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www.spurnpoint.com/Spurn_Point.htm

  

Spurn is a very unique place in the British Islands. Three and a half miles long and only fifty metres wide in places.

Extending out in to the Humber Estuary from the Yorkshire coast it has always had a big affect to the navigation of all vessels over the years. Help to some and a danger or hindrance to others. This alone makes Spurn a unique place.

Spurn is made up of a series of sand and shingle banks held together with mainly Marram grass and Seabuckthorn. There are a series of sea defence works built by the Victorians and maintained by the Ministry of Defence, till they sold Spurn to the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust in the 1950s. The defences are in a poor state, breaking down and crumbling. This is making Spurn a very fragile place wide open to the ravages of the North Sea.

One of the most striking features of Spurn is the black and white lighthouse near to the end of Spurn. Now just an empty shell not used since it was closed down at dawn on the thirty first of October 1986.

There have been many Lighthouses on Spurn over the years the first recorded at around 1427. The present light was built from 1893 TO 1895. The small tower on the beach on the Estuary side was originally the low light. It was built and put in to operation at around 1852. This light was no longer needed when the present lighthouse was opened in 1895.At a later date the light was removed and it was used as a store for explosives and later as a water tower. The tank can still be seen on the top. When it was operational there was a raised walkway from the shore to the lighthouse so it could be reached at all stages of the tide.

The present lighthouse was built to replace an old lighthouse that was positioned just to the south of the present one. You can still see the round perimeter wall surrounding the old keepers cottages and the base of the old lighthouse which had to be demolished due to it settling on it's foundations making it unsafe.

The only light on Spurn today is a flashing green starboard light on the very end of the point and the fixed green lights marking the end of the Pilots jetty.

Because of Spurns ever moving position there have been many Lighthouses over the years. There is a very good book by George.de.BOAR, called History of the Spurn Lighthouses, produced by the East Yorkshire Local History Society. This is one of a series of books on local history.

  

www.spurnpoint.com/Around_and_about_at_Spurn.htm

  

Around and about there are plenty of places to eat and drink. Starting from the north of Spurn at Kilnsea there is the Riverside hotel offering good quality food drink and accommodation. Coming south towards Spurn and still in Kilnsea there is the Crown and Anchor pub. A welcoming place serving bar meals fine beers and offering bed and breakfast at very reasonable rates. At the crossroads before you turn towards Spurn there is the Spurn heritage coast visitors centre. Where there is a small cafe and exhibition. At the entrance Spurn point nature reserve is an information centre and bird observatory selling books pamphlets, etc., and the last toilet on Spurn.

Past the lighthouse is the last car park. Two hundred metres further on you find the Humber Lifeboat and Pilot stations. Near the houses is a Small caravan selling tea, coffee, cold cans, hot and cold food, crisps and sweets.

All are open all year round apart from the heritage centre which is open thought the season.

 

BIRD WATCHING.

Is a very popular pastime as Spurn is internationally famous for birds. There are up to two hundred species recorded at spurn every year. Some of which are extremely rare. The Marmora's Warbler seen at Spurn In June 1992 was only the third recorded in Britain.

 

SEA FISHING.

The beaches of Spurn provide some of the best sea fishing in the area, with Cod and Whiting and Flats being caught through the winter and Skate, Flats and Bass through the summer. There is sport to be had all the year.

At the very end of Spurn is deep water ideal for Cod but this only fishes best two hours either side of low water, the tide is to strong at other times. All along the seaward side of Spurn is good for all species of fish at all times though over high water being the better. The riverside of Spurn is very shallow and only produces Flats and the bass over high water.

 

THE BEACH.

 

The beaches at Spurn are of soft sand and shingle. Whichever way the wind is blowing you can just pop over the dunes to the outer side. There are fossils and all manners of things to find beach combing. Swimming is not safe any were near the point end as there are very strong tides at up to six knots at times. But in side Spurn around the point car park is perfect at high water. The beach does not shelf to fast and very little tide. You can have the place to your self at times, as Spurn is never really busy weekdays.#

A very popular pastime at Spurn is Fossil hunting. There is a good abundance of fossils to be found in amongst the pebbles and shingle.

The Shark Trust has a very interesting PDF file tell you all about Shark Skate and rays the mermaids purses you find on the beach are egg shells from sharks and Rays. Click the link to down load the Shark Trust Brochure.

 

WALKING.

Walking or strolling at spurn is very easy, as there are no hills. There are various sign posted paths up and down the point. For the fit a complete walk round the whole point is about 8 miles, taking in all the point round the point end and back to the "warren" information place at the start of Spurn. You will need good footwear, as much of the paths are sand. There is limited access for disabled, but not to the point end, as you have to go via the beach.

You can park your car at the point car park and walk round the point end and back to the car park about a mile, or just stroll around the point were you choose. The only place you are not allowed to go are down the pilot's jetty and the centre square of the Lifeboat houses.

In spring and early summer Spurn is covered with a large amount of wild flowers of all species.

There are common to the not so common; from Orchids to bluebells. I must remind you Spurn is a nature reserve and the picking of all flowers is prohibited. When visiting please enjoy Spurn, as it is a very beautiful place and leave only your footprints.

 

Horse Riding.

 

There is riding available nearby at the North Humberside Riding Centre. The stables are ideally located with rides along quiet country lanes, by-ways, plus miles of sandy beach and riverbanks. The cross-country course offers a variety of fences for both the novice and the more experienced rider.

 

www.spurnbirdobservatory.co.uk/

 

A Brief History of Spurn Bird Observatory

 

Following visits to Spurn by several members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in the late 1930's, a communal log for ornithological observations was instituted in 1938. This included a roll-call of species, the beginnings of a recording system, which later became standard in bird observatories. Realising the potential of the Spurn peninsula for the regular observation of bird migration a group of enthusiasts, notably Ralph Chislett, George Ainsworth, John Lord and R.M. Garnett, had the idea of setting up a bird observatory, with the Warren Cottage at the northern end of the peninsula as an ideal headquarters. Unfortunately the outbreak of war forced them to put their plans on hold but shortly after hostilities ceased a lease for Warren Cottage was obtained from the War Department and the observatory was established shortly afterwards under the auspices of the Y.N.U. with the four members mentioned above forming the first committee. A preliminary meeting was held in September 1945 to decide on the site for a Heligoland trap, work on which was begun almost immediately and the first bird (a Blackbird) was ringed on November 17th. The first minuted committee meeting was held on March 9th 1946 and the observatory was opened to visitors at Whitsuntide that year.

Initially coverage was limited to the main migration seasons, being extended to winter weekends in the early 1950's to trap and ring some of the large numbers of Snow Buntings which used to occur at that time of year and gradually coverage was increased (whenever possible) to cover the late spring and summer. In 1959 there was an important development when the Yorkshire Naturalists' Trust (now the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust) became the owners of the peninsula and thus the observatory's landlord. In 1960 a full time warden was appointed by the Trust, and although having no official connection with the observatory the fact of having an observer on the peninsula year-round inevitably helped to improve the ornithological coverage. This was especially the case from 1964 when the current warden, Barry Spence, was appointed, in conjunction with the fact that an interest in birds and their migrations was steadily growing and more bird-watchers were staying at the observatory, often for longer periods.

When the observatory opened there was accommodation for seven visitors in Warren Cottage and facilities included two chemical toilets, the Warren Heligoland trap and an ex-army hut as a ringing hut. Over the next ten years a further five Heligoland traps were constructed along the peninsula, although today only three remain in existence. In 1959 the observatory gained the use of the Annexe, one of two ex W.D. bungalows built at the Warren during the early 1950's, thus increasing the accommodation capacity to seventeen and providing much improved toilet facilities. Over the years the accommodation and facilities have been gradually improved to try to make the visitor's stay at Spurn as comfortable as possible. Other improvements have also taken place, in 1968 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Point was converted into a ringing laboratory ready for the first B.T.O. Ringing Course, held in autumn of that year and in 1971 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Warren was also converted into a ringing laboratory. The other part of this building became a laboratory for the use of students of Leeds University but this also became available to the observatory in the mid 1980's when the University no longer had a use for it. Subsequently it was converted into a self-contained accommodation unit for two, complete with kitchen facilities, and although officially known by the somewhat unimaginative name of Room F (the rooms in the Annexe being known as Rooms A, C, D & E, - whatever happened to Room B?), it was somewhat irreverently christened "Dunbirdin" by regular visitors to Spurn.

In 1965 a sea-watching hut was erected east of the Warren beyond the line of the former railway track. Due to coastal erosion it became necessary to move this in late 1974, when it was hoped that it would last at least as long as it had in its first position. Alas this was not to be, as the rate of erosion increased dramatically in the mid 1970's, necessitating a further move in early December 1977. In that year a clay bank had been built across the field behind Warren Cottage (Clubley's field) to prevent the flooding of arable land by wind-blown sea water, but on January 11th 1978 Spurn suffered its worst flooding ever when a strong to gale-force north-westerly wind combined with a spring tide. In late 1981 due to extensive construction works at Easington a large quantity of boulder clay became available and this was used to build up and extend the bank across Clubley's field, south towards Black Hut and north beyond Big Hedge to join up with an existing bank (which had been built in 1974) behind the scrape. In 1982 the sea-watching hut was repositioned on top of this bank, where it remained until the bank itself was washed away in the early 1990's.

A number of other changes to the observatory recording area began to take place from the early 1970's, including extensive building operations at the Point, commencing in 1974, with the construction of a new jetty for the Humber Pilot boats, new housing for the Spurn Lifeboat crew and the conversion and renovation of various existing buildings for use by the Coastguard and the Pilots. In 1978 following damage to the existing road south of the Warren area a new tarmac road was laid to the west of the original one, this lasted until 1988 when a second "new road" loop had to be laid, followed in 1991 by the construction of the existing loop road running along the Humber shore from just south of the Warren to just beyond Black Hut. The construction of this road resulted in the destruction of the actual Black Hut, although the area still bears the name. In 1981 the lines of wartime concrete anti-tank blocks running from the seashore to the Canal Zone were removed to fill in a breach at the Narrow Neck. This resulted in the southward extension of the Scrape field by the farmer up to Big Hedge and the start of a gradual decline in the condition of this hedge and its attractiveness to birds. In 1982 a local resident excavated a pond for shooting purposes in the wet area adjoining the Canal Zone. This never really proved successful and the land was later purchased by the Y.W.T. and the pond enlarged to become what is now known as Canal Scrape. In 1984 a famous Spurn landmark, the Narrows "Hut", a wooden migration watch shelter which had stood at the Narrow Neck for twenty-three years, was set fire to by person or persons unknown and completely destroyed, it was replaced the following year by a more solid construction made from breeze-blocks.

A period of considerable change began in 1988 when the Spurn peninsula was designated as part of the Spurn Heritage Coast. Projects undertaken include the enlargement of the Canal Scrape mentioned above and the erection of a hide overlooking it, a hide overlooking the Humber wader roost at Chalk Bank, a public sea-watching hide alongside the observatory one, provision of additional car-parking space, the restoration of the short-turf habitat in the Chalk Bank area, provision of footpaths, etc. A major project was the renovation of the Blue Bell in Kilnsea for use as offices, an information centre and a small cafe, which became fully operational in 1995. Another fairly recent project has been the creation of another scrape/pond on Clubley's field.

In 1996 the observatory celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, and for the first time in its history SBO employed a full time seasonal warden. This position has since been expanded and the observatory now enjoys the services of a year- round warden. In 1998, with a view to the future, a small bungalow in Kilnsea was purchased with money bequeathed by the late John Weston, a long time committee member, who regrettably died in 1996. This was followed in 1999 by the purchase of a strip of land adjacent to the property and is now known as the ‘Church Field’, this is planted with a sacrificial crop every year, and has also had several groups of trees planted and a feeding station placed in the north-east corner. Access to this field is available by becoming a member of ‘Friends of Spurn Bird Observatory’, a venture set up in 2003 to eventually help with the building of a new observatory when the old one falls way to the sea.

 

This is a scanned print from a collection of photographs taken by the late Jim Taylor A number of years ago I was offered a large number of photographs taken by Jim Taylor, a transport photographer based in Huddersfield. The collection, 30,000 prints,20,000 negatives – and copyright! – had been offered to me and one of the national transport magazines previously by a friend of Jims, on behalf of Jims wife. I initially turned them down, already having over 30,000 of my owns prints filed away and taking space up. Several months later the prints were still for sale – at what was, apparently, the going rate . It was a lot of money and I deliberated for quite a while before deciding to buy them. I did however buy them directly from Jims wife and she delivered them personally – just to quash the occasional rumour from people who can’t mind their own business. Although some prints were sold elsewhere, particularly the popular big fleet stuff, I should have the negatives, unfortunately they came to me in a random mix, 1200 to a box, without any sort of indexing and as such it would be impossible to match negatives to prints, or, to even find a print of any particular vehicle. I have only ever looked at a handful myself unless I am scanning them. The prints are generally in excellent condition and I initially stored them in a bedroom without ever looking at any of them. In 2006 I built an extension and they had to be well protected from dust and moved a few times. Ultimately my former 6x7 box room office has become their (and my own work’s) permanent home.

  

It was the development of our second generation website with its photo gallery located quite cleverly on Flickr, rather than making our own site unwieldy, that led me to start uploading photos to Flickr. It was initially for my own and historic company photos but with unlimited storage and reasonable upload speeds I soon started uploading other stuff. Scanning one of Jims photos was a random choice one winters evening, initially very slow and time consuming I nevertheless stuck with it and things just snowballed. It was obvious that there are a lot of people interested in this type of thing. I can now scan and edit in Photoshop in a minute or so per print. Out of over 30,000 images on Flickr I have around 3500 of Jims photos. I don’t promote myself on Flickr – at all! So my viewing figures grow organically, without using the mutual favourite awarding etc. that is endemic on Flickr. The statistics tell me that travel (I don’t do porn) is the most popular genre. My travel photos, particularly later stuff receive far more views than transport. The transport stuff will hit a ceiling and then build very slowly over time, with lots of people coming back to them again and again. Travel of course is far more inclusive but there is an unbelievable amount out there, far more than the 1980’s UK transport stuff. The travel and landscape photos have pushed the views past 12 million, with a current average of around 40,000 views a day, peaking with an upload from a new destination at around 90,000 views. I recall being excited with a 100 views.

 

My reasons for buying the collection were mixed. On the one hand it was a unique snapshot of the transport industry, predominantly in the north of England, from around 1980 onwards. This was my patch and my era. I passed my Class One a few days after my 21st birthday in 1980 and spent the next 17 years being a Jack the Lad on the road, waving at and crossing paths with many of the wagons that Jim photographed, in fact my owns wagons are in the mix. Jim did travel to Scotland extensively and into the Southern Hemisphere a number of times hence there is a broad range of material in his collection. I knew I wouldn’t get a chance like it again. On the other hand the reason I gave up hauling scrap around the North of England in a Foden eight wheeler was the diagnosis of an incurable form of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma at the age of 38, although a low grade cancer I was already a widower with four young children and I was looking at an uncertain future and it terrified me. I wasn’t remotely ill but was treated with Chemotherapy, again, I wasn’t ill and didn’t need time off work. The shock however brought me to my senses and I came off the road, I joined the normal world, up at 6.30 not 4.30am. I didn’t realise it at the time but I had closed the door on my wagon driving days. I was worried that, at some point, I wouldn’t be able to work physically hard, bearing in mind the family business is a scrap yard – a physical sort of environment. I had it in my mind that there was a possibility that I could use my own and Jims photos to supplement my income, I had four kids to feed and I knew there wouldn’t be any family financial support – it’s not that sort of family. I still have the NHL although thankfully you wouldn’t know it. This type of thing is now considered treatable – not curable- after around forty endoscopies, a 100 stomach biopsies, bone marrow samples and endless scans of different types, I may well get to die of old age, not cancer. It was discovered almost by accident at the time, not illness on my part, and long may it stay that way! The lack of illness made the shock all the greater though.

 

I hope to avoid posting images that Jim had not taken his self, however should I inadvertently infringe another photographers copyright, please inform me by email and I will resolve the issue immediately. There are copyright issues with some of the photographs that were sold to me. A Flickr member from Scotland drew my attention to some of his own work amongst the first uploads of Jims work. I had a quick look through some of the 30 boxes of prints and decided that for the time being the safest thing for me to do was withdraw the majority of the earlier uploaded scans and deal with the problem – which I did. whilst the vast majority of the prints are Jims, there is a problem defining copyright of some of them, this is something that the seller did not make clear at the time. I am reasonably confident that I have since been successful in identifying Jims own work. His early work consists of many thousands of lustre 6x4 prints which are difficult to scan well, later work is almost entirely 7x5 glossy, much easier to scan. Not all of the prints are pin sharp but I can generally print successfully to A4 from a scan.

 

You may notice photographs being duplicated in this Album, unfortunately there are multiple copies of many prints (for swapping) and as I have to have a system of archiving and backing up I can only guess - using memory - if I have scanned a print before. The bigger fleets have so many similar vehicles and registration numbers that it is impossible to get it right all of the time. It is easier to scan and process a print than check my files - on three different PC's - for duplicates. There has not been, nor will there ever be, any intention to knowingly breach anyone else's copyright. I have presented the Jim Taylor collection as exactly that-The Jim Taylor Collection- his work not mine, my own work is quite obviously mine.

 

Unfortunately many truck spotters have swapped and traded their work without copyright marking it as theirs. These people never anticipated the ease with which images would be shared online in the future. I would guess that having swapped and traded photos for many years that it is almost impossible to control their future use. Anyone wanting to control the future use of their work would have been well advised to copyright mark their work (as many did) and would be well advised not to post them on photo sharing sites without a watermark as the whole point of these sites is to share the image, it is very easy for those that wish, to lift any image, despite security settings, indeed, Flickr itself, warns you that this is the case. It was this abuse and theft of my material that led me to watermark all of my later uploads. I may yet withdraw non watermarked photos, I haven’t decided yet.

 

To anyone reading the above it will be quite obvious that I can’t provide information regarding specific photos or potential future uploads – I didn’t take them! There are many vehicles that were well known to me as Jim only lived down the road from me (although I didn’t know him), however scanning, titling, tagging and uploading is laborious and time consuming enough, I do however provide a fair amount of information with my own transport (and other) photos. I am aware that there are requests from other Flickr users that are unanswered, I stumble across them months or years after they were posted, this isn’t deliberate. Some weekends one or two “enthusiasts” can add many hundreds of photos as favourites, this pushes requests that are in the comments section ten or twenty pages out of sight and I miss them. I also have notifications switched off, I receive around 50 emails a day through work and I don’t want even more from Flickr. Other requests, like many other things, I just plain forget – no excuses! Uploads of Jims photos will be infrequent as it is a boring pastime and I would much rather work on my own output. I am happy to reply to comments and don't have a problem with people adding tags or adding supplementary information regarding vehicles or companies that they were familiar with.

 

None of my photographs are free to use – without my permission - only free to view! If you breach my copyright you are stealing what is mine and if I find out, I will pursue the case until you rectify the situation. Arguments that attempt to justify copyright theft are just excuses for theft from people with little or no understanding of copyright law – or more frequently- deliberate, selective, misinterpretation of the law – to suit their own ends. I have never knowingly refused a reasonable request, I don’t join groups but am quite happy for people to add photos to groups. I dislike exchanging long and time consuming emails – I prefer to talk on the phone, being the opposite of anti-social in person, you can’t shut me up. I am generally speaking an anti-social, social networker, I just don’t have the time for it, in fact, I joke that I am going to start a social network for internet anti-social people, you’ll just register your name and that’s it – no networking and endless mindless twaddle. Face-less Book? The antidote to Facebook. I like to get out and chat to people face to face and welcome customers with an interest in photography in to my office to chat on a regular basis. I also print – and give- A4 prints to many of the drivers that visit our yard. I photograph wagons and plant that I come into contact with in a day’s work I don’t go looking to photograph them in my free time. Wagons are a necessary evil in my life these days and they cost me money – every day! For the extensive story and history of JB Schofield &sons Ltd look here; www.jbschofieldandsons.co.uk/

 

So far photography remains a hobby, and I refuse any offers to turn it into a business, the regulations surrounding scrap and transport and the running of the yard keep me occupied most of the time. In my free time I cycle hard for fitness, walk hard for pleasure, fitness, and the challenge, take photos for pleasure and the challenge, edit them because I have to, and lastly, drink wine because I want to. There isn't time for another business. The kids are now adults and all of them work for me, and with me, another challenge.

 

 

www.spurnpoint.com/Spurn_Point.htm

  

Spurn is a very unique place in the British Islands. Three and a half miles long and only fifty metres wide in places.

Extending out in to the Humber Estuary from the Yorkshire coast it has always had a big affect to the navigation of all vessels over the years. Help to some and a danger or hindrance to others. This alone makes Spurn a unique place.

Spurn is made up of a series of sand and shingle banks held together with mainly Marram grass and Seabuckthorn. There are a series of sea defence works built by the Victorians and maintained by the Ministry of Defence, till they sold Spurn to the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust in the 1950s. The defences are in a poor state, breaking down and crumbling. This is making Spurn a very fragile place wide open to the ravages of the North Sea.

One of the most striking features of Spurn is the black and white lighthouse near to the end of Spurn. Now just an empty shell not used since it was closed down at dawn on the thirty first of October 1986.

There have been many Lighthouses on Spurn over the years the first recorded at around 1427. The present light was built from 1893 TO 1895. The small tower on the beach on the Estuary side was originally the low light. It was built and put in to operation at around 1852. This light was no longer needed when the present lighthouse was opened in 1895.At a later date the light was removed and it was used as a store for explosives and later as a water tower. The tank can still be seen on the top. When it was operational there was a raised walkway from the shore to the lighthouse so it could be reached at all stages of the tide.

The present lighthouse was built to replace an old lighthouse that was positioned just to the south of the present one. You can still see the round perimeter wall surrounding the old keepers cottages and the base of the old lighthouse which had to be demolished due to it settling on it's foundations making it unsafe.

The only light on Spurn today is a flashing green starboard light on the very end of the point and the fixed green lights marking the end of the Pilots jetty.

Because of Spurns ever moving position there have been many Lighthouses over the years. There is a very good book by George.de.BOAR, called History of the Spurn Lighthouses, produced by the East Yorkshire Local History Society. This is one of a series of books on local history.

  

www.spurnpoint.com/Around_and_about_at_Spurn.htm

  

Around and about there are plenty of places to eat and drink. Starting from the north of Spurn at Kilnsea there is the Riverside hotel offering good quality food drink and accommodation. Coming south towards Spurn and still in Kilnsea there is the Crown and Anchor pub. A welcoming place serving bar meals fine beers and offering bed and breakfast at very reasonable rates. At the crossroads before you turn towards Spurn there is the Spurn heritage coast visitors centre. Where there is a small cafe and exhibition. At the entrance Spurn point nature reserve is an information centre and bird observatory selling books pamphlets, etc., and the last toilet on Spurn.

Past the lighthouse is the last car park. Two hundred metres further on you find the Humber Lifeboat and Pilot stations. Near the houses is a Small caravan selling tea, coffee, cold cans, hot and cold food, crisps and sweets.

All are open all year round apart from the heritage centre which is open thought the season.

 

BIRD WATCHING.

Is a very popular pastime as Spurn is internationally famous for birds. There are up to two hundred species recorded at spurn every year. Some of which are extremely rare. The Marmora's Warbler seen at Spurn In June 1992 was only the third recorded in Britain.

 

SEA FISHING.

The beaches of Spurn provide some of the best sea fishing in the area, with Cod and Whiting and Flats being caught through the winter and Skate, Flats and Bass through the summer. There is sport to be had all the year.

At the very end of Spurn is deep water ideal for Cod but this only fishes best two hours either side of low water, the tide is to strong at other times. All along the seaward side of Spurn is good for all species of fish at all times though over high water being the better. The riverside of Spurn is very shallow and only produces Flats and the bass over high water.

 

THE BEACH.

 

The beaches at Spurn are of soft sand and shingle. Whichever way the wind is blowing you can just pop over the dunes to the outer side. There are fossils and all manners of things to find beach combing. Swimming is not safe any were near the point end as there are very strong tides at up to six knots at times. But in side Spurn around the point car park is perfect at high water. The beach does not shelf to fast and very little tide. You can have the place to your self at times, as Spurn is never really busy weekdays.#

A very popular pastime at Spurn is Fossil hunting. There is a good abundance of fossils to be found in amongst the pebbles and shingle.

The Shark Trust has a very interesting PDF file tell you all about Shark Skate and rays the mermaids purses you find on the beach are egg shells from sharks and Rays. Click the link to down load the Shark Trust Brochure.

 

WALKING.

Walking or strolling at spurn is very easy, as there are no hills. There are various sign posted paths up and down the point. For the fit a complete walk round the whole point is about 8 miles, taking in all the point round the point end and back to the "warren" information place at the start of Spurn. You will need good footwear, as much of the paths are sand. There is limited access for disabled, but not to the point end, as you have to go via the beach.

You can park your car at the point car park and walk round the point end and back to the car park about a mile, or just stroll around the point were you choose. The only place you are not allowed to go are down the pilot's jetty and the centre square of the Lifeboat houses.

In spring and early summer Spurn is covered with a large amount of wild flowers of all species.

There are common to the not so common; from Orchids to bluebells. I must remind you Spurn is a nature reserve and the picking of all flowers is prohibited. When visiting please enjoy Spurn, as it is a very beautiful place and leave only your footprints.

 

Horse Riding.

 

There is riding available nearby at the North Humberside Riding Centre. The stables are ideally located with rides along quiet country lanes, by-ways, plus miles of sandy beach and riverbanks. The cross-country course offers a variety of fences for both the novice and the more experienced rider.

 

www.spurnbirdobservatory.co.uk/

 

A Brief History of Spurn Bird Observatory

 

Following visits to Spurn by several members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in the late 1930's, a communal log for ornithological observations was instituted in 1938. This included a roll-call of species, the beginnings of a recording system, which later became standard in bird observatories. Realising the potential of the Spurn peninsula for the regular observation of bird migration a group of enthusiasts, notably Ralph Chislett, George Ainsworth, John Lord and R.M. Garnett, had the idea of setting up a bird observatory, with the Warren Cottage at the northern end of the peninsula as an ideal headquarters. Unfortunately the outbreak of war forced them to put their plans on hold but shortly after hostilities ceased a lease for Warren Cottage was obtained from the War Department and the observatory was established shortly afterwards under the auspices of the Y.N.U. with the four members mentioned above forming the first committee. A preliminary meeting was held in September 1945 to decide on the site for a Heligoland trap, work on which was begun almost immediately and the first bird (a Blackbird) was ringed on November 17th. The first minuted committee meeting was held on March 9th 1946 and the observatory was opened to visitors at Whitsuntide that year.

Initially coverage was limited to the main migration seasons, being extended to winter weekends in the early 1950's to trap and ring some of the large numbers of Snow Buntings which used to occur at that time of year and gradually coverage was increased (whenever possible) to cover the late spring and summer. In 1959 there was an important development when the Yorkshire Naturalists' Trust (now the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust) became the owners of the peninsula and thus the observatory's landlord. In 1960 a full time warden was appointed by the Trust, and although having no official connection with the observatory the fact of having an observer on the peninsula year-round inevitably helped to improve the ornithological coverage. This was especially the case from 1964 when the current warden, Barry Spence, was appointed, in conjunction with the fact that an interest in birds and their migrations was steadily growing and more bird-watchers were staying at the observatory, often for longer periods.

When the observatory opened there was accommodation for seven visitors in Warren Cottage and facilities included two chemical toilets, the Warren Heligoland trap and an ex-army hut as a ringing hut. Over the next ten years a further five Heligoland traps were constructed along the peninsula, although today only three remain in existence. In 1959 the observatory gained the use of the Annexe, one of two ex W.D. bungalows built at the Warren during the early 1950's, thus increasing the accommodation capacity to seventeen and providing much improved toilet facilities. Over the years the accommodation and facilities have been gradually improved to try to make the visitor's stay at Spurn as comfortable as possible. Other improvements have also taken place, in 1968 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Point was converted into a ringing laboratory ready for the first B.T.O. Ringing Course, held in autumn of that year and in 1971 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Warren was also converted into a ringing laboratory. The other part of this building became a laboratory for the use of students of Leeds University but this also became available to the observatory in the mid 1980's when the University no longer had a use for it. Subsequently it was converted into a self-contained accommodation unit for two, complete with kitchen facilities, and although officially known by the somewhat unimaginative name of Room F (the rooms in the Annexe being known as Rooms A, C, D & E, - whatever happened to Room B?), it was somewhat irreverently christened "Dunbirdin" by regular visitors to Spurn.

In 1965 a sea-watching hut was erected east of the Warren beyond the line of the former railway track. Due to coastal erosion it became necessary to move this in late 1974, when it was hoped that it would last at least as long as it had in its first position. Alas this was not to be, as the rate of erosion increased dramatically in the mid 1970's, necessitating a further move in early December 1977. In that year a clay bank had been built across the field behind Warren Cottage (Clubley's field) to prevent the flooding of arable land by wind-blown sea water, but on January 11th 1978 Spurn suffered its worst flooding ever when a strong to gale-force north-westerly wind combined with a spring tide. In late 1981 due to extensive construction works at Easington a large quantity of boulder clay became available and this was used to build up and extend the bank across Clubley's field, south towards Black Hut and north beyond Big Hedge to join up with an existing bank (which had been built in 1974) behind the scrape. In 1982 the sea-watching hut was repositioned on top of this bank, where it remained until the bank itself was washed away in the early 1990's.

A number of other changes to the observatory recording area began to take place from the early 1970's, including extensive building operations at the Point, commencing in 1974, with the construction of a new jetty for the Humber Pilot boats, new housing for the Spurn Lifeboat crew and the conversion and renovation of various existing buildings for use by the Coastguard and the Pilots. In 1978 following damage to the existing road south of the Warren area a new tarmac road was laid to the west of the original one, this lasted until 1988 when a second "new road" loop had to be laid, followed in 1991 by the construction of the existing loop road running along the Humber shore from just south of the Warren to just beyond Black Hut. The construction of this road resulted in the destruction of the actual Black Hut, although the area still bears the name. In 1981 the lines of wartime concrete anti-tank blocks running from the seashore to the Canal Zone were removed to fill in a breach at the Narrow Neck. This resulted in the southward extension of the Scrape field by the farmer up to Big Hedge and the start of a gradual decline in the condition of this hedge and its attractiveness to birds. In 1982 a local resident excavated a pond for shooting purposes in the wet area adjoining the Canal Zone. This never really proved successful and the land was later purchased by the Y.W.T. and the pond enlarged to become what is now known as Canal Scrape. In 1984 a famous Spurn landmark, the Narrows "Hut", a wooden migration watch shelter which had stood at the Narrow Neck for twenty-three years, was set fire to by person or persons unknown and completely destroyed, it was replaced the following year by a more solid construction made from breeze-blocks.

