question held in 1988,[22][23][24] the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death.[1][25][note 4] These alternative chronologies, however, have not yet been accepted by all historians.[30][31][note 6]

 

The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama was born into the Shakya clan, a community that was on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE.[33] It was either a small republic, or an oligarchy, and his father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch .[33] According to the Buddhist tradition, Gautama was born in Lumbini, now in modern-day Nepal, and raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, which may have been either in what is present day Tilaurakot, Nepal or Piprahwa, India.[note 1] He obtained his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath, and died in Kushinagar.

 

No written records about Gautama were found from his lifetime or some centuries thereafter. One Edict of Asoka, who reigned from circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE, commemorates the Emperor's pilgrimage to the Buddha's birthplace in Lumbini. Another one of his edicts mentions several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist tradition at least by the time of the Maurya era. These texts may be the precursor of the Pāli Canon.[47][web 10] [note 7] The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts are the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, reported to have been found in or around Haḍḍa near Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan and now preserved in the British Library. They are written in the Gāndhārī language using the Kharosthi script on twenty-seven birch bark manuscripts and date from the first century BCE to the third century CE.[web 11]

Traditional biographies

Buddha by Otgonbayar Ershuu

Biographical sources

 

The sources for the life of Siddhārtha Gautama are a variety of different, and sometimes conflicting, traditional biographies. These include the Buddhacarita, Lalitavistara Sūtra, Mahāvastu, and the Nidānakathā.[48] Of these, the Buddhacarita[49][50][51] is the earliest full biography, an epic poem written by the poet Aśvaghoṣa, and dating around the beginning of the 2nd century CE.[48] The Lalitavistara Sūtra is the next oldest biography, a Mahāyāna/Sarvāstivāda biography dating to the 3rd century CE.[52] The Mahāvastu from the Mahāsāṃghika Lokottaravāda tradition is another major biography, composed incrementally until perhaps the 4th century CE.[52] The Dharmaguptaka biography of the Buddha is the most exhaustive, and is entitled the Abhiniṣkramaṇa Sūtra,[53] and various Chinese translations of this date between the 3rd and 6th century CE. The Nidānakathā is from the Theravada tradition in Sri Lanka and was composed in the 5th century by Buddhaghoṣa.[54]

 

From canonical sources, the Jataka tales, the Mahapadana Sutta (DN 14), and the Achariyabhuta Sutta (MN 123) which include selective accounts that may be older, but are not full biographies. The Jātakas retell previous lives of Gautama as a bodhisattva, and the first collection of these can be dated among the earliest Buddhist texts.[55] The Mahāpadāna Sutta and Achariyabhuta Sutta both recount miraculous events surrounding Gautama's birth, such as the bodhisattva's descent from the Tuṣita Heaven into his mother's womb.

Nature of traditional depictions

Māyā miraculously giving birth to Siddhārtha. Sanskrit, palm-leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period

 

In the earliest Buddhists texts, the nikāyas and āgamas, the Buddha is not depicted as possessing omniscience (sabbaññu) [56] nor is he depicted as being an eternal transcendent (lokottara) being. According to Bhikkhu Analayo, ideas of the Buddha's omniscience (along with an increasing tendency to deify him and his biography) are found only later, in the Mahayana sutras and later Pali commentaries or texts such as the Mahāvastu.[56] In the Sandaka Sutta, the Buddha's disciple Ananda outlines an argument against the claims of teachers who say they are all knowing [web 12] while in the Tevijjavacchagotta Sutta the Buddha himself states that he has never made a claim to being omniscient, instead he claimed to have the "higher knowledges" (abhijñā).[57] The earliest biographical material from the Pali Nikayas focuses on the Buddha's life as a śramaṇa, his search for enlightenment under various teachers such as Alara Kalama and his forty five year career as a teacher.[web 13]

 

Traditional biographies of Gautama generally include numerous miracles, omens, and supernatural events. The character of the Buddha in these traditional biographies is often that of a fully transcendent (Skt. lokottara) and perfected being who is unencumbered by the mundane world. In the Mahāvastu, over the course of many lives, Gautama is said to have developed supra-mundane abilities including: a painless birth conceived without intercourse; no need for sleep, food, medicine, or bathing, although engaging in such "in conformity with the world"; omniscience, and the ability to "suppress karma".[58] Nevertheless, some of the more ordinary details of his life have been gathered from these traditional sources. In modern times there has been an attempt to form a secular understanding of Siddhārtha Gautama's life by omitting the traditional supernatural elements of his early biographies.

 

Andrew Skilton writes that the Buddha was never historically regarded by Buddhist traditions as being merely human:

 

It is important to stress that, despite modern Theravada teachings to the contrary (often a sop to skeptical Western pupils), he was never seen as being merely human. For instance, he is often described as having the thirty-two major and eighty minor marks or signs of a mahāpuruṣa, "superman"; the Buddha himself denied that he was either a man or a god; and in the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta he states that he could live for an aeon were he asked to do so.[59]

 

The ancient Indians were generally unconcerned with chronologies, being more focused on philosophy. Buddhist texts reflect this tendency, providing a clearer picture of what Gautama may have taught than of the dates of the events in his life. These texts contain descriptions of the culture and daily life of ancient India which can be corroborated from the Jain scriptures, and make the Buddha's time the earliest period in Indian history for which significant accounts exist.[60] British author Karen Armstrong writes that although there is very little information that can be considered historically sound, we can be reasonably confident that Siddhārtha Gautama did exist as a historical figure.[61] Michael Carrithers goes a bit further by stating that the most general outline of "birth, maturity, renunciation, search, awakening and liberation, teaching, death" must be true.[18]

Biography

Conception and birth

Maya's dream of the Birth of Gautama Siddharta

Purported birthplace of Gautama Buddha in Lumbini, Nepal,[note 1] a holy shrine also for many non-Buddhists.[note 8]

 

The Buddhist tradition regards Lumbini, in present-day Nepal to be the birthplace of the Buddha.[62][note 1] He grew up in Kapilavastu.[note 1] The exact site of ancient Kapilavastu is unknown.[63] It may have been either Piprahwa, Uttar Pradesh, present-day India,[42] or Tilaurakot, present-day Nepal.[64] Both places belonged to the Sakya territory, and are located only 15 miles apart from each other.[64]

 

Gautama was born as a Kshatriya,[65][note 9] the son of Śuddhodana, "an elected chief of the Shakya clan",[4] whose capital was Kapilavastu, and who were later annexed by the growing Kingdom of Kosala during the Buddha's lifetime. Gautama was the family name. His mother, Maya (Māyādevī), Suddhodana's wife, was a Koliyan princess. Legend has it that, on the night Siddhartha was conceived, Queen Maya dreamt that a white elephant with six white tusks entered her right side,[67][68] and ten months later[69] Siddhartha was born. As was the Shakya tradition, when his mother Queen Maya became pregnant, she left Kapilvastu for her father's kingdom to give birth. However, her son is said to have been born on the way, at Lumbini, in a garden beneath a sal tree.

 

The day of the Buddha's birth is widely celebrated in Theravada countries as Vesak.[70] Buddha's Birthday is called Buddha Purnima in Nepal, Bangladesh, and India as he is believed to have been born on a full moon day. Various sources hold that the Buddha's mother died at his birth, a few days or seven days later. The infant was given the name Siddhartha (Pāli: Siddhattha), meaning "he who achieves his aim". During the birth celebrations, the hermit seer Asita journeyed from his mountain abode and announced that the child would either become a great king (chakravartin) or a great sadhu.[71] By traditional account,[which?] this occurred after Siddhartha placed his feet in Asita's hair and Asita examined the birthmarks. Suddhodana held a naming ceremony on the fifth day, and invited eight Brahmin scholars to read the future. All gave a dual prediction that the baby would either become a great king or a great holy man.[71] Kondañña, the youngest, and later to be the first arhat other than the Buddha, was reputed to be the only one who unequivocally predicted that Siddhartha would become a Buddha.[72]

 

While later tradition and legend characterized Śuddhodana as a hereditary monarch, the descendant of the Suryavansha (Solar dynasty) of Ikṣvāku (Pāli: Okkāka), many scholars think that Śuddhodana was the elected chief of a tribal confederacy.

 

Early texts suggest that Gautama was not familiar with the dominant religious teachings of his time until he left on his religious quest, which is said to have been motivated by existential concern for the human condition.[73] The state of the Shakya clan was not a monarchy, and seems to have been structured either as an oligarchy, or as a form of republic.[74] The more egalitarian gana-sangha form of government, as a political alternative to the strongly hierarchical kingdoms, may have influenced the development of the śramanic Jain and Buddhist sanghas, where monarchies tended toward Vedic Brahmanism.[75]

Early life and marriage

Departure of Prince Siddhartha

 

Siddhartha was brought up by his mother's younger sister, Maha Pajapati.[76] By tradition, he is said to have been destined by birth to the life of a prince, and had three palaces (for seasonal occupation) built for him. Although more recent scholarship doubts this status, his father, said to be King Śuddhodana, wishing for his son to be a great king, is said to have shielded him from religious teachings and from knowledge of human suffering.

 

When he reached the age of 16, his father reputedly arranged his marriage to a cousin of the same age named Yaśodharā (Pāli: Yasodharā). According to the traditional account,[which?] she gave birth to a son, named Rāhula. Siddhartha is said to have spent 29 years as a prince in Kapilavastu. Although his father ensured that Siddhartha was provided with everything he could want or need, Buddhist scriptures say that the future Buddha felt that material wealth was not life's ultimate goal.[76]

Renunciation and ascetic life

The Victory of Buddha

The "Great Departure" of Siddhartha Gautama, surrounded by a halo, he is accompanied by numerous guards, maithuna loving couples, and devata who have come to pay homage; Gandhara, Kushan period

Prince Siddhartha shaves his hair and becomes an ascetic. Borobudur, 8th century

 

At the age of 29 Siddhartha left his palace to meet his subjects. Despite his father's efforts to hide from him the sick, aged and suffering, Siddhartha was said to have seen an old man. When his charioteer Channa explained to him that all people grew old, the prince went on further trips beyond the palace. On these he encountered a diseased man, a decaying corpse, and an ascetic. These depressed him, and he initially strove to overcome aging, sickness, and death by living the life of an ascetic.[77]

 

Accompanied by Channa and riding his horse Kanthaka, Gautama quit his palace for the life of a mendicant. It's said that, "the horse's hooves were muffled by the gods"[78] to prevent guards from knowing of his departure.

 

Gautama initially went to Rajagaha and began his ascetic life by begging for alms in the street. After King Bimbisara's men recognised Siddhartha and the king learned of his quest, Bimbisara offered Siddhartha the throne. Siddhartha rejected the offer, but promised to visit his kingdom of Magadha first, upon attaining enlightenment.

 

He left Rajagaha and practised under two hermit teachers of yogic meditation.[79][80][81] After mastering the teachings of Alara Kalama (Skr. Ārāḍa Kālāma), he was asked by Kalama to succeed him. However, Gautama felt unsatisfied by the practice, and moved on to become a student of yoga with Udaka Ramaputta (Skr. Udraka Rāmaputra).[82] With him he achieved high levels of meditative consciousness, and was again asked to succeed his teacher. But, once more, he was not satisfied, and again moved on.[83]

 

Siddhartha and a group of five companions led by Kaundinya are then said to have set out to take their austerities even further. They tried to find enlightenment through deprivation of worldly goods, including food, practising self-mortification. After nearly starving himself to death by restricting his food intake to around a leaf or nut per day, he collapsed in a river while bathing and almost drowned. Siddhartha was rescued by a village girl named Sujata and she gave him some payasam (a pudding made from milk and jaggery) after which Siddhartha got back some energy. Siddhartha began to reconsider his path. Then, he remembered a moment in childhood in which he had been watching his father start the season's ploughing. He attained a concentrated and focused state that was blissful and refreshing, the jhāna.

Awakening

The Buddha surrounded by the demons of Māra. Sanskrit palm leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period

See also: Enlightenment in Buddhism

 

According to the early Buddhist texts,[web 14] after realizing that meditative dhyana was the right path to awakening, but that extreme asceticism didn't work, Gautama discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way[web 14]—a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification, or the Noble Eightfold Path, as described in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, which is regarded as the first discourse of the Buddha.[web 14] In a famous incident, after becoming starved and weakened, he is said to have accepted milk and rice pudding from a village girl named Sujata.[web 15] Such was his emaciated appearance that she wrongly believed him to be a spirit that had granted her a wish.[web 15]

 

Following this incident, Gautama was famously seated under a pipal tree—now known as the Bodhi tree—in Bodh Gaya, India, when he vowed never to arise until he had found the truth.[84] Kaundinya and four other companions, believing that he had abandoned his search and become undisciplined, left. After a reputed 49 days of meditation, at the age of 35, he is said to have attained Enlightenment,[84][web 16] and became known as the Buddha or "Awakened One" ("Buddha" is also sometimes translated as "The Enlightened One").

 

According to some sutras of the Pali canon, at the time of his awakening he realized complete insight into the Four Noble Truths, thereby attaining liberation from samsara, the endless cycle of rebirth, suffering and dying again.[85][86][web 17] According to scholars, this story of the awakening and the stress on "liberating insight" is a later development in the Buddhist tradition, where the Buddha may have regarded the practice of dhyana as leading to Nirvana and moksha.[87][88][85][note 10]

 

Nirvana is the extinguishing of the "fires" of desire, hatred, and ignorance, that keep the cycle of suffering and rebirth going.[89] Nirvana is also regarded as the "end of the world", in that no personal identity or boundaries of the mind remain.[citation needed] In such a state, a being is said to possess the Ten Characteristics, belonging to every Buddha.[citation needed]

 

According to a story in the Āyācana Sutta (Samyutta Nikaya VI.1) — a scripture found in the Pāli and other canons — immediately after his awakening, the Buddha debated whether or not he should teach the Dharma to others. He was concerned that humans were so overpowered by ignorance, greed and hatred that they could never recognise the path, which is subtle, deep and hard to grasp. However, in the story, Brahmā Sahampati convinced him, arguing that at least some will understand it. The Buddha relented, and agreed to teach.

Formation of the sangha

Dhamek Stupa in Sârnâth, India, site of the first teaching of the Buddha in which he taught the Four Noble Truths to his first five disciples

 

After his awakening, the Buddha met Taphussa and Bhallika — two merchant brothers from the city of Balkh in what is currently Afghanistan — who became his first lay disciples. It is said that each was given hairs from his head, which are now claimed to be enshrined as relics in the Shwe Dagon Temple in Rangoon, Burma. The Buddha intended to visit Asita, and his former teachers, Alara Kalama and Udaka Ramaputta, to explain his findings, but they had already died.

 

He then travelled to the Deer Park near Varanasi (Benares) in northern India, where he set in motion what Buddhists call the Wheel of Dharma by delivering his first sermon to the five companions with whom he had sought enlightenment. Together with him, they formed the first saṅgha: the company of Buddhist monks.

 

All five become arahants, and within the first two months, with the conversion of Yasa and fifty four of his friends, the number of such arahants is said to have grown to 60. The conversion of three brothers named Kassapa followed, with their reputed 200, 300 and 500 disciples, respectively. This swelled the sangha to more than 1,000.

Travels and teaching

Buddha with his protector Vajrapani, Gandhāra, 2nd century CE, Ostasiatische Kunst Museum

 

For the remaining 45 years of his life, the Buddha is said to have traveled in the Gangetic Plain, in what is now Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and southern Nepal, teaching a diverse range of people: from nobles to servants, murderers such as Angulimala, and cannibals such as Alavaka.[90] Although the Buddha's language remains unknown, it's likely that he taught in one or more of a variety of closely related Middle Indo-Aryan dialects, of which Pali may be a standardization.

 

The sangha traveled through the subcontinent, expounding the dharma. This continued throughout the year, except during the four months of the Vāsanā rainy season when ascetics of all religions rarely traveled. One reason was that it was more difficult to do so without causing harm to animal life. At this time of year, the sangha would retreat to monasteries, public parks or forests, where people would come to them.

A view of Vulture Peak, where the Atanatiya Sutta was held

 

The first vassana was spent at Varanasi when the sangha was formed. After this, the Buddha kept a promise to travel to Rajagaha, capital of Magadha, to visit King Bimbisara. During this visit, Sariputta and Maudgalyayana were converted by Assaji, one of the first five disciples, after which they were to become the Buddha's two foremost followers. The Buddha spent the next three seasons at Veluvana Bamboo Grove monastery in Rajagaha, capital of Magadha.

 

Upon hearing of his son's awakening, Suddhodana sent, over a period, ten delegations to ask him to return to Kapilavastu. On the first nine occasions, the delegates failed to deliver the message, and instead joined the sangha to become arahants. The tenth delegation, led by Kaludayi, a childhood friend of Gautama's (who also became an arahant), however, delivered the message.

 

Now two years after his awakening, the Buddha agreed to return, and made a two-month journey by foot to Kapilavastu, teaching the dharma as he went. At his return, the royal palace prepared a midday meal, but the sangha was making an alms round in Kapilavastu. Hearing this, Suddhodana approached his son, the Buddha, saying:

 

"Ours is the warrior lineage of Mahamassata, and not a single warrior has gone seeking alms."

 

The Buddha is said to have replied:

 

"That is not the custom of your royal lineage. But it is the custom of my Buddha lineage. Several thousands of Buddhas have gone by seeking alms."

 

Buddhist texts say that Suddhodana invited the sangha into the palace for the meal, followed by a dharma talk. After this he is said to have become a sotapanna. During the visit, many members of the royal family joined the sangha. The Buddha's cousins Ananda and Anuruddha became two of his five chief disciples. At the age of seven, his son Rahula also joined, and became one of his ten chief disciples. His half-brother Nanda also joined and became an arahant.

 

Of the Buddha's disciples, Sariputta, Maudgalyayana, Mahakasyapa, Ananda and Anuruddha are believed to have been the five closest to him. His ten foremost disciples were reputedly completed by the quintet of Upali, Subhoti, Rahula, Mahakaccana and Punna.

 

In the fifth vassana, the Buddha was staying at Mahavana near Vesali when he heard news of the impending death of his father. He is said to have gone to Suddhodana and taught the dharma, after which his father became an arahant.

The last days of buddha teachings

 

The king's death and cremation was to inspire the creation of an order of nuns. Buddhist texts record that the Buddha was reluctant to ordain women. His foster mother Maha Pajapati, for example, approached him, asking to join the sangha, but he refused. Maha Pajapati, however, was so intent on the path of awakening that she led a group of royal Sakyan and Koliyan ladies, which followed the sangha on a long journey to Rajagaha. In time, after Ananda championed their cause, the Buddha is said to have reconsidered and, five years after the formation of the sangha, agreed to the ordination of women as nuns. He reasoned that males and females had an equal capacity for awakening. But he gave women additional rules (Vinaya) to follow.