A period of considerable change began in 1988 when the Spurn peninsula was designated as part of the Spurn Heritage Coast. Projects undertaken include the enlargement of the Canal Scrape mentioned above and the erection of a hide overlooking it, a hide overlooking the Humber wader roost at Chalk Bank, a public sea-watching hide alongside the observatory one, provision of additional car-parking space, the restoration of the short-turf habitat in the Chalk Bank area, provision of footpaths, etc. A major project was the renovation of the Blue Bell in Kilnsea for use as offices, an information centre and a small cafe, which became fully operational in 1995. Another fairly recent project has been the creation of another scrape/pond on Clubley's field.

In 1996 the observatory celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, and for the first time in its history SBO employed a full time seasonal warden. This position has since been expanded and the observatory now enjoys the services of a year- round warden. In 1998, with a view to the future, a small bungalow in Kilnsea was purchased with money bequeathed by the late John Weston, a long time committee member, who regrettably died in 1996. This was followed in 1999 by the purchase of a strip of land adjacent to the property and is now known as the ‘Church Field’, this is planted with a sacrificial crop every year, and has also had several groups of trees planted and a feeding station placed in the north-east corner. Access to this field is available by becoming a member of ‘Friends of Spurn Bird Observatory’, a venture set up in 2003 to eventually help with the building of a new observatory when the old one falls way to the sea.

 

Well, to be precise, there are three Ios in the three Jupiter images as well as three Io shadows but the third Io in the top image is harder to spot as it was away from the edge of Jupiter by then. If you look closely at the same angle to the shadow as the two lower images you can just make out the brown spot that is Io.

 

All three images were part of an experiment on a reasonably good night of seeing. They are all taken in 8bit format. The lower left image was taken with a Celestron Skyris USB3 colour CCD camera with a 618 chip. The other two images were taken with a Basler Ace USB3 mono CCD also with a 618 chip. The lower two images were both take through my 5inch/130mm refractor with a 5x PowerMate and ADC. The top image was taken through my 12inch SCT with a 2.5x PowerMate and no ADC. Remarkably by using the component chain for the Skyris in the order back from the refractor focuser of extension tube, 5x Powermate, ADC and finally the Skyris or Basler, the image size recorded is almost identical to that of using the 2.5x Powermate through the 12inch SCT with 2.5x Powermate attached to the focuser and then just a filter wheel in front of the Basler.

 

The Basler Ace was used with RGB filters. The Skyris was fitted with an IR blocker, the Basler Ace wasn't. The Skyris image was taken at around 30fps, the Basler Ace image on the lower right at 40fps and top at around 75fps.

 

Both the lower images are derotated stacks, for the Skyris 7x60secs, for the Basler Ace 4x Red, 4x Green and 4x Blue each colour at 45-50 seconds. The top image with Europa to the right and Io and shadow crossing is a single stack of 1x R, 1xG and 1xB at 55 seconds per colour.

 

At first glance there is little between the images but a close inspection shows the Basler RGB image through the refractor is fractionally more detailed than the Skyris colour image. The top Basler image, which is a far shorter sequence, holds up well in comparison. While it is a little smoother as it was taken through a SCT, it also has more depth to the colours even if it doesn't have the sharpness of the refractor. It also reveals slightly more detail although the refractor images may look more detailed at frst glance.

 

What the little experiment above does show is that there is really little to choose in end image quality between them although I had a better chance with the greater light gathering ability of the 12inch SCT to run the camera faster and capture more detail in the best seeing. The only drawback with the Skyris is that because it is capturing in RGB32 mode, it eats up the transmission even with USB3, meaning that if I operate at above 40fps it starts to drop frames at an alarming rate. No such problem with the raw files captured with the Basler Ace, which can happly run at full speed without dropping frames.

 

It is possible to capture direct RAW images with the Skyris, which is much faster and enables faster speeds above 40fps, but I have tried and failed to find a way to get the raw captures to debayer, so can only conclude there is something else that I need to do to ensure a RAW capture can be processed as colour. If anyone out there knows what, please let me know!

 

Peter

 

www.spurnpoint.com/Spurn_Point.htm

  

Spurn is a very unique place in the British Islands. Three and a half miles long and only fifty metres wide in places.

Extending out in to the Humber Estuary from the Yorkshire coast it has always had a big affect to the navigation of all vessels over the years. Help to some and a danger or hindrance to others. This alone makes Spurn a unique place.

Spurn is made up of a series of sand and shingle banks held together with mainly Marram grass and Seabuckthorn. There are a series of sea defence works built by the Victorians and maintained by the Ministry of Defence, till they sold Spurn to the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust in the 1950s. The defences are in a poor state, breaking down and crumbling. This is making Spurn a very fragile place wide open to the ravages of the North Sea.

One of the most striking features of Spurn is the black and white lighthouse near to the end of Spurn. Now just an empty shell not used since it was closed down at dawn on the thirty first of October 1986.

There have been many Lighthouses on Spurn over the years the first recorded at around 1427. The present light was built from 1893 TO 1895. The small tower on the beach on the Estuary side was originally the low light. It was built and put in to operation at around 1852. This light was no longer needed when the present lighthouse was opened in 1895.At a later date the light was removed and it was used as a store for explosives and later as a water tower. The tank can still be seen on the top. When it was operational there was a raised walkway from the shore to the lighthouse so it could be reached at all stages of the tide.

The present lighthouse was built to replace an old lighthouse that was positioned just to the south of the present one. You can still see the round perimeter wall surrounding the old keepers cottages and the base of the old lighthouse which had to be demolished due to it settling on it's foundations making it unsafe.

The only light on Spurn today is a flashing green starboard light on the very end of the point and the fixed green lights marking the end of the Pilots jetty.

Because of Spurns ever moving position there have been many Lighthouses over the years. There is a very good book by George.de.BOAR, called History of the Spurn Lighthouses, produced by the East Yorkshire Local History Society. This is one of a series of books on local history.

  

www.spurnpoint.com/Around_and_about_at_Spurn.htm

  

Around and about there are plenty of places to eat and drink. Starting from the north of Spurn at Kilnsea there is the Riverside hotel offering good quality food drink and accommodation. Coming south towards Spurn and still in Kilnsea there is the Crown and Anchor pub. A welcoming place serving bar meals fine beers and offering bed and breakfast at very reasonable rates. At the crossroads before you turn towards Spurn there is the Spurn heritage coast visitors centre. Where there is a small cafe and exhibition. At the entrance Spurn point nature reserve is an information centre and bird observatory selling books pamphlets, etc., and the last toilet on Spurn.

Past the lighthouse is the last car park. Two hundred metres further on you find the Humber Lifeboat and Pilot stations. Near the houses is a Small caravan selling tea, coffee, cold cans, hot and cold food, crisps and sweets.

All are open all year round apart from the heritage centre which is open thought the season.

 

BIRD WATCHING.

Is a very popular pastime as Spurn is internationally famous for birds. There are up to two hundred species recorded at spurn every year. Some of which are extremely rare. The Marmora's Warbler seen at Spurn In June 1992 was only the third recorded in Britain.

 

SEA FISHING.

The beaches of Spurn provide some of the best sea fishing in the area, with Cod and Whiting and Flats being caught through the winter and Skate, Flats and Bass through the summer. There is sport to be had all the year.

At the very end of Spurn is deep water ideal for Cod but this only fishes best two hours either side of low water, the tide is to strong at other times. All along the seaward side of Spurn is good for all species of fish at all times though over high water being the better. The riverside of Spurn is very shallow and only produces Flats and the bass over high water.

 

THE BEACH.

 

The beaches at Spurn are of soft sand and shingle. Whichever way the wind is blowing you can just pop over the dunes to the outer side. There are fossils and all manners of things to find beach combing. Swimming is not safe any were near the point end as there are very strong tides at up to six knots at times. But in side Spurn around the point car park is perfect at high water. The beach does not shelf to fast and very little tide. You can have the place to your self at times, as Spurn is never really busy weekdays.#

A very popular pastime at Spurn is Fossil hunting. There is a good abundance of fossils to be found in amongst the pebbles and shingle.

The Shark Trust has a very interesting PDF file tell you all about Shark Skate and rays the mermaids purses you find on the beach are egg shells from sharks and Rays. Click the link to down load the Shark Trust Brochure.

 

WALKING.

Walking or strolling at spurn is very easy, as there are no hills. There are various sign posted paths up and down the point. For the fit a complete walk round the whole point is about 8 miles, taking in all the point round the point end and back to the "warren" information place at the start of Spurn. You will need good footwear, as much of the paths are sand. There is limited access for disabled, but not to the point end, as you have to go via the beach.

You can park your car at the point car park and walk round the point end and back to the car park about a mile, or just stroll around the point were you choose. The only place you are not allowed to go are down the pilot's jetty and the centre square of the Lifeboat houses.

In spring and early summer Spurn is covered with a large amount of wild flowers of all species.

There are common to the not so common; from Orchids to bluebells. I must remind you Spurn is a nature reserve and the picking of all flowers is prohibited. When visiting please enjoy Spurn, as it is a very beautiful place and leave only your footprints.

 

Horse Riding.

 

There is riding available nearby at the North Humberside Riding Centre. The stables are ideally located with rides along quiet country lanes, by-ways, plus miles of sandy beach and riverbanks. The cross-country course offers a variety of fences for both the novice and the more experienced rider.

 

www.spurnbirdobservatory.co.uk/

 

A Brief History of Spurn Bird Observatory

 

Following visits to Spurn by several members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in the late 1930's, a communal log for ornithological observations was instituted in 1938. This included a roll-call of species, the beginnings of a recording system, which later became standard in bird observatories. Realising the potential of the Spurn peninsula for the regular observation of bird migration a group of enthusiasts, notably Ralph Chislett, George Ainsworth, John Lord and R.M. Garnett, had the idea of setting up a bird observatory, with the Warren Cottage at the northern end of the peninsula as an ideal headquarters. Unfortunately the outbreak of war forced them to put their plans on hold but shortly after hostilities ceased a lease for Warren Cottage was obtained from the War Department and the observatory was established shortly afterwards under the auspices of the Y.N.U. with the four members mentioned above forming the first committee. A preliminary meeting was held in September 1945 to decide on the site for a Heligoland trap, work on which was begun almost immediately and the first bird (a Blackbird) was ringed on November 17th. The first minuted committee meeting was held on March 9th 1946 and the observatory was opened to visitors at Whitsuntide that year.

Initially coverage was limited to the main migration seasons, being extended to winter weekends in the early 1950's to trap and ring some of the large numbers of Snow Buntings which used to occur at that time of year and gradually coverage was increased (whenever possible) to cover the late spring and summer. In 1959 there was an important development when the Yorkshire Naturalists' Trust (now the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust) became the owners of the peninsula and thus the observatory's landlord. In 1960 a full time warden was appointed by the Trust, and although having no official connection with the observatory the fact of having an observer on the peninsula year-round inevitably helped to improve the ornithological coverage. This was especially the case from 1964 when the current warden, Barry Spence, was appointed, in conjunction with the fact that an interest in birds and their migrations was steadily growing and more bird-watchers were staying at the observatory, often for longer periods.

When the observatory opened there was accommodation for seven visitors in Warren Cottage and facilities included two chemical toilets, the Warren Heligoland trap and an ex-army hut as a ringing hut. Over the next ten years a further five Heligoland traps were constructed along the peninsula, although today only three remain in existence. In 1959 the observatory gained the use of the Annexe, one of two ex W.D. bungalows built at the Warren during the early 1950's, thus increasing the accommodation capacity to seventeen and providing much improved toilet facilities. Over the years the accommodation and facilities have been gradually improved to try to make the visitor's stay at Spurn as comfortable as possible. Other improvements have also taken place, in 1968 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Point was converted into a ringing laboratory ready for the first B.T.O. Ringing Course, held in autumn of that year and in 1971 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Warren was also converted into a ringing laboratory. The other part of this building became a laboratory for the use of students of Leeds University but this also became available to the observatory in the mid 1980's when the University no longer had a use for it. Subsequently it was converted into a self-contained accommodation unit for two, complete with kitchen facilities, and although officially known by the somewhat unimaginative name of Room F (the rooms in the Annexe being known as Rooms A, C, D & E, - whatever happened to Room B?), it was somewhat irreverently christened "Dunbirdin" by regular visitors to Spurn.

In 1965 a sea-watching hut was erected east of the Warren beyond the line of the former railway track. Due to coastal erosion it became necessary to move this in late 1974, when it was hoped that it would last at least as long as it had in its first position. Alas this was not to be, as the rate of erosion increased dramatically in the mid 1970's, necessitating a further move in early December 1977. In that year a clay bank had been built across the field behind Warren Cottage (Clubley's field) to prevent the flooding of arable land by wind-blown sea water, but on January 11th 1978 Spurn suffered its worst flooding ever when a strong to gale-force north-westerly wind combined with a spring tide. In late 1981 due to extensive construction works at Easington a large quantity of boulder clay became available and this was used to build up and extend the bank across Clubley's field, south towards Black Hut and north beyond Big Hedge to join up with an existing bank (which had been built in 1974) behind the scrape. In 1982 the sea-watching hut was repositioned on top of this bank, where it remained until the bank itself was washed away in the early 1990's.

A number of other changes to the observatory recording area began to take place from the early 1970's, including extensive building operations at the Point, commencing in 1974, with the construction of a new jetty for the Humber Pilot boats, new housing for the Spurn Lifeboat crew and the conversion and renovation of various existing buildings for use by the Coastguard and the Pilots. In 1978 following damage to the existing road south of the Warren area a new tarmac road was laid to the west of the original one, this lasted until 1988 when a second "new road" loop had to be laid, followed in 1991 by the construction of the existing loop road running along the Humber shore from just south of the Warren to just beyond Black Hut. The construction of this road resulted in the destruction of the actual Black Hut, although the area still bears the name. In 1981 the lines of wartime concrete anti-tank blocks running from the seashore to the Canal Zone were removed to fill in a breach at the Narrow Neck. This resulted in the southward extension of the Scrape field by the farmer up to Big Hedge and the start of a gradual decline in the condition of this hedge and its attractiveness to birds. In 1982 a local resident excavated a pond for shooting purposes in the wet area adjoining the Canal Zone. This never really proved successful and the land was later purchased by the Y.W.T. and the pond enlarged to become what is now known as Canal Scrape. In 1984 a famous Spurn landmark, the Narrows "Hut", a wooden migration watch shelter which had stood at the Narrow Neck for twenty-three years, was set fire to by person or persons unknown and completely destroyed, it was replaced the following year by a more solid construction made from breeze-blocks.

A period of considerable change began in 1988 when the Spurn peninsula was designated as part of the Spurn Heritage Coast. Projects undertaken include the enlargement of the Canal Scrape mentioned above and the erection of a hide overlooking it, a hide overlooking the Humber wader roost at Chalk Bank, a public sea-watching hide alongside the observatory one, provision of additional car-parking space, the restoration of the short-turf habitat in the Chalk Bank area, provision of footpaths, etc. A major project was the renovation of the Blue Bell in Kilnsea for use as offices, an information centre and a small cafe, which became fully operational in 1995. Another fairly recent project has been the creation of another scrape/pond on Clubley's field.

In 1996 the observatory celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, and for the first time in its history SBO employed a full time seasonal warden. This position has since been expanded and the observatory now enjoys the services of a year- round warden. In 1998, with a view to the future, a small bungalow in Kilnsea was purchased with money bequeathed by the late John Weston, a long time committee member, who regrettably died in 1996. This was followed in 1999 by the purchase of a strip of land adjacent to the property and is now known as the ‘Church Field’, this is planted with a sacrificial crop every year, and has also had several groups of trees planted and a feeding station placed in the north-east corner. Access to this field is available by becoming a member of ‘Friends of Spurn Bird Observatory’, a venture set up in 2003 to eventually help with the building of a new observatory when the old one falls way to the sea.

 

www.spurnpoint.com/Spurn_Point.htm

  

Spurn is a very unique place in the British Islands. Three and a half miles long and only fifty metres wide in places.

Extending out in to the Humber Estuary from the Yorkshire coast it has always had a big affect to the navigation of all vessels over the years. Help to some and a danger or hindrance to others. This alone makes Spurn a unique place.

Spurn is made up of a series of sand and shingle banks held together with mainly Marram grass and Seabuckthorn. There are a series of sea defence works built by the Victorians and maintained by the Ministry of Defence, till they sold Spurn to the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust in the 1950s. The defences are in a poor state, breaking down and crumbling. This is making Spurn a very fragile place wide open to the ravages of the North Sea.

One of the most striking features of Spurn is the black and white lighthouse near to the end of Spurn. Now just an empty shell not used since it was closed down at dawn on the thirty first of October 1986.

There have been many Lighthouses on Spurn over the years the first recorded at around 1427. The present light was built from 1893 TO 1895. The small tower on the beach on the Estuary side was originally the low light. It was built and put in to operation at around 1852. This light was no longer needed when the present lighthouse was opened in 1895.At a later date the light was removed and it was used as a store for explosives and later as a water tower. The tank can still be seen on the top. When it was operational there was a raised walkway from the shore to the lighthouse so it could be reached at all stages of the tide.

The present lighthouse was built to replace an old lighthouse that was positioned just to the south of the present one. You can still see the round perimeter wall surrounding the old keepers cottages and the base of the old lighthouse which had to be demolished due to it settling on it's foundations making it unsafe.

The only light on Spurn today is a flashing green starboard light on the very end of the point and the fixed green lights marking the end of the Pilots jetty.

Because of Spurns ever moving position there have been many Lighthouses over the years. There is a very good book by George.de.BOAR, called History of the Spurn Lighthouses, produced by the East Yorkshire Local History Society. This is one of a series of books on local history.

  

www.spurnpoint.com/Around_and_about_at_Spurn.htm

  

Around and about there are plenty of places to eat and drink. Starting from the north of Spurn at Kilnsea there is the Riverside hotel offering good quality food drink and accommodation. Coming south towards Spurn and still in Kilnsea there is the Crown and Anchor pub. A welcoming place serving bar meals fine beers and offering bed and breakfast at very reasonable rates. At the crossroads before you turn towards Spurn there is the Spurn heritage coast visitors centre. Where there is a small cafe and exhibition. At the entrance Spurn point nature reserve is an information centre and bird observatory selling books pamphlets, etc., and the last toilet on Spurn.

Past the lighthouse is the last car park. Two hundred metres further on you find the Humber Lifeboat and Pilot stations. Near the houses is a Small caravan selling tea, coffee, cold cans, hot and cold food, crisps and sweets.

All are open all year round apart from the heritage centre which is open thought the season.

 

BIRD WATCHING.

Is a very popular pastime as Spurn is internationally famous for birds. There are up to two hundred species recorded at spurn every year. Some of which are extremely rare. The Marmora's Warbler seen at Spurn In June 1992 was only the third recorded in Britain.

 

SEA FISHING.

The beaches of Spurn provide some of the best sea fishing in the area, with Cod and Whiting and Flats being caught through the winter and Skate, Flats and Bass through the summer. There is sport to be had all the year.

At the very end of Spurn is deep water ideal for Cod but this only fishes best two hours either side of low water, the tide is to strong at other times. All along the seaward side of Spurn is good for all species of fish at all times though over high water being the better. The riverside of Spurn is very shallow and only produces Flats and the bass over high water.

 

THE BEACH.

 

The beaches at Spurn are of soft sand and shingle. Whichever way the wind is blowing you can just pop over the dunes to the outer side. There are fossils and all manners of things to find beach combing. Swimming is not safe any were near the point end as there are very strong tides at up to six knots at times. But in side Spurn around the point car park is perfect at high water. The beach does not shelf to fast and very little tide. You can have the place to your self at times, as Spurn is never really busy weekdays.#

A very popular pastime at Spurn is Fossil hunting. There is a good abundance of fossils to be found in amongst the pebbles and shingle.

The Shark Trust has a very interesting PDF file tell you all about Shark Skate and rays the mermaids purses you find on the beach are egg shells from sharks and Rays. Click the link to down load the Shark Trust Brochure.

 

WALKING.

Walking or strolling at spurn is very easy, as there are no hills. There are various sign posted paths up and down the point. For the fit a complete walk round the whole point is about 8 miles, taking in all the point round the point end and back to the "warren" information place at the start of Spurn. You will need good footwear, as much of the paths are sand. There is limited access for disabled, but not to the point end, as you have to go via the beach.

You can park your car at the point car park and walk round the point end and back to the car park about a mile, or just stroll around the point were you choose. The only place you are not allowed to go are down the pilot's jetty and the centre square of the Lifeboat houses.

In spring and early summer Spurn is covered with a large amount of wild flowers of all species.

There are common to the not so common; from Orchids to bluebells. I must remind you Spurn is a nature reserve and the picking of all flowers is prohibited. When visiting please enjoy Spurn, as it is a very beautiful place and leave only your footprints.

 

Horse Riding.

 

There is riding available nearby at the North Humberside Riding Centre. The stables are ideally located with rides along quiet country lanes, by-ways, plus miles of sandy beach and riverbanks. The cross-country course offers a variety of fences for both the novice and the more experienced rider.

 

www.spurnbirdobservatory.co.uk/

 

A Brief History of Spurn Bird Observatory

 

Following visits to Spurn by several members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in the late 1930's, a communal log for ornithological observations was instituted in 1938. This included a roll-call of species, the beginnings of a recording system, which later became standard in bird observatories. Realising the potential of the Spurn peninsula for the regular observation of bird migration a group of enthusiasts, notably Ralph Chislett, George Ainsworth, John Lord and R.M. Garnett, had the idea of setting up a bird observatory, with the Warren Cottage at the northern end of the peninsula as an ideal headquarters. Unfortunately the outbreak of war forced them to put their plans on hold but shortly after hostilities ceased a lease for Warren Cottage was obtained from the War Department and the observatory was established shortly afterwards under the auspices of the Y.N.U. with the four members mentioned above forming the first committee. A preliminary meeting was held in September 1945 to decide on the site for a Heligoland trap, work on which was begun almost immediately and the first bird (a Blackbird) was ringed on November 17th. The first minuted committee meeting was held on March 9th 1946 and the observatory was opened to visitors at Whitsuntide that year.

Initially coverage was limited to the main migration seasons, being extended to winter weekends in the early 1950's to trap and ring some of the large numbers of Snow Buntings which used to occur at that time of year and gradually coverage was increased (whenever possible) to cover the late spring and summer. In 1959 there was an important development when the Yorkshire Naturalists' Trust (now the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust) became the owners of the peninsula and thus the observatory's landlord. In 1960 a full time warden was appointed by the Trust, and although having no official connection with the observatory the fact of having an observer on the peninsula year-round inevitably helped to improve the ornithological coverage. This was especially the case from 1964 when the current warden, Barry Spence, was appointed, in conjunction with the fact that an interest in birds and their migrations was steadily growing and more bird-watchers were staying at the observatory, often for longer periods.

When the observatory opened there was accommodation for seven visitors in Warren Cottage and facilities included two chemical toilets, the Warren Heligoland trap and an ex-army hut as a ringing hut. Over the next ten years a further five Heligoland traps were constructed along the peninsula, although today only three remain in existence. In 1959 the observatory gained the use of the Annexe, one of two ex W.D. bungalows built at the Warren during the early 1950's, thus increasing the accommodation capacity to seventeen and providing much improved toilet facilities. Over the years the accommodation and facilities have been gradually improved to try to make the visitor's stay at Spurn as comfortable as possible. Other improvements have also taken place, in 1968 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Point was converted into a ringing laboratory ready for the first B.T.O. Ringing Course, held in autumn of that year and in 1971 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Warren was also converted into a ringing laboratory. The other part of this building became a laboratory for the use of students of Leeds University but this also became available to the observatory in the mid 1980's when the University no longer had a use for it. Subsequently it was converted into a self-contained accommodation unit for two, complete with kitchen facilities, and although officially known by the somewhat unimaginative name of Room F (the rooms in the Annexe being known as Rooms A, C, D & E, - whatever happened to Room B?), it was somewhat irreverently christened "Dunbirdin" by regular visitors to Spurn.

In 1965 a sea-watching hut was erected east of the Warren beyond the line of the former railway track. Due to coastal erosion it became necessary to move this in late 1974, when it was hoped that it would last at least as long as it had in its first position. Alas this was not to be, as the rate of erosion increased dramatically in the mid 1970's, necessitating a further move in early December 1977. In that year a clay bank had been built across the field behind Warren Cottage (Clubley's field) to prevent the flooding of arable land by wind-blown sea water, but on January 11th 1978 Spurn suffered its worst flooding ever when a strong to gale-force north-westerly wind combined with a spring tide. In late 1981 due to extensive construction works at Easington a large quantity of boulder clay became available and this was used to build up and extend the bank across Clubley's field, south towards Black Hut and north beyond Big Hedge to join up with an existing bank (which had been built in 1974) behind the scrape. In 1982 the sea-watching hut was repositioned on top of this bank, where it remained until the bank itself was washed away in the early 1990's.

A number of other changes to the observatory recording area began to take place from the early 1970's, including extensive building operations at the Point, commencing in 1974, with the construction of a new jetty for the Humber Pilot boats, new housing for the Spurn Lifeboat crew and the conversion and renovation of various existing buildings for use by the Coastguard and the Pilots. In 1978 following damage to the existing road south of the Warren area a new tarmac road was laid to the west of the original one, this lasted until 1988 when a second "new road" loop had to be laid, followed in 1991 by the construction of the existing loop road running along the Humber shore from just south of the Warren to just beyond Black Hut. The construction of this road resulted in the destruction of the actual Black Hut, although the area still bears the name. In 1981 the lines of wartime concrete anti-tank blocks running from the seashore to the Canal Zone were removed to fill in a breach at the Narrow Neck. This resulted in the southward extension of the Scrape field by the farmer up to Big Hedge and the start of a gradual decline in the condition of this hedge and its attractiveness to birds. In 1982 a local resident excavated a pond for shooting purposes in the wet area adjoining the Canal Zone. This never really proved successful and the land was later purchased by the Y.W.T. and the pond enlarged to become what is now known as Canal Scrape. In 1984 a famous Spurn landmark, the Narrows "Hut", a wooden migration watch shelter which had stood at the Narrow Neck for twenty-three years, was set fire to by person or persons unknown and completely destroyed, it was replaced the following year by a more solid construction made from breeze-blocks.

A period of considerable change began in 1988 when the Spurn peninsula was designated as part of the Spurn Heritage Coast. Projects undertaken include the enlargement of the Canal Scrape mentioned above and the erection of a hide overlooking it, a hide overlooking the Humber wader roost at Chalk Bank, a public sea-watching hide alongside the observatory one, provision of additional car-parking space, the restoration of the short-turf habitat in the Chalk Bank area, provision of footpaths, etc. A major project was the renovation of the Blue Bell in Kilnsea for use as offices, an information centre and a small cafe, which became fully operational in 1995. Another fairly recent project has been the creation of another scrape/pond on Clubley's field.

In 1996 the observatory celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, and for the first time in its history SBO employed a full time seasonal warden. This position has since been expanded and the observatory now enjoys the services of a year- round warden. In 1998, with a view to the future, a small bungalow in Kilnsea was purchased with money bequeathed by the late John Weston, a long time committee member, who regrettably died in 1996. This was followed in 1999 by the purchase of a strip of land adjacent to the property and is now known as the ‘Church Field’, this is planted with a sacrificial crop every year, and has also had several groups of trees planted and a feeding station placed in the north-east corner. Access to this field is available by becoming a member of ‘Friends of Spurn Bird Observatory’, a venture set up in 2003 to eventually help with the building of a new observatory when the old one falls way to the sea.

 

This is a scanned print from a collection of photographs taken by the late Jim Taylor A number of years ago I was offered a large number of photographs taken by Jim Taylor, a transport photographer based in Huddersfield. The collection, 30,000 prints,20,000 negatives – and copyright! – had been offered to me and one of the national transport magazines previously by a friend of Jims, on behalf of Jims wife. I initially turned them down, already having over 30,000 of my owns prints filed away and taking space up. Several months later the prints were still for sale – at what was, apparently, the going rate . It was a lot of money and I deliberated for quite a while before deciding to buy them. I did however buy them directly from Jims wife and she delivered them personally – just to quash the occasional rumour from people who can’t mind their own business. Although some prints were sold elsewhere, particularly the popular big fleet stuff, I should have the negatives, unfortunately they came to me in a random mix, 1200 to a box, without any sort of indexing and as such it would be impossible to match negatives to prints, or, to even find a print of any particular vehicle. I have only ever looked at a handful myself unless I am scanning them. The prints are generally in excellent condition and I initially stored them in a bedroom without ever looking at any of them. In 2006 I built an extension and they had to be well protected from dust and moved a few times. Ultimately my former 6x7 box room office has become their (and my own work’s) permanent home.

  

It was the development of our second generation website with its photo gallery located quite cleverly on Flickr, rather than making our own site unwieldy, that led me to start uploading photos to Flickr. It was initially for my own and historic company photos but with unlimited storage and reasonable upload speeds I soon started uploading other stuff. Scanning one of Jims photos was a random choice one winters evening, initially very slow and time consuming I nevertheless stuck with it and things just snowballed. It was obvious that there are a lot of people interested in this type of thing. I can now scan and edit in Photoshop in a minute or so per print. Out of over 30,000 images on Flickr I have around 3500 of Jims photos. I don’t promote myself on Flickr – at all! So my viewing figures grow organically, without using the mutual favourite awarding etc. that is endemic on Flickr. The statistics tell me that travel (I don’t do porn) is the most popular genre. My travel photos, particularly later stuff receive far more views than transport. The transport stuff will hit a ceiling and then build very slowly over time, with lots of people coming back to them again and again. Travel of course is far more inclusive but there is an unbelievable amount out there, far more than the 1980’s UK transport stuff. The travel and landscape photos have pushed the views past 12 million, with a current average of around 40,000 views a day, peaking with an upload from a new destination at around 90,000 views. I recall being excited with a 100 views.