Mahaparinirvana

The Buddha's entry into Parinirvana. Sanskrit palm leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period

Buddha's cremation stupa, Kushinagar (Kushinara).

The sharing of the relics of the Buddha, Zenyōmitsu-Temple Museum, Tokyo

 

According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Pali canon, at the age of 80, the Buddha announced that he would soon reach Parinirvana, or the final deathless state, and abandon his earthly body. After this, the Buddha ate his last meal, which he had received as an offering from a blacksmith named Cunda. Falling violently ill, Buddha instructed his attendant Ānanda to convince Cunda that the meal eaten at his place had nothing to do with his passing and that his meal would be a source of the greatest merit as it provided the last meal for a Buddha.[web 18] Mettanando and Von Hinüber argue that the Buddha died of mesenteric infarction, a symptom of old age, rather than food poisoning.[91][web 19]

 

The precise contents of the Buddha's final meal are not clear, due to variant scriptural traditions and ambiguity over the translation of certain significant terms; the Theravada tradition generally believes that the Buddha was offered some kind of pork, while the Mahayana tradition believes that the Buddha consumed some sort of truffle or other mushroom. These may reflect the different traditional views on Buddhist vegetarianism and the precepts for monks and nuns.

 

Waley suggests that Theravadin's would take suukaramaddava (the contents of the Buddha's last meal), which can translate literally as pig-soft, to mean "soft flesh of a pig". However, he also states that pig-soft could mean "pig's soft-food", that is, after Neumann, a soft food favoured by pigs, assumed to be a truffle. He argues (also after Neumann) that as "(p)lant names tend to be local and dialectical", as there are several plants known to have suukara- (pig) as part of their names,[note 11] and as Pali Buddhism developed in an area remote from the Buddha's death, suukaramaddava could easily have been a type of plant whose local name was unknown to those in Pali regions. Specifically, local writers writing soon after the Buddha's death knew more about their flora than Theravadin commentator Buddhaghosa who lived hundreds of years and hundreds of kilometres remote in time and space from the events described. Unaware that it may have been a local plant name and with no Theravadin prohibition against eating animal flesh, Theravadins would not have questioned the Buddha eating meat and interpreted the term accordingly.[92]

 

Ananda protested the Buddha's decision to enter Parinirvana in the abandoned jungles of Kuśināra (present-day Kushinagar, India) of the Malla kingdom. The Buddha, however, is said to have reminded Ananda how Kushinara was a land once ruled by a righteous wheel-turning king that resounded with joy:

 

44. Kusavati, Ananda, resounded unceasingly day and night with ten sounds—the trumpeting of elephants, the neighing of horses, the rattling of chariots, the beating of drums and tabours, music and song, cheers, the clapping of hands, and cries of "Eat, drink, and be merry!"

 

The Buddha then asked all the attendant Bhikkhus to clarify any doubts or questions they had and cleared them all in a way which others could not do. They had none. According to Buddhist scriptures, he then finally entered Parinirvana. The Buddha's final words are reported to have been: "All composite things (Saṅkhāra) are perishable. Strive for your own liberation with diligence" (Pali: 'vayadhammā saṅkhārā appamādena sampādethā'). His body was cremated and the relics were placed in monuments or stupas, some of which are believed to have survived until the present. For example, The Temple of the Tooth or "Dalada Maligawa" in Sri Lanka is the place where what some believe to be the relic of the right tooth of Buddha is kept at present.

Life scenes of Buddha, sand stone: Birth, Enlightenment, Descent from Heaven, First Sermon, Passing Away, c. 2nd Century CE, Government Museum, Mathura.

 

According to the Pāli historical chronicles of Sri Lanka, the Dīpavaṃsa and Mahāvaṃsa, the coronation of Emperor Aśoka (Pāli: Asoka) is 218 years after the death of the Buddha. According to two textual records in Chinese (十八部論 and 部執異論), the coronation of Emperor Aśoka is 116 years after the death of the Buddha. Therefore, the time of Buddha's passing is either 486 BCE according to Theravāda record or 383 BCE according to Mahayana record. However, the actual date traditionally accepted as the date of the Buddha's death in Theravāda countries is 544 or 545 BCE, because the reign of Emperor Aśoka was traditionally reckoned to be about 60 years earlier than current estimates. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, the date of the Buddha's death is 13 May 544 BCE.[93] whereas in Thai tradition it is 11 March 545 BCE.[94]

 

At his death, the Buddha is famously believed to have told his disciples to follow no leader. Mahakasyapa was chosen by the sangha to be the chairman of the First Buddhist Council, with the two chief disciples Maudgalyayana and Sariputta having died before the Buddha.

Hair Relics of Buddha on display at Gangaramaya Temple (Colombo).

 

While in the Buddha's days he was addressed by the very respected titles Buddha, Shākyamuni, Shākyasimha, Bhante and Bho, he was known after his parinirvana as Arihant, Bhagavā/Bhagavat/Bhagwān, Mahāvira,[95] Jina/Jinendra, Sāstr, Sugata, and most popularly in scriptures as Tathāgata.

Location of Gautama Buddha's death and parinirvana

 

In 1896, Waddell suggested that the site of the death and parinirvana of Gautama Buddha was in the region of Rampurva.[96] However, according to Maha-parinirvana Sutta, the Buddha made his journey to Kushinagar, died there and wherein he was cremated.[97] Modern scholarship, based on archaeological evidence, believes that the Buddha died in Kushinagar, close to the modern Kasia (Uttar Pradesh).[98][99][100]

 

Ashoka built a stupa and pilgrimage center to mark Buddha's parinirvana in Kushinagara, but the site entered its golden period, during the Hindu kings of Gupta dynasty period (4th to 7th century CE), when they helped greatly enlarge the Nirvana stupa and Kushinagar site, built a temple with reclining Buddha and thereafter Buddhist monasteries flourished. This site was abandoned by Buddhist monks around 1200 CE, who flee to escape the invading Muslim army, after which the site decayed over the Islamic rule in India that followed. The British archaeologist Alexander Cunningham rediscovered Kushinagara in late 19th-century,[101] and the site has since then become an important pilgrimage site for Buddhists.[97][102] Archaeological evidence from the 3rd century BCE suggests that the Kushinagara site was an ancient pilgrimage site.[97]

Relics

See also: Śarīra and Relics associated with Buddha

 

After his death, Buddha's cremation relics were divided amongst 8 royal families and his disciples; centuries later they would be enshrined by King Ashoka into 84,000 stupas.[web 20][103] Many supernatural legends surround the history of alleged relics as they accompanied the spread of Buddhism and gave legitimacy to rulers.

Physical characteristics

Main article: Physical characteristics of the Buddha

Gandhāran depiction of the Buddha from Hadda, Afghanistan; Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

 

An extensive and colorful physical description of the Buddha has been laid down in scriptures. A kshatriya by birth, he had military training in his upbringing, and by Shakyan tradition was required to pass tests to demonstrate his worthiness as a warrior in order to marry.[citation needed] He had a strong enough body to be noticed by one of the kings and was asked to join his army as a general.[citation needed] He is also believed by Buddhists to have "the 32 Signs of the Great Man".

 

The Brahmin Sonadanda described him as "handsome, good-looking, and pleasing to the eye, with a most beautiful complexion. He has a godlike form and countenance, he is by no means unattractive." (D, I:115)

 

"It is wonderful, truly marvellous, how serene is the good Gotama's appearance, how clear and radiant his complexion, just as the golden jujube in autumn is clear and radiant, just as a palm-tree fruit just loosened from the stalk is clear and radiant, just as an adornment of red gold wrought in a crucible by a skilled goldsmith, deftly beaten and laid on a yellow-cloth shines, blazes and glitters, even so, the good Gotama's senses are calmed, his complexion is clear and radiant." (A, I:181)

 

A disciple named Vakkali, who later became an arahant, was so obsessed by the Buddha's physical presence that the Buddha is said to have felt impelled to tell him to desist, and to have reminded him that he should know the Buddha through the Dhamma and not through physical appearances.

 

Although there are no extant representations of the Buddha in human form until around the 1st century CE (see Buddhist art), descriptions of the physical characteristics of fully enlightened buddhas are attributed to the Buddha in the Digha Nikaya's Lakkhaṇa Sutta (D, I:142).[104] In addition, the Buddha's physical appearance is described by Yasodhara to their son Rahula upon the Buddha's first post-Enlightenment return to his former princely palace in the non-canonical Pali devotional hymn, Narasīha Gāthā ("The Lion of Men").[web 21]

 

Among the 32 main characteristics it is mentioned that Buddha has blue eyes.[105]

Nine virtues

 

Recollection of nine virtues attributed to the Buddha is a common Buddhist meditation and devotional practice called Buddhānusmṛti. The nine virtues are also among the 40 Buddhist meditation subjects. The nine virtues of the Buddha appear throughout the Tipitaka,[web 22] and include:

 

Buddho – Awakened

Sammasambuddho – Perfectly self-awakened

Vijja-carana-sampano – Endowed with higher knowledge and ideal conduct.

Sugato – Well-gone or Well-spoken.

Lokavidu – Wise in the knowledge of the many worlds.

Anuttaro Purisa-damma-sarathi – Unexcelled trainer of untrained people.

Satthadeva-Manussanam – Teacher of gods and humans.

Bhagavathi – The Blessed one

Araham – Worthy of homage. An Arahant is "one with taints destroyed, who has lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and is completely liberated through final knowledge."

 

Teachings

Lord Buddha at Pandavleni Caves, Nashik.

Main article: Buddhist philosophy

Use of Brahmanical motifs

 

In the Pali Canon, the Buddha uses many Brahmanical devices. For example, in Samyutta Nikaya 111, Majjhima Nikaya 92 and Vinaya i 246 of the Pali Canon, the Buddha praises the Agnihotra as the foremost sacrifice and the Gayatri mantra as the foremost meter:

 

aggihuttamukhā yaññā sāvittī chandaso mukham.

 

Sacrifices have the agnihotra as foremost; of meter the foremost is the Sāvitrī.[106]

 

Paralleling Brahmanical developments, the Buddha used the language of the three-fire Śrauta system to shift the emphasis of practice to inner purity and sacrifice, instead of outer purity and sacrifice.[107]

Tracing the oldest teachings

 

Information of the oldest teachings may be obtained by analysis of the oldest texts. One method to obtain information on the oldest core of Buddhism is to compare the oldest extant versions of the Theravadin Pali Canon and other texts.[note 12] The reliability of these sources, and the possibility to draw out a core of oldest teachings, is a matter of dispute.[110][111][112][113] According to Vetter, inconsistencies remain, and other methods must be applied to resolve those inconsistencies.[108][note 13]

 

According to Schmithausen, three positions held by scholars of Buddhism can be distinguished:[117]

 

"Stress on the fundamental homogeneity and substantial authenticity of at least a considerable part of the Nikayic materials;"[note 14][note 15], from the oldest extant texts a common kernel can be drawn out.[118] According to Warder, c.q. his publisher: "This kernel of doctrine is presumably common Buddhism of the period before the great schisms of the fourth and third centuries BC. It may be substantially the Buddhism of the Buddha himself, although this cannot be proved: at any rate it is a Buddhism presupposed by the schools as existing about a hundred years after the parinirvana of the Buddha, and there is no evidence to suggest that it was formulated by anyone else than the Buddha and his immediate followers."[118] and Richard Gombrich.[119] Richard Gombrich: "I have the greatest difficulty in accepting that the main edifice is not the work of a single genius. By "the main edifice" I mean the collections of the main body of sermons, the four Nikāyas, and of the main body of monastic rules."[113]

"Scepticism with regard to the possibility of retrieving the doctrine of earliest Buddhism;"[note 16][note 17]

"Cautious optimism in this respect."[note 18]

 

Dhyana and insight

 

A core problem in the study of early Buddhism is the relation between dhyana and insight.[111][110][113] Schmithausen, in his often-cited article On some Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of 'Liberating Insight' and 'Enlightenment' in Early Buddhism notes that the mention of the four noble truths as constituting "liberating insight", which is attained after mastering the Rupa Jhanas, is a later addition to texts such as Majjhima Nikaya 36.[114][110][111]

Earliest Buddhism

Main article: Presectarian Buddhism

 

According to Tilmann Vetter, the core of earliest Buddhism is the practice of dhyāna,[124] as a workable alternative to painful ascetic practices.[125][note 19] Bronkhorst agrees that Dhyāna was a Buddhist invention,[110][page needed] whereas Norman notes that "the Buddha's way to release [...] was by means of meditative practices."[127] Discriminating insight into transiency as a separate path to liberation was a later development.[128][129]

 

According to the Mahāsaccakasutta,[note 20] from the fourth jhana the Buddha gained bodhi. Yet, it is not clear what he was awakened to.[127][110][page needed] According to Schmithausen and Bronkhorst, "liberating insight" is a later addition to this text, and reflects a later development and understanding in early Buddhism.[114][110][page needed] The mentioning of the four truths as constituting "liberating insight" introduces a logical problem, since the four truths depict a linear path of practice, the knowledge of which is in itself not depicted as being liberating:[130]

 

[T]hey do not teach that one is released by knowing the four noble truths, but by practicing the fourth noble truth, the eightfold path, which culminates in right samadhi.[130]

 

Although "Nibbāna" (Sanskrit: Nirvāna) is the common term for the desired goal of this practice, many other terms can be found throughout the Nikayas, which are not specified.[131][note 21]

 

According to Vetter, the description of the Buddhist path may initially have been as simple as the term "the middle way".[132] In time, this short description was elaborated, resulting in the description of the eightfold path.[132]

 

According to both Bronkhorst and Anderson, the four truths became a substitution for prajna, or "liberating insight", in the suttas[88][85][page needed] in those texts where "liberating insight" was preceded by the four jhanas.[133] According to Bronkhorst, the four truths may not have been formulated in earliest Buddhism, and did not serve in earliest Buddhism as a description of "liberating insight".[134] Gotama's teachings may have been personal, "adjusted to the need of each person."[133]

 

The three marks of existence[note 22] may reflect Upanishadic or other influences. K.R. Norman supposes that these terms were already in use at the Buddha's time, and were familiar to his listeners.[135]

 

The Brahma-vihara was in origin probably a brahmanic term;[136] but its usage may have been common to the Sramana traditions.[110]

Later developments

 

In time, "liberating insight" became an essential feature of the Buddhist tradition. The following teachings, which are commonly seen as essential to Buddhism, are later formulations which form part of the explanatory framework of this "liberating insight":[111][110]

 

The Four Noble Truths: that suffering is an ingrained part of existence; that the origin of suffering is craving for sensuality, acquisition of identity, and fear of annihilation; that suffering can be ended; and that following the Noble Eightfold Path is the means to accomplish this;

The Noble Eightfold Path: right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration;

Dependent origination: the mind creates suffering as a natural product of a complex process.

 

Other religions

Buddha depicted as the 9th avatar of god Vishnu in a traditional Hindu representation

Main article: Gautama Buddha in world religions

 

Buddha's teachings deny the authority of the Vedas[137] and consequently [at least atheistic] Buddhism is generally viewed as a nāstika school (heterodox, literally "It is not so"[note 23]) from the perspective of orthodox Hinduism.[138][139]

 

Some Hindus regard Gautama as the 9th avatar of Vishnu.[note 8][140] The Buddha is also regarded as a prophet by the Shia Islam[141] Ahmadiyya Muslims [web 23][web 24][web 25] and a Manifestation of God in the Bahá'í Faith.[142] Some early Chinese Taoist-Buddhists thought the Buddha to be a reincarnation of Lao Tzu.[143]

Vietnam

 

Disciples of the Cao Đài religion worship the Buddha as a major religious teacher.[144] His image can be found in both their Holy See and on the home altar. He is revealed during communication with Divine Beings as son of their Supreme Being (God the Father) together with other major religious teachers and founders like Jesus, Laozi, and Confucius.[145]

Western world

 

The Christian Saint Josaphat is based on the Buddha. The name comes from the Sanskrit Bodhisattva via Arabic Būdhasaf and Georgian Iodasaph.[146] The only story in which St. Josaphat appears, Barlaam and Josaphat, is based on the life of the Buddha.[147] Josaphat was included in earlier editions of the Roman Martyrology (feast day 27 November) — though not in the Roman Missal — and in the Eastern Orthodox Church liturgical calendar (26 August).

 

In the ancient Gnostic sect of Manichaeism, the Buddha is listed among the prophets who preached the word of God before Mani.[148]

Depiction in arts and media

 

Films

 

Main article: Depictions of Gautama Buddha in film

 

Little Buddha, a 1994 film by Bernardo Bertolucci

Prem Sanyas, a 1925 silent film, directed by Franz Osten and Himansu Rai

 

Television

 

Buddha, a 2013 mythological drama on Zee TV

 

Literature

 

The Light of Asia, an 1879 epic poem by Edwin Arnold

Buddha, a manga series that ran from 1972 to 1983 by Osamu Tezuka

Siddhartha novel by Hermann Hesse, written in German in 1922

Lord of Light, a novel by Roger Zelazny depicts a man in a far future Earth Colony who takes on the name and teachings of the Budda

 

Music

 

Karuna Nadee, a 2010 oratorio by Dinesh Subasinghe

The Light of Asia, an 1886 oratorio by Dudley Buck

 

A panorama of scenes from the Buddha's life, from a Burmese parabaik or picture book

Notes

 

According to the Buddhist tradition, following the Nidanakatha,[web 7] the introductory to the Jataka tales, the stories of the former lives of the Buddha, Gautama was born in Lumbini, present-day Nepal.[web 8][web 9] In the mid-3rd century BCE the Emperor Ashoka determined that Lumbini was Gautama's birthplace and thus installed a pillar there with the inscription: "...this is where the Buddha, sage of the Śākyas (Śākyamuni), was born."[34]

 

Based on stone inscriptions, there is also speculation that Lumbei, Kapileswar village, Odisha, at the east coast of India, was the site of ancient Lumbini.[35][36][37] Hartmann discusses the hypothesis and states, "The inscription has generally been considered spurious (...)"[38] He quotes Sircar: "There can hardly be any doubt that the people responsible for the Kapilesvara inscription copied it from the said facsimile not much earlier than 1928."

 

Kapilavastu was the place where he grew up:[39][b]

 

Warder: "The Buddha [...] was born in the Sakya Republic, which was the city state of Kapilavastu, a very small state just inside the modern state boundary of Nepal against the Northern Indian frontier.[4]

Walsh: "He belonged to the Sakya clan dwelling on the edge of the Himalayas, his actual birthplace being a few miles north of the present-day Northern Indian border, in Nepal. His father was in fact an elected chief of the clan rather than the king he was later made out to be, though his title was raja – a term which only partly corresponds to our word 'king'. Some of the states of North India at that time were kingdoms and others republics, and the Sakyan republic was subject to the powerful king of neighbouring Kosala, which lay to the south".[41]

The exact location of ancient Kapilavastu is unknown.[39] It may have been either Piprahwa in Uttar Pradesh, northern India,[42][43][44] or Tilaurakot,[45] present-day Nepal.[46][39] The two cities are located only fifteen miles from each other.[46]

 

See also Conception and birth and Birthplace Sources

According to Mahaparinibbana Sutta,[web 1] Gautama died in Kushinagar, which is located in present day Uttar Pradesh, India.