 

My reasons for buying the collection were mixed. On the one hand it was a unique snapshot of the transport industry, predominantly in the north of England, from around 1980 onwards. This was my patch and my era. I passed my Class One a few days after my 21st birthday in 1980 and spent the next 17 years being a Jack the Lad on the road, waving at and crossing paths with many of the wagons that Jim photographed, in fact my owns wagons are in the mix. Jim did travel to Scotland extensively and into the Southern Hemisphere a number of times hence there is a broad range of material in his collection. I knew I wouldn’t get a chance like it again. On the other hand the reason I gave up hauling scrap around the North of England in a Foden eight wheeler was the diagnosis of an incurable form of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma at the age of 38, although a low grade cancer I was already a widower with four young children and I was looking at an uncertain future and it terrified me. I wasn’t remotely ill but was treated with Chemotherapy, again, I wasn’t ill and didn’t need time off work. The shock however brought me to my senses and I came off the road, I joined the normal world, up at 6.30 not 4.30am. I didn’t realise it at the time but I had closed the door on my wagon driving days. I was worried that, at some point, I wouldn’t be able to work physically hard, bearing in mind the family business is a scrap yard – a physical sort of environment. I had it in my mind that there was a possibility that I could use my own and Jims photos to supplement my income, I had four kids to feed and I knew there wouldn’t be any family financial support – it’s not that sort of family. I still have the NHL although thankfully you wouldn’t know it. This type of thing is now considered treatable – not curable- after around forty endoscopies, a 100 stomach biopsies, bone marrow samples and endless scans of different types, I may well get to die of old age, not cancer. It was discovered almost by accident at the time, not illness on my part, and long may it stay that way! The lack of illness made the shock all the greater though.

 

I hope to avoid posting images that Jim had not taken his self, however should I inadvertently infringe another photographers copyright, please inform me by email and I will resolve the issue immediately. There are copyright issues with some of the photographs that were sold to me. A Flickr member from Scotland drew my attention to some of his own work amongst the first uploads of Jims work. I had a quick look through some of the 30 boxes of prints and decided that for the time being the safest thing for me to do was withdraw the majority of the earlier uploaded scans and deal with the problem – which I did. whilst the vast majority of the prints are Jims, there is a problem defining copyright of some of them, this is something that the seller did not make clear at the time. I am reasonably confident that I have since been successful in identifying Jims own work. His early work consists of many thousands of lustre 6x4 prints which are difficult to scan well, later work is almost entirely 7x5 glossy, much easier to scan. Not all of the prints are pin sharp but I can generally print successfully to A4 from a scan.

 

You may notice photographs being duplicated in this Album, unfortunately there are multiple copies of many prints (for swapping) and as I have to have a system of archiving and backing up I can only guess - using memory - if I have scanned a print before. The bigger fleets have so many similar vehicles and registration numbers that it is impossible to get it right all of the time. It is easier to scan and process a print than check my files - on three different PC's - for duplicates. There has not been, nor will there ever be, any intention to knowingly breach anyone else's copyright. I have presented the Jim Taylor collection as exactly that-The Jim Taylor Collection- his work not mine, my own work is quite obviously mine.

 

Unfortunately many truck spotters have swapped and traded their work without copyright marking it as theirs. These people never anticipated the ease with which images would be shared online in the future. I would guess that having swapped and traded photos for many years that it is almost impossible to control their future use. Anyone wanting to control the future use of their work would have been well advised to copyright mark their work (as many did) and would be well advised not to post them on photo sharing sites without a watermark as the whole point of these sites is to share the image, it is very easy for those that wish, to lift any image, despite security settings, indeed, Flickr itself, warns you that this is the case. It was this abuse and theft of my material that led me to watermark all of my later uploads. I may yet withdraw non watermarked photos, I haven’t decided yet.

 

To anyone reading the above it will be quite obvious that I can’t provide information regarding specific photos or potential future uploads – I didn’t take them! There are many vehicles that were well known to me as Jim only lived down the road from me (although I didn’t know him), however scanning, titling, tagging and uploading is laborious and time consuming enough, I do however provide a fair amount of information with my own transport (and other) photos. I am aware that there are requests from other Flickr users that are unanswered, I stumble across them months or years after they were posted, this isn’t deliberate. Some weekends one or two “enthusiasts” can add many hundreds of photos as favourites, this pushes requests that are in the comments section ten or twenty pages out of sight and I miss them. I also have notifications switched off, I receive around 50 emails a day through work and I don’t want even more from Flickr. Other requests, like many other things, I just plain forget – no excuses! Uploads of Jims photos will be infrequent as it is a boring pastime and I would much rather work on my own output.

 

None of my photographs are free to use – without my permission - only free to view! If you breach my copyright you are stealing what is mine and if I find out, I will pursue the case until you rectify the situation. Arguments that attempt to justify copyright theft are just excuses for theft from people with little or no understanding of copyright law – or more frequently- deliberate, selective, misinterpretation of the law – to suit their own ends. I have never knowingly refused a reasonable request, I don’t join groups but am quite happy for people to add photos to groups. I dislike exchanging long and time consuming emails – I prefer to talk on the phone, being the opposite of anti-social in person, you can’t shut me up. I am generally speaking an anti-social, social networker, I just don’t have the time for it, in fact, I joke that I am going to start a social network for internet anti-social people, you’ll just register your name and that’s it – no networking and endless mindless twaddle. Face-less Book? The antidote to Facebook. I like to get out and chat to people face to face and welcome customers with an interest in photography in to my office to chat on a regular basis. I also print – and give- A4 prints to many of the drivers that visit our yard. I photograph wagons and plant that I come into contact with in a day’s work I don’t go looking to photograph them in my free time. Wagons are a necessary evil in my life these days and they cost me money – every day! For the extensive story and history of JB Schofield &sons Ltd look here; www.jbschofieldandsons.co.uk/

 

So far photography remains a hobby, and I refuse any offers to turn it into a business, the regulations surrounding scrap and transport and the running of the yard keep me occupied most of the time. In my free time I cycle hard for fitness, walk hard for pleasure, fitness, and the challenge, take photos for pleasure and the challenge, edit them because I have to, and lastly, drink wine because I want to. There isn't time for another business. The kids are now adults and all of them work for me, and with me, another challenge.

 

 

www.spurnpoint.com/Spurn_Point.htm

  

Spurn is a very unique place in the British Islands. Three and a half miles long and only fifty metres wide in places.

Extending out in to the Humber Estuary from the Yorkshire coast it has always had a big affect to the navigation of all vessels over the years. Help to some and a danger or hindrance to others. This alone makes Spurn a unique place.

Spurn is made up of a series of sand and shingle banks held together with mainly Marram grass and Seabuckthorn. There are a series of sea defence works built by the Victorians and maintained by the Ministry of Defence, till they sold Spurn to the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust in the 1950s. The defences are in a poor state, breaking down and crumbling. This is making Spurn a very fragile place wide open to the ravages of the North Sea.

One of the most striking features of Spurn is the black and white lighthouse near to the end of Spurn. Now just an empty shell not used since it was closed down at dawn on the thirty first of October 1986.

There have been many Lighthouses on Spurn over the years the first recorded at around 1427. The present light was built from 1893 TO 1895. The small tower on the beach on the Estuary side was originally the low light. It was built and put in to operation at around 1852. This light was no longer needed when the present lighthouse was opened in 1895.At a later date the light was removed and it was used as a store for explosives and later as a water tower. The tank can still be seen on the top. When it was operational there was a raised walkway from the shore to the lighthouse so it could be reached at all stages of the tide.

The present lighthouse was built to replace an old lighthouse that was positioned just to the south of the present one. You can still see the round perimeter wall surrounding the old keepers cottages and the base of the old lighthouse which had to be demolished due to it settling on it's foundations making it unsafe.

The only light on Spurn today is a flashing green starboard light on the very end of the point and the fixed green lights marking the end of the Pilots jetty.

Because of Spurns ever moving position there have been many Lighthouses over the years. There is a very good book by George.de.BOAR, called History of the Spurn Lighthouses, produced by the East Yorkshire Local History Society. This is one of a series of books on local history.

  

www.spurnpoint.com/Around_and_about_at_Spurn.htm

  

Around and about there are plenty of places to eat and drink. Starting from the north of Spurn at Kilnsea there is the Riverside hotel offering good quality food drink and accommodation. Coming south towards Spurn and still in Kilnsea there is the Crown and Anchor pub. A welcoming place serving bar meals fine beers and offering bed and breakfast at very reasonable rates. At the crossroads before you turn towards Spurn there is the Spurn heritage coast visitors centre. Where there is a small cafe and exhibition. At the entrance Spurn point nature reserve is an information centre and bird observatory selling books pamphlets, etc., and the last toilet on Spurn.

Past the lighthouse is the last car park. Two hundred metres further on you find the Humber Lifeboat and Pilot stations. Near the houses is a Small caravan selling tea, coffee, cold cans, hot and cold food, crisps and sweets.

All are open all year round apart from the heritage centre which is open thought the season.

 

BIRD WATCHING.

Is a very popular pastime as Spurn is internationally famous for birds. There are up to two hundred species recorded at spurn every year. Some of which are extremely rare. The Marmora's Warbler seen at Spurn In June 1992 was only the third recorded in Britain.

 

SEA FISHING.

The beaches of Spurn provide some of the best sea fishing in the area, with Cod and Whiting and Flats being caught through the winter and Skate, Flats and Bass through the summer. There is sport to be had all the year.

At the very end of Spurn is deep water ideal for Cod but this only fishes best two hours either side of low water, the tide is to strong at other times. All along the seaward side of Spurn is good for all species of fish at all times though over high water being the better. The riverside of Spurn is very shallow and only produces Flats and the bass over high water.

 

THE BEACH.

 

The beaches at Spurn are of soft sand and shingle. Whichever way the wind is blowing you can just pop over the dunes to the outer side. There are fossils and all manners of things to find beach combing. Swimming is not safe any were near the point end as there are very strong tides at up to six knots at times. But in side Spurn around the point car park is perfect at high water. The beach does not shelf to fast and very little tide. You can have the place to your self at times, as Spurn is never really busy weekdays.#

A very popular pastime at Spurn is Fossil hunting. There is a good abundance of fossils to be found in amongst the pebbles and shingle.

The Shark Trust has a very interesting PDF file tell you all about Shark Skate and rays the mermaids purses you find on the beach are egg shells from sharks and Rays. Click the link to down load the Shark Trust Brochure.

 

WALKING.

Walking or strolling at spurn is very easy, as there are no hills. There are various sign posted paths up and down the point. For the fit a complete walk round the whole point is about 8 miles, taking in all the point round the point end and back to the "warren" information place at the start of Spurn. You will need good footwear, as much of the paths are sand. There is limited access for disabled, but not to the point end, as you have to go via the beach.

You can park your car at the point car park and walk round the point end and back to the car park about a mile, or just stroll around the point were you choose. The only place you are not allowed to go are down the pilot's jetty and the centre square of the Lifeboat houses.

In spring and early summer Spurn is covered with a large amount of wild flowers of all species.

There are common to the not so common; from Orchids to bluebells. I must remind you Spurn is a nature reserve and the picking of all flowers is prohibited. When visiting please enjoy Spurn, as it is a very beautiful place and leave only your footprints.

 

Horse Riding.

 

There is riding available nearby at the North Humberside Riding Centre. The stables are ideally located with rides along quiet country lanes, by-ways, plus miles of sandy beach and riverbanks. The cross-country course offers a variety of fences for both the novice and the more experienced rider.

 

www.spurnbirdobservatory.co.uk/

 

A Brief History of Spurn Bird Observatory

 

Following visits to Spurn by several members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in the late 1930's, a communal log for ornithological observations was instituted in 1938. This included a roll-call of species, the beginnings of a recording system, which later became standard in bird observatories. Realising the potential of the Spurn peninsula for the regular observation of bird migration a group of enthusiasts, notably Ralph Chislett, George Ainsworth, John Lord and R.M. Garnett, had the idea of setting up a bird observatory, with the Warren Cottage at the northern end of the peninsula as an ideal headquarters. Unfortunately the outbreak of war forced them to put their plans on hold but shortly after hostilities ceased a lease for Warren Cottage was obtained from the War Department and the observatory was established shortly afterwards under the auspices of the Y.N.U. with the four members mentioned above forming the first committee. A preliminary meeting was held in September 1945 to decide on the site for a Heligoland trap, work on which was begun almost immediately and the first bird (a Blackbird) was ringed on November 17th. The first minuted committee meeting was held on March 9th 1946 and the observatory was opened to visitors at Whitsuntide that year.

Initially coverage was limited to the main migration seasons, being extended to winter weekends in the early 1950's to trap and ring some of the large numbers of Snow Buntings which used to occur at that time of year and gradually coverage was increased (whenever possible) to cover the late spring and summer. In 1959 there was an important development when the Yorkshire Naturalists' Trust (now the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust) became the owners of the peninsula and thus the observatory's landlord. In 1960 a full time warden was appointed by the Trust, and although having no official connection with the observatory the fact of having an observer on the peninsula year-round inevitably helped to improve the ornithological coverage. This was especially the case from 1964 when the current warden, Barry Spence, was appointed, in conjunction with the fact that an interest in birds and their migrations was steadily growing and more bird-watchers were staying at the observatory, often for longer periods.

When the observatory opened there was accommodation for seven visitors in Warren Cottage and facilities included two chemical toilets, the Warren Heligoland trap and an ex-army hut as a ringing hut. Over the next ten years a further five Heligoland traps were constructed along the peninsula, although today only three remain in existence. In 1959 the observatory gained the use of the Annexe, one of two ex W.D. bungalows built at the Warren during the early 1950's, thus increasing the accommodation capacity to seventeen and providing much improved toilet facilities. Over the years the accommodation and facilities have been gradually improved to try to make the visitor's stay at Spurn as comfortable as possible. Other improvements have also taken place, in 1968 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Point was converted into a ringing laboratory ready for the first B.T.O. Ringing Course, held in autumn of that year and in 1971 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Warren was also converted into a ringing laboratory. The other part of this building became a laboratory for the use of students of Leeds University but this also became available to the observatory in the mid 1980's when the University no longer had a use for it. Subsequently it was converted into a self-contained accommodation unit for two, complete with kitchen facilities, and although officially known by the somewhat unimaginative name of Room F (the rooms in the Annexe being known as Rooms A, C, D & E, - whatever happened to Room B?), it was somewhat irreverently christened "Dunbirdin" by regular visitors to Spurn.

In 1965 a sea-watching hut was erected east of the Warren beyond the line of the former railway track. Due to coastal erosion it became necessary to move this in late 1974, when it was hoped that it would last at least as long as it had in its first position. Alas this was not to be, as the rate of erosion increased dramatically in the mid 1970's, necessitating a further move in early December 1977. In that year a clay bank had been built across the field behind Warren Cottage (Clubley's field) to prevent the flooding of arable land by wind-blown sea water, but on January 11th 1978 Spurn suffered its worst flooding ever when a strong to gale-force north-westerly wind combined with a spring tide. In late 1981 due to extensive construction works at Easington a large quantity of boulder clay became available and this was used to build up and extend the bank across Clubley's field, south towards Black Hut and north beyond Big Hedge to join up with an existing bank (which had been built in 1974) behind the scrape. In 1982 the sea-watching hut was repositioned on top of this bank, where it remained until the bank itself was washed away in the early 1990's.

A number of other changes to the observatory recording area began to take place from the early 1970's, including extensive building operations at the Point, commencing in 1974, with the construction of a new jetty for the Humber Pilot boats, new housing for the Spurn Lifeboat crew and the conversion and renovation of various existing buildings for use by the Coastguard and the Pilots. In 1978 following damage to the existing road south of the Warren area a new tarmac road was laid to the west of the original one, this lasted until 1988 when a second "new road" loop had to be laid, followed in 1991 by the construction of the existing loop road running along the Humber shore from just south of the Warren to just beyond Black Hut. The construction of this road resulted in the destruction of the actual Black Hut, although the area still bears the name. In 1981 the lines of wartime concrete anti-tank blocks running from the seashore to the Canal Zone were removed to fill in a breach at the Narrow Neck. This resulted in the southward extension of the Scrape field by the farmer up to Big Hedge and the start of a gradual decline in the condition of this hedge and its attractiveness to birds. In 1982 a local resident excavated a pond for shooting purposes in the wet area adjoining the Canal Zone. This never really proved successful and the land was later purchased by the Y.W.T. and the pond enlarged to become what is now known as Canal Scrape. In 1984 a famous Spurn landmark, the Narrows "Hut", a wooden migration watch shelter which had stood at the Narrow Neck for twenty-three years, was set fire to by person or persons unknown and completely destroyed, it was replaced the following year by a more solid construction made from breeze-blocks.

A period of considerable change began in 1988 when the Spurn peninsula was designated as part of the Spurn Heritage Coast. Projects undertaken include the enlargement of the Canal Scrape mentioned above and the erection of a hide overlooking it, a hide overlooking the Humber wader roost at Chalk Bank, a public sea-watching hide alongside the observatory one, provision of additional car-parking space, the restoration of the short-turf habitat in the Chalk Bank area, provision of footpaths, etc. A major project was the renovation of the Blue Bell in Kilnsea for use as offices, an information centre and a small cafe, which became fully operational in 1995. Another fairly recent project has been the creation of another scrape/pond on Clubley's field.

In 1996 the observatory celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, and for the first time in its history SBO employed a full time seasonal warden. This position has since been expanded and the observatory now enjoys the services of a year- round warden. In 1998, with a view to the future, a small bungalow in Kilnsea was purchased with money bequeathed by the late John Weston, a long time committee member, who regrettably died in 1996. This was followed in 1999 by the purchase of a strip of land adjacent to the property and is now known as the ‘Church Field’, this is planted with a sacrificial crop every year, and has also had several groups of trees planted and a feeding station placed in the north-east corner. Access to this field is available by becoming a member of ‘Friends of Spurn Bird Observatory’, a venture set up in 2003 to eventually help with the building of a new observatory when the old one falls way to the sea.

 

This is a collaborative art collection where writers use my portraits to explore individual characters. As a long term project, I am hoping to publish a book containing the photographs and accompanying stories. Art, in both forms, has wonderfully varied interpretations and these are (hopefully) paired examples of how artists can work together to form more complex pieces.

 

As with my photographs, all stories published here are copyrighted.

 

Hope you enjoy and, as always, email me if you have questions, feedback, or wish to contribute.

 

Below is the first combined effort.

  

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Photography by, Cassandra M. Kammerer

Short story written by, S.J.L.

   

You will never learn my real name. Some of your predecessors have asked, one even pleaded, but boundaries exist and I am quite particular. You lost all freedom when you told me your name Douglas, even if the loss was not immediately perceptible, and only by extension of my own gracious nature are you able to make these self-indulgent inquiries now. Your struggling questions are amusing, but as fruitless as the group counseling sessions to overcome your substance addiction. My confidence in your ability to fail is complete, but I offer one last recommendation: accept the vast weakness within yourself before I finish my latte and our time is up. Already shaking with confusion? Lamentable, but thankfully this is not really about you.

 

Hollow. That is the description I first wrote on my notepad about you. I see your skepticism, but here is where I circled it. Right at the top, what does it read? Page One. It took less than one minute to fully diagnose you and I have, on several occasions, encapsulated you to my colleagues as such: hollow. We are professionals and the sharing of such information was done under strict ethical code, of course. They had similar men as patients, celebrities like yourself, and needed comparative data. It is what we do, you see, we aggregate data from the weak to bolster our understanding of how not to be. Then we publish articles and books, creating our canon of behavioral norms and expectations. I choose the word canon carefully, Douglas. Your mother, who was also a patient of mine before she took her own life, was deeply fixated on a canon of her own, the Catholic worldview of her youth: heaven and hell – or, perhaps more simplified, good and evil. It was the great pendulum swinging through the landscape of her mind. Have you ever glimpsed away from yourself to ponder what it might take for a Catholic to commit suicide? How fractured she needed to be?

 

Are you actually displaying emotions for her suddenly? Where were you when she took the hatchet to her arm? Incidentally, I have always respected her choice in tools. If the magazines are to be believed, you were in Monaco, halfway through a month-long binge. You denied the veracity of those photographs, even to me; but, looking at you now, I think you are ready to admit you left the country knowing she was crumbling before your eyes. You were too weak even to try.

 

As I was saying, my colleagues and I do not see the evil or good of men. We identify weakness and prescribe strength. People like your mother, taught to worship a collapsed god, cannot be helped because their foundation is based on the archaic treatises of goatherds. Centuries of reinterpretation cannot change the simple fact her savior committed suicide, paving the way for her own. Taught to emulate weakness, and unable to locate conviction, she crawls to me, expecting her terrors and self-hate to disappear – which is not how therapy works, as you now fully appreciate.

 

How long did you wait after learning of her death before seeking my guidance? Three weeks? I remember you wore a disguise when you came through my office door. Yes, of course it was a disguise. Even in your deepest alcoholic engorgement, you never allowed yourself to be unshaven, let alone wear an Orioles ball cap. Please don’t insult my intelligence by claiming it was grief. Your girlfriend, who you may not realize has been on my weekly itinerary for over a year, told me what you said enroute to the funeral. Do you remember? No? You said, “Mom was a deranged lunatic. I am leaving this sideshow early because La Traviata opens tonight.” And you did.

 

Why am I saying these things? This is our last session, Douglas, and soon you will have found the cure to your hate-filled anxieties and the logical conclusion to your addiction. No, this is not tough love, for at least two reasons: first, a doctor cannot love her patient and remain objective; second, as previously stated, you are merely the thin shell of a human being and unworthy of anyone’s love. Hollow, remember? I am not passing judgment; I am treating you for an illness, one you have carried since you were eight years old. We have discussed the incident several times, so it should come as no shock the genesis was with the wagon, your friend Christine, and those two boys. She begged for your help when they were chasing her, but the boys threatened to take your wagon. She had even kissed you at the roller rink three weeks prior and you had exchanged valentine’s cards. For such a young age, the two of you had shared much. But you did not get out of your wagon for Christine, and those two boys brutalized her. Her parents moved to Florida shortly thereafter and you never saw her after that day. Your mother told me once she prayed desperately for that girl to pull through her surgeries, but what help did you offer?

 

You understood the ramifications of sticks and stones, right? Did their yells of victory or her screams of pain hurt you? Did you cry for her or only for yourself? You did not become feeble that day, for all children are; rather, it was the day you learned about the connection between cowardice and survival. Your addiction is the outward manifestation of the fear and weakness permeating your mind – it is the gaseous cloud filling the empty space normal people lack.

 

No, I don’t mind if you have a drink. I anticipated you might and had my secretary ensure the mini-bar was properly stocked. We are celebrating, after all – me with my latte and you with your bourbon. There is no need to bark obscenities, Douglas. You cannot visit a surgeon and become agitated when her delicate scalpel technique causes tissue to swell. The pain is natural and expected and the disease you have coruscating through your system has had twenty-nine years to fester.

 

Yes, I am a surgeon. I carve apart the minds and experiences of my patients and remove desiccation when I am allowed. Therapy is artfully complex in this way – regulatory and behavioral obstacles at every turn. Your girlfriend, Evelyn, understands this, but your mother did not. She needed me to cut her, wept for me to do so, but never once gave me permission. You are miserably similar to her in this way, refusing to sign the necessary paperwork. I am, in a sense, your five hundred dollar an hour barfly; or was, since our relationship is now over.

 

Time, nipping at your ankles, has caught hold finally. You have run dry on individuals to blame and the fiasco of your life will be reprinted for the slathering masses to devour. I know it can be heartbreaking to learn the thoughts you labeled as hope in your mind are false; however, you simply must appreciate those thoughts were never true. You would never consent to hope, not Douglas Clarion. Yes, you may have another drink; in fact, consider all three of those bottles a gift.

 

Now why would you ask me such a question? Vain until your last breath, Douglas. I grasp why women adore you, but it would be inappropriate for me to officially comment on your attractiveness. No, you may not kiss me, but it was sweet of you to ask. It lets me know you recognize I am in control. Control is the bedrock of civilized life, be it social or technological. Let’s examine your own civility: even now, knowing you will die soon if you continue, you are unable to prevent your own hand from raising that glass to your mouth; your life is chronicled for you by a professional mob armed with telescoping lenses and legally sanctioned deceit; food, clothing, and transportation is handled by servants, much like a toddler; and Evelyn counts herself fortunate if you can manage an erection more than once a month. Has there ever been anything more pathetic than a sagging philanderer?

 

No need to scowl, Douglas – it makes you seem ill-tempered and foul. I am explaining something critical, if you would pay attention. For all your wealth and luxury, you are remarkably uncivilized. By extension, I cannot in good conscience grant you the rights and privileges I do normal human beings. It is one of the fundamental reasons you are no longer my patient – I am not a veterinarian, after all.

 

There are tissues on the end-table if you wish to dry up your face, but it is time to stand up from the couch. No, I do not find you contemptible because you are crying. Everyone cries, Douglas, even me. No, I will never cry over you because you are a disgrace, filled with purposeless and unguided shame.

 

Which brings our session to its inevitable close. My latte is finished and you have managed, amazingly, to consume the entire bottle of bourbon. Be sure to try my other gifts after you arrive home tonight. I pronounce you cured. Yes, just like that. Please, Douglas, do not ruin the moment with more obscenities. I want to remember you exactly as you are right now. My secretary will collect the final payment on your way out.

 

* * * *

 

Good Morning, Jenny. Who is my nine o’clock? Mrs. Garnier? Are her files on my desk already? Very well. No, I was running late today and did not read the newspaper, what happened? Mr. Clarion was found dead in his penthouse? Was it an overdose? My my, the paparazzi will have a field day with this tragic story. Call Evelyn Wilson and schedule her tomorrow morning and cancel Garnier and my other morning appointments. I am feeling exultant today, Jenny, and will be at Linney’s having a spa facial – care to join me? My treat… Excellent. I have wanted to pick your brain for ages and this is the perfect opportunity.

This is a scanned print from a collection of photographs taken by the late Jim Taylor A number of years ago I was offered a large number of photographs taken by Jim Taylor, a transport photographer based in Huddersfield. The collection, 30,000 prints,20,000 negatives – and copyright! – had been offered to me and one of the national transport magazines previously by a friend of Jims, on behalf of Jims wife. I initially turned them down, already having over 30,000 of my owns prints filed away and taking space up. Several months later the prints were still for sale – at what was, apparently, the going rate . It was a lot of money and I deliberated for quite a while before deciding to buy them. I did however buy them directly from Jims wife and she delivered them personally – just to quash the occasional rumour from people who can’t mind their own business. Although some prints were sold elsewhere, particularly the popular big fleet stuff, I should have the negatives, unfortunately they came to me in a random mix, 1200 to a box, without any sort of indexing and as such it would be impossible to match negatives to prints, or, to even find a print of any particular vehicle. I have only ever looked at a handful myself unless I am scanning them. The prints are generally in excellent condition and I initially stored them in a bedroom without ever looking at any of them. In 2006 I built an extension and they had to be well protected from dust and moved a few times. Ultimately my former 6x7 box room office has become their (and my own work’s) permanent home.

  

It was the development of our second generation website with its photo gallery located quite cleverly on Flickr, rather than making our own site unwieldy, that led me to start uploading photos to Flickr. It was initially for my own and historic company photos but with unlimited storage and reasonable upload speeds I soon started uploading other stuff. Scanning one of Jims photos was a random choice one winters evening, initially very slow and time consuming I nevertheless stuck with it and things just snowballed. It was obvious that there are a lot of people interested in this type of thing. I can now scan and edit in Photoshop in a minute or so per print. Out of over 30,000 images on Flickr I have around 3500 of Jims photos. I don’t promote myself on Flickr – at all! So my viewing figures grow organically, without using the mutual favourite awarding etc. that is endemic on Flickr. The statistics tell me that travel (I don’t do porn) is the most popular genre. My travel photos, particularly later stuff receive far more views than transport. The transport stuff will hit a ceiling and then build very slowly over time, with lots of people coming back to them again and again. Travel of course is far more inclusive but there is an unbelievable amount out there, far more than the 1980’s UK transport stuff. The travel and landscape photos have pushed the views past 12 million, with a current average of around 40,000 views a day, peaking with an upload from a new destination at around 90,000 views. I recall being excited with a 100 views.

 

My reasons for buying the collection were mixed. On the one hand it was a unique snapshot of the transport industry, predominantly in the north of England, from around 1980 onwards. This was my patch and my era. I passed my Class One a few days after my 21st birthday in 1980 and spent the next 17 years being a Jack the Lad on the road, waving at and crossing paths with many of the wagons that Jim photographed, in fact my owns wagons are in the mix. Jim did travel to Scotland extensively and into the Southern Hemisphere a number of times hence there is a broad range of material in his collection. I knew I wouldn’t get a chance like it again. On the other hand the reason I gave up hauling scrap around the North of England in a Foden eight wheeler was the diagnosis of an incurable form of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma at the age of 38, although a low grade cancer I was already a widower with four young children and I was looking at an uncertain future and it terrified me. I wasn’t remotely ill but was treated with Chemotherapy, again, I wasn’t ill and didn’t need time off work. The shock however brought me to my senses and I came off the road, I joined the normal world, up at 6.30 not 4.30am. I didn’t realise it at the time but I had closed the door on my wagon driving days. I was worried that, at some point, I wouldn’t be able to work physically hard, bearing in mind the family business is a scrap yard – a physical sort of environment. I had it in my mind that there was a possibility that I could use my own and Jims photos to supplement my income, I had four kids to feed and I knew there wouldn’t be any family financial support – it’s not that sort of family. I still have the NHL although thankfully you wouldn’t know it. This type of thing is now considered treatable – not curable- after around forty endoscopies, a 100 stomach biopsies, bone marrow samples and endless scans of different types, I may well get to die of old age, not cancer. It was discovered almost by accident at the time, not illness on my part, and long may it stay that way! The lack of illness made the shock all the greater though.