Baroni: "The sage of the Shakya people"[3]

 

411–400: Dundas 2002, p. 24: "...as is now almost universally accepted by informed Indological scholarship, a re-examination of early Buddhist historical material, [...], necessitates a redating of the Buddha's death to between 411 and 400 BCE..."

405: Richard Gombrich[26][27][28][29]

Around 400: See the consensus in the essays by leading scholars in Narain, Awadh Kishore, ed. (2003), The Date of the Historical Śākyamuni Buddha, New Delhi: BR Publishing, ISBN 81-7646-353-1.

According to Pali scholar K. R. Norman, a life span for the Buddha of c. 480 to 400 BCE (and his teaching period roughly from c. 445 to 400 BCE) "fits the archaeological evidence better".[2] See also Notes on the Dates of the Buddha Íåkyamuni.

 

According to Alexander Berzin, "Buddhism developed as a shramana school that accepted rebirth under the force of karma, while rejecting the existence of the type of soul that other schools asserted. In addition, the Buddha accepted as parts of the path to liberation the use of logic and reasoning, as well as ethical behavior, but not to the degree of Jain asceticism. In this way, Buddhism avoided the extremes of the previous four shramana schools."[web 3]

In 2013, archaeologist Robert Coningham found the remains of a Bodhigara, a tree shrine, dated to 550 BCE at the Maya Devi Temple, Lumbini, speculating that it may possible be a Buddhist shrine. If so, this may push back the Buddha's birth date.[web 4] Archaeologists caution that the shrine may represent pre-Buddhist tree worship, and that further research is needed.[web 4]

Richard Gombrich has dismissed Coningham's speculations as "a fantasy", noting that Coningham lacks the necessary expertise on the history of early Buddhism.[web 5]

Geoffrey Samuels notes that several locations of both early Buddhism and Jainism are closely related to Yaksha-worship, that several Yakshas were "converted" to Buddhism, a well-known example being Vajrapani,[a] and that several Yaksha-shrines, where trees were worshipped, were converted into Buddhist holy places.[32]

Minor Rock Edict Nb3: "These Dhamma texts – Extracts from the Discipline, the Noble Way of Life, the Fears to Come, the Poem on the Silent Sage, the Discourse on the Pure Life, Upatisa's Questions, and the Advice to Rahula which was spoken by the Buddha concerning false speech – these Dhamma texts, reverend sirs, I desire that all the monks and nuns may constantly listen to and remember. Likewise the laymen and laywomen."[47]

 

Dhammika:"There is disagreement amongst scholars concerning which Pali suttas correspond to some of the text. Vinaya samukose: probably the Atthavasa Vagga, Anguttara Nikaya, 1:98-100. Aliya vasani: either the Ariyavasa Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya, V:29, or the Ariyavamsa Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya, II: 27-28. Anagata bhayani: probably the Anagata Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya, III:100. Muni gatha: Muni Sutta, Sutta Nipata 207-221. Upatisa pasine: Sariputta Sutta, Sutta Nipata 955-975. Laghulavade: Rahulavada Sutta, Majjhima Nikaya, I:421."[47]

Kumar Singh, Nagendra (1997). "Buddha as depicted in the Purāṇas". Encyclopaedia of Hinduism 7. Anmol Publications. pp. 260–75. ISBN 978-81-7488-168-7. Retrieved 16 April 2012.

According to Geoffrey Samuel, the Buddha was born as a Kshatriya,[65] in a moderate Vedic culture at the central Ganges Plain area, where the shramana-traditions developed. This area had a moderate Vedic culture, where the kshatriyas were the highest varna, in contrast to the Brahmanic ideology of Kuru-Panchala, were the Brahmins had become the highest varna.[65] Both the Vedic culture and the shramana tradition contributed to the emergence of the so-called "Hindu-synthesis" around the start of the Common Era.[66][65]

Scholars have noted inconsistencies in the presentations of the Buddha's enlightenment, and the Buddhist path to liberation, in the oldest sutras. These inconsistencies show that the Buddhist teachings evolved, either during the lifetime of the Buddha, or there-after.See:

* Andre Bareau (1963), Recherches sur la biographiedu Buddha dans les Sutrapitaka et les Vinayapitaka anciens, Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient

* Schmithausen, On some Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of 'Liberating Insight' and 'Enlightenment' in Early Buddhism

* K.R. Norman, Four Noble Truths

* Tilman Vetter, The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, by Tilmann Vetter

* Richard F. Gombrich (2006). How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-19639-5., chapter four

* Bronkhorst, Johannes (1993), The Two Traditions Of Meditation In Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, chapter 7

* Anderson, Carol (1999), Pain and Its Ending: The Four Noble Truths in the Theravada Buddhist Canon, Routledge

Waley notes: suukara-kanda, "pig-bulb"; suukara-paadika, "pig's foot" and sukaresh.ta "sought-out by pigs". He cites Neumann's suggestion that if a plant called "sought-out by pigs" exists then suukaramaddava can mean "pig's delight".

The surviving portions of the scriptures of Sarvastivada, Mulasarvastivada, Mahisasaka, Dharmaguptaka and other schools,[108][109] and the Chinese Agamas and other surviving portions of other early canons.[citation needed]

Exemplary studies are the study on descriptions of "liberating insight" by Lambert Schmithausen,[114] the overview of early Buddhism by Tilmann Vetter,[111] the philological work on the four truths by K.R. Norman,[115] the textual studies by Richard Gombrich,[113] and the research on early meditation methods by Johannes Bronkhorst.[116]

Well-known proponents of the first position are A.K. Warder

According to A.K. Warder, in his 1970 publication "Indian Buddhism"

A proponent of the second position is Ronald Davidson.

Ronald Davidson: "While most scholars agree that there was a rough body of sacred literature (disputed)(sic) that a relatively early community (disputed)(sic) maintained and transmitted, we have little confidence that much, if any, of surviving Buddhist scripture is actually the word of the historic Buddha."[120]

Well-known proponent of the third position are:

* J.W. de Jong: "It would be hypocritical to assert that nothing can be said about the doctrine of earliest Buddhism [...] the basic ideas of Buddhism found in the canonical writings could very well have been proclaimed by him [the Buddha], transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas."[121]

* Johannes Bronkhorst: "This position is to be preferred to (ii) for purely methodological reasons: only those who seek may find, even if no success is guaranteed."[122]

* Donald Lopez: "The original teachings of the historical Buddha are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to recover or reconstruct."[123]

Vetter: "However, if we look at the last, and in my opinion the most important, component of this list [the noble eightfold path], we are still dealing with what according to me is the real content of the middle way, dhyana-meditation, at least the stages two to four, which are said to be free of contemplation and reflection. Everything preceding the eighth part, i.e. right samadhi, apparently has the function of preparing for the right samadhi."[126]

Majjhima Nikaya 36

Vetter: "I am especially thinking here of MN 26 (I p.163,32; 165,15;166,35) kimkusalagavesi anuttaram santivarapadam pariyesamano (searching for that which is beneficial, seeking the unsurpassable, best place of peace) and again MN 26 (passim), anuttaramyagakkhemam nibbiinam pariyesati (he seeks the unsurpassable safe place, the nirvana). Anuppatta-sadattho (one who has reached the right goal) is also a vague positive expression in the Arhatformula in MN 35 (I p, 235), see chapter 2, footnote 3, Furthermore, satthi (welfare) is important in e.g. SN 2.12 or 2.17 or Sn 269; and sukha and rati (happiness), in contrast to other places, as used in Sn 439 and 956. The oldest term was perhaps amata (immortal, immortality) [...] but one could say here that it is a negative term."[131]

Understanding of these marks helps in the development of detachment:

 

Anicca (Sanskrit: anitya): That all things that come to be have an end;

Dukkha (Sanskrit: duḥkha): That nothing which comes to be is ultimately satisfying;

Anattā (Sanskrit: anātman): That nothing in the realm of experience can really be said to be "I" or "mine".

 

"in Sanskrit philosophical literature, 'āstika' means 'one who believes in the authority of the Vedas' or 'one who believes in life after death'. ('nāstika' means the opposite of these). The word is used here in the first sense." Satischandra Chatterjee and Dhirendramohan Datta. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Eighth Reprint Edition. (University of Calcutta: 1984). p. 5, footnote 1.

 

See "Ambattha Sutta", Digha Nikaya 3, where Vajrapani frightens an arrogant young Brahman, and the superiority of Kshatriyas over Brahmins is established.[web 6]

Some sources mention Kapilavastu as the birthplace of the Buddha. Gethin states: "The earliest Buddhist sources state that the future Buddha was born Siddhārtha Gautama (Pali Siddhattha Gotama), the son of a local chieftain — a rājan — in Kapilavastu (Pali Kapilavatthu) what is now the Indian–Nepalese border."[40] Gethin does not give references for this statement.

We played the playstation 2 game, Worms; a late night at Moa's.

 

Published in:

DN kultur, Söndag 6 juli

Fotosidan.se

Cap & Design webedtion

Photo Book about Sweden

photo of left side of oil painting that is now looking even better in my opinion, i don't want to talk about this painting about 2ft. X 6ft. long ( where on the other side a boathouse and a woman bathing ) because i am too depressed at the moment.

 

When i look at this painting and read David Bohm, Paul Cezanne and Creativity, it seems to fit like a glove...

www.fdavidpeat.com/bibliography/essays/edinb.htm

 

"Cezanne said something very similar to Bohm:

 

The Landscape becomes reflective, human and thinks itself though me. I make it an object, let it project itself and endure within my painting....I become the subjective consciousness of the landscape, and my painting becomes its objective consciousness."

 

"I am becoming more lucid before nature, but always with me the realization of my sensations is always painful. I cannot attain the intensity that is unfolded before my senses.... Here on the bank of the river the motifs multiply, the same subject seen from a different angle offers subject for study of the most powerful interest and so varied that I think I could occupy myself for months without changing place by turning now more to the right, now more to the left."

 

I admire Cezanne of course he was lucky to have received a large inheritance from his father, on which he could continue living comfortably.

Few artists are so lucky so...

If anyone is interested in acquiring this painting or any work presented in the net just contact below or by e-mail my agent simao@hotmail.com

Instead i will talk about how

 

Friday the 17th of November 2006 in Montreal the temperature is unusually warm and ....

 

"Canada has once again been embarrassed on the international stage by Environment Minister Rona Ambrose, according to NDP Environment Critic Nathan Cullen."

www.ndp.ca/page/4562

 

and...

 

"The need for a Green Party voice in Parliament is more urgent than ever before. Make History: Elect Elizabeth

 

The one million Canadians who say they have decided to vote Green in the next federal election deserve a voice in Parliament "

www.greenparty.ca/

 

"murky water showed up in the water supply in the aftermath of the powerful storm that hit B.C.'s south coast this week."

www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2006/11/17/boil-...

 

"About 32,000 B.C. homes and businesses from Vancouver Island to Chilliwack were still without power Friday in the aftermath of the huge storm that hammered the South Coast on Wednesday."

www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2006/11/17/bc-hy...

 

"Are the NDP's emission-reduction demands achievable? Absolutely, and Jack Layton released a 5-point plan to prove it. "

www.ndp.ca/endp/archives/endp-2006-11-17-en.html

 

as for the 'Greener Homes Strategy' i never understood why there are few skylights in top floors and so much useless roof space in all buildings... not counting on the sunny days for energy too much but what about the wind ? Montreal is a very windy city i find, the worst thing about living in a building controlled by the Ville de Montreal is "stay out of the roof" politics, i can say that a big surprise for me too was to see how energy expensive my Housing Coop is becoming and why so many residential buildings always have some walls with no windows even if there is no possible construction next to it ?

"Requiring that all appliances and lighting sold in Canada meet the Energy Star standards; and" WHAT ABOUT SOLAR POWERED CHRISTMAS DECORATIONS LIGHTS ?

www.ndp.ca/page/3819

 

"The Greener Communities Strategy consists of the following proposals:

Install 100,000 solar thermal building systems (rooftops or walls), as is done in Sweden, with a federal grant for 50 per cent of the material costs and loans for the remainder. This is a crucial step in reducing energy costs for both commercial and residential building owners, and assisting in the introduction of new solar technology."

GOOD IDEA but SHUT THE (ALL NIGHT LIGHTS) OUT FOR NOW IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS , ( schools, libraries ect...) there are less expensive ways to keep the thieves, the burglars out ?

www.ndp.ca/page/3825

 

"The third component of the Agenda is a 'Greener Transportation Strategy' which includes the following proposals:"

THIS ONE SHOULD BE # 1 ON THE LIST

"Bring in mandatory vehicle emission standards, for all vehicles sold in Canada. This initiative would see Canada join with California and the New England states whose standards have achieved an average of 25 per cent reduction to light-duty vehicle emissions."

AND # 2 HOW LATE WILL IT TAKE FOR real investment in the production of green cars ? WILL WE HAVE TO IMPORT ALL THE TIME ?

www.ndp.ca/page/3838

 

Greener Industry Strategy’ which includes the following proposals:

# 1 FOR ME IS "Stop tilting the marketplace towards unsustainable energy and, over four years, stop government subsidies and tax breaks for unsustainable energy." MAKE IT ILLEGAL

HOW CAN GOVERNMENT BE SO AUTHORITARIAN WITH TOBACCO SMOKERS AND INDIFFERENT TO POISONOUS large industrial companies THAT PROBABLY CAUSE MORE DEATHS AND HEALTH COSTS THAN WARS ?

www.ndp.ca/page/3847

 

IT IS SO SAD THAT IN 2006 WE ARE NOT THERE YET INSTEAD WE ARE PROPOSING...

"the Agenda is a ‘Greener Canada and World Strategy’ comprised of the following proposals:

www.ndp.ca/page/3855

WHY ARE WE GOING SO FAST INTO A SLOW SUICIDE

BY REFUSING CHANGE ? as we watch everyone in the north die...

"Melting Planet: Species are Dying Out Faster Than We Have Dared Recognize, Scientists Will Warn This Week

The erosion of polar ice is the first break in a fragile chain of life extending across the planet, from bears in the north to penguins in the far south

by Andrew Buncombe in Anchorage and Severin Carrell in London

www.commondreams.org/headlines05/1002-04.htm

 

i don't need Steven Weinberg to explain to me the nature of the dark energy i just got a registered letter today from my Housing COOP to better explain it to me i had to speak with my lawyer....and he agrees that " these gravitational waves are weaker than predicted."

 

" There could be aliens right here, under our noses." THEY SAY IT IS I , BUT I SAY IT IS THEM...

www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/science-forecasts/mg...

 

"But the development of connections between nerve cells in the brain may still be out of reach."

GOOD ! LET'S KEEP IT THAT WAY ! I WILL DIE IN PEACE KNOWING THAT Lewis Wolpert WILL NEVER UNDERSTAND OUR Brilliant Minds

 

"and we probably don't want to put a human brain in an animal body." ? ACTUALLY BECAUSE ANIMALS DON'T TALK FOR NOW , I CAN THINK OF SOME HUMAN BRAINS I'D PLACE IN SOME ANIMALS... JUST TO KEEP THEM ALIVE AS PUNISHMENT BUT THEN WOULD THE ANIMAL DESERVE THIS ?

www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/science-forecasts/mg...

 

WHY ARE WOMEN LIKE Elizabeth Loftus CONFESSING ABOUT " planting entirely false memories into the minds of ordinary people " ISN'T THAT WHAT THE MEDIA DO BEST ? TELEVISION AND THE ELECTIONS COMMITTEES, MEN IN GENERAL DO IT TO WOMEN, AND EDUCATION TO CHILDREN ..."some say we almost have recipes for doing so. " I KNOW ASK MY SISTERS !

"The most potent recipes may involve pharmaceuticals that we are on the brink of discovering."

www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/science-forecasts/mg... SO TEY ARE FINALLY LEGALIZING HALLUCINOGENIC DRUGS THROUGH THE FREE TRADE ?

www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/FreeTrade.asp

 

YOU TOO Beverly Whipple, STAY OUT OF OUR BRAINS I WARN YOU, DON'T BELIEVE HER...it's all lies they will use our brains for sex exploitation and no benefits...

www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/science-forecasts/dn...

LEAVE OUR BRAINS ALONE...

WE SHOULD SPEND MONEY TO EDUCATE NOT TO CONTROL BY STICKING YOUR EVIL FINGERS IN OUR BRAINS... IF THERE IS NO MORAL ETHICAL AUTHORITY TO KEEP FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOM OF CHOICE THEN THERE WILL BE A STRONG RESISTANCE MOVEMENT TO FIGHT YOU ALL - IF NOT IN COURT THEN ON THE STREET, you see me too i can forecasts the future

www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/science-forecasts/dn...

 

"Quantum teleportation will also be widely used, not as a means to travel " ? DOES THIS MEAN I DON'T HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT VARIOUS MEN SUDDENLY INVADING MY PRIVACY ALL THE TIME ? SO I DON'T HAVE TO INVENT A "WEAR" OR A "WALL" as some seem to prefer TO KEEP THE INTRUDERS AWAY ? ...

"but as a way for quantum computers to talk to each other."

NOT GOOD IDEA ! WHEN THEY DO THEN WE ARE IN DANGER... Anton Zeilinger IS PLACING US IN DANGER AND SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM THIS INVESTIGATION - WORK - JOB - FIRED before too late...

www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/science-forecasts/dn...

 

THANKS FOR THE GOOD NEWS... for many like me this is the present.. or do i live in the future ? is this why i' m so lonely when i speak with the majority ? can things go faster so i can have friends ?

BACK TO THE FUTURE THEORY...wow

"human happiness informed by evolution will reveal ever more clearly the importance of "social capital" - neighbourliness, close-knit communities, local family support, and integration between kids, adults and the elderly...

Enlightened citizens will demand to live in village-type spaces rather than alienating suburbs of single-family isolation and unbearable commutes."

www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/science-forecasts/mg...

 

"There are 244 mercury hot spots in North America. In Canada and Mexico, sites with high mercury concentration were selected as hot spots when the mercury concentration was greater than 10ppb."

SEE HERE ON THE MAP WHERE THEY ARE

www.cec.org/trio/stories/index.cfm?varlan=english&ed=...

 

NOVEMBER 19th 2006 is just how many times worst than

November 19, 2004 ?

Mercury Contamination in Fish

 

Q: I want to eat more fish, but am afraid of mercury contamination. Howcan I avoid eating contaminated fish?

 

A: The general rule of thumb is this: the larger the fish, the longer they'vebeen swimming and feeding in contaminated waters, so they probablyhave accumulated more chemicals in their tissues. Mackerel andherring are examples of large, fatty fish that are most likely to containdangerous chemicals like pesticides and heavy metals...more ?

www.detoxprogram.net/articles/archives/mercury_poisoning/...