 

I hope to avoid posting images that Jim had not taken his self, however should I inadvertently infringe another photographers copyright, please inform me by email and I will resolve the issue immediately. There are copyright issues with some of the photographs that were sold to me. A Flickr member from Scotland drew my attention to some of his own work amongst the first uploads of Jims work. I had a quick look through some of the 30 boxes of prints and decided that for the time being the safest thing for me to do was withdraw the majority of the earlier uploaded scans and deal with the problem – which I did. whilst the vast majority of the prints are Jims, there is a problem defining copyright of some of them, this is something that the seller did not make clear at the time. I am reasonably confident that I have since been successful in identifying Jims own work. His early work consists of many thousands of lustre 6x4 prints which are difficult to scan well, later work is almost entirely 7x5 glossy, much easier to scan. Not all of the prints are pin sharp but I can generally print successfully to A4 from a scan.

 

You may notice photographs being duplicated in this Album, unfortunately there are multiple copies of many prints (for swapping) and as I have to have a system of archiving and backing up I can only guess - using memory - if I have scanned a print before. The bigger fleets have so many similar vehicles and registration numbers that it is impossible to get it right all of the time. It is easier to scan and process a print than check my files - on three different PC's - for duplicates. There has not been, nor will there ever be, any intention to knowingly breach anyone else's copyright. I have presented the Jim Taylor collection as exactly that-The Jim Taylor Collection- his work not mine, my own work is quite obviously mine.

 

Unfortunately many truck spotters have swapped and traded their work without copyright marking it as theirs. These people never anticipated the ease with which images would be shared online in the future. I would guess that having swapped and traded photos for many years that it is almost impossible to control their future use. Anyone wanting to control the future use of their work would have been well advised to copyright mark their work (as many did) and would be well advised not to post them on photo sharing sites without a watermark as the whole point of these sites is to share the image, it is very easy for those that wish, to lift any image, despite security settings, indeed, Flickr itself, warns you that this is the case. It was this abuse and theft of my material that led me to watermark all of my later uploads. I may yet withdraw non watermarked photos, I haven’t decided yet.

 

To anyone reading the above it will be quite obvious that I can’t provide information regarding specific photos or potential future uploads – I didn’t take them! There are many vehicles that were well known to me as Jim only lived down the road from me (although I didn’t know him), however scanning, titling, tagging and uploading is laborious and time consuming enough, I do however provide a fair amount of information with my own transport (and other) photos. I am aware that there are requests from other Flickr users that are unanswered, I stumble across them months or years after they were posted, this isn’t deliberate. Some weekends one or two “enthusiasts” can add many hundreds of photos as favourites, this pushes requests that are in the comments section ten or twenty pages out of sight and I miss them. I also have notifications switched off, I receive around 50 emails a day through work and I don’t want even more from Flickr. Other requests, like many other things, I just plain forget – no excuses! Uploads of Jims photos will be infrequent as it is a boring pastime and I would much rather work on my own output.

 

None of my photographs are free to use – without my permission - only free to view! If you breach my copyright you are stealing what is mine and if I find out, I will pursue the case until you rectify the situation. Arguments that attempt to justify copyright theft are just excuses for theft from people with little or no understanding of copyright law – or more frequently- deliberate, selective, misinterpretation of the law – to suit their own ends. I have never knowingly refused a reasonable request, I don’t join groups but am quite happy for people to add photos to groups. I dislike exchanging long and time consuming emails – I prefer to talk on the phone, being the opposite of anti-social in person, you can’t shut me up. I am generally speaking an anti-social, social networker, I just don’t have the time for it, in fact, I joke that I am going to start a social network for internet anti-social people, you’ll just register your name and that’s it – no networking and endless mindless twaddle. Face-less Book? The antidote to Facebook. I like to get out and chat to people face to face and welcome customers with an interest in photography in to my office to chat on a regular basis. I also print – and give- A4 prints to many of the drivers that visit our yard. I photograph wagons and plant that I come into contact with in a day’s work I don’t go looking to photograph them in my free time. Wagons are a necessary evil in my life these days and they cost me money – every day! For the extensive story and history of JB Schofield &sons Ltd look here; www.jbschofieldandsons.co.uk/

 

So far photography remains a hobby, and I refuse any offers to turn it into a business, the regulations surrounding scrap and transport and the running of the yard keep me occupied most of the time. In my free time I cycle hard for fitness, walk hard for pleasure, fitness, and the challenge, take photos for pleasure and the challenge, edit them because I have to, and lastly, drink wine because I want to. There isn't time for another business. The kids are now adults and all of them work for me, and with me, another challenge.

 

 

www.spurnpoint.com/Spurn_Point.htm

  

Spurn is a very unique place in the British Islands. Three and a half miles long and only fifty metres wide in places.

Extending out in to the Humber Estuary from the Yorkshire coast it has always had a big affect to the navigation of all vessels over the years. Help to some and a danger or hindrance to others. This alone makes Spurn a unique place.

Spurn is made up of a series of sand and shingle banks held together with mainly Marram grass and Seabuckthorn. There are a series of sea defence works built by the Victorians and maintained by the Ministry of Defence, till they sold Spurn to the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust in the 1950s. The defences are in a poor state, breaking down and crumbling. This is making Spurn a very fragile place wide open to the ravages of the North Sea.

One of the most striking features of Spurn is the black and white lighthouse near to the end of Spurn. Now just an empty shell not used since it was closed down at dawn on the thirty first of October 1986.

There have been many Lighthouses on Spurn over the years the first recorded at around 1427. The present light was built from 1893 TO 1895. The small tower on the beach on the Estuary side was originally the low light. It was built and put in to operation at around 1852. This light was no longer needed when the present lighthouse was opened in 1895.At a later date the light was removed and it was used as a store for explosives and later as a water tower. The tank can still be seen on the top. When it was operational there was a raised walkway from the shore to the lighthouse so it could be reached at all stages of the tide.

The present lighthouse was built to replace an old lighthouse that was positioned just to the south of the present one. You can still see the round perimeter wall surrounding the old keepers cottages and the base of the old lighthouse which had to be demolished due to it settling on it's foundations making it unsafe.

The only light on Spurn today is a flashing green starboard light on the very end of the point and the fixed green lights marking the end of the Pilots jetty.

Because of Spurns ever moving position there have been many Lighthouses over the years. There is a very good book by George.de.BOAR, called History of the Spurn Lighthouses, produced by the East Yorkshire Local History Society. This is one of a series of books on local history.

  

www.spurnpoint.com/Around_and_about_at_Spurn.htm

  

Around and about there are plenty of places to eat and drink. Starting from the north of Spurn at Kilnsea there is the Riverside hotel offering good quality food drink and accommodation. Coming south towards Spurn and still in Kilnsea there is the Crown and Anchor pub. A welcoming place serving bar meals fine beers and offering bed and breakfast at very reasonable rates. At the crossroads before you turn towards Spurn there is the Spurn heritage coast visitors centre. Where there is a small cafe and exhibition. At the entrance Spurn point nature reserve is an information centre and bird observatory selling books pamphlets, etc., and the last toilet on Spurn.

Past the lighthouse is the last car park. Two hundred metres further on you find the Humber Lifeboat and Pilot stations. Near the houses is a Small caravan selling tea, coffee, cold cans, hot and cold food, crisps and sweets.

All are open all year round apart from the heritage centre which is open thought the season.

 

BIRD WATCHING.

Is a very popular pastime as Spurn is internationally famous for birds. There are up to two hundred species recorded at spurn every year. Some of which are extremely rare. The Marmora's Warbler seen at Spurn In June 1992 was only the third recorded in Britain.

 

SEA FISHING.

The beaches of Spurn provide some of the best sea fishing in the area, with Cod and Whiting and Flats being caught through the winter and Skate, Flats and Bass through the summer. There is sport to be had all the year.

At the very end of Spurn is deep water ideal for Cod but this only fishes best two hours either side of low water, the tide is to strong at other times. All along the seaward side of Spurn is good for all species of fish at all times though over high water being the better. The riverside of Spurn is very shallow and only produces Flats and the bass over high water.

 

THE BEACH.

 

The beaches at Spurn are of soft sand and shingle. Whichever way the wind is blowing you can just pop over the dunes to the outer side. There are fossils and all manners of things to find beach combing. Swimming is not safe any were near the point end as there are very strong tides at up to six knots at times. But in side Spurn around the point car park is perfect at high water. The beach does not shelf to fast and very little tide. You can have the place to your self at times, as Spurn is never really busy weekdays.#

A very popular pastime at Spurn is Fossil hunting. There is a good abundance of fossils to be found in amongst the pebbles and shingle.

The Shark Trust has a very interesting PDF file tell you all about Shark Skate and rays the mermaids purses you find on the beach are egg shells from sharks and Rays. Click the link to down load the Shark Trust Brochure.

 

WALKING.

Walking or strolling at spurn is very easy, as there are no hills. There are various sign posted paths up and down the point. For the fit a complete walk round the whole point is about 8 miles, taking in all the point round the point end and back to the "warren" information place at the start of Spurn. You will need good footwear, as much of the paths are sand. There is limited access for disabled, but not to the point end, as you have to go via the beach.

You can park your car at the point car park and walk round the point end and back to the car park about a mile, or just stroll around the point were you choose. The only place you are not allowed to go are down the pilot's jetty and the centre square of the Lifeboat houses.

In spring and early summer Spurn is covered with a large amount of wild flowers of all species.

There are common to the not so common; from Orchids to bluebells. I must remind you Spurn is a nature reserve and the picking of all flowers is prohibited. When visiting please enjoy Spurn, as it is a very beautiful place and leave only your footprints.

 

Horse Riding.

 

There is riding available nearby at the North Humberside Riding Centre. The stables are ideally located with rides along quiet country lanes, by-ways, plus miles of sandy beach and riverbanks. The cross-country course offers a variety of fences for both the novice and the more experienced rider.

 

www.spurnbirdobservatory.co.uk/

 

A Brief History of Spurn Bird Observatory

 

Following visits to Spurn by several members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in the late 1930's, a communal log for ornithological observations was instituted in 1938. This included a roll-call of species, the beginnings of a recording system, which later became standard in bird observatories. Realising the potential of the Spurn peninsula for the regular observation of bird migration a group of enthusiasts, notably Ralph Chislett, George Ainsworth, John Lord and R.M. Garnett, had the idea of setting up a bird observatory, with the Warren Cottage at the northern end of the peninsula as an ideal headquarters. Unfortunately the outbreak of war forced them to put their plans on hold but shortly after hostilities ceased a lease for Warren Cottage was obtained from the War Department and the observatory was established shortly afterwards under the auspices of the Y.N.U. with the four members mentioned above forming the first committee. A preliminary meeting was held in September 1945 to decide on the site for a Heligoland trap, work on which was begun almost immediately and the first bird (a Blackbird) was ringed on November 17th. The first minuted committee meeting was held on March 9th 1946 and the observatory was opened to visitors at Whitsuntide that year.

Initially coverage was limited to the main migration seasons, being extended to winter weekends in the early 1950's to trap and ring some of the large numbers of Snow Buntings which used to occur at that time of year and gradually coverage was increased (whenever possible) to cover the late spring and summer. In 1959 there was an important development when the Yorkshire Naturalists' Trust (now the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust) became the owners of the peninsula and thus the observatory's landlord. In 1960 a full time warden was appointed by the Trust, and although having no official connection with the observatory the fact of having an observer on the peninsula year-round inevitably helped to improve the ornithological coverage. This was especially the case from 1964 when the current warden, Barry Spence, was appointed, in conjunction with the fact that an interest in birds and their migrations was steadily growing and more bird-watchers were staying at the observatory, often for longer periods.

When the observatory opened there was accommodation for seven visitors in Warren Cottage and facilities included two chemical toilets, the Warren Heligoland trap and an ex-army hut as a ringing hut. Over the next ten years a further five Heligoland traps were constructed along the peninsula, although today only three remain in existence. In 1959 the observatory gained the use of the Annexe, one of two ex W.D. bungalows built at the Warren during the early 1950's, thus increasing the accommodation capacity to seventeen and providing much improved toilet facilities. Over the years the accommodation and facilities have been gradually improved to try to make the visitor's stay at Spurn as comfortable as possible. Other improvements have also taken place, in 1968 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Point was converted into a ringing laboratory ready for the first B.T.O. Ringing Course, held in autumn of that year and in 1971 part of one of the derelict buildings at the Warren was also converted into a ringing laboratory. The other part of this building became a laboratory for the use of students of Leeds University but this also became available to the observatory in the mid 1980's when the University no longer had a use for it. Subsequently it was converted into a self-contained accommodation unit for two, complete with kitchen facilities, and although officially known by the somewhat unimaginative name of Room F (the rooms in the Annexe being known as Rooms A, C, D & E, - whatever happened to Room B?), it was somewhat irreverently christened "Dunbirdin" by regular visitors to Spurn.

In 1965 a sea-watching hut was erected east of the Warren beyond the line of the former railway track. Due to coastal erosion it became necessary to move this in late 1974, when it was hoped that it would last at least as long as it had in its first position. Alas this was not to be, as the rate of erosion increased dramatically in the mid 1970's, necessitating a further move in early December 1977. In that year a clay bank had been built across the field behind Warren Cottage (Clubley's field) to prevent the flooding of arable land by wind-blown sea water, but on January 11th 1978 Spurn suffered its worst flooding ever when a strong to gale-force north-westerly wind combined with a spring tide. In late 1981 due to extensive construction works at Easington a large quantity of boulder clay became available and this was used to build up and extend the bank across Clubley's field, south towards Black Hut and north beyond Big Hedge to join up with an existing bank (which had been built in 1974) behind the scrape. In 1982 the sea-watching hut was repositioned on top of this bank, where it remained until the bank itself was washed away in the early 1990's.

A number of other changes to the observatory recording area began to take place from the early 1970's, including extensive building operations at the Point, commencing in 1974, with the construction of a new jetty for the Humber Pilot boats, new housing for the Spurn Lifeboat crew and the conversion and renovation of various existing buildings for use by the Coastguard and the Pilots. In 1978 following damage to the existing road south of the Warren area a new tarmac road was laid to the west of the original one, this lasted until 1988 when a second "new road" loop had to be laid, followed in 1991 by the construction of the existing loop road running along the Humber shore from just south of the Warren to just beyond Black Hut. The construction of this road resulted in the destruction of the actual Black Hut, although the area still bears the name. In 1981 the lines of wartime concrete anti-tank blocks running from the seashore to the Canal Zone were removed to fill in a breach at the Narrow Neck. This resulted in the southward extension of the Scrape field by the farmer up to Big Hedge and the start of a gradual decline in the condition of this hedge and its attractiveness to birds. In 1982 a local resident excavated a pond for shooting purposes in the wet area adjoining the Canal Zone. This never really proved successful and the land was later purchased by the Y.W.T. and the pond enlarged to become what is now known as Canal Scrape. In 1984 a famous Spurn landmark, the Narrows "Hut", a wooden migration watch shelter which had stood at the Narrow Neck for twenty-three years, was set fire to by person or persons unknown and completely destroyed, it was replaced the following year by a more solid construction made from breeze-blocks.

A period of considerable change began in 1988 when the Spurn peninsula was designated as part of the Spurn Heritage Coast. Projects undertaken include the enlargement of the Canal Scrape mentioned above and the erection of a hide overlooking it, a hide overlooking the Humber wader roost at Chalk Bank, a public sea-watching hide alongside the observatory one, provision of additional car-parking space, the restoration of the short-turf habitat in the Chalk Bank area, provision of footpaths, etc. A major project was the renovation of the Blue Bell in Kilnsea for use as offices, an information centre and a small cafe, which became fully operational in 1995. Another fairly recent project has been the creation of another scrape/pond on Clubley's field.

In 1996 the observatory celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, and for the first time in its history SBO employed a full time seasonal warden. This position has since been expanded and the observatory now enjoys the services of a year- round warden. In 1998, with a view to the future, a small bungalow in Kilnsea was purchased with money bequeathed by the late John Weston, a long time committee member, who regrettably died in 1996. This was followed in 1999 by the purchase of a strip of land adjacent to the property and is now known as the ‘Church Field’, this is planted with a sacrificial crop every year, and has also had several groups of trees planted and a feeding station placed in the north-east corner. Access to this field is available by becoming a member of ‘Friends of Spurn Bird Observatory’, a venture set up in 2003 to eventually help with the building of a new observatory when the old one falls way to the sea.

 

I am, paradoxically, posting this desktop both despite and because of the fact that my setup has not changed in any meaningful way for several months now. "Despite," in that I feel bad about not posting more often. Most of my spare time has been annexed by another large creative project, and I miss the unbroken hours of Rainmeter tweaking I used to do. "Because," in that there is still some value in taking stock of this setup: it has proven itself as a highly practical, unobstrusive, and all-around great arrangement. I just love it the way it is, and like all the best designs, it makes me feel like I want to use my notebook, and that it's going to do exactly what I want it to do.

 

For the first time since Lightning Sunset, I'm going to go through my entire arsenal of core applications and detail how they're being used and why.

 

(By the way, there's another reason why I feel like showing off my computer today: I just received a RAM upgrade, from 1 GB to 2 GB. I swear, it's halfway to a brand new computer. Even with all of the stuff below - every single one, running simultaneously - I don't break a 50% memory load. It is geekily glorious.)

 

- - - - - - -

 

Clouds

 

As anyone who follows my desktops knows, I go through wallpapers pretty rapidly, while having a few favorites that I regularly return to. This has become one of them. I love the style of having a single crisp, asymmetrical object surrounded by a simple, subtle gradient. It's a great synthesis of the functional and the aesthetic; fresh and stimulating, without being distracting or gaudy. (Via cain.)

 

- - - - - - -

 

Lakrits

 

I really love this visual style for XP; it's become one of lassekongo83's most popular, and deservedly so. Its most distinguishing feature, one which is inexplicably rare among Windows shell themes, is that it inverts the colors, giving Explorer, Notepad, etc. a dark-gray background against light-gray text. It is wonderfully soft on the eyes, especially late at night.

 

Of equal importance, it also finally makes Windows itself match the light-on-dark theme common to my Rainmeter, Firefox, et al. I think it was nitzua who pointed out that some of the most carefully-crafted desktop themes are shattered the minute you open the start menu. So it's a real pleasure to have a genuinely customized work environment, not just the illusion of one.

 

Aside from those, I'm just enamored of its simple grays. Lakrits is a legitimately minimalist VS, and I'll miss it muchly when I make the jump to Windows 7.

 

- - - - - - -

 

Startups

 

- Start Killer.

- Taskbar Shuffle.

- D-Color.

 

These really haven't changed since the Lightning Sunset days. I wrote an individual paragraph for each of them before I realized that I was just repeating myself from 16 months ago. The common thread here is that they're all tiny apps which enhance the taskbar and the desktop in extremely logical, intuitive, "I can't believe it didn't do this by itself" ways.

 

- - - - - - -

 

Virtual Shell

 

- Autohotkey.

- Launchy. Skin: Enigma.

- Rainmeter. Skins: Enigma 2.6, customized.

 

It's these three apps which really change the way I use my notebook. As you probably know, I use Autohotkey to

 

- Launch core apps, documents and settings with universal hotkeys. (Firefox is Win+F, Thunderbird is Win+T, Notepad is Win+N, Google Wave is Win+W, etc.) In addition, the other two get very prominent hotkeys as befits their status: I can start up Launchy with Win+F11, and Rainmeter with Win+F12.

- Adjust the transparency of the active window and taskbar.

- Minimize, maximize, restore, and Alt+Tab using only the Alt key and the mouse.

- Control iTunes with universal hotkeys.

- Send certain commonly-used phrases when triggered, ala Texter.

 

Launchy, meanwhile, does pretty much everything else. My devout adoration of Launchy has never wavered. Summoning any app, folder, document, control panel module, song, picture, video, theme, log, and search engine in less than ten keystrokes? Win. (And I still use Calcy all the time, too.)

 

Rainmeter, by now, speaks for itself. See the notes for more details. The only thing that deserves specific mention is that Rainmeter no longer requires assistance from a third-party app like Desktop Coral to reserve space at the edge of the screen. You can now redefine the coordinates of Windows' desktop work area in your theme file. Basically, I used to require three apps - Rainmeter, CD Art Display, and Desktop Coral - to achieve this effect. Now I can do it in one.

 

- - - - - - -

 

Yod'm 3D

 

With my new RAM upgrade (and please accept my half-hearted apology for going on about it), it really costs me nothing to keep this light, attractive three-dimensional desktop manager running at all times. It activates when the mouse enters either bottom corner, so the overall perception is one of physically rotating the cube - very intuitive, I've found.

 

- - - - - - -

 

Trillian

 

Trillian, like Launchy, may as well be a startup app. I keep it running all the time, even when playing games or watching movies. I can't stand being out of digital contact; it's like living without a phone. These days, I use Trillian to connect to Skype and Twitter, as well, which only reaffirms its value to me: the more tasks a single app can cover, the more I love it.

 

The reason I can't abide Miranda or Pidgin is that neither (as far as I can tell) is capable storing logs in a plaintext, single-file format. This is a necessity for me, since I'm constantly looking up messages from old conversations, even months or years later, and nothing beats bringing it up in three strokes with Launchy and searching directly in Notepad.

 

- - - - - - -

 

Dropbox

 

I've tried a lot of synchronization and backup services in the past. Before Dropbox, I was a big fan of a Firefox extension (I can't remember the name) which let you upload files directly to your Gmail account space. My desire for this genre can be summed up as "a USB stick in the cloud," and Dropbox is the first one that I've kept and used for over a year. It's perfect, and as the storage capacity increases over time, so does my loyalty.

 

- - - - - - -

 

iTunes & Last.fm

 

I know you all hate iTunes. I don't blame you, I'm just convinced that we're not actually using the same program. I don't know what I'm doing differently, but on my laptop, iTunes and its library (3500+ songs now) load in under 5 seconds, handle just as smoothly as Firefox, and do virtually everything I want a media player to do. I keep trying alternatives - I actually haven't yet uninstalled Songbird after trying the new version last week - but as long as iTunes ain't broken, I have no desire to fix it.

 

Last.fm, on the other hand, is an experiment. I'm simply interested in keeping track of my music listening habits and comparing them with others'. The scrobbler does its thing and never interferes with my work in any way, so for the moment I'm happy to give it a home. It loads automatically with iTunes, too, which is nice - one less thing to worry about.

 

- - - - - - -

 

Thunderbird 2.0

 

I have not upgraded to Thunderbird 3. I kept trying it with each beta release, and then the final version, and I was quite disappointed each time. As it stands, the interface is quite bulky, the folder labels are inexplicably verbose. The "Smart Folders" really bulk up the "unread" view, too, which is pretty ironic, since I've always relied on it to serve as my condensed, consolidated reading list. As if that wasn't enough, it also insists on synchronizing virtually all of my email, including the spam folders - which also appear in the "unread" view. I admit, I'd like to be able to view flash applets without having to open feed items in Firefox, but it's just not enough to beat the cons.

 

So I'm sticking with 2.0 for the time being. Like iTunes, Thunderbird simply meets all my requirements. It is my consummate message center: all five of my email accounts synchronized via IMAP, plus my RSS feeds, all together in one simple view. I use exactly one extension: Minimize to Tray, which lets me keep Thunderbird available at all times without taking up valuable taskbar space.

 

At some point, I do hope to have Thunderbird (email/RSS), Trillian (IM/IRC/Twitter) and Google Wave integrated into a single elegant client. I'm sure the day is coming. But for now, I feel I've brought them together on my system in the most efficient way available to me.

 

- - - - - - -

 

Google Wave Notifier

 

Until Thunderbird or Trillian get a Wave plugin, I can't say no to this lovely little tray app. Like Last.fm, it does its job and minds its own business, and it does both so damn well that it passed my stringent filters with surprising ease.

 

- - - - - - -

 

Firefox

 

My Firefox is still pretty much as seen here: just a box with an address bar. I use keyboard shortcuts to toggle my bookmarks and menubar, and, naturally, back/forward. Additionally, I use keywords to access search engines - for example, to Google "Lifehacker," I just type "g lifehacker". Once you get used to it, it saves an awful lot of time.

 

While I did jump on the Awesome Bar bandwagon for the first few months, I'm now trying to bookmark more aggressively. This is because, when my history and cache are clear, Firefox loads in under one second. It beats Chrome on my system. You just can't beat that.

 

I do want to mention something to users of Lazarus Form Recovery, an extension that I heartily recommend. It's saved me, on numerous occasions, from losing hours and hours of writing. However, 99% of the time, it's something I'd written just minutes prior, and lost due to a crash; I've never needed to recover something days or weeks after the fact. So I strongly recommend clearing your Lazarus cache (which is kept separately from the main Firefox cache) and setting it to purge saved forms if they're older than a week or so. Before I realized this, Firefox sometimes took up to a minute and a half to load, no matter what else I tried to speed it up. Now, as I mentioned, it freaking beats Chrome at its own game.

 

- - - - - - -

 

I am currently running virtually all of these apps. Firefox has a dozen tabs, I've got four conversations in Trillian, and iTunes is playing the score of The Thin Red Line. And I'm clocking in at a whopping 40% memory use. RAM is cool.

 

- - - - - - -

 

Merry Christmas. :)

Hair: Neva: Sensitive Black; By Fri.day

Eyes: Sunburst by Shapes by Zada

Skin: Grace: First Romance-Tan: by Chaisuki

Vest, Stole, and Shirt, by Argrace.

Eyelashes: by Chandra Meehan

 

>> Name: Adagio

>> Age: 20 Physical

>> Species: Human

>> Blood type: B+

>> Height: 6'7"

>> Weight: 250 lbs

>> Gender: Female

>>Eyes: Blue

>>Enhancements: Shorter synapses and enhanced neurotransmitters, Triple dense Muscular system, Datajack. Combined Oragic/Cybernetic Brain, Metabolizes Platinum

>>Memory Implants: Language ( English ), Intermediate Medical Skills, Job Skills ( Classified ), Dance ( Multiple Styles )

................................................................................................................................................

 

>>Dossier: Adagio is a genetic construct using the base DNA of Taellinu Aichi. While Taellinu is the main genetic base, others strains of genes have been used to alter her overall appearance to look different from the genetic samples. While Adagio is technically unrelated to Taellinu, enough genetic match would be present that one could find a close enough link to perhaps claim Taellinu as either a sister or mother. Philosophically this is the case, however if known by Adagio this would, in all likelihood be adamantly denied. Adagio would view herself as a unique person, but in several ways she is only as unique as any other purpose built human being, and this would indeed be true for her.

 

>>Adagio was created to be security personnel for Ashagi Corporation, under the watchful eyes of Doctors Aylin Daviau, and Temp Parkin. The project was also overseen and approved along the way by Sauscony Selei, whom Adagio is a replacement for due to Adagio’s ‘inherently unstable’ nature. It is due to the input of Miss. Selei that Adagio bears no or little physical resemblance to her genetic forebears. Due to the insights and visions of her creators the problems inherent in Sauscony have been corrected, such as an overly brittle bone structure, weak muscles, and inability to fight.

 

>>Adagio herself is a cold un-emotive woman that on the surface takes pleasure from nothing. She has the same drawn look on her face on duty and off, part of the image she keeps up as an ‘iron fist in a velvet glove’ as she sees herself anyway. This mindset leads her to try to be as efficient, quick, and as lethally effective as possible. She views her work for Ashagi as the reason for her entire existence, which in fact, it is. Adagio, unlike most beings like her, does not possess any memories of their previous forms, the reasoning for this is that Sauscony viewed Adagio as a sort of child, a sort of culmination of her being. A chance to undo what had been done to her, too doom her to a life imposed upon her by someone else, for the explicit purpose of prolonging her own life, it was deemed that adagio should be ‘given’ a life part of the reason as to why she contains none of her memories, personality, or beign.

 

>>As for the ‘improvements’ to Adagio over a regular human a triple dense musculature, increased response times, reflexes etc, this works by an increase in efficiency of synapse transmitters. However Adagio is no faster than the average human because of the added weight do to the dense muscles. The added muscle density of course means a high strength per pound ratio than a normal human, and due to quicker synapses Adagio ‘could’ become faster than normal if the right parts are given the proper degree of exercise. That is to say any further improvement over her ‘normal’ body must be done ‘the old fashioned way’ through hard work and exercise.

 

>>The fact that Adagio has more efficient neurotransmitters and quicker synapses than normal may seem a blessing, leading to faster reflexes and perhaps to faster memory recall. However a side effect of this is Adagio’s always rigid way of carrying herself. She is affected to such a degree that ‘wound up’ and ‘tense’ would fail to do her justice. Instead of the normal reactions to such things her brain would seem to have compensated for this by negating the usage of nearly all receptors involved with emotional response.

 

>>The knowledge that Adagio was implanted with was a fairly customized data set chosen by her creators, including normal language skills Adagio has knowledge required for her job including, hand to hand combat skills, skills with hand guns and blades to a limited degree, and as a personal touch by Sauscony Adagio should have some skill with dance. While this knowledge set is not expected to get adagio through her entire life, it is merely meant as the ground work for more improvement.

 

The First Measure

On The First Day

 

Well My first day was, Unique. I awoke to one of my creators Doctor Daviau. While I cannot say for sure everything about her, she seems efficient.

 

I later encountered a young girl, nellie. She seems to be a friend of one of the researchers here. She displayed what seems to be a keen intelligence, She could benefit the company eventually, I presented this to Doctor Daviau and she Agrees.

 

I Later met Doctor Parkin, My Other creator, She is an interesting one, i'll have to find out more. Later in the day i helped he rin a rescue operation of one of our employeees. we were successful in our attempts.

 

Barline

 

The Second Measure

The Second Flight

 

Well i have succeeded in furnishing my apartment to my specifications. It is more efficient now. I think that my coworkers are starting to like me more, despite my icy manner. If I had a logical explanation i'd give one.

 

Barline

 

The Third measure

Aurora in 4 voices

 

Well today started out just lovely. Someone set off a bomb downtown. When I went out side I could see the smoke and dust from it. I have no idea who set it or what purpose it could have been. I'm fairly certain it wasn't a warning from the mayor though. But even if it wasn't, I know this I won't be bothering his staff anymore. Even though that little stunt worked to some degree it didn't work when the cops came in.

 

Last night with Nellie seems to have been productive, she may be even more intelligent than I had assumed. She may be of great benefit eventually.

 

Along the lines of work I filled out my contract this morning. Apparently I'm being paid quite well, I'm quite pleased to be earning 250K a year, and I wonder what the paychecks of others are like.

 

The haulers fell through on my shipments. Thankfully I was able to get the business card for a Hideo Inaka, hopefully he'll be able to provide me with the items I need. I could probably get what I need through Ashagi, but I don't think that Ashagi deals in weaponry, at least of the type I'm needing.