 

"Also avoid consuming bottom-feeder seafood like lobster, oysters and clams that may contain toxic levels of mercury. Tuna, mackerel, and swordfish contain the highest levels of mercury of all fish. "

bookwired.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&...

  

IS bleached flour NOT THE MAIN INGREDIENT IN BREAD ?

Mercury is a poisonous neurotoxin commonly found in everyday sources - from drinking water to bleached flour and cosmetics. Behind lead, mercury is the second most common metal toxin and both can pose great physical and mental health problems. Learning problems, developmental delays and behavioral problems are linked to lead, mercury and other heavy metal exposure. A 2000 report by the National Academy of Sciences stated that toxic chemicals and other environmental factors cause about 3% of all developmental and neurological disorders in the United States.

bookwired.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&...

 

AND AS

jvirtue writes: If you have been diagnosed with a chronic physical or mental health condition, discuss oral chelation with your healthcare professional. Removing mercury and other heavy metals through a detoxification process can greatly improve symptoms, or eliminate the symptoms altogether."

 

IF THIS IS TRUE WHY ARE PEOPLE WITH ALZHEIMERS' NOT ABLE TO DO " cleansing to body of heavy metals and other toxins through chelation therapy, avoiding future exposure to heavy metals is important."???

bookwired.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&...

 

WHY IS EVERYONE TELLING ME THERE IS ABSOLUTELLEY NO CURE FOR ALZHEIMERS' IS THAT BECAUSE IT'S NOT IN THE ECONOMIC INTEREST OF GOVERNMENTS ?

 

"For decades, half of all childhood vaccines contained a chemical preservative called thimerosal.

 

It is made from mercury, one of the most poisonous substances on Earth."

www.mercola.com/2002/jun/5/thimerosal.htm

 

Here's to a year of love and happiness and creativity and passion and bright clear futures.

Four Places of Pilgrimage

 

There are four places, Ananda, that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence. What are the four?

 

"'Here the Tathagata was born!' This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.

 

"'Here the Tathagata became fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment!' This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.

 

"'Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled Wheel of the Dhamma!' This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.

 

"'Here the Tathagata passed away into the state of Nibbana in which no element of clinging remains!' This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.

 

"These, Ananda, are the four places that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence. And truly there will come to these places, Ananda, pious bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen, reflecting: 'Here the Tathagata was born! Here the Tathagata became fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment! Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled Wheel of the Dhamma! Here the Tathagata passed away into the state of Nibbana in which no element of clinging remains!'

 

"And whoever, Ananda, should die on such a pilgrimage with his heart established in faith, at the breaking up of the body, after death, will be reborn in a realm of heavenly happiness."

 

- DN 16 Maha-parinibbana Sutta

Mission Beach, San Diego, California

There you are Kay dear. I hope this sweet photo of your kitties keeps you going until you have sorted everything and are back on flickr....Angelica dn Fluffy-Kitten are sending you all their love on this photo although both are trying hard to keep awake!!!

 

I was just thinking "The Owl and the Pussycat". A few nights ago I was in the bedroom and I heard an owl on top of the garden room....

 

Wishing you every happiness darling from your Ed,Gardener Fluffy, Gromit and the Kitties xxxxxx oxo

Castaways on a deserted tropical island falling in love--the cliched theme of "The Isle of Conquest."

 

Drawing from Arthus Hornblow’s novel “By Right of Conquest,” the silent drama film appeared in the United States in 1919 and 1920. Published by Stern & Co., the hour-long film debuted in Washington D.C., Arizona, Texas, and Minnesota.

 

Reading the title cards, theatergoers watched the main character Ethel Harmon (Norma Talmadge) carry coconut shells around the island and fall in love with stoker John Arnold (Wyndham Standing).

 

One of the most famous silent-film actors, Norma Talmadge produced (with her husband) and starred in "The Isle of Conquest." This film debuted right before the peak of her career in the roaring twenties (1920s).

 

Today, "Isle of Conquest" is considered a lost film--no copies of the film is known to exist. However, newspaper ads for the film can still be seen today.

 

- Alice Kim

 

“Sailing the seas of happiness, a girl and a man, the only survivors of a shipwreck.

A typical tropical isle, prospects of life-long isolation, the birth of love, and then came her husband!”

 

Isle of Conquest - Bemidji daily pioneer

The Bemidji daily pioneer, Feb. 6, 1920, Page 5

chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86063381/1920-02-06/ed-...

 

Hawaii Digital Newspaper Project

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Title: Breeder and sportsman

Identifier: breedersportsma191891sanf

Year: 1882 (1880s)

Authors:

Subjects: Horses

Publisher: San Francisco, Calif. : [s. n. ]

Contributing Library: San Francisco Public Library

Digitizing Sponsor: California State Library Califa/LSTA Grant

  

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562 %ht fixate and gyovlsmm. Nov. 28- Sale of Thoroughbreds. Santa Kobb is gainiDga great reputation as a horse center and horsemen usually rind it to their advantage to come here when contemploting additions to their stock, says the Re- publican of that place. Underhill & McFayden made an important sale of thor- oughbred stock to B. C. Holly, of Vailejo, this week. Tbe sale includes Eosette. sired by Wheatley, dam Black Maria, and a full sister of Jennie G-, Daisy D., Emblem and Oii- ole. Eosette is the dam of Acclaim, one of the greatest run- ners intbe West. Rosette is regarded as one of tbebestspeed- producers in the State, and, though twelve years old, is as lively aB a cricktt. The sale also includes a yearling out of EoBette, sired by Three Cheers, and a sis monihs* colt from Eosette, sired by Harry Peyton, sire of Mamie C. The consideration for the three wos $1,500 and considering the breeding and reputa- tion of the stock, Mr Holly must regard his bargain as a good one. The horses were shipped away Wednesday. Which Is It? Editor Breeder and Sportsman:âFlaxtail S132 figures conspicuously in the pedigrees of a number of Pacific Coast trotters and pacers. He is the sire of two in the 2:30 list and of the dams of Goldlfaf, 2;lli; Shamrock, 2:25; Apes, 2:26; Flight, 2:29; Murtha, 2:30; Zoe K., 2:30; Sacramento Girl.'2:30, and J. H. McCormacb, 2:29. He was a pacing horse of great speed, is registered as standard and given the number S132 in Vol. 7 of the Wallace Trotting Register. There it is slated that his sire is supposed to be Praden'6 Blue Bull. In Wallace's Year Book, Vol. 6, page 429, appears the fol- lowing, viz: "Flaxtail S132, dn h, foaled about 1854, said to be by Bine Ball {Pruden's). Taken from Indiana to Iowa, by JameB Mitchell, passed to M. W. Hioks, KeokuH, Iowa." On page 573 of the same volume, appears the following, viz: "Flaxtail 8132, dnh, foaled about 1854, by Bull Pup, etc." Which statement as to the sire of Flaxtail is correct? So far as I am informed, the only information that Dr. Hicks, who had him registered, ever had, or claimed, was that he strongly resembled the Blue Bull family, and from that fact it was supposed that he was sired by Pruden'B Bine Ball. In volume 3, page 105, of Wallace's Trotting Register, we find another entry which seems to give some light upon the subject, as folows, viz: "Bull Pup (pacer), br h, foaled 1837, got by Old PaciDg Pilot, dam represented to be a Cana- dian'also, purchased 1842, of Joseph Dill, of Louisville, Ky.. by Joseph A. Mitchell, and taken to Bedford, Indiana. He left excellent etock, most of them pacers." From their reoords it appears that Bull Pap, one of the reputed sires of Flaxtail, was owned and taken to Indiana by Joseph A. Mitchell, while Flaxtail was taken from Indiana by James Mitchell to" Iowa and sold to HicKs. Possibly Joseph A. and JameB Mitchell are one and the same person, and there haB been a mistake in printing the given name in one of the statements. If such should be the case, then it would appear that the same man owned both horses, and a very reasonable conclusion would be that Ball Pup sired Flaxtail, as stated in the last entry of the Year Book. If Joseph A. and James are not one person, then they may have been brothers, or father and son, and in the sale of Flax- tail James may have been the agent of Joseph A. Mitchell. This is a matter of considerable interest to many persons hav- ing tbe 6tock, and if possible the question should be traced aod settled. I call attention to the facts as they appear in the records, and suggest that it would be a good piece of work for our friend, J. H. Steioer, the accomplished Secretary of the Amer- ican Trotting Register Association, to take in hand. Flax- tail was not brought to California, but died either in Iowa or Illinois before Dr. HickB came to this State. Iowan. [From the entry oi registration of Flaxtail it appears that M. W. Hicks purchased bim from Joe Mitchell which fact straighteos ont the discrepency between the names James and Joseph A., referred to in Iowan's communication. We have no hesitation in saying from the facts and circumstances as presented, that it is our opinion that Flaxtail S132 was sired by Bull Pap, sire of Rowdy Boy 2:13ir, sou of Old Pac- ing Pilot, sire of Pilot Jr. 12, sire of the dam of Maod S. 2:08$ and call attention to volume 7, page 202, wherein the name Joe Mitchell and the attraction appears. Mr. Hicks will no doabt set us aright if we are wroDg.âEd. Breeder and Sportsman ] Green's Bashaw. In the American Trotter I noticed an interesting article beaded "Great Brood Mare Sires," by C. M. Baboock, M. D. Tbe doctor sajs he Sods that by consulting the "Year Book'' for 1890. that fourteen stallions have sired the damB of twenty 2:30 trotters. Why not make it fifteen, and iuclnde Green's Bashaw, who, as a sire, had but few, it any equals; for as you say in the same number: "Neither Bashaw nor his sons were ever bred to a high class of mares." Yet the old hero of Muscatine, who added mure wealth to Iowa than any horse that was ever owoed in it, sired seventeen 2:30 trotters; Bired the dams of twenty-four more and the gran- dams of suchlightBof the turf es Nutwood's fastest performer, the champion two-year-old of tbe world. Manager, 2;16i, Al- mont Bashaw, 2:15J, Roxie McGregor, 2:20, and others; but that is not all, Bays Column's Raral World. He sired four- teen sons, (fifteen, including Kerr's Bashaw, Bire of Badger, pacer, 2:29, sire of Cleo, 2:21), who have added about forty to the 2:30 list; while his grandsons, Buccaneer, Burns 2:30, Bashtine, Hezlett's Amboy, Corbin's Bashaw 2:26£. Diamond 2:28, Gen. Grant 2:21, John Sherman, Harold C, Sam Kirk- wood and others, have such representatives in the 2:30 list as Shamrock 2:24, ohampion two-year-old record when made; Pride 2:44, champion yearling record when made; Centella 2:21, Findley 2.30, Cleo 2:21, and Flight 2:26, dam of the sensational Fleet, 2:24, tbe fastest two-year-old filly, I believe, in a race, Sunol and Wildhower expected. Another son of Bashaw i3 deserving of mention. I refer to Muscatine, the sire of two in the great brood mare list, viz.: Black Sallis, dam of Capt. Seth 2:30. Travella 2 ;28f and Belle, dam of Tramp S. 2:21£, Tramp Jr. 2:30, all four sired by Tramp (a grandson of Hambletonian 10), who would scarcely be known as the sire were it not for the Bashaw mares he served. And that reminds me that tbe great show horse, Don Cossack's brightest gem, Jenette 2:26, was ont of a mare by Bishaw Drary; a son of Bashaw, and that Romu- lus, a very faphionably bred son of Hambletonian, with tbe best ol opportunities, never got a trotter in tbe list until he served a daughter of this son of Bashaw, the result bting Loretta 2:28£. The dam of Joe Young 2:19£, the fastest Morgan stallion, sire of three three-year-olds that entered tbe list last season, was a daughter of Bashaw. Would it not be well for someone who owns high-bred, high-priced, fash- ionable Btallions, that have proved failures, to buy a few ol these cheap, unfashionable Bashaw mares, by way of experi- ment? I might 611 a column showing the good things that have sprung, you might say unassisted, from the loins of Bashaw 50, but I won't, for like the blood of the great Blue Bull and the wonderful sire, Geo. Spragne, it is unfashionable blood, no matter how good. Yet the records show that all the de- scendants of imp. Barb, Bashaw, which of coarse include the Clays, Bashaws, Patchens and Mohawks, none compared as the progenitor of average speed with Green's Bashaw 50 What's the matter with the Bashaws? "They are in it, and time will prove it. Fashion changes, and this family, noted for gamenesB, soundness and roadster qualities, will yet come to the front." NAPA SODA 1b beneficial in all cases of kidney affections. Chicago Quite a Village. Philadelphia papers are telling what fast trials "Dod" Irwi- has been driving a road team owned in that town. A goo many years ago he came West with Neta Medium and som other horseB, evidently from his actions, having the idea thai nobody in this part of the country knew one end of a bora, from the other, but he was disabused of this notion when h came to start in races, and found that it was a pretty tight G to, any of his Philadelphia trotters to get a piece of the mon« savs Clark's Horse Review. He was as much surprised at tb evidences of civilization in Chicago as was the late Job)! fj« Murphy when the latter came here a number of years agot ill* trot Majolica against Phallas in a stake for horses in the 2:5 class, entries to which had closed some time previous. Tb. race was not to be trotted until July, and in the meantitni Majolica had made a record of 2:17 down East, while Phallas although known to be a good horse, was not considered abl to beat Majolica, having suffered defeat by the New Yorkej. on more than one occasion. When the day of the race catni Maj >lica won the first heat easily in about 2:18, and the ond heat fell to him without a struggle by reason of a blunde in the judges' stand by which the word was given, and the) a recjll with the bell sounded. All the horses but Majolio were pulled up, Murphy jogging him around in 3:20 and be- ing awarded the heat. By this time it really looked too eaa; for Majolica, and Murphy was all smiles. The pool-seilinj was $50 to $11 on Majolica, with the short end hard to die pose of. But tbe third heat was a revelation, an earthqnab and several other unpleasant things, because Phallas cam home from tbe half-mile pole in 1:06$, catching Majolica ii the homestretch and making that pretty little horse quit lib a pig. Even tbe dullest intellect could see that the race wa all over but the shouting, and Phallas won as he liked fron that on. After the race Murphy was standing on the club hoose steps at the West Side track receiving the condolono of friends. As usual be made a witty remark. "Before 1 left New York," he said, "some people told me that Chicagt was in the backwoods; that I would see buffalo running oi tbe prairies here." "Seen 'em yet?" queried a friend. "No,' was the reply, "but I have met a few wolves." It is expected that several new stables will appear in th> running turf next year. Several prominent Eastern i have entered the raoing field, ns well as many in the Weal but it is doubtful if there will be a stronger stable among thi newcomers than tbat of Charles FJeischmann, the wealth; Cincinnati brewer. His purchases in the past few week have been very heavy, but it is not thought that his presenci will be felt in tbe big tracks until 1893,when a half-dozen ofai fine Lorees as the late An gust Belmont had on his farm wil appear in their two-year-old forms. All are entered in th Futurity and Foam Stakes. Among tbem is a weanlinj brother to St. Carlo, tbe grand race horse that won the Grea American and the Foam Stakes. He is by 8100,000 St. Blaise out of Carina, sister to King Crab, by Kingfisher. He cos Mr. Fleiscbmann $7,500. Among other purchases werei colt by St. Blaise, out of Delilah, by The 111 Used, for $4,200 a bay colt by The III Used, out of imp. Dauntless, by thi Derby winner, Macaroni; a chestnut colt by The 111 Used, ou of Cordelia, by imp Matador; a colt by Tbe 111 Used, out o Affinity, dam of Circolar, by Kingfisher; a colt by Kingfisher out of Bahama, by imp. Mortimer; a colt by St. Blaise, ou of Belladonna, by The III Used; a oolt by St. Blaise, out o Carita, tbe dam of Carina. King Crab, Kinn Cadmus and Car nut, for which Mr. Fleischmann paid $4,600. Mr. Fleisoh- mann also bought a yearling colt by The 111 Used, out o Madcap, the dam of Bessie K.,by imp. Matador, second dam Feu Follett, dam of' St. Florian and Firefly, Jr., $5,100, ant a chestnut filly by St. Blaise, out of Genevra, by imp. Aus- tralian. He also owns a full brother to the famous race horsi HuntreBS, by Springbok, that he bought last week for $3,000 He has recently engaged Scott Williams as trainer and 3 Porter as jockey, and the youngsters will immediately be po> in training. HOW'S YOUR LIVER? Is the Oriental Balutation, knowing that good health cannot exist without a healthy Liver. When the Liver is torpid the Bowels are sluggiBh, and constipated, tbe food lies in the stomach undigested poisoning the blood: frequent heartaches ensue; a feeling of lassitude, despondency and nervousness indicate how tbe whole system is deranged. Sim- mons Liver Regulator has been tbe means of re- storing more people to health and happiness by giving them a healthy Liver than any agency known on earth. It acts with extraordinary power and efficacy. Never Been Disappointed. As a general family remedy for Dyspepsia, Tor- pid Liver, Constipation, etc., I hardly ever me any- thing else, and have never been disappointed in ibe effect produced; it seems almost a perfect cu»-e for all diseases of tbe Stomach and Bowels. W. J. McElbov, Macon, Oa. Octr Room lo For lour horse* can tie procured by addressing F. D. MYERS, P. o. Bos :m. Oakland, U»l. S DUEBERT J HILL; H,nepEAxYpsREss. ,rt^?9V°RD-^'XONEFREk. ZD YjkAntf// Ci-miinc ljucber, solid Silver- It r\n I flf/ ku'Wittcli. heiivy a oz. DukC I M / I .yllro(,f Cane, f"H engraved (cut 'nil I \jg[ ;howtii,.n-k of mm') ivarniHU-d to n sliver for 20years llH'tllll pltiU'll 1'llljV vcnient. Watches b L-ive no better iv- m mi watch C.O.D. ine It at express Hat is factory pay agent 83.97 we liuylnir II c harden oIih.'cu iuv i n turned at our ex-

 

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RAILROAD STOCKS AND BONDS Bought and Sold for Cash or on Margin on New York, San FranciBCO, Philadelphia or Boston Ex- changes. Investment Stocks and Bonds a Specialty. A. R. OHISOLM & CO., Bankers and Brokers, 61 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. [Established 1876.] Weekly Circular free. , a,M iftw *T>v Pfl⢠f^iiP^ |!|h§c^i* - v/ w/7 fc&^yjl â '-- ^talmam/ f^^ttjffi^ _WT; "^LiV AXTEt-L-f â ⢠DfiNor JFWv/' \t'-_>-j;-*-J fâ^rBj x^wz£ ^Vm\/ ^OJljs\\/ Wis/ WAawt when you want to rule? run, walk, row, .skat* or swim n. lonp distance] USE ANTI-STIFF

  

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