 

The Yakuza fell through Also. Fortunately Black Star came through on the Beretta, and Aylin is covering the armor. I'll speak with doctor Parkin about the blades.

 

On another note I've been placed in charge of Shoya, it should be interesting to see what happens with her. Her morale is in the shitter and she badly needs someone to support her. I just hope that I can provide that need.

 

Barline

 

The Fourth measure

The wings of hope

 

Today has been interesting, I was able to obtain some blades from Doctor Parkin, who tried me out in a sparring match, and I will admit I have along way to go, but at least I have some minor skills. My strength is my greatest weapon and my greatest weakness it seems, I need to learn to be more Fluid in combat.

 

Fortunately my Skill or lack there of didn't matter in an encounter I had shortly after Obtaining the blades.

 

On the bright side the Haulers came through on the body armor at least. The bodysuit is an Impact resistant style, it would seem to be made of a form of cloth with pockets of High density gel perhaps silicone inside. It should provide adequate protection against blades and impact damage, if I'm right it should have some minor ballistics protection capabilities as well. They did however also obtain a thin armored vest for me, while it is quite thin and flexible, mobility matters to me more than weight.

 

BlackStar would seem to be coming through on the firearms side of things, I'll be happy to see if they deliver as promised.

 

Barline

_________________

 

I Feel that I should record my lessons with doctor Parkin so that i should learn from them in the Future, this is the first one.

 

Adagio: would nod slowly. “I apologize for my misunderstanding. I hope to earn these blades then, she’d remove the tanto from her self and draw the Katana. “You gave me the knowledge doctor I should be skillful enough to not kill you, and I shall make every effort to not, and yes I trust you Doctor.” With that she’d fall silent and coldly enter a ready position and make a fairly standard downward strike towards the doctor using all her strength and speed behind the blow, obviously a novice but the Doctor said she wanted to test her strength so she’d start by putting it on display, as he’d bring her arms down with the strike the doctor could perhaps notice adagio’s shoulders tensing hard showing a good deal of the enhanced striations and structure beneath her soft skin.

 

tempestual Parkin eyes the strike carefully, her sword licking out to parry it aside....she wouldn’t even try blocking a strike with that kind of power behind it. Even so, her arm would be jarred, a heavy tremor running up to her shoulder. Stepping to the left, she would suddenly dive into a roll, her blade seemingly a mere extension of her arm as it flicks forward. Unless blocked, it would slice a cut in Adagio's jeans, the very tip of it cutting the material. An amused smirk would be directed at Adagio "don’t use the standard forms......you are going to fight, not duel......." she will have ended up, by the beige chair, on her back, seemingly relaxed, and completely at ease....for some reason choosing this position.

 

Adagio: would coldly cast her eyes in the direction of temps as she hears the lades clang together for the first time. Barely noticing temps motions she would try to bring her blade down to protect her legs but she’d respond too slow, a limitation of both her skills and her slower reflexes. She’d look coldly down and see her pants hanging a little more limply in one area and she’d remain silent at the Doctors wisdom she’d just flick her blade downward as she’d rush quickly forward her powerful legs driving her forward on the balls of her feet, once she was within range of the Doctor she’d try an upward sweeping move with the tip of the blade facing down towards the ground possibly gouging her hardwood flooring.

 

tempestual Parkin eyes widen slightly, but the smile on her face indicates her contentment at the move chosen. Smooth leg muscles ripple, combining with defined abdominals to contort her body, her feet flying backwards over her head to raise herself to a crouch. A wide smile is directed at adagio “good good......you dint go for the down-swing as i expected". Without a pause, she would suddenly attack, her form in no way rigid, but free-flowing....she seemed to follow no set discipline, mixing styles and attacks. Her left leg rises, foot stamping harshly into the seat of the chair to drive her light form off the ground, hopefully avoiding any swipe made at her by adagio in the process. She would contort her body, spinning in the air, her sword lancing out three times before she lands, each time, it the blade would be turned. The first would be directed at Adagio's elbow, the next at her wrist, the last at her hand, hoping to dislodge the blade from her grip. Regardless, she would land in a feral crouch on the chaise, waiting

 

Adagio: would raise an eyebrow at the motion thinking it nearly impossible for a moment and she’d attribute it to years of training and the Doctor being a neko. She’d try o make a could slices at the Doctor as she would launch into the air she’d make the smallest of winces feeling the blade bite successfully into her three time in all the targeted spaces, and her grip loses significantly, only holding the katana in a two handed death grip had kept it in her hands. She’d frown little bit keeping her heavy handed double grip on the blade and she’d spin h r body towards the Doctors right side apparently aiming for a leg when she’d suddenly reverse the course taken as quickly as her muscles would allow and try an upward jab from the left. For Adagio it would probably be a more risky maneuver than it was worth, in all likelihood better left up to the Doctor to try and execute.

 

tempestual Parkin scoffs slightly, to her own eyes, the move seeming slow, clumsy almost. Dropping to the floor, her back arching, the blade would still catch her, slicing through her top, drawing a clean line of blood across the smooth skin of her stomach. It was ironic, she was about to beat Adagio with the same move she used on Soz. Falling to the floor, her left hand presents a balance point, her right leg straight, strong, as it swings round. In likelihood, it would knock Adagio from her feet, and if this happened as expected, temp would turn her spin into a smooth leap forward. Her sword, seemingly just a blur in its movement would stop, resting upon Adagio's throat, assuming of course it all went as planned. She would then whisper softly "you may keep the swords....but you have a long way to go.....if this was a true fight, i could have killed you any number of times. You cannot just rely on your impressive strength."

 

_________________

  

I had a bit of an encounter today I feel deserves a specil entry in my journal, the file is as follows...

 

Adagio: would raise an eyebrow at the man and secure her pants after finishing with her wound. She'd raise a well shaped eyebrow to the man and speak in her normal icy tone towards the man. "Can I help you?"

 

Bull Hendrassen would approach he slowy crossing through the curtain seperating them and silently he would get a closer look at her eyes and tilt his head to one side in a manner of confusion and then he would rub the side of his head hard, obviously distraught.

 

Adagio: would keep her eyebrows raised and her hands would cross in front of her below the oversized belt buckle just a few inches from the hilt of her Tanto. "Is there something I can do for you sir? Do you have a question about me or something?"

 

Bull Hendrassen lifts a shaky hand up and extends his finger pointing to her face. "you.....cant have those...not right....not right....I dont know....you....must be marked....yes must be....somethings unusual, special maybe? wonder, if it taste good?" he ocassionaly smacks himself in the head with his other hand as if trying to convince himself of something in a rather forceful manner and its obvious this guy is crazy.

 

] Adagio: would frown a little bit and keep her posture and gaze icy, her blue and orange eyes giving the man an icy look." If you're referring to my eyes you'd be right, I'm created, you could view me as a living sculpture of sorts." Even though her features would remain emotionless the man could perhaps pick up a hint of pride.

  

Bull Hendrassen would walk slowly around the medical table, his body language not particularly frightening at the moment as he is not being agressive...but he is closing the distance between them...he is after something. he extends buth hands up towards her face like he is trying to grab her head.

 

Adagio: would back up quickly and her hands would drop to her pants, her right would clasp onto her Tanto, and the left would hit her pocket sending an emergency message from the phone. She'd speak icily at the man her eyes giving the man a look of

 

Bull Hendrassen continues towards her slowly, he is driven, his psyhcosis not letting him back off, he has to know...."have to see....have to....must know...." his movements are still unagressive, but imposing.

 

Adagio: would draw her Tanto quickly from its sheath and she’d hold the blade steadily between herself and the man the edge parallel with the ground. She’d gaze coldly at the man with her emotionless eyes hoping that the body language of the drawn blade would be more than enough. If need be she could easily lunge forward to attack the man.

 

Bull Hendrassen would continue even as she drew the blade he is so absorbed in his driveness to see her eyes that he igrores the blade and walks right on top of it the blade sinking into his abdomen, and he keeps driving himself onto it, it stabbing into him further and further as he walks, the psychosis in his mind telling him that the pain is non-existant, he is above that, ascended from the mortal condition.

 

Adagio: would just coldly raise an eyebrow as she coldly keeps the blade steady putting all of her enhanced strength behind her one handed grip to keep the man where he is even as his blood would begin to cover her hand and run down her arm and mingle with the black silk of her shirt. She'd keep her emotionless icy gaze locked on the man unflinchingly staring at his mask while she tried keeping the man where he was.

 

Bull Hendrassen would have a pleading look in his eyes as he reached ever forward to her face. "please...i MUST SEE!" and he goes to grab her face....

 

Adagio: would raise an eyebrow and she’d flinch a little bit as the man grabs her face, she’d frown a little bit her gaze unflinching leaving her fist tightly gripping the blade still inside of the man. She’d speak coldly to the man as she would stare into those deep dark slits in his mask, her voice as cold as the frozen north, each syllable an icicle hanging in midair. “ Let me go or I spill your guts on the floor”

 

Bull Hendrassen ignores her request for a moment more and uses his thumb and index finger to spread open her eyelid so he can fully examine one of her eyes. he brings the mask in very closely to her face for few moments and tilts his head this way and that while he looks into her eye, his breathing slow and rythmic inside the mask. finally he slowly lets his head go back and he begins to back off the blade.

 

Adagio: would just remain crouched frozen by what just happened, and she would raise an eyebrow seeing the man back off of her blade silently. Once he’s clear of the blade she just watches the blood drip off the tip of her gleaming blade unsure of what exactly just happened before she reverts her icy gaze back to the man.

 

Bull Hendrassen seems not to even notice the stab wound in his midsection. "thank you." he says slowly and pauses for a moment. "i do hope that I have not offended you. you seem a bit tense..." that should be a bit of an obvious statement but he seems completly genuine with his words.

 

Adagio: would rise slowly at the man's now polite actions and she'd just look at her blood covered arm and blade before she'd hit her phone in he rpocket again and just nod silently at the man still chilingly cold and icy, but more confused than anything.

 

Bull Hendrassen nods back slowly. "you must be chosen, you said created, yes you are among us most special people indeed. you have something that sets you apart, yes indeed, apart from others..."

 

Adagio: would raise an eyebrow and she'd frown little bit still holding her blade in her hand she'd wipe the blood from her arm and blade with a medical towel she'd grab with her left hand. "I suppose that's a good thing then?"

 

Bull Hendrassen "yes, very good....you are the only person i have seen in the city that has you eyes, it must be a mark of greatness."

 

Adagio would raise an eyebrow hearing the bit about mark of greatness, she’d frown a little bit and it’d click that it was probably time to get away from this man while he was still polite. “Very well if that’s your opinion anyway.” She’d move to head for the curtain and head to the back door, she would speak icily to the man once more as she walked out. “I’ll see you later then I guess.”

   

_________________

 

Movement II

The Mysterious Sonata

 

The last few days have been quite unique; hell the word unique doesn’t describe them, special momentous, amazing, those are the words that describe them better, along with tormented, anguished, and painful.

 

I had to deal with the death of a good a good friend, Shoya. I feel awful at her death, I barely controlled myself when Lithia killed, her, but It my duty to solve problems, not to start them. I think that’s the whole reason why I held myself back. I actually cried when I carried her dead, headless body into the church, I don’t know if Sister D can forgive me for what I’ve done to her emotionally, I hope that she can forgive me. And I’ve gotten it cleared with the doctors at the MC, I had to lie and say that Serp was the cause of her death; I had to explain the same thing to a catwalker. Doctor Parkin and I are planning her funeral.

 

Speaking of Doctor Parkin, she has begun instructing me in the fields of genetics, she had me study a basic text on the matter and recite what I’d learned. Now she’s having me write a paper on how I’d improve the synapses in a nervous system, I must say the topic is fairly interesting. Overall I’m quite honored to be under the Doctors tutelage.

 

I had to deal with one of my boss’s mind games the other day; I won’t make more mention of it other than it caused me to discharge my weapon in anger. I just hope my emotions don’t all flood me at once, I am unsure if that is something that I can handle, while I like being able to feel, I’d rather not become like Aylin, her emotions are severely stunted it seems.

 

A man named Markko has become an acquaintance with me it seems. I don’t know what to say about him, he’s Intelligent, polite, and is quite complimentary of me. While I enjoy receiving compliments, Doctor Parkin did excellent work on me; I have to wonder if he gives all attractive women compliments such as the ones he gave me. He said that my beauty could make the Blue Lady, the ocean, jealous. I must say while quite the compliment, it seems a little too over the top to be simple politeness.

 

And finally Doctor Daviau has placed me in charge of Soz’s AI daughter, I am unsure of what to say about that. I guess I’ll learn what it’s like to be a parent or caretaker of some sort.

 

Barline

_________________

 

Movement IV

Adagio in Reprise

D.S al Coda

 

I have died, I have risen, and I have been reborn anew.

 

Perhaps that sounds a bit to full of myself but that is the case, apparently I have suffered a death, and when I awkoe from the tank i found that my employent with Ashagi has been terminated. though I owe them a thank you for what they have givn me. Per my instructions for memory implantation into a new body should teh need have ever arisen, Half of my brain ha sbeen replaced witha CPU operating in sync with my organic brain. Sadly something seems to be wrong with it. The Cio-cybernetic neurons that were suppose dto ahve been added in to allow this were not installed it semms. So I effectivly function with two largely independent brains. This will be a problem that I need to solve.

 

I came back and thought that Amara, my lover, would be pleased to see me again. Sadly I wa smistaken the woman was in hysterics and almost killed me in the TZ. I don't know what she went through emotionally, but I feel sorry for what she had to endure from me.

 

I kept sending he rmessages at least two short texts a day to let he rknow that i stillloved her, nthing mor ethen that. Finally the otehrnight she agreed to meet me again at the sushi bar. At first she was quite quiet with me, and thinsg starte dto get worse when chi showed up. With what he has done to Amara I can only understand why she ran off. I followed her of course to the Quinntukhat bridge, trying to comfort her. if there is one thing I never want to see again its my darling in tears the way she was teh othernight. We wound up in each others arms though, and i think the groundwork is there for us now.

 

With my termination at Ashagi I am now free to choose my own career path and I have, as the representative of the Bio-Mechs. I think the position shows my talents well. debate, political speech, understanding of business, all of my personal skills will ocme into play here. I Have also begun crossing over my genetics knowledge into the realm of the cybernetic. That can only be invaluable. So far i've drafted a contract with DuPlotte industries for various raw materials an dparts, and anotehr contract with the League of Engineers, for a 96GB connection for the HQ.

 

In other news I've begun Modeling for Artika at the gallery, and well it's more fun than I thought it would be, and well with teh fact im not skin and bones I never thought I could be a model, not after those mainland agencies said I had too much muscle tone.

 

Barline

_________________

 

Movement V

Pachelbels Canon in A

 

She said yes!

 

A few days ago at the Freetown days ball, my darling,my beautiful Amara finally said yes! I forget the exact words we used, I think it was something sappy along the lines of "Let me be yours forever darling." "I can't do that Adagio, but I can say yes." Sappy I know but it works. Anyway our next hurdle is showing the Father that we desrve to be wed in holy Matrimony. Nothing could have made me happier, I almost feel sorry for the workouts I've been putting Amara through.

 

After that we went to teh church to pray, it was quite the personal journey I think. WIth what Amara wants us to do, join teh Parish watch, I do not know if I should. I know that politically it might look good. But How will that conflict with my duties with the Bio-Mechs. I mean hell, with Serp and Mirage in the organization, I don't think I'm compatible. But if Amara wants it I'll try to join. I guess I should see exactly where this all ends up then hmm?

 

Whole Rest

_________________

 

Movement VI

The Light Aria

 

things have begun to change since the onset of my project. I began this work with the intent in increasing my intellect to something worthy of my creator. But things have taken some interesting turns. I've altered my metabolism for starters, I now metabolize platinum. I thought that I could alter my metabolism in such a way that only my braincells would be affected by this, to allow for faster synapses and quicker times for the electrical impulses thatrace through my brain, that race through everybody's brain. I also kickstarted the growth of my brin to produce more braincells and to develop the areas o fmy brain with little use, trying to make my thought process more efficient.

 

This technology if applied right could save people from Alzheimers or parkinsons. Hell virtually any degnerative neural condition.

 

But I was wrong.

 

The platinum has bonded with my skin as well a smy entire nervous stem. While it may look pretty, developing that was the single most painful experience of my life. I have no idea how I survived. I know i would be dead now had it not been for Amiya's Internevtion. Though even though my metabolism has stabilized, my brain still continues to grow.

 

i did this with the hopes of boosting my overall intelligence by 100 points, and combining my organic and cybernetic brains. the most recent scans from last friday show that I was right about that much at least. With the accelerated growth my intelligence quotient rests somewhere around the 400 mark plus or minus 75 either way. But it has come at a cost.

 

My brains have grown to become one, but I now posess at least three times the normal amount of bran cells, and the amount of gyri and sulci are at a level of concentration ten times higher than the average human. This is my saving grace that my brain is still growing denser and not physocally larger. It's amiya's help that has saved my life thusfar, but with my need for that treatment reaching astronomically expensive proportions, I need help from my creators.....Ashagi.

 

barline

   

Delphi was founded in the 'navel' of the known world by the Greek father god Zeus , he released two eagles that circumnavigated the world, where the two eagles met became the place to talk to their gods via the oracles or pythos. Apollo had a temple here.Before this, the major ancient site, a place of pilgrimage for Greeks

had been the Gates of Hades or the Underworld.

 

These Gauls (later some became Galatians) reached Delphi, to attack the Temple of Apollo in mid winter.An inscription near the oracle perhaps from older times was 'Know Thyself'.Delphi became the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and the famous prehistoric oracle. Even in Roman times, hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.

 

Carved into the temple were three phrases: γνῶθι σεαυτόν (gnōthi seautón = "know thyself") and μηδέν άγαν (mēdén ágan = "nothing in excess"), and Ἑγγύα πάρα δ'ἄτη (eggýa pára d'atē = "make a pledge and mischief is nigh"), In ancient times, the origin of these phrases was attributed to one or more of the Seven Sages of Greece.

 

Additionally, according to Plutarch's essay on the meaning of the "E at Delphi"—the only literary source for the inscription—there was also inscribed at the temple a large letter E.Among other things epsilon signifies the number 5.

 

According to one pair of modern scholars, "The actual authorship of the three maxims set up on the Delphian temple may be left uncertain. Most likely they were popular proverbs, which tended later to be attributed to particular sages."

  

A great actual and mythic battle began, recorded well after Greece was under Rome's dominion.

The Greeks had asked the gods for help to protect their sacred temple and treasury which was a focal point of their lives. Accordingly ,the pleas were 'answered' and there were earthquakes and thunderbolts and even rock slides from nearby Mount Parnassus upon the enemy. Still the Celts or Gauls fought on , a famous earlier story to Alexander the Great when he went north of the Danube briefly and met chieftains of the Gauls or Celts , who implied they were only fearful of the sky falling in....so he might have considered them too reckless rather than brave ...he may have thought they might fear him?

 

24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_mcbsidHvJH1qaxacfo1_500.jpg

 

The Greeks again asked for divine help. During the night, the Celts were said to 'panic' and fight each other. Pausanias,writing over 300 years later in Roman times ,described the mayhem as "causeless terrors are said to come from the god Pan". Eventually the Celts retreated after suffering grievous losses, 26,000 dead, according to the Greek historian Pausanias in later times. Here is Pausanias describing the battle which was fought with symbolic divine aid (or knowledge of a primal fear of the Celts) as mentioned earlier to Alexander the Great of Macedonia :

 

Pausanias (geographer), Greek traveller, geographer, and writer (Description of Greece) of the 2nd century AD. As a Greek writing under the auspices of the Roman empire, he found himself in an awkward cultural space, between the glories of the Greek past he was so keen to describe and the realities of a Greece beholden to Rome as a dominating imperial force. His work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece.

Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pausanias_%28geographer%29

 

Ptolemy Keraunos (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Κεραυνός, died 279 BC) was the arrogant ,murderous King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC. His epithet Keraunos is Greek for "Thunder" or "Thunderbolt". See more on him here:

balkancelts.wordpress.com/

However, although Keraunos was at the zenith of his power, he did not live long afterwards. In 279 BC he was captured and killed (beheaded) during the wars against the Gauls led by Bolgios ("Lightening" ) who conducted a series of mass raids against Macedon and the rest of Greece.His death brought anarchy to the Greek states, since none of his successors were able to bring stability. This situation lasted about two years, until Antigonos Gonatas defeated the Gauls in the battle near Lysimachia, Thrace, in 277 BC, After this victory he was recognized king of Macedon and his power extended eventually also to south Greece.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Antigonus_Gonatas_British_Muse...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AntigonusGonatas.jpg

The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed"). It was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty. The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179-168 BCE, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty.

 

skyelander.orgfree.com/celts4.html

  

Spanish language source internet illustration on ancient tribal attire.

www.housebarra.com/EP/ep04/15celtclothes.html

Several versions out there, if copyrighted please let me know.

Source is likely to be.... from an interesting book called 'Rome's Enemies 2 Gallic and British Celts', #158 in the Ospreys , Men-At-Arms Series, by Peter Wilcox and Angus MacBride (ISBN: 0850456061), 1985. The paintings, done by McBride, (see his picture here)

www.flickr.com/photos/roondorozhand/3234794396/

are based on literary descriptions and archeological finds and are said to be as accurate as possible at this time. www.flickr.com/photos/ancientgreekmapsandmore/2133688042/

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZPd2DS5sq4

 

(NO , Not a~vik~ing, they who came from the north, hundreds of years later).See theTaking of the Temple at Delphi by the Gauls, 1885 by Alphonse Cornet a French Academic Classical artist born 1814 - died 1874.

 

The earliest directly attested examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic .Lepontic is an extinct Alpine language that was spoken in parts of Rhaetia and Cisalpine Gaul between 550 and 100 BC. It is generally regarded as a Celtic language, although its exact classification within Celtic, or even within the western Indo-European languages, has been the object of debate...

inscriptions, beginning from the 6th century BC.The Continental Celtic languages were spoken by the people known to Roman and Greek writers as Keltoi,...

are attested only in inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic is attested from about the 4th century AD in ogham inscriptions, although it is clearly much earlier. Literary tradition begins with Old Irish from about the 8th century. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature. Early Irish literature-The earliest Irish authors:It is unclear when literacy first came to Ireland. The earliest Irish writings are inscriptions, mostly simple memorials, on stone in the ogham alphabet, the earliest of which date to the fourth century..., such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge (a legendary tale from early Irish literature, often considered an epic, although it is written primarily in prose rather than verse)...(The Cattle Raid of Cooley), survive in 12th-century recensions. According to the theory of Professor John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages....

and others.The Tartessian language, also known as Southwestern or South Lusitanian, is a Paleohispanic language once spoken in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula: mainly in the south of Portugal , but also in Spain...may have been the earliest directly attested Celtic language with the Tartessian written script used in the inscriptions based on a version of a Phoenician script in use around 825 BC.

  

GREEK RELIEF writing on tablet 3RD BCE

Decree of the town of Cos, Greece. Inscription on stone about the conquest of Delphi by the Gauls under Brennus in March 278 BCE, followed by news of the expulsion of the Gauls from Delphi in the Archaeological Museum, Istanbul, modern Turkey.

 

www.lessing-photo.com/dispimg.asp?i=10010366+&cr=1679...

 

Synonyms: Bryth, Gaul: The Raven King

 

A Brennos , Brennos of the Senones, first appears as the Celtic or Gaulish hero who led the Celtic sack of Rome. During the third century BCE the Celtic expansion led them to the Po valley in Italy. Fearful of this expansion the Etruscans called , on their adversaries, Rome for assistance. The Romans sent three envoys to meet the Celtic leaders. However, one of the Roman envoys killed a Celtic chief and Rome sent an army of 40 000 to meet these 'barbarians'. When the Celts learned of the Roman army moving towards them, Brennos (most likely a chiefly title rather than a real name, like a Duke, see below) marched the Celts off to meet the Romans. The Celts met the Romans at the River Allia, the Romans panicked at the sight of all those crazed Celts, and many Roman soldiers even drowned in the River in attempt to escape. A few made it back to Rome and informed the Senate about the battle at Allia (the date of the battle, July 18, became known as Alliaensis, and was considered thereafter to be a very bad day to do any public activity). The Roman citizens, rightfully fearing that the Celts were headed toward Rome, fled in a panic (much like the soldiers at Allia). By the time the Celts/ Gauls arrived, Rome had been deserted, with the exception of several elderly patricians. These old patricians were sitting in a courtyard, believing that if they were to sacrifice their lives for Rome in its most dire hour of need, Rome's enemies would then be thrown into panic and confusion, and Rome thereby saved. This nearly worked, but the spell of quietude was broken and Rome was looted and the old men killed. They advanced on the Capitol, but were thwarted by plague and a night-time attack was spoiled by cackling of geese. However, about seven months, later the Romans decided to negotiate and the Celts agreed to leave if the Romans would pay them 1,000 pounds of gold. The Celts were accused of using false weights, upon which Brennos (the Celtic chieftain) is said to have thrown his sword on the scales and loudly declare, "Vea victus", or "woe to the defeated".

 

www.flickr.com/photos/96490373@N02/14550761807/

 

cgi.ebay.com/Ancient-Roman-Dictator-Brennus-c1915-Card-/3...

 

www.flickr.com/photos/summoning_ifrit/4211154813/

 

The early 4th century BCE a vast group of Gauls sacked the city of Rome. Romans gave it up rather easily, actually. Most fled to neighbouring cities like Veii while the Senate, priests, and what was left of the Roman army migrated to the Capitol - defending and taking refuge in the temples there. The Gauls made easy pickings of what they found in the city. According to Livy:

 

For several days they had been directing their fury only against bricks and mortar. Rome was a heap of smouldering ruins, but something remained - the armed men in the Citadel, and when the Gauls saw that, in spite of everything, they remained unshaken and would never yield to anything but force, they resolved to attempt an assault. At dawn, therefore, on a given signal the whole vast horde assembled in the Forum; then, roaring out their challenge, they locked shields and moved up the slope of the Capitol." (5.43)

 

The Romans, however, used the advantage of being at the top of the hill and managed to beat the Gauls back. Yet the Gauls were determined and even though they had destroyed most of the food and supplies in their initial sack of the city, they began a siege on the hill.

 

During all of this, officials in Veii were determined to get a message through to the Roman Senate - despite the fact that the Senate was under siege. As the old saying goes, 'if there's a will, there's a way', and a young Roman soldier named Pontius Cominus managed to do it. "Floating on a life-buoy down the river to Rome, he took the shortest way to the Capitol up and over a bluff so steep that the Gauls had never thought of watching it." (5.46) But the Gauls did find out about it and figured if he could do it, then they should all be able to do it too.

 

One starlit night, they made the attempt. Having first sent an unarmed man to reconnoitre the route, they began the climb. It was something of a scramble: at the awkward spots a man would get a purchase for his feet on a comrade below him, then haul him up in his turn - weapons were passed up from hand to hand as the lie of the rocks allowed - until by pushing and pulling on another they reached the top. What is more, they accomplished the climb so quietly that the Romans on guard never heard a sound, and even the dogs - who are normally aroused by the least noise in the night - noticed nothing. It was the geese that saved them - Juno's sacred geese, which in spite of the dearth of provisions had not been killed. The cackling of the birds and the clapping of their wings awoke Marcus Manlius - a distinguished officer who had been consul three years before - and he, seizing his sword and giving the alarm, hurried, without waiting for the support of his bewildered comrades, straight to the point of danger. (5.46)

  

And that is either Roman spin or real history of how the sacred geese of Juno saved Rome - since after that last attempt, the lack of food forced the Gaul to accept payment from the Romans to leave the city alone.

www.mmdtkw.org/AU0308bJunoMonetaGeese.jpg

 

www.mmdtkw.org/AU0308gBrennerPass.jpg

 

www.mmdtkw.org/AU0308gBrennusFrenchMaritimeSculpture.jpg

 

While Brennus I was evil personified to the Romans, he was a hero to transalpine people.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Allia

 

"Other Greek and Roman synchronisms have a more obvious historical symbolism, as may be the casewith the Polybian synchronism we saw above, between Dionysius’s siege of

Rhegium and the Gallic sack of Rome."

 

wxy.seu.edu.cn/humanities/sociology/htmledit/uploadfile/s...

 

www.unrv.com/empire/gallic-sack-of-rome.php

 

REFOUNDING THE CITY:

ENNIUS, LIVY, AND VIRGIL

The city of Rome has now been successfully founded in historical time—whether

that time is focalized as Greek or Roman—but we have not yet reached the end of

the story. As everyone knows, the city of Rome kept having to be re-founded, and

the patterns of refoundation drastically reconfigure the trajectory of movement

from myth to history that we have been following so far.188

Ennius’s most explicit surviving allusion to the date of the foundation of the city

in fact comes at the moment when the city had just been virtually destroyed, and

was on the verge of vanishing from history, after the sack by the Gauls in 387/6

b.c.e.189 The context is a speech in which Camillus persuades the Senate not to

move to Veii, but to refound the city instead (154–55 Skutsch):

Septingenti sunt paulo plus aut minus anni

augusto augurio postquam incluta condita Roma est.

It is seven hundred years, a little more or a little less,

since famous Rome was founded by august augury.

How this seven-hundred-year period between Romulus’s foundation and the sack

of Rome by the Gauls actually worked remains a mystery, at least to me.190 Still, we

should not overlook the symbolic significance of this number in its own right. The

importance of the seven-hundred-year period has been very well illustrated in the

fascinating book Die rhetorische Zahl, written by a scholar with the gloriously apt

name of Dreizehnter.191 Dreizehnter does not mention this passage of Ennius, but

he collects a great deal of interesting material about seven hundred years as the life

span of a city or an empire from foundation to extinction, or from foundation to

virtual extinction or only just-escaped extinction. In various traditions that he

examines there were seven hundred years from the foundation to the destruction

of Melos, Carthage, and Macedonia, or from the foundation to the virtual extinc-

(Myth into History I: Foundations of the city)

tion of Sparta.192 What we see in the Ennius passage, in other words, is that the city

was virtually destroyed and came within an ace of fulfilling the seven-hundred year

doom. The point will have been accentuated by Ennius’s book divisions.

Camillus’s speech comes at the end of book 4, and the regal period ended with

book 3, so that up to this point in the Annales we have had only one self-contained

volume of Republican history, and if things had gone differently that might have

been all we had.193

Livy activates the power of this Ennian symbolic numeral, even as he corrects

Ennius’s dating, with his allusion to the seven hundred years of Rome (Pref. 4):

Res est praeterea et immensi operis, ut quae supra septingentesimum annum

repetatur et quae ab exiguis profecta initiis eo creuerit ut iam magnitudine

laboret sua.

In addition, the matter is of immeasurable scope, in that it must be taken back

past the seven hundredth year, and having started from small beginnings has

grown to the stage that it is now laboring under its own size.194

Chaplin has argued that Livy’s preface is constructing recent Roman history as a

death, with a possible rebirth to come:195 the Republic has been destroyed, and the

Romans of Livy’s time are like the Romans of Camillus’s time, faced with the task

of refounding the city after it has only just escaped its seven-hundred-year doom.

In Livy’s treatment of the Roman response to the sack of the city by the Gauls,

we can see him returning to the Ennian theme of rebirth from destruction,

although this time using different significant numbers. Having exploited the numinous

associations of Ennius’s seven hundred years in his preface, Livy now produces

another numinous numeral for the span from foundation to sack, one that

conforms with the modern orthodox chronology. Livy has Camillus deliver a

mighty speech to convince his fellow citizens not to abandon Rome for the site of

Veii (5.51–54).196When Livy’s Camillus echoes Ennius’s by counting off the years

since the foundation, it appears that some kind of great year has gone by. From

Romulus’s foundation down to the sack by the Gauls there have been as many

years as there are days in a year: Trecentensimus sexagensimus quintus annus urbis,

Quirites, agitur (“This is the 365th year of the city, Quirites,” 5.54.5). This is of

course a calculation that fully resonates only after Caesar’s reform of the calendar,

when a Roman year for the first time had 365 days.This counting places

Camillus’s refounding of the city at a pivotal point in time, precisely halfway

(Refounding the City: Ennius, Livy, Virgil . 101)

between the first founding of the city, in 753, and the refounding that faces Livy

and his contemporaries 365 years after Camillus, in the 20s b.c.e.198 Exactly the

same structuring appears to underpin the panorama of Roman history on Virgil’s

Shield of Aeneas, where the barely averted destruction of Rome by the Gauls (Aen.

8.652–62) comes midway in time between the foundation of the city (8.635) and

the barely averted destruction of Rome by Antonius and Cleopatra (8.671–713).199

In all of these authors, city destruction, whether achieved or barely averted,

leads to refoundation and consequent reconfiguring of identity, in a process that

begins with Troy and continues through the fates of Alba Longa, Veii, and Rome

itself.200 As Kraus has shown, when Livy begins his next book after the Gallic sack,

he refounds his narrative along with the city, capitalizing on the annalistic tradition’s

identification of the city and history.201 In an extraordinary moment, the

opening sentences of book 6 tell us that only now is real history beginning. All of

the material in the first five books, Livy now declares, has been “obscure because

of its excessive antiquity” (uetustate nimia obscuras), and because there were few

written records in those early days, while the ones that did exist “for the most part

were destroyed when the city was burnt” (incensa urbe pleraeque interiere, 6.1.2).

Everything up until this point, from Troy to the Gallic sack, is suddenly reconfigured

as prior, prefoundational. In his preface Livy had drawn a line between myth

and history around the time of the Romulean foundation of the city (ante conditam

condendamue urbem, 6), but “the fresh start in 390 redraws the limits of the historically

verifiable.”202We now have a new entry into history, with a newly rebuilt city

and a newly solid evidential base for its written commemoration (6.1.3):

Clariora deinceps certioraque ab secunda origine uelut ab stirpibus laetius

feraciusque renatae urbis gesta domi militiaeque exponentur.

From here there will be a more clear and definite exposition of the domestic

and military history of the city, reborn from a second origin, as if from the

old roots, with a more fertile and fruitful growth.203

Livy here is picking up on the annalistic history of Claudius Quadrigarius, who

had written about fifty years earlier. We know that Claudius began his history with

the sack of Rome by the Gauls, no doubt on the grounds we see alluded to in Livy,

that no history was possible before then, thanks to the destruction of monuments

and archives.204

We have already seen how the Roman tradition picks up demarcations that are

102 . Myth into History I: Foundations of the City

crucial from the Greek tradition—Troy and the first Olympiad—and recasts

them as transitions into a new, Roman, phase of history. The Gallic sack is a vital

addition to this series of watersheds. The first key fixed synchronistic point in

Timaeus and Polybius that makes it possible for Roman history to be properly connected

with Greek history, the Gallic sack is itself made to serve as the “beginning

of history” in Claudius Quadrigarius and Livy book 6.205 The very event that almost

expunged Rome altogether is the one that put the city on the world stage—

just as the destruction of Troy led to the city’s existence in the first place.206

Ovid intuited the power of these associated watersheds of foundation and Gallic

sack, and his subtle deployment of them in the Metamorphoses is proof of their

understood significance. Before he arrives at the foundation of Rome in book 14,

he has a very small number of proleptic references to the as yet nonexistent city.

Book 1 contains two forward references to his own day, with the poem’s first simile

referring to the reign of Augustus (1.199–205), and the story of Apollo and

Daphne likewise anticipating the reign of Augustus, as Apollo prophesies the use

of his sacred laurel to grace Roman triumphs and adorn Augustus’s house (1.560–

63). His only other proleptic references to the city before the foundation in book

14 occur in book 2, and they are both references to the city only just escaping total

catastrophe, catastrophes that would have ensured the city was never part of world

history. One is in a cosmic setting, when the natural site of the city is almost

expunged, as the Tiber is dried up along with other rivers by Phaethon’s chariot

(2.254–59); the other is an allusion to the geese that “were to save the Capitol with

their wakeful cry” (seruaturis uigili Capitolia uoce/ . . . anseribus, 2.538–39).207

Again, in the Fasti, when the gods meet in council to deliberate how to save Rome

from the Gauls, Ovid takes as his template the Ennian council that deliberated over

the foundation of the city: in both cases, Mars expostulates with his father, Jupiter,

and is assured that all will be well.208

It is highly significant that these two events, the city’s foundation and near

destruction by the Gauls, are the only “historical” events commemorated on the

Republican calendar, the Fasti Antiates.209 Calendrical fasti from the Principate

mention all kinds of events, but the Fasti Antiates, the only calendar we have surviving

from the Republic, mark only two historical events: 21 April, the Parilia and

the foundation of the city, and 18 July, the dies Alliensis, the day of the battle of the

Allia, when the Roman army was scattered by the advancing Gauls on their way

to the city, which they entered on the next day.210

The foundation of the city and its near extinction by the Gauls are symbolically

joined events, linked by significant numbers, either 700 or 365, linked by themes of

Refounding the City: Ennius, Livy, Virgil . 103

refoundation and rebirth. The history of the city keeps getting restarted at such

crucial transition moments, when repetitive patterns of quasi-cyclical destruction

and refoundation replay themselves, in a fascinating interplay between a drive for

onward narrative continuity and the threat of eddying, repetitious, circularity.211 It

is poignant to observe the power of this theme still persisting in the fifth century

c.e., when Rutilius Namatianus, six years after the sack of Rome by the Visigoths

in 410 c.e., can hail Rome’s potential to bounce back from disaster, citing its eventual

defeat of Brennus, who led the Gauls to the sack of Rome, and of the Samnites,

Pyrrhus, and Hannibal:212 “You, Rome, are built up,” he claims, “by the very thing

that undoes other powers: the pattern of your rebirth is the ability to grow from

your calamities” (illud te reparat quod cetera regna resoluit:/ordo renascendi est

crescere posse malis, 139–40). Each of these key marker moments in time may become

a new opportunity for the community to reimagine itself, as the epochal moment

produces a new beginning point from which the community may imagine its

progress forward into time, measured against its backward extension into time.213

 

_______________________________ __________________________

 

The Gauls in the Italia peninsula .Clusium was reached by the Gauls, who had invaded most of Etruria already, and its people turned to Rome for help. However, the Roman embassy provoked a skirmish and, then, the Gauls marched straight for Rome (July, 387 BC). After the entire Roman army was defeated at the Allia brook (Battle of the Allia), the defenseless Rome was seized by the invaders. The entire Roman army retreated into the deserted Veii whereas most civilians ended at the Etruscan Caere. Nonetheless, a surrounded Roman garrison continued to resist on the Capitoline Hill. The Gauls dwelt within the city, getting their supplies by destroying all nearby towns for plunder.When the Gauls went for Ardea, the exiled Camillus, who was now a private man, organized the local forces for a defense. Particularly, he harangued that, always, the Gauls exterminated their defeated enemies. Camillus found that the Gauls were too distracted, celebrating their latest spoils with much 'crapulence' at their camp. Then, he attacked during a night, defeating the enemy easily with great bloodshed.He is thus considered the second founder of Rome.Camillus was hailed then by all other Roman exiles throughout the region. After he refused a makeshift generalship, a Roman messenger sneaked into the Capitol and, therein, Camillus was officially appointed dictator by the Roman Senators, to confront the Gauls.At the Roman base of Veii, Camillus gathered a 12,000-man army whereas more men joined out of the region. The occupying Gauls were in serious need, under quite poor health conditions. As the Roman Dictator, Camillus negotiated with the Gallic leader Brennus, and the Gauls left Rome, camping nearby at the Gabinian road. A day after this, Camillus confronted them with his refreshed army and the Gauls were forced to withdraw, after seven months of occupation (386 BC).

Camillus sacrificed for the successful return and he ordered the construction of the temple of Aius Locutius. Then, he subdued another claim of the plebeian orators, who importuned further about moving to Veii. After ordering a Senate debate, Camillus argued for staying and the Roman house approved this unanimously. The reconstruction extended for an entire year.

 

By this one-year office, Camillus was the longest of all Roman dictators. Basically, the Senators had been persuaded by the disturbing social clashes, which could be better managed by Camillus. Instead, Camillus disliked this and, vainly, he requested the dismissal.

 

Roman dictator (367 BC)

As the Gauls were, again, marching toward Latium, all Romans reunited despite their severe differences. Camillus was named Roman dictator for the fifth time then (367 BC). He organized the defense of Rome actively. By the commands of Camillus, the Roman soldiers were protected particularly against the Gallic main attack, the heavy blow of their swords. Both smooth iron helmets and brass rimed shields were built. Also, long pikes were used, to keep the enemy's swords far.

The Gauls camped at the Anio river, carrying loads of recently gotten plunder. Near them, at the Alban Hills, Camillus discovered their disorganization, which was due to unruly celebrations. Before the dawn, then, the light infantry disarrayed the Gallic defenses and, subsequently, the heavy infantry and the pikemen of the Romans finished their enemy. After the battle, Velitrae surrendered voluntarily to Rome. Back in Rome, Camillus celebrated with another Triumph.

 

ancientimes.blogspot.co.nz/2007/06/brennus-and-first-sack...

 

A deadly pestilence struck Rome and it affected most Roman public figures. Camillus was amongst them, passing away in 365 BC.

 

Source: Plutarch, The Parallel Lives - The Life of Camillus:

 

In popular culture

Marcus Furius Camillus was played by Massimo Serato in the 1963 film 'Brennus, Enemy of Rome'.

 

www.flickr.com/photos/ggnyc/1405297848/

 

BC 400's Celts from the Alps flowed into Italy ....

Herodotus of Halicarnassus reported a merchant from Samos named Colacus was driven off course by tides and winds when trading off the African shore. He landed at the Tartessus (modern River Guadalquivir in southern Spain) where he found tribes of Keltoi working the silver mines

396 BC Celts defeated the Etruscans at Melpum (Melzo, west of Milan)

390 Senones Celts ('the veterans') led by Brennos (Latinate: Brennus) defeated the Romans in Rome (July 19) so badly it took the Romans 200 years to recover from the 'terror Gallicus'. After seven months and a ransom of 100 pounds of gold, the Celts moved along to Picenum on Italy's eastern seaboard.

Ephoros of Cyme reported the Celts occupied an area the size of the Indian sub-continent.

334-335 Alexander of Macedonia met the Celts on the Danube banks to make an agreement: The Celts would not attack his empire while he was off conquering in the east. Only after his death they expanded to Moravia and Thrace .

 

----------- ----------

 

Along with Bolgios, Brennos II was the legendary leader of other Celts on their invasion of Macedonia in the second century BCE. Though Bolgios led the invasion of Macedonia , Brennus succeeded in crossing his whole army over the river Sperchios into Greece proper, where he laid seige to the town of Heraclea and, having driven out the garrison there, marched on to Thermopylae where he defeated an army raised by a confederation of Greek cities. Brennus then avanced across Greece, where he decided to go on to Delphi, which was reported as the treasure house of Greece. Brennus and his army of 30,000 set off to attack the temple of Apollo, the ultimate goal of his expedition. Here it is said that Brennos was defeated by earthquakes and thunderbolts that reduced the soldiers to ashes; snow storms, showers of great stones, and "ancient heroes appearing from the heavens". In the midst of this snowstorm, Brennos and his men were attacked near the Parnassus mountains. The Celts were soundly defeated and Brennos was mortally wounded. As he lay dying, he gave the order for all of the wounded to be killed, and all the booty to be burned, as the army would never make it home if they had to carry the wounded warriors and their plunder. After giving the order, Brennos drank some wine and then took his own life. (? Source)

 

www.maryjones.us/ctexts/classical_pausianas.html

 

The Description of Greece

Pausanias (fl. 2nd c. CE) XIX.

[5] "I have made some mention of the Gallic invasion of Greece in my description of the Athenian Council Chamber. But I have resolved to give a more detailed account of the Gauls in my description of Delphi, because the greatest of the Greek exploits against the barbarians took place there. The Celts conducted their first foreign expedition under the leadership of Cambaules. Advancing as far as Thrace they lost heart and broke off their march, realizing that they were too few in number to be a match for the Greeks. "...........

 

10]" When the Gallic horsemen were engaged, the servants remained behind the ranks and proved useful in the following way. Should a horseman or his horse fall, the slave brought him a horse to mount; if the rider was killed, the slave mounted the horse in his master's place; if both rider and horse were killed, there was a mounted man ready. When a rider was wounded, one slave brought back to camp the wounded man, while the other took his vacant place in the ranks.

 

[11] I believe that the Gauls in adopting these methods copied the Persian regiment of the Ten Thousand, who were called the Immortals. There was, however, this difference. The Persians used to wait until the battle was over before replacing casualties, while the Gauls kept reinforcing the horsemen to their full number during the height of the action. This organization is called in their native speech trimarcisia, for I would have you know that marca3 is the Celtic name for a horse. "

 

(Addit :we know from Celtic myth this was indigenous to the confederacy of Celtic tribes as on Gundestrup Cauldron ,warrior plate)

 

[12] "This was the size of the army, and such was the intention of Brennos, when he attacked Greece. The spirit of the Greeks was utterly broken, but the extremity of their terror forced them to defend Greece. They realized that the struggle that faced them would not be one for liberty, as it was when they fought the Persian, and that giving water and earth would not bring them safety. They still remembered the fate of Macedonia, Thrace and Paeonia during the former incursion of the Gauls, and reports were coming in of enormities committed at that very time on the Thessalians. So every man, as well as every state, was convinced that they must either conquer or perish. "

  

Attalus I (Greek: Ἄτταλος), surnamed Soter (Greek: Σωτὴρ, "Savior"; 269 BC – 197 BC) ruled Pergamon, an Ionian Greek polis (what is now Bergama, Turkey), first as dynast, later as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC. He was the second cousin and the adoptive son of Eumenes I, whom he succeeded, and was the first of the Attalid dynasty to assume the title of king in 238 BC.He was the son of Attalus and his wife Antiochis.

 

Attalus won an important victory over the Galatians, newly arrived Celtic tribes from Thrace, who had been, for more than a generation, plundering and exacting tribute throughout most of Asia Minor without any serious check. This victory, celebrated by the triumphal monument at Pergamon, famous for its 'Dying Galatian' or 'Gaul' statue , and the liberation from the Gallic "terror" which it represented, earned for Attalus the name of "Soter", and the title of "king". A courageous and capable general and loyal ally of Rome, he played a significant role in the first and second Macedonian Wars, waged against Philip V of Macedon.

  

Etymologically Brennos is related to Brân and is related to the reconstructed proto-Celtic lexical elements *brano- (raven) -n- (the deicific particle) and os (the masculine ending). Thus Brennos is literally the 'Raven God'. However, the bren part of the name is also the root for one Cymric word for king brenhin and Brennos can be rendered as 'Raven King'. Which also leads to the supposition that 'Brennos', rather than being a proper name is actually an honorific denoting 'battle lord'. Raven gods being tribal leaders in the time of war so a Celtic war leader would take-on the name of such a deity. Indeed, the modern Cymric for king is brenin a word derived from 'Brennos'.

An actual late Iron Age helmet like this has been located in ancient Dacia , Translyvania , now modern Roumania/ Romania the Helmet of Ciumeşti.

www.flickr.com/photos/42003310@N05/4886860352/

As one of the styles depicted on the Celtic Gundestrup Cauldron.

Wilcox and McBride mentioned that their illustration of the iron Gallic warrior's helmet of the middle La Tene period had been reconstructed the on the basis of the Ciumesti helmet.[45]

ADJACENT VILLAGES ON THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE SIDE OF BRISTOL

 

Mathews' Bristol Street Directory 1871

 

Charlton, Henbury, Gloucestershire

 

Charlton was the name of a small village in Gloucestershire, England, demolished in the late 1940s to make room for airport expansion. It was between Filton and Cribbs Causeway immediately north of Bristol.

 

Charlton was a tything in the ancient parish, and later civil parish, of Henbury. In 1870 it had a population of 425. Between 1910 and 1915 the village was served by Charlton Halt, on the Henbury Loop railway line just south of the village. In 1935 the village was transferred to the civil parish of Almondsbury. The B4057 road ran through the village. Charlton had several farm houses, a public house called the Carpenters Arms, a post office, several large houses and a few cottages.

 

In the late 1940s nearly all of the village was demolished to make way for an extension of the main runway at Filton Airfield, now Filton Aerodrome, to accommodate take-offs of the giant Bristol Brabazon propeller-driven airliner.

 

See Bristols Lost Villages click on link

 

www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2094643111/

 

The History of the Brabazon click on link

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2053935893/

 

Just before demolition, many of the former residents were rehoused in council housing on Patchway Estate. Although the June Keating has described the village and supplied reminiscences from many people who knew Charlton in four booklets: (see below) In 1953, the extended runway proved very useful later, when Vulcan V bombers were dispersed to Filton during the Cuban Missile Crisis and when Concorde supersonic airliners took off.

 

The site today

 

Nowadays, the runway over the site is frequently used by various large Airbus jetliners, such as the A300 and A330. The name survives in Charlton Road, which led from Passage Road, Westbury on Trym, to the village, and Charlton Lane, which led from Henbury and Brentry. In the 1970s the name was resurrected for the new development of Charlton Mead, on the south side of Filton Airfield near Southmead, and in 2009 it was used again for the new development of Charlton Hayes, on the north side of Filton Airfield at Patchway.

 

Filton Airfield is to close from the end of 2012. The decision results from a review of its financial/commercial profitability. The future for the site, at this time, is unclear. The new Charlton Hayes development will probably be expanded into the former Charlton area.

 

(Notes: see 1935 map of the area click on link) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aa_filton_near_Bristol_UK_1935...

 

Anyone interested in the history of Charlton is advised that former parish councillor June Keating has written 4 books on the topic of Charlton village - destroyed in 1947 to extend the runway at Filton Airport and make way for the development of the Brabazon. Should you be interested in obtaining a copy, each is priced at £3.00 including postage. June Keating has described the village and supplied reminiscences from many people who knew Charlton in four booklets: The Village that Died (published in 1995), Memories Fifty Years On (1998), Reunions and Rememberances (2001), and The Phoenix (2008). A leaflet entitled Charlton Walk, describing a walk around the perimeter of the airfield, can be obtained from South Gloucestershire Council.

 

Retired Patchway school cook Judith Davies is reviving a family tradition going back two centuries - by living as close to she can to the lost village of Charlton.

 

Both Judith's father, grandfather and fore fathers were Charlton villagers born and bred and she has traced her Charlton ancestors back to the early 1800s.

 

So when she began house-hunting earlier this year she knew exactly where she wanted to be. And with a modern twist to the family tradition, Judith has bought herself a new two bedroom apartment at Charlton Hayes, the new Bovis Homes development that is within a mile of the lost village site.

 

Each day 66-year-old Judith surveys the local scene from the kitchen window of her new fourth floor home and can see the historic woodland behind which the old village of Charlton used to sit. She thinks fondly of the times when Charlton was a bustling village and was home to generations of her family including her father Frederick George Pople and her grandfather Frederick Thomas Pople.

 

Judith said: "It was such a shame what happened to Charlton. It was a lovely village with a duck pond, a pub, shops and cottages. My Dad was born in Charlton in 1910, as was his father before him and he was the village shoemaker. I was born nearby in Catbrain Lane, Henbury , in 1944, so have a close link with Charlton. The flattening of an old village like that would never be allowed to happen today."

 

The village was destroyed in the mid 1940s to enable the lengthening of the airfield's runway for the take off of a prototype airliner the Bristol Brabazon, built in 1949 and the first of its kind designed for transatlantic flights. However, it was considered too large and expensive to use and was never put into production with the prototype was turned into scrap metal in 1953.

 

Judith said: "It's quite ironic really that the reason the village was flattened and its inhabitants all moved elsewhere was for this amazing, great new plane, but then it never came to be."

 

When Judith heard the new development on the former airfield was to be named Charlton Hayes, she immediately felt it would one day be her home because of her strong family links to the old village.

 

"I think fate took a hand because I was intending to move to Bradley Stoke near my two sons, but the sale fell through and that's when I decided to go back to my roots and settle at Charlton Hayes."

 

The widowed former cook who retired from Coniston Junior School in 1995, after 19 years, happily climbs the stairs to her new two bedroom apartment to help keep herself fit and regularly enjoys a stroll to the shops at The Mall, Cribb's Causeway.

 

Her mother, 94 year old Elsie Pople and her brother and sister, all live in nearby Patchway and her cousin June Keating, also a former Charlton villager, has written several books on the lost village and was the VIP guest who opened the new Bovis Homes development last year.

 

Judith said: "From my kitchen window I have a superb view. I watch the planes refuelling and can see part of the runway that leads to where Charlton used to be. I think I'm as close to my family roots as I can get at Charlton Hayes and I'm very happy here."

 

Memories of Charlton

 

SOON after the ending of the Second World War, in 1946, the village of Charlton was requisitioned, bulldozed and the residents re-housed. Half promises about re-building the village elsewhere – a very costly project – came to nothing.

 

Small wonder, then, with so much emotional distress, that this "lost" village claims to have a ghost, if not many.

 

Charlton was once, like many villages, a well integrated and self sufficient community. It had a handful of large mansions, eight farms, 38 homes, a church, a school, a pub (a large Edwardian building called the Carpenter's Arms) a post office, a village hall, a duck pond and a common. By all accounts it was, despite the nearby BAC works, a peaceful place.

 

Today most of Charlton's old streets and buildings lie buried under 14 feet of soil and tarmac.

 

All was lost in the name of progress – in this case a huge, lumbering, propeller-driven white elephant which needed a very long runway for take off. Charlton village was, unfortunately, directly in the way.

 

Standing 50 feet high, and with a wingspan of 230 feet, the Brabazon was then the largest civil land plane in the world.

 

But with jet engines set to take the aviation world by storm the aircraft was also technologically outdated.

 

Hopelessly overweight, under-powered and out of date, the Brabazon was doomed to failure.

 

In 1953 the project was scrapped – but the runway, all 2,500 yards of it, remained.

 

"It was an aircraft that you either loved or hated – a choice very much in the minds of the inhabitants when it was announced that they were to lose their homes because of it," recalls June Keating, who once lived in the village.

 

"After trials it was hoped that the plane would be able to carry 100 passengers non-stop from London to New York.

 

"Sadly this whole effort was very short lived and in just a few years the Brabazon was but a memory, not only for those involved in its construction, but for those who had once lived in Charlton and felt let down by the decision to scrap it.

 

"After all, they had given up their beloved village for nothing.

 

"I can't help wondering what the outcome would have been had we had the power of TV, as well as the press, behind us. Would the destruction of Charlton happened?"

 

It's since been revealed that wartime leader Winston Churchill was against the runway extension, albeit on the grounds of cost.

 

As the bulldozers moved in to destroy their homes so the villagers were moved out to council houses in nearby Patchway.

 

"When the runway was built we could not belive it" recalled farmer Ben Durston.

 

"Everyone was very upset and, of course, you always miss it. If you leave a place, you can go back to see it, if you want. But Charlton was completely wiped off the face of the earth."

 

Charlton's 17th-century Manor Farm had once belonged to the influential Cann family, who had provided Bristol with two Mayors.

 

"There were three large houses in Charlton," recalled David Bissell.

 

"Pentre, where the Hosegoods lived, Pen Park Manor, the home of the Wallers, and Charlton House, where the Sunderlands lived. My grandfather, Charles Bissell, was a gardener at both Pentre and Pen Park, before and after the First World War."

 

The Sunderlands, it was said, with its trees, pond and geese, was the nicest house on the common.

 

Many residents recall the gypsies, who seem to have favoured the area, especially the common.

 

"My most vivid recollection is of the gypsies camping opposite our house in Catbrain Lane with their old fashioned Vardoes (Romany caravans)," recalls ex-resident Joyce Ferry.

 

Fellow villager Keith Hardwidge recalls the gypsies coming around the cottages every year selling their wares – clothes pegs and the like.

 

"My father had electricity put in our cottage before we were forced out to Patchway, but my earliest memories are of oil lamps and a tin bath in front of a warm fire," he adds.

 

"The fields, where it was safe to roam, were filled with cowslips, bluebells and in the hedgerows were primroses in abundance. We would catch sticklebacks in the stream at the bottom of Catbrain Hill.

 

"For me, moving to Patchway was not so bad. I met many new friends and had new places to explore, but my parents never got over losing their cottage, and the way of life that they had enjoyed on Charlton Common."

 

Now, as the use of the airfield comes to an end, the runway is being dug up and the land replaced by more new housing.

 

The village name survives in Charlton Road and Charlton Lane. The name is also celebrated in new developments at Charlton Mead and Charlton Hayes, both near the original village.

 

If you have any memories, or photos, of old Charlton village that you would like to share then please contact me.

 

(Some burials listed St Mary's Church Almondsbury)

 

Mathews' Bristol Directory 1871 (Charlton)

 

Bishop John, farmer on Charlton Common 99 acres, born 1810 Henbury died 1890 (see comments below)

 

Hillier Orlando, farmer (wife Amelia Hillier) Also Listed In the 1874 Wrights Bristol Directory is Orlando Hillier farmer, of Charleton, Henbury, Bristol. In the 1902 Kellys Directory is Orlando Hillier, farmer, of Fryern's Close, Wickwar, Glos.

 

Hopton William, farmer (Bristol Record Office contents: declaration of William Hopton of Charlton, Henbury, Gloucester, farmer that his family were tenants on the land at Westbury on Trym from 1819 and he remembers the land well.)

 

James William, farmer (died 19th February, 1874. The London Gazette, March 22nd 1875 Court of Probate on the 10th day of April, 1874, by George Nichols Evans, of Pucklechurch, in the said' county of Gloucester, one of the executors named in the said will)

 

Light Frederick, beer retailer, White Horse Hayes Lane (Charlton Village) 1851. William Counsell / 1861. George Seagar / 1871 - 91. Frederick Light.

 

Porter Rachel, (nee Penly, married Robert Porter in 1855) farmer (see comments below)

Powell Timothy Samson Esq. 1805-1881 Charlton Common (see comments below)

 

Richards Charles, licensed vict, Carpenter's Arms, Hayes Lane, Charlton, lost when Charlton was wiped from the map for a new runway at Filton airport. bristolslostpubs.eu/page330.html

 

Watkins Charles, wheelwright, carpenter and builder in Charlton and employed three men, by 1871-1880. He was also a land and property owner. (see comments below)

 

Milner George, farmer, Charlton House, Charlton Common (see comments below)

 

Notes: Search records at Gloucestershire Records Office for Charlton, Henbury

 

ww3.gloucestershire.gov.uk/DServe/DServe.exe?dsqIni=DServ...

Is Sony FE system finally becoming the true dominant player in the ILC market?

 

My long time A mount buddy wrote me below:

"Had some fun kicking little A7R2 around at a camera store yesterday. As I suspected all along,it was too small in my hands. starting with the 70 mm kit lens, my left hand cradling the lens with my right hand attempts to access the controls and buttons. They wasted precious space on this huge 1/2 inch exposure compensation knob which tells me that the design was poorly thought out. Does anyone use exposure compensation? why? I have a few of the older cybershots that I use for editorial photos and reports and the controls architecture is a marriage of pocket camera and DSLR with pocket camera winning out. We adapted the 16-50 mm A77 kit zoom on it via the very substantial annoying adapter and my left hand still interfered with my right hand. Yes,I felt like I was pinching my hands together and about to stick something in my eye. When we opened the body to change lenses, I could not help but notice how exposed the FF sensor is with the lens off. Count on dirty sensors and damage caused by incidental contact. Later we put the huge Sony lens PZ 28-135mm f4 G, on this tiny little camera. It is a magnificent lens and probably well worth the 2500 US price tag. I was immediately embarrassed because I tried to turn the zoom to watch the lens extend. Not this lens,all extensions are internally done. There is a toggle switch W-T just like the little pocket camera Cybershot W100. Think about that for awhile when you imagine zooming in while video taping. Not too much fine control there.......The lens is impressive, but it seems as though manual control is a thing of the past.I am absolutely sure that Sony has the electronics right, but human interface? Doubt it. No A7R2 in my future."

Interesting opinion but I 'd say he(Mike) is very biased against A7 series, do not know anything about its design policy or real life usability but he speaks about it harshly from the typical die-hard SLR type camera user point of view.

I , for one, love the dedicated EV compensation dial and ISO dial of the A7M2 and A7R2, I often use it and believe or not it is the fastest way to shoot in lowlight because you do not actually see the button and push it down to turn the dial to change EV value or ISO value, Nikon and Sony A mount cameras always require two step controls to change EV value or ISO value, which I hate. The dedicated dial on the A7R, A7 , A7M2 and A7R2 is much wiser and efficient way to change it, and if you know the Sony well, you should know that you can just use the control wheel as ISO dial as many A7 shooters do it.

He obviously did not know anything about it but felt compelled to put harsh nasty critical comment on it.

He continued as below:

"Just like CaNikon answered Minolta AF tech within two years, and dominated afterwards, I will wait for them to answer Sony temporary E-mount fad. Anybody who thinks CaNikon, and the huge field of other players, is sitting on their laurels is sadly in a worse state of denial than A-mount users will ever be.

I think we all agree that the so-called " E mount success"does not go unnoticed by the competition. Neither does third party support for E-mount. The competition, as always, will answer, with even more useful solutions. And if history is to be trusted, Sony will abandon E-mount at the first sign of any serious competition... E-mount will be filed in the Sony archives alongside betamax, BMG rootkit, UMD, Mini-disc, Memory Stick, Playstation, ATRAC, etc... A-mount...In the meantime, until the competition answers, I will enjoy my A-mount gear for the final few years it will serve me. At worst, I'll still be capable of adapting all my glass to whatever incarnation E-mount can adapt to in a few years, after it matures to the degree that it actually becomes A-mount reboot. At best, the competition will provide more usable solutions that take Sony's tech porn to the next level that our photographic enthusiasm deserves. A perfect world will see Minolta or some other smart player purchase A-mount away from Sony, and leverage the most loyal user community to their advantage."

Well, I think Mike is too negative about Sony and the E mount as I was but he is even more negative about it since he obviously thinks the E-mount will be abandoned soon as first serious rival announced. I personally do not agree with his view on the future of the E mount or A mount at all, the E, at least FE is already a serious system and will not be abandoned or neglected anytime soon. So he seems to be a bit too paranoid about it.

And as opposed to what he says about Playstation, it is still popular and still the dominant player of that sort of game consoles, the PS4 was actually a big success for Sony.

Honestly, I've been hearing this for about 6 years now, ever since it became evident that the original Oly PEN was the start of something greater. It has yet to even come vaguely close to passing. Instead the almighty Canikon have given us the 1 V3 and the M10/M3/M4. First it was, oh Canikon are just waiting to see what the market actually wants before making a move. Now it's, oh Canikon are just testing the waters and this isn't their REAL effort. I used to agree with them on this ,and as they seem to have thought , I also thought Canon Nikon would eventually take over the market with better real life usability and better brand recognition in this business than Sony. But it never happened, so now I personally think Canon Nikon cannot do it not choose not do it now.

That's not even starting on the compact ILC video market. Canon has declared that the C100MK2 is their (excellent) entry level video product, with begrudging allowances for the 5D3 and total disinterest in prosumer 4K. Nikon seems a little bit more serious about consumer video as seen in the D500 and D5, but they are still way behind Sony, Panasonic and Samsung. The D500 so-called 4k is not really 4k, it is UHD and only when it shoot near 4k UHD resolution is in crop in crop mode. So there is no real wide lens for it when it is used as a 4k camera. As a cheap 4k capable stills camera I will take my A6300 or Panasonic GX8 any day over it or the over-hyped Canon EOSC300MK2,which costs more than 11k.

Sorry but those waiting for Canikon to take over the mirrorless market are living in a fantasy world. They've chosen their horse. Sony tried to assault the DSLR duopoly and it failed miserably, so A mount is on the way out and Canikon see only each other as threats. E mount is succeeding beyond Sony's hopes, so that's where the effort is, and the group of the extreme Minolta fanatics who tend to think Minolta was doing everything better than Sony is in every single way in this business is really becoming a big nuisance for Sony. I think the real reason behind why Sony is not serious about the A mount any more is that Sony does want to POLITELY ask the Minolta fanatics to leave Sony alone, and in order to do this , or even the easiest way to do this is to abandon or neglect the A mount system. Do you really think Sony wants to keep old Minolta farts that only complain whatever step Sony takes and keep worshiping for Minolta, who actually abandoned the A mount that they loved so much about after neglected it for 4 long years?

By now, I am already quite convinced they will always complain about whatever Sony or anyone else does unless it does say Minolta.

Anyway, Sony FE system is already a good system, if not the best for many non-action shooters. It has a good set of lenses and it is the only one Mirrorless system (other than the m43)to already have good range of speedlite products. I know then CanonNikon or A mount guys say there aren't enough lenses yet, maybe, but then I will ask them how many lenses do they or can they actually carry on them every time they go out of their house ? and do they really need to change lenses every few seconds or so? Honestly, it is not safe to change lenses in the field or dusty city area, I do it only when I must do it to get the image. When I was shooting Nikon or Canon I used to carry 4/5 lenses with me all the time, but now I just use 3 lenses and often never change lenses in the field because I can easily carry 2 A7Xcameras with 2 different lenses. I often mount my Batis 85 mm f1.8 or FE 55 on my older A7M2 and my 24-70 mm f4 zoom on my newer A7M2 or A7R/A7R2 or a long lens on my A6300, shooting this way really eliminate annoying lens changes out side of my house or studio.

I think the quantity of lenses is not very important but the quality is, and the all FE lenses are actually quite good, even the really harshly panned FE 24-70 mm f4 is not a bad lens, just not a great lens. The FE 55 f1.8 is incredibly sharp, small and light, with super fast AF. The FE35 mm f2.8 is not as good as the FE 55 or the Batis 85 mm but cheap and sharp across the FF from f3.2 and on.

The FE70-200 mm f4 G is not the best in the class (the Nikon is better), but it at least comes with the very usable tripod collar,which Canon and Nikon force you to buy separately. It is optically a very decent lens with very good anti flare coating, just not the sharpest 70-200 mm at 200 mm f4 setting.

The FE35mm f1.4 is an incredible lens if you get a good copy, I was out of luck here and I gave up on this one. But if Sony improves its QC on this lens, I will get it again.

The FE 28 mm f2 is not a great lens but a decent lens for what it is designed to do(snap/ reportage and travel).

The Loxia 21 mm f2.8 is an incredible lens, sharp as it gets and it is very very compact and reliable MF ring makes it the best wide angle for video use.

In fact, I find I only use 4or 5lenses these days:

1 the Batis 85 mm f1.8(I use it whenever I can since I love its color rendition and incredible pop it add to my images). 2 the FE 55mm f1.8, I believe it is the best Sony FE mount lens (If I have to be objective). 3 the 24-70 mm f4 despite of its obvious optical flaws compared to the Batis or Zony 55, it is the most versatile reportage lens for me and I always have it with me. 4 Sony 35 mm f2.8, I once replaced it with the Loxia 35 mm f2 but I sold the Loxia and got back to this tiny but very sharp lens. I liked the Zony better here since it is sharper than the Loxia and the has less annoying coma at f2.8.

5 Sony FE90 mm f2.8G,which is rarely used but probably one of the best lens in sheer objective sense.

I had a few more lenses but sold them since I do find I do not need them(just wanted them). These are:

1 FE28mm f2.

2 FE16-35mm f4 I hated the fact it actually extends as it zooms, my Nikon 18-35 mm f3.5-4.5 does not extend and it is cheaper and sharper.

3 FE70-200mmf4 G, which was a good lens but I decided to replace with with the FE70-300mm f4-5.6 G.

4 I still have the FE90mm f1.8G but I may sell it soon.

The FE90 mm f2.8G is incredibly sharp , probably one of the sharpest AF lenses, but I think it seems to look a bit too clinically sharp. When I shoot people with it, I must turn down sharpness and eliminate some of unwanted facial hairs that lens captures. Doing this every time I shoot with it gets really annoying, the Batis is sharp across the FF, but it is not clinically sharp, more pleasing with better a bit warmer color than the 90 G.

But the 90 mm f2.8G is a bit more optically corrected lens than the 85 mm Batis in many objective lens tests, since the 90 mm macro has better distortion control and better coma and CA control at f2.8, and it is incredibly sharp throughout its wide focus range(especially at long to infinity distance).

So unless you do really need super bright f1.2 primes or long zooms like Canon or Nikon 200-400 or 200-500 f5.6 zoom, there is no reason to choose Canon Nikon or Sony A mount over Sony FE for any sort of lens related reasons.

But if you use LV remote on tripod type of shooting tech a lot like me, you may have the infamous battery issue with the Sony. But honestly, it will be solved with the new A7M3 series ,which will have a bit bigger body with a bit more powerful battery(the same tiny battery but more powerful new design). Sony has just developed a new battery tech that dramatically extends out the A7X battery life on single charge, and I think it will be used from next generation A7M3 series.

This is one of a few reasons why I cannot wait to see the A7M3 and I have decided to pass the A7S2 this round. That means I must stick with my old ancient A7M2 and A7R for several more months.

 

Anyway, I kind of understand why Sony did not allow us to use uncompressed RAW in their A7X cameras, because it shows how noisy it actually is without significant IQ improvement over the heavily compressed 11-7 RAW.

It was a huge disappointment and I just bought a D750 just for better less compressed RAW. The new uncompressed RAW reveals how noisy the A7M2 and the A7R2 really are.

 

Update : now, Canon has just announced its new sensor development policy. Canon seems to have built a new sensor plant in Mie prefecture of Japan. It seems like Canon is going on new 65nm process rule and all upcoming Canon sensors will be produced at there.

I think the 1DX2 and the 80D sensors are processed at the new plant.

Sony is still leading the CMOS imaging industry, but giants like Samsung are in close pursuit. Also big players like Panasonic are forming joint ventures with the likes of TowerJazz to offer 12-inch wafer fabrication with state-of-the-art quantum efficiency and dark current performance at 65 nano meters, and additional 45nm digital technology, and added available capacity of approximately 800,000 8-inch wafers per year in three manufacturing plants in Japan, according to TowerJazz.

 

The stakes are huge. The CMOS image sensor market will reached the historic $10 billion milestone in 2015, according to Yale, and with new applications popping up in automotive, medical and surveillance, while smartphones begin adopting high-definition front facing cameras, the industry is likely to hit the $16 billion mark by 2020. So nobody is just sleeping and Sony has to consolidate its position ASAP, or probably Sony will lose it again just like its short-lived TV business.

 

Maybe Sony will be the final loser, not Nikon or Canon?

  

UPDATE 2: At the CP + show in Yokohama, I asked a few A mount related questions to a couple of Sony guys, and I got interesting answers to my questions.

Basically, Sony said the A7RMK2 is the ' the E mount' flagship, but not the real flagship for the Alpha system. The 2 different lines of Alpha systems will be merged but not the E takes over the A kind of merging. Sony says it will be very interesting to many and technologically shocking to the public. But it is really difficult to do that right, and Sony needs to improve or waiting for a few key techs for that. This is why Sony has had to cancel out the planned announcement of the A99VMK2 or whatever called(Sony guys said at least 2 times they canceled it).

A few new techs not available at the time of the planned announcement became available right after that and Sony thought that would surely improve it further. Sony thinks we should wait to see it before making any firm decision on buying into any existing camera system because it will be Sony's first true pro-grade, grand-breaking true game changer. I hope it will be true, but how long will we have to wait? Why not just release a temporal stop gap solution camera with current best technology available? This company is really odd.

   

Who can't use some moving tips when they're packing up their whole life for a new dwelling? If you're among thousands of those who have picked up and moved their family to a community that is new or another dwelling, you might have fresh memories of a few of thrills or the ups and downs of moving or frustrations.

 

Drawing from personal experience, I know there are a number of methods to help to make your household move more easy and more smooth. Read here for your possessions, organized for a move that is exciting and peaceful, and help to get your life.

 

Make a list.

Write everything down! You'll thank yourself later. Create a simple record keeping system, before you pack even one box. Create a computer-printed list of numbers with a space to write the contents. Or have a spiral-bound notebook for the job. You'll place a number on EVERY box you pack and list the contents on your own list. Don't put the list down unless it's in a location you'll call Packing Central. This is the point where you'll find your labels, marking pens, box tape, and other supplies. When describing the box contents, be particular -- "A D files" is preferable to "files", and "Tulip dishes" rather than "misc. kitchen".

 

Have plenty of supplies.

Don't make me say this twice-- you'll need LOTS of boxes--probably more boxes than you think, and having enough boxes will make your life easier! (If you could always return boxes that are unused for a refund, you buy your boxes from a moving company. If you got them free from your grocery store, merely drop any leftovers.) Have about 10 boxes set aside to use on moving day, like cleaning supplies, and bedding, clothing for last minute items. You'll need robust plastic packing tape to close up the boxes securely. Use unprinted newsprint (newspaper can stain your items) or packing paper or bubble wrap cushion and to wrap family good. Again, you'll need lots more supplies than you think, so get extra so the packing can go smoothly. Return any unused supplies after the truck is packed.

 

Utilize wardrobe boxes.

These tall boxes are perfect for bulky, lightweight items such as pillows, comforters, and blankets, in addition to clothes that should remain hanging. Call your mover to ask the width of the wardrobe boxes they'll be bringing. Afterward measure the clothes in your closets (including coat closets) to see how many wardrobe boxes you'll need. You can even use them for closet storage boxes, shoe boxes, and other bulky items such as gift wrap tubes, or fabric bolts, large baskets.

 

Don't make the boxes too heavy to lift, nonetheless. One mover told the story of someone who put a bowling ball in a wardrobe box! When the box was lifted off the truck the bottom gave way, sending the bowling ball on a wild ride down the ramp, across the street to the gutter, then down a hill where it finally came to rest in a roadside ditch. (Is that a strike or a spare?)

 

Strategize wardrobe box use.

Moving companies will be very happy to deliver boxes ahead of your moving day. Or whether you're doing the move yourself, get things organized as early as possible. A couple of days before your move, fill some tough handled shopping bags with bulky closet items like sweaters, shoes, belts, and jeans. Fill the bottom of the wardrobe boxes with a number of the shopping bags, then add your hanging clothing, on moving day. Pack hanging items tightly so things won't move around and fall off of hangers. Finally, cover the shoulders of your clothes (a dry cleaning bag works well), then add a couple of purses or sweaters on top. You'll have fewer boxes, and closet items remain together. Also, the shopping bags will help it become simpler to retrieve your belongings from the bottoms of a tall wardrobe box.

 

Color coordinate.

Designate a color for each room in the new dwelling, including yellow for kitchen, orange for dining room, etc. Apply colored stickers on the box near the box number. In your brand-new residence. Put a matching sticker on the door to each room. The movers will know where you can set everything when they arrive at the destination. It's also helpful to post a huge sign on the wall in the room where you want boxes stacked, ("Boxes here please") to keep them out of furniture and traffic places.

 

Keep things together.

Insist on keeping things together when you or the movers are packing boxes. Keep extension cords with appliances, and bookends with novels, light bulbs with lamps. Small, loose parts can be attached to the item they belong to with tape or placed in small envelopes -- to keep picture hooks with graphics, shelf brackets with bolts, a special wrench and a bookcase with the wall unit. Keep larger corresponding items (for example a cable TV cord) in resealable bags, and tape these to the underside or back of the item. As a copy, have a "Parts Box" open on the kitchen counter and fill it with cables, cords, parts, pieces, brackets, or nails which are removed from any items of furniture. Keep this box with you, or mark it well with a rainbow of colored stickers so it is easily located on move - in day.

 

Pack ahead.

Anything you can pack ahead will save time on moving day. If it 's summer, get your winter clothes out of the way. You don't really need 5 radios or TV's around your house for the last couple of days there. Box your shampoo and extra toothpaste up and dwell out of a travel cosmetic case for the last week or two. Pare food supplies and cooking utensils down to bare essentials. Wastebaskets may also be packed (place things in them!) While you switch to using plastic grocery bags (hang them on a cabinet door or door handle to collect waste.)

 

Consolidate cleaning supplies.

If you must clean your old place after moving out, assembled a kit of basic cleaning supplies and rags. Clean anything possible ahead of time (the inside of kitchen cupboards, the oven, windows, etc.), and if possible, vacuum each room as movers empty it.

 

Use your suitcase.

Fill bag and duffle bags with sheets, clothing, towels, and paper goods. Even for local moves you'll find a way to quickly spot your navy suitcase holding your favorite sweaters, whereas "Box #189" might remain elusive for days.

 

Safeguard valued items.

It's wise to keep valuable possessions, like silverware, collections, or antiques, with you. In case you have a lengthy move and no room in your auto, conceal the items in a box titled "Misc. from kitchen pantry". Either way, check your homeowner's insurance to learn how you're covered during the move, and when you desire additional insurance from the mover. Also, discover what paperwork (receipts, appraisals, and photographs) you might have to file a claim in case of loss.

 

Keep important papers with you.

Your list of "important" papers might include: birth certificates, school records, mover estimates, new job contacts, utility company numbers, recent bank records, current bills, phone lists, closing papers, realtor info, maps, and more. Don't leave these with the mover. Keep them with you!

 

Personal boxes.

Use brightly colored storage tote boxes, one for each man. Let each family member fill theirs with items they'll desire 'right away' in the new dwelling -- a set of sheets, a towel, a couple of extension cords, a phone, nightlights, address book, pens and paper, keys, kleenex, and journey cosmetic case, and so forth.

 

Going may not be the most fun you've ever had, but planning ahead will go a very long way toward making the process bearable. plus.google.com/117109556447175674751/about

Title: Illinois Agricultural Association record [microform]

Identifier: 5060538.1923-1930

Year: 1923 (1920s)

Authors: Illinois Agricultural Association; Illinois Agricultural Association. Record

Subjects: Agriculture -- Illinois

Publisher: Mendota, Ill. : The Association

Contributing Library: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  

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»y 23, 192S ^iiUy 23,192S the pool was irice of 15.31 ibers received ilow the aver- id with extra >i doz.) 14.95 .6 doz.) 1.00 .9 doz.) .28 The niinoU Agricultural A»»ociation Record Pe«e 3 16.23 above current llty (ares dlf- 3doi.) I .66 2 doz.) 2.76 6 doz.) 2.25 15.67 rough the co- received had goes to show upon quality ted with fair procedure to ! a big, favor- ring the next c marketing, I co-operative ry promising . three years vestock Com- commisslon !r cent of the the farmers JiMlity of m- le percentage ent is a good aks. rmers, if 100 peratively, it )00. shipping as- s farmers in I of livesfoclc ndred. With Ired, this in- Illlnois farm- ere marketed rould be rea- come for our ;lt pTDducrrs ! into consid- vative figure, 000 in 1924. handling of lip, which at ely $100,000 001 had been of serum or- 0. You can I the farmers ts purchased [or those in- erative mar- ine the next II farmers, to through the :ent through ons, 50 per the purchas- lois farmers. 35 per cent i eliminating will call for Inois farmers one else will ting depart- ble. COMMERCE BODY PROMISES MORE ATTENTION TO PROPERTY RIGHTS UNITY IN FARM LIFE IS HOME BUREAU AIM AS PROGRAM DEVELOPS Federation Head TeUs of the County Play Day as First Step Farm Women's Scheme m The Illinois Home Bureau Federa- tion, state association of county Home Bureaus, now in the fifth month of its existence, is planning a "County Play Day" as the first step in its program to unify farm and community life. V, Mrs. Spencer Ewing, Bloomington, president of the Federation, in com- menting on the plan, says that here- tofore in Illinois, Home Bureaus have had in mind the county as their largest unit. "Local groups bav« worked in the township or communi- ty ^nd have been thrilled and in- ( spired on coming to a county meet- ing by getting a vision of larger membership. Now, with the Home Bureau Federation this county view- point is still further enlarged to a state-wide point of view and the In- dividual member passes on from her local point of view through the coun- ty view-point to one embracing state- wide conditions. She begins to think m terms of the state, and her idea of home bureau is correspondingly changed and broadened." Unity the Coming Thing '^V In the past, county Home Bureaus X h&ve gone their own way and done / their work as isolated units, states .r Mrs. Ewing. "Occasionally news has I sifted in from other counties, but J. there has been no feeling of 'to- I getherness' and working for the same '' big ends. With the coming of the Federation, committees have been appointed of women from widely separated parts of the state, corre- spondence has taken place, acquaint- ance made, mutual aims discussed, and the county organizations drawn together by a dozen bonds. Isola- tion is a thing of the past, unity and co-operation are the coming char- acteristics." The Federation works with the force of members, the Home Bureau head believes. "Where the counties represent hundreds, the Federation numbers thousands, and numbers count. When in' army tactics any big thing needs to be done, regi- ments, not companies, are used. No general would think of attacking with a single company. So the Fed- eration with its larger membership, with the momentum of numbers can do more than a single county work- ing alone. It is also In a position to work with other state organiza- tions; it has a state machinery which corresponds and fits into that of the others; it can look them in the eye; can meet them on equal terms, and work for proportionate ends. Its own self-respect and value is en- hanced thereby. Let's Play "As its first piece of work, the Illinois Home Bureau Federation is suggesting a County Play Day this summer. In such a play day every- body, young and old. takes part, even the children of kindergarten age. There is a general assembly in the morning, with flag ceremonies, fol- lowed by some special events like singing, games or folk dances. Then the crowd separates into various \j groups for team and individual ath- •Jr letlcs, games, etc., each with its \|i group leader. At the end of the day, *' the crowd comes together again for some general event like a base ball * *■ game. Negotiations are on foot for the co-operation of the farm bureaus In this County Play Day, and it Is , hoped that their active assistance 1 will be obuined." ■} WITH THE PRODUCERS -» During the fiscal year of April .1 1. 1924 to March 31, 1925, Illinois ■. second with 253 cars. Eleven 1111- I nois counties shipped 100 per cent ' • °i' "':registered:*' shipping association con- I signmentg that came to Indianapo- . «.^ll8. to the Producers. CROP PROSPECTS IN STORM AREA NORMAL (Continued from page 1) some references to the "local Illinois Farm Relief Committee" at McLeans- boro in Hamilton county. The Illi- nois Farm Relief Committee does not function through local commit- tees and has none. The reference was to the local Hamilton County disaster relief committee, upon which is included tUe emergency farm adviser furnished to Hamilton county by the Extension Department of the College of Agriculture, and other representatives of the farmers. The Red Cross functions through this committee in Hamilton county and through similar committees in other counties. The detailed statement of contri- butions to the Illinois Farm Relief Fund follows: Adams $ 2.859.98 Boone 1 478.45 Bureau Carroll .... 1.657.45 1,745.15 Cass 719.00 Champaign Christian Clark 700.70 1.577.50 487.13 Clay Coies 'i 066 60 Cook 452.00 Crawford De Kalb De Witt 963.55 1.020.00 1.760.39 280 .'lO Du Page 2.487.44 293 .^O Efflngham Ford 655.00 2 000 00 1.000.00 Grundy Hancock Henderson 2.887.29 3.303.35 3fi2.50 . . . 476.60 . .. 2,699.69 JefTerson 388.65 243-23 Jo Daviess 1.710.42 . , . . 136.50 Kankakee Kendall Knox 3.215.30 3.077.55 . . . . 2.750.10 Lake 2.418.00 4.598.70 Lawrence Lee 3,013.27 3,317 13 Livingston 4.217.03 1.688.80 , . 500.45 Macoupin Madison 346.40 2.900.00 359.30 638.87 2.556.00 McDonough McHenry McLean Menard Mercer Monroe Montgomery 1.500.43 1.005.40 3.829.24 1,066,50 769.59 45.50 2.249.08 Moultrie 2.038.13 Ogle 3.269.52 3.413.46 87.50 489.50 Randolph Richland Rock Island 103.00 2.791.29 1,889.50 5,044.88 484.55 Scott 1.097.25 Shelby 2.114.16 Stark 328 00 1.213.25 Stephenson ... 2.984.28 2.919.30 Union Wabash , 1.405.66 84.50 2.33O.O0 Washington ■.... 50.00 445.88 Whiteside 3.613.81 Will 3.313.25 623.50 2.110.00 4.381.41 WLS radio listeners . .. . 25,000.00 2.247.62 438.25 T. A. A. Employees 302.50 . . .1173.010.50 Attorney General Rules Poisoning of Ground Hogs Is Legal If Done Right After fox hunters and game ward- ens in Tazweli county had opposed the Tazewell County Farm Bureau's ground hog poisoning demonstra- tions, Ralph E. Arnett, the farm ad- viser^ made a trip to Springfield to get an interpretation of the law. His reply from Oscar F. Carlstrom, attorney general, is of state-wide im- portance. The attorney general's opinion is that it is permissible to poison ground hogs and other pests of similar nature and that are not protected as fur bearing or game animals. However, the poisoning must be under supervision of some authority who knows where and how to place the poison.^ Farm bureaus are classified as authorities, provid- ing the adviser has received and is readily conversant upon animal poisoning as prescribed by the United States Department of Agri- culture. The Tazewell County Farm Bureau's demonstrations were car- ried out. Committee Determines Taylorville as Scene Of Year's I. A. A. Picnic TaylorrlUe, county seat of Christian county, will be the scene of this year's annual I. A. A. state picnic, according to the decision of the executive committee at its .Hay meeting. t'hrlstian and Tazewell Coun- ty Kami Bureaus sent repre- sentatives who api>eared be- fore the executive committee asking for the picnic. Altliougli both countie.s have good picnic facilities, the committee de- cided to 'accept the Invitation of the Christian County Farm Bureau and extended its thanks and appreciation to tlie Taze- well County Farm Bureau. Other counties were Interesteil also. Christian county was taken because It Is slightly farther from last year's big picnic which was at Lincoln In Logan county. Traveling conditions were described as being of the best to Taylor%ille. Pending the selection of some nationally known figure as chief s|ieaker of the occasion the exact date of the i)icnic has not been set. The time now ap|>earing most suitable is some day In the first three weeks of August, with the second week preferred. More detailed an- nouncements will be made later. SAVE $20 TO $40 A CAR ON CO-OP MANURE BUY A reduction from $20 to $40 per car is the record of the co-operative manure buying project of a southern Illinois county. Union County Farm Bureau on February 1, 1925 sponsored a move- ment to purchase manure from job- bers in Chicago and St. Louis for the benefit of fruit grower members. According to R. E. Blaylock, county Farm Bureau president, farmers contracted for 500 cars for 1925, to be delivered in varying amounts each month. While individual farmers formerly bought manure irregularly and paid high prices for the fertilizer, they now have the advantage of orderly buying and so are able to realize big savings, according to Mr. Blaylock. The first shipments were received on March 1. While most of the ma- nure is shipped to Union county points, some of it reaches Johnson and Pulaski counties, according to G. E. Eager, Anna, farm adviser of Union County Farm Bureau. GAS TAX SENTIMENT GAINING MOMENTUM (Continued from pa^e 1) ship. Consequently the I. A. A. will fight for the farmers' pocketbooks by endeavoring to keep the bill from passing in the House. If it is necessary to keep narrow- tired vehicles off the roads, it would be more fair to require all manufac- turers to make and sell only the wider-tired wheels. This requirement would automatically replace present vehicles with those having uniform- ly wide tires and the change would cause no material hardship on any- one. Or, as an alternative, the %. A. A. may suggest an amendment to the bill deferring the enactment until 1930 thus giving all farmers a chance to be prepared for the change, which is only fair. T. B. .Appropriation In Danger Obtaining a three million dollar appropriation for paying t.b. indem- nities became rather doubtful when Senator Barr introduced an amend- ment to his original bill which cut the appropriation to two million for the biennium. The three million dol- lar appropriation is deemed neces- sary by the I. A. A. if the present program of eradication is to be car- ried out with efficiency. Strong sup- port was accorded the three million appropriation in the Senate, there being so much opposition to the cut that action was deferred. By the time this Record reaches the reader, it is likely that the Senate will have reached a decision. Constitutional .\mendment The Lantz resolution, which pro- vides for an amendment to the state constitution untying the legislature's hands and permitting levying of taxes in accordance with present day taxing methods, is resting with fa- vorable support from all state or- ganizations excepting the Illinois Manufacturers' Association. Unless some amendment for a constitutional restriction upon Cook county's repre- sentation in the legislature is given precedence, the Lantz resolution will be the most favorably considered when the time comes to consider which one possible constitutional amendment shall be submitted to the voter*. SuiHiort School BUI Support is being given House Bill 566 which allows the detachment of territory from a community or high school district, and the attachment of such territory to an adjacent com- munity high school district or to an adjacent township high school dis- trict, when 75 per cent of the voters SO vote. The legislative committee feels that this bill. If passed, would provide means of correcting many school muddles. Illinois Fruit and Vegetable Growers Adopt Indian Name for Quality Products An Indian tribe is responsible for the trade name of southern Illinois fruit and vegetables. Following the example of the lUini Indian tribe, whose maneuvers were the news of the day in pre-WTiitc Illinois history, the Illinois Fruit Growers' Exchange, co-operative fruit and vegetable growers sales agency in southern Illinois, has adopted as its trade name, "ILLINI." A. B. Leeper, general manager of the exchange and fruit and vegetable directly from local assembling points to destination, the exchange does not act in the capacity of warehouse, but only as a central agency. ILLI.VI for Quality The trade name "ILLINI" will be used on every package of quality fruit or vegetables sold through the exchange. According to Mr. Law- rence, sales manager, the name was chosen for its appropriateness. "The mini Indians." he says, "were 'chief- of-air when it came to war and they RIGHTS OF PROPERTY NOT TO BE IGNORED, UTILITY BODIES FIND Right of EmineBt Domain Sub- ject to Fanners' Inconveni- ence; DeKalb Case Dropped The time has passed ^hen public utility corporations in Illinois can get right-of-way privileges from the Illinois Commerce Commission, with- out consideration of inconveniences imposed on the farming classes. According to the I. A. A. transpor- Ution department, the Illinois Com- merce Commission has declared that whenever public untility companies apply to it for a certificate of con venlence and necessity, the Commis- sion will consider the side of proper- ty owners whose lands are in the territory to be crossed by the trans- mission lines. State laws require utility companies to notify only other public utiities, and not property own- ers, of intended action, before ap plying to the Commerce Commission for permission to construct tbelr lines. "When a public utility company at Galesburg asked the stale t.'oni- merce Commission for permission to extend its power lines over a cer- tain territory, the farmers concerned objected to the move." says L. J. Quasey. I. A. A. transporution di- rector. "The chairman of the Com- merce Commission accordingly has set aside the first week in June for a conference on the matwr. The farmers from Galesburg lo Galva' want the lines to extend over another route than the one proposed, and will be represented by a committee at the conference." Rate Increase Not Granted The DeKalb County Telephone Company Case, in which the com pany asked permission to increase its telephone rates to subscribers, has been ordered dismissed by the Illinois Commerce Commission. The increase in toll rates has not been granted. The 1. A. A. transportation depart- ment in behalf of the farmers in- volved, had filed a brief with the Commission bearing on the .case, pointing out that the esublisbment of further toll rates would fall un- duly on the rural subscribers, also that the company had made substan tial returns and therefore was not entitled to an advance in rates in any form. Rate schedules filed by the DeKalb County Telephone Company with the Commission on December 22. 1920 and February 3. 1925, have been de- clared permanently canceled and an- nulled.

 

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LiLINI »H. !/.«. XT. 0.». SOUTHERN ILUNOIS smareERRiEs ILLINOIS FRUIT GROWERS EXCHANGE CBNTIUIUA. ILUNOIS marketing director of the Illinois Ag- ricultural .\ssoclation. states that the exchange is built on a co-operative marketing basis and operates on much the same way as the California Fruit Growers* Elxchange, successful western commodity marketing or- ganization. Contracts are drawn with brokers throughout the middle west and the east in the shipment of its produce. As shipments are made also were leaders when it came to sports. At the time of the organiza- tion of the exchange, it was decided that this name of 'ILLINI' could very fittingly be used by an association which was comiwsed of the better growers, the chiefs, and the leaders." The work of the fruit growers in southern Illinois has progressed un- til today the label is used on all the Deferring Peach Rate Increase Saved Union Bureau's Yearly Cost In discussing problems as en- countered by the transportation de- partment before the May meeting of the 1. A. A. executive committee. R. K. Loomis. the representative of the 25th district, told of an instance wherein the Illinois Agricultural Association had been of inestimable service to the peach growers of Union county last year. "Deferment of a peach rate in- crease for 60 days." said Mr. Loomis. "saved enough money in Union coun- ty to pay farm bureau dues in Union county for a year. This is an illus- tration of how farmers can benefit by working together in a state-wide way, combining their strength, both financial and moral, to secure the best possible representation on our common problems. This saving is appreciated in Union countv. best grade products shipped by the growers Formerly only tree fruits were given that name by the ex- change. Quality Baaed on HooeKl Puking "This year." declares Mr. Law- rence, "due to the progress made and the success achieved In getting honest pack and true grading, the growers have reached their goal and can now carry out the original idea of the organizers, which was to use the 'ILLINI' label on all commodi- ties of the bang-up quality type " May 10 marked the first day when a shipment of strawberries left Villa Ridge. This is the first shipment of the fruit from an Illinois point this season, according to Mr. Lawrence

  

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Title: Illinois Agricultural Association record [microform]

Identifier: 5060538.1923-1930

Year: 1923 (1920s)

Authors: Illinois Agricultural Association; Illinois Agricultural Association. Record

Subjects: Agriculture -- Illinois

Publisher: Mendota, Ill. : The Association

Contributing Library: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  

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May 1, 1926 The Illinois Agricultural Asgociation RECORD Pag* 3 DOESN'T FARMING MERIT PROTEQION GIVEN OTHER CLASSES? Here's High Spots of Executive Body's I Meeting April 7; Picnic at Mt. Vernon THE high spots of the executive committee meeting on April 7 are summarized as follows: 1. Treasurer's report, on motion by Moody, seconded by Tullock, or- dered received and placed on file. 2. Report by Barton, chairman of public relations sub-committee, that I. A. A. lend its I. A. A. to moral support to Illinois Help Solve Association for Criminal Crime Justice, the purpose of Problem which is to obtain in- formation concerning criminal justice and make recom- mendations. A similar organization in Missouri has done good work. Donald Kirkpatrick, I. A. A. legal counsel, has assisted the cause. Mo- tion by Barton, seconded by Whisn- and, that recommendation be adopted. Report by Barton concerning pos- sibilities of helping form state-wide farm bureau protective association. Information obtained insufficient for action and more time required. 3. Report by Tullock, chairman committee on financial business service, on Farmers Reiniurance Mutual Reinsurance Company Company. The com- Makint pany, he reported, is Steady making a steady Growth growth, having $1,- 496,867 of insurance • in force at the time, with 51 local mutuals using the company's speci- fic reinsurance service, 42 the blank- et reinsurance and 23 the recession reiilsurance. The state company can now handle a $40,000 risk. The companies having blanket reinsur- ance with the Farmers Mutual Rein- surance Company have over $90,- 000,000 of insurance in force. This means that each company carrying blanket reinsurance is protected by other companies that have a total of about $90,000,000 of insurance in force. Tullock also reported that crop hail insurance is now available to the farmers of Illinois Crop through the Farmers Hail Mutual Reinsurance Insurance Company. Farm Bu- Now reaus and agents of mu- Available tual fire insurance com- At SaTiBg panies will act as agents of the reinsurance com- pany in writing hail insurance. The saving to the farmer should be about 20 per cent. Both reports ac- cepted and placed on file by motion of Tullock and seconded by Barn- borough. 4. Bamborough, chairman of the committee on organization, reported that all details were arranged for beginning the I. A. A. farm radio program from WON as soon as the executive committee approved it, which was done upon ■ motion by Bamborough, seconded 'by Tullock. 5. Report by Finley on grain marketing stated that on March 15 at a meeting of the Basis board of directors of of I. A. A.- the National Farmers Farmers Elevator Grain Com- Elevator Co. pany, Cooperative, the Discussed basis of a contract was discussed which would set forth the relationship be- tween the I. A. A. and the company in the selling of stock of the com- pany. The I. A. A. proposed to furnish a man and pay his salary and expenses in the selling of the stock and suggested that the length of time, amount to be sold, return of amount subscribed, (to be re- turned in full to subscriber if in- si»fficient stock was sold) together with other minor items, should be in the contract. This kind of agreement was not acceptable to the company. A com- mittee was appointed to give further consideration to it and a meeting was held April 7 when it was de- cided that a committee meet with the I. A. A. on April 16 and submit a proposition for consideration. Motion by Barton that contract terms be left with I. A. A. officers, but with instructions to properly safeguard funds derived from sale of stock in such manner that in case of insufficient stock being sold to properly finance company, those funds already collected from stock sales to be returned, except such amount as shall be agreed upon as necessary for organization work. Seconded by Marshall and carried. Report of Finley on soft wheat pool in Southern Illinois which is an extension of the In Soft Wheat diana Wheat pool into Poo! Illinois, showed that Growing in Edwards, Wabash Illinois White, Wayne and Crawford counties have definitely decided to put on membership drives. Ninety mem- bers in pool secured in short time. 27 of which thereby became new- members of Farm Bureaus. 6. George J. Jewett, formerly president of American Wheat Grow- ers, and now president of the Fed- eral Land Bank at Spokane, Wash., was invited to give the committee the benefit of his recent trip to Washington from which he was re- turning. I 7. Sam H. Thomjjson, past pres- ident of I. A. A. and now A. F. B. F. chief, addressed the "Our Sam" committee briefly on Urges the legislative situa- You to tion at Washington, Write saying, among other Congressmen things, that the pow. ers-that-be at Wash- ington need to know how the farm- er out on the farm feels about leg- islation. Every farmer can be of immediate assistance to the cause by writing his Senators and Con- gressmen, he declared. "They'll take the farm leaders' word for it if we're for the bill they're for," said President Thomp- son, "but if we want one they do not, then they are inclined to doubt our authority for speaking for faripers." 8.^ Report by Webb stated that I. -fl^- A. should continue to work for increased federal appropriation for t. b. Report moved adopted by Webb, seconded by Karr. 9. President Smith opened con- sideration of time and place of an nual I. A. A. state- State Picnic wide picnic. A delega- to Be At tion was present from Mt. Vernon Tazewell county, con- This Year sisting of Joseph Mor- ris, president, and Ralph Amett, farm adviser, repre- senting the Tazewell County Farm Bureau, and Secretary Lyman of the Pekin Association of Commerce, which spoke for holding the picnic at Pekin. W. L. Wimberly, mem- ber of executive committee of the Jefferson County Farm Bureau, spoke for Mt. Vernon. Secretary Fox read a letter from McDonough County Farm Bureau in behalf of Macomb. Vote by ballot resulted in Mt. Vernon getting the picnic with 13 votes, Pekin getting 2 and Macomb 1. Since the annual meet- ing is always held in Northern Illi- nois, it was the opinion of the ma- jority that Southern Illinois should have this year's picnic. Wimber- ley's oration on Southern Illinois peaches and promise of free ones also had some weight. Date to be announced later, but it is expected to be sometime in August. 10. Consideration of place of next annual meeting, on motion of Karr and seconded by Whisnand, to be at next meeting. THE MAN WHO WILL ELECT THE NEXT PRESIDENT J'lr—^^

 

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Predicts 10 Per Cent Volume for Producers By End of This Ye^r to :he "Theksupport given the St. Lcuis Branch agency the month it ojer- ated in Chicago and to the Chicigo Producers during "Producer Wci k'' answered the public's inquiry as whether the farmer believes in principles of cooperative marketing espacially of livestock, accordin{ to William E. Hedgcock, I. A. A. rector of livestock marketing. "The receiving, yarding and sell- ing of TA per cent (315 cars): of the entire Chicago receipts of live stock during "Producer Week" is a wonderful record for cooperative marketing. In making this recbrd the Chicago Producers handled 68 more cars than their nearest com- petitor and, with only two excep- tions where check-ups were neces- sary, had every bill of sale in the mail the same day the sale was con- summated. 70 Buyers in Producer Alleys. "The activity of the Chicago Pro- ducers is commanding the attention of the buyers as indicated by the fact that they sold livestock to 70 different buyers in one week. "The Chicago Producers handled 130 carloads of cattle, which was 5.1 per cent of the'Chicago run, 166 carloads of hogs, which was 11.5 per cent and which was more hogs than the combined receipts of the next three largest firms, and 17 carloads of sheep, which was 8.2 per cent of the run during 'Pro- ducer Week.' "This spirit of confidence and co- operation on the part of livestock producers has made it possible, dur- ing the past three years, for the as- sociation to sell 57,000 cars of live- stock, with a total value of over $100,000,000. With this spirit of cooperation and confidence it' is not unreasonable to expect the Chi- cago Producers to be marketing 10 per cent or morfe of the total re- ceipts of the Chicago Stock Yards by the end of the year." Egypt Launches Co-op to Handle Poultry and Eggs of 250,000 Hens "Egypt" will soon launch a new enterprise in the way of a coopera- tive poultry aad egg marketing as- sociation—a companion to the well- known "Red-Top" Seed Growers As- sociation. Daring the past two months the counties of Clay, Effing- ham, WajTie and Edwards have been covered with meetings for the pur- pose of explaining the I. A. A. plan for marketing poultry and poultry products cooperatively. "Everywhere the poultry produc- ers have show* unusual interest in this plan and have urged the sev- eral Farm Bureaus to get squarely back of this plan," says Frank A. Gougler, the L A. A. poultry and egg marketing director, who has been pushing this work. "During the past month a num- ber of meetings have been held at Flora, III., of representatives from the counties of Clay, Effingham, Marion, Wayne and Edwards for the forming of a temporary organ- ization. The officers elected to head this new undertaking for the first year are as follows: President—C. R. Richison, Cisne. Wajme county. • Vioe President—H. O. Henry, Beecher City. Effingham county. Secretary-Treasurer—.OrvUIe Bryant. Xenia, Clmy county.

  

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This means that all of your time and energy can be used for diving, not wasted on transporting and dealing with your dive and camera equipment. Essentially, reads and writes to long and double volatile variables need to be atomic.

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Who can't use some moving tips when they're packing up their whole life for a new home? If you're among thousands of people who have picked up and moved their family to another home or a new community, you have fresh memories of some of thrills or the ups and downs of moving or frustrations.

 

Drawing from personal experience, I know there are lots of methods to help make your household move easier and more smooth. Read here for help to get your life, and your possessions, organized for a peaceful and exciting move.

 

Make a list.

Write everything down! You'll thank yourself later. Before you pack even one box, create a simple record keeping system. Create a computer-printed list of numbers with a space to write the contents. Or have a spiral-bound notebook for the job. You'll place a number on EVERY box you pack and list the contents on your list. Don't put the list down unless it's in a place you'll call Packing Central. This is where you'll find your labels, marking pens, box tape, and other supplies. When describing the box contents, be specific -- "A-D files" is better than "files", and "Tulip dishes" rather than "misc. kitchen".

 

Have plenty of supplies.

Don't make me say this twice-- you'll need LOTS of boxes--probably more boxes than you think, and having enough boxes will make your life easier! (If you buy your boxes from a moving company, you can always return unused boxes for a refund. If you got them free from the grocery, just toss any leftovers.) Have about 10 boxes set aside to use for last minute items on moving day, such as bedding, clothing, and cleaning supplies. You'll need strong plastic packing tape to close up the boxes securely. Use unprinted newsprint (newspaper can stain your items) or packing paper or bubble wrap to wrap and cushion household good. Again, you'll need lots more supplies than you think, so get extra so the packing can go smoothly. Return any unused supplies after the truck is packed.

 

Utilize wardrobe boxes.

These tall boxes are perfect for bulky, lightweight items such as pillows, comforters, and blankets, as well as clothes that need to remain hanging. Call your mover to ask the width of the wardrobe boxes they'll be bringing. Then measure the clothes in your closets (including coat closets) to see how many wardrobe boxes you'll need. You can also use them for closet storage boxes, shoe boxes, and other bulky items such as gift wrap tubes, or fabric bolts, large baskets.

 

Don't make the boxes too heavy to lift, however. One mover told the story of someone who put a bowling ball in a wardrobe box! When the box was lifted off the truck the bottom gave way, sending the bowling ball on a wild ride down the ramp, across the street to the gutter, then down a hill where it finally came to rest in a roadside ditch. (Is that a strike or a spare?)

 

Strategize wardrobe box use.

Moving companies will be happy to deliver boxes ahead of your moving day. Or if you're doing the move yourself, get things organized as early as possible. A few days before your move, fill some sturdy handled shopping bags with bulky closet items such as shoes, sweaters, belts, and jeans. On moving day, fill the bottom of the wardrobe boxes with some of the shopping bags, then add your hanging clothing. Pack hanging items tightly so things won't move around and fall off of hangers. Finally, cover the shoulders of your clothes (a dry cleaning bag works well), then add a few purses or sweaters on top. You'll have fewer boxes, and closet items remain together. Also, the shopping bags will make it easier to retrieve your belongings from the bottoms of a tall wardrobe box.

 

Color coordinate.

Designate a color for each room in the new home, such as yellow for kitchen, orange for dining room, etc. Apply colored stickers on the box near the box number. In your new home. Put a matching sticker on the door to each room. The movers will know where to put everything when they arrive at the destination. It's also helpful to post a big sign on the wall in the room where you want boxes stacked, ("Boxes here please") to keep them out of furniture and traffic areas.

 

Keep things together.

Insist on keeping things together when you or the movers are packing boxes. Keep bookends with books, light bulbs with lamps, and extension cords with appliances. Small, loose parts can be attached to the item they belong to with tape or placed in small envelopes -- to keep picture hooks with pictures, shelf brackets with a bookcase, a special wrench and bolts with the wall unit. Keep larger corresponding items (such as a cable TV cord) in resealable bags, and tape these to the underside or back of the item. As a backup, have a "Parts Box" open on the kitchen counter and fill it with cables, cords, parts, pieces, brackets, or nails that are removed from any items of furniture. Keep this box with you, or mark it well with a rainbow of colored stickers so it is easily located on move - in day.

 

Pack ahead.

Anything you can pack ahead will save you time on moving day. If it 's summer, get your winter clothes out of the way. You don't really need 5 radios or TV's around your house for the last few days there. Box up your shampoo and extra toothpaste and live out of a travel cosmetic case for the last week or two. Pare down cooking utensils and food supplies to bare essentials. Wastebaskets can also be packed (put things in them!) While you switch to using plastic grocery bags (hang them on a cabinet door or door handle to collect trash.)

 

Consolidate cleaning supplies.

If you must clean your old place after moving out, put together a kit of basic cleaning supplies and rags. Clean anything possible ahead of time (the inside of kitchen cupboards, the oven, windows, etc.), and if possible, vacuum each room as movers empty it.

 

Use your luggage.

Fill luggage and duffle bags with clothing, sheets, towels, and paper goods. Even for local moves you'll be able to quickly spot your navy suitcase holding your favorite sweaters, whereas "Box #189" might remain elusive for days.

 

Safeguard valued items.

It's wise to keep valuable possessions, such as silverware, collections, or antiques, with you. If you have a long move and no room in your car, bury the items in a box titled "Misc. from kitchen pantry". Either way, check your homeowner's insurance to see how you are covered during the move, and if you need additional insurance from the mover. Also, find out what paperwork (receipts, appraisals, and photos) you might need to file a claim in case of loss.

 

Keep important papers with you.

Your list of "important" papers might include: birth certificates, school records, mover estimates, new job contacts, utility company numbers, recent bank records, current bills, phone lists, closing papers, realtor info, maps, and more. Don't leave these with the mover. Keep them with you!

 

Personal boxes.

Use brightly colored storage tote boxes, one for each person. Let each family member fill theirs with items they'll want 'right away' in the new home -- a set of sheets, a towel, a couple of extension cords, a phone, nightlights, address book, pens and paper, keys, kleenex, and travel cosmetic case, and so on.

 

Moving may not be the most fun you've ever had, but planning ahead will go a long way toward making the process bearable. plus.google.com/117109556447175674751/about

Whilst now known as the Lewes Priory School Memorial Chapel, at the outset it was conceived by and built for Lewes County Grammar School for Boys as it's memorial chapel. The school name was changed in 1969 with the arrival of the comprehensive system to Priory School, Lewes.

 

The Chapel has its own Board of Trustees and is a registered charity. The Trustees role is to ensure the Trust's Vision is implemented, working in partnership with the Priory School Lewes Board of Governors. The Chapel is also a listed War Memorial.

 

Board of Trustees Website www.lewesprioryschoolmemorialchapeltrust.org/

 

The Building Of A House Of God 1942 - 1960. Written by N.R.J Bradshaw, MA, Headmaster of Lewes County Grammar School for Boys (1930 - 1960) "O how amiable are thy dwellings thou Lord God of hosts"

 

The holding of a regular School Service in a Lewes Church was a feature to which the war years gave birth. The decision to build our own Chapel sprang to life at the same time.

 

I remember it was in January 1942, as I lay in a hospital bed recovering from an operation, that the thought occurred of how appropriate a chapel would be as a memorial to those lads, sadly growing in number, who were sacrificing their lives in the Forces.

 

It was of course impossible and inappropriate to do anything on a large scale until the conflict ceased. One could, however, make known to parents and Old Boys what I had in mind.

 

As casualties occurred, the parents of those boys began to send "In Memoration" donations to a "Chapel Fund". "Leaving Gifts" likewise helped to increase the total.

 

Furthermore we had, when the war broke out, several acres of rough land awaiting levelling and conversion into playing fields.

 

This land became a source of income. It grew vegetables which we sold to the school kitchen. We claimed the government "ploughing up grant" and when we grew potatoes, the "potato subsidy".

 

Sometimes we grew a grass crop, borrowed a cutter from a farmer and converted it into hay which we sold to a Lewes corn merchant.

 

I had estimated that we should need about £10,000. This was based on the cost of a new church at Hove which had been completed immediately before the war broke out.

 

It also allowed for the contribution that we could make in the school workshop to interior fittings, and in digging foundations before the builders came in. But I did not appeal publicly for funds.

 

With all the contention in religious matters which had surrounded the spread of a State system of Education, I was apprehensive of what uproar might arise over a school chapel in a State school, especially when I recalled reactions at a Governors meeting to my proposal to build a school swimming bath.

 

I felt it was more expeditious to say little. Allusion was made to the project in the School magazine and donations recorded there. My own Governors knew what I was about and I could generally count on their support. On this occasion they approved my action in raising money without committing themselves on the objective.

 

The School magazine of February 1943 contained a first list of subscribers and a recorded sum of £183, a small amount no doubt, but evidence of effort and of self-denial. Some boys who had worked on farms in the previous summer holidays handed in their earnings.

 

A junior form had held its own "Chapel week" and raised fifty shillings. A gift of £5 was made by a boy who was leaving. Rabbits reared at school and sold produced £4.0.0d. A young widow sent £10 in memory of her husband, one of our R.A.F casualties of 1940.

 

The school hayrick had been sold for £30 and vegetables from the school garden, used in school dinners, £57.17.0d. Subsequent wartime magazines included such items as £1 for digging a neighbour's garden, £13 from a Saturday night dance at the school.

  

A number of leaving gifts, more "In Memoriam" donations, the "Headmaster's Geese" £43 (hatched out at his home and reared at school), further Saturday night dances, £194, and "Porcus Primus" reared in a shed in the school field £11.

 

In such ways £1292 had been raised by the end of the war. This sum was modest, trifling perhaps compared with the ultimate total required. But assessed before inflation it represented dedication and effort of a high order.It also implied indirect benefits.

 

A Saturday night dance at school when a very modest charge was made, provided recreation for young people who had left school and were as yet too young to commence National Service in the Forces, and kept them off the streets. The master who organised the dances suggested the Chapel should be dedicated to St. Vitus.

 

At last the war ended and it was now possible to think of the shape of school life in a post-war world. I apprehended that many schemes which had lain dormant while the war lasted would get under way and that there would be a deluge of appeals for financial help.

 

I was determined to get in early before purses were empty and generosity exhausted. And so we held our first fete in November 1945. Our objective, a memorial to our fallen Old Boys, came soon enough to exercise a strong appeal.

 

Help was solicited from anyone who had been in any way connected with the school since its opening. A Parents Committee was formed to organise all money-raising activities on the day, and through one of its members we secured Commander Campbell, a leading B.B.C personality, to open our fete.

 

In addition to subscriptions, a mountain of articles, old and new, came pouring in for the stalls. Articles of above average value were auctioned or raffled. On the day hundreds of teas... at a profit... were supplied to visitors.

 

At midnight, a dance ended the day's proceedings. Quiet descended on the building at last. The Headmaster and the school caretaker sank exhausted onto seats in the deserted hall. But our Chapel Fund had increased by £1738. Never again did we operate on so ambitious a scale.

 

A small scale was held yearly in each Autumn term and larger efforts were made in 1948 and 1952, when Tommy Handley and Gilbert Harding in turn performed the opening ceremony.

 

But even with such popular public figures we could not expect to clear more than about £700, and our usual small annual sale brought in little more than £100 or so.

 

One also had to take care that the normal work of the school was safeguarded in case the boys suffered academically. A parent gave us 500 Chapel boxes for the boys to take home and also to be placed in shops in our recruitment area. We had printed "Chapel Cards" divided into twenty squares or "bricks", each section representing sixpence.

 

These were distributed among the boys and kept by them for a year and then returned with the proceeds. The school secretary, a lady, borrowed a street organ and with boys to pull it for her, collected £50 in Lewes streets one Saturday morning.

 

On a Saturday morning too, four boys in the neighbouring small town of Uckfield, from whence many pupils came, with a cap on the pavement inviting passers-by to subscribe, played musical instruments and collected in a couple of hours £14.

 

Meanwhile in 1953 we experienced a major stroke of good fortune. The London organ building firm of William Hill & Son and Norman and Beard had an office and storeroom in Lewes. The firm was asked to quote for the removal of the organ from the Chapel of Cuddesdon Theological College near Oxford.

 

A sympathetic secretary in Lewes enquired whether I was interested. I made a hurried visit to the College with my Music Master and was invited to go to the Chapel and examine the organ.My Music Master expressed surprise that the College should want to dispose of it.

 

The organ had been built in 1874, the middle of the last century, by Messrs William Hill & Son one of the great English organ builders. It needed an overhaul but was basically sound.

 

Asked why he wanted to get rid of it the Principal of the College said that the space it occupied in the gallery was required for students. Musical services could be held in the Village Church opposite the College.

 

And so with the consent of the Bishop of Oxford it was removed to Lewes and placed in store until such time as we were ready for it. Ultimately £1850 was spent on renovating and installing the organ.

 

The Education Committee could not help with the cost of building the Chapel. But they were free to meet the cost of the organ and did so.

 

Official approval for the Chapel Scheme had been given by the Governors in 1951 and by L.E.A in 1952. But we were dependent on our own efforts.

 

Our local Authority were faced with a great construction backlog left by the war years and, in any case, a chapel in a maintained day-school was not included in the Ministry's recognised official schedule of school buildings.

 

Until we had amassed a substantial sum, sufficient to indicate that we were likely to attain our objective independently, it was not wise to start to build.

 

But building costs, which had been obscured during the war period through lack of private construction, were rising all the time and the £10,000 which we had originally made our target had long ceased to be adequate.

 

Furthermore, after several years of effort, with nothing visual to show for our struggle, our well-wishers were becoming disheartened.

 

A start seemed essential. As a post-war emergency measure requested by the Ministry, technical sections had been formed at many schools to supply urgently needed entrants to the building trade. We had such a section at Lewes and soon included in its organisation were day-release apprentices.

 

This, in turn meant that we had men with building and technical qualifications to teach them. Although the Local Authority could not sponsor our effort financially, the County Architect's department took us under its wing and produced designs and a scale model of the proposed chapel.

 

All building operations were still controlled and so we had to make application to the Ministry of Works as a private concern since the proposed building was not being sponsored by the L.E.A.

 

In 1953 a member of the County Architect's staff accompanied me to London. My reception by an underling was unsympathetic but a licence to build was granted, but almost immediately afterwards control ceased.

 

So by 1954 we were free from official building restrictions and could go ahead. But we did not do so. Our plans depended on voluntary labour as well as on a continuing supply of money.

 

A new nearby building housed the day-release apprentices and these as well as boys in the 11 to 16 age group in our technical stream could make a big practical contribution. It was not forthcoming.

 

Perhaps it was foolish to have imagined that youths released from their day to day tasks in the building trade to widen their background of knowledge should use much of this time in the practical task of laying bricks, though I had been assured beforehand by the man in charge, on the occasion of his appointment, that this would be possible.Footings were staked out and dug - but by boys in the Grammar School section.

 

I began to ponder on alternative expedients. Post-war extension of our school buildings owing to increased numbers would include a new Assembly Hall.

 

Would a combined chapel/assembly hall built by adding the money we had raised for a chapel to the L.E.A's financial commitment in building a new Assembly Hall solve the problem? For the moment I did not pursue this idea.

 

But circumstances compelled me to revert to it. Bishop Bell of Chichester tried to get us "The Week's Good Cause" appeal, which was broadcast each Sunday night, but in vain. A parents Committee, set up to deal with our Chapel project decided that it was beyond us.

 

Tenders had been received for the Chapel designed by the County Architect and these revealed it would cost at least £28,000. In the first instance they had set out to raise £10,000. They had now (1955) raised about £12,000. But the goal receded as fast as money was raised.

 

The trustees of the Chapel Fund informed the Governors at their meeting in November 1955 that they were willing to devote the fund to the construction of a dual purpose building, a chapel assembly hall provided the essentials of a chapel were preserved.

 

The Assembly Hall would be paid for by the L.E.A, the cost of the chapel would be met from the funds raised by voluntary effort. A majority of parents by now favoured a dual purpose building unless the scheme was to be deferred indefinitely.

 

The Governors accepted the proposal and the Education Committee in turn agreed to include this in their building programme for 1957/8. But the Ministry were unable to sanction construction until 1958/9.

 

However, all was far from plain sailing. The ideal site for a separate chapel was East of the school, where it would stand surrounded by a pleasant sweep of green turf.

 

For an assembly hall the County Architect insisted that this must be at the West end of the existing buildings nearest to the school entrance.

 

But here there was insufficient space to include adequate provision for a dual purpose chapel/assembly hall building extension worthy of the name.

 

The plan to make considerable savings by using voluntary labour had been abandoned. The County Architect on second thoughts doubted whether a building firm would take over such a partially built structure and hold itself responsible for the final result.

 

Moreover it would be necessary to have someone constantly on the site to check in the supply of materials as they arrived. In addition there was the risk of injury to boys working on scaffolding or the lads underneath from falling bricks.

 

So nothing remained but to go ahead in raising funds to pay our share of a dual purpose building, built entirely by a firm of outside contractors.

 

Attempts were made to obtain from the Ministry permission for the Local Authority to help us with our share of the cost of the chancel. We still needed about £8,000. The support of our constituency M.P. was enlisted and he urged our cause on successive Ministers of Education. Mr. David Eccles and Mr. Geoffrey Lloyd.

 

From both we received sympathy in our enterprise and hopes for our success. Both however asserted that they could not sanction a contribution to a separate chapel which was not recognised as part of a maintained school, but were such a chapel built, permission to the L.E.A to maintain it would be granted.

 

There would be no difficulty in using money raised by private effort to enlarge and embellish a new assembly hall which had been approved, thereby providing a chapel/assembly hall. But the Ministry could not do more than this.

 

And so alternative designs for a chapel/assembly hall were submitted to the Governors in February 1957. Delay had occurred owing to the switch from the plan of a separate chapel to a combined building.

 

Considerable dismay was expressed by Governors at the new designs and at the proposal not to use the site East of the school building. That the new designs failed to satisfy the Governors was not surprising.

 

With the parents representative on the Governing Body I had spent a Saturday afternoon exploring dual purpose post-war halls which had been erected for community needs, secular and religious, in Crawley New Town.

 

None successfully solved the problem which was probably incapable of solution, of building a hall which would provide for secular activities and at the same time preserve a religious atmosphere.

 

At a meeting with representatives of the Education Committee in March 1957 the Governors were informed that the Ministry would insist on a design for a hall which could be used as a chapel and not vice-versa, and on a site West of the school near the main entrance.

 

Furthermore the Chapel Fund must contribute £20,000 towards the total cost. An immediate decision was required as the hall had been included in the 1958/9 County building programme.

 

The County Architect explained the reasons for the site West of the school and the difficulties of designing a dual purpose building which would meet both religious and secular demands.

 

He recommended a separate chapel at the East end to be built if necessary in stages. The Governors decided to recommend the L.E.A to build an assembly hall and to continue with their own efforts to build a separate chapel.

 

A feeling of weariness and frustration now began to be felt by those of us who had been most active from the beginning. Fresh & alternative sketch plans for a separate chapel were submitted by the County Architect but these aroused little enthusiasm.

 

However, the Architect expressed his inability through lack of time to supervise the actual building operations himself. He proposed to engage a local architect on our behalf for this subordinate purpose at a fee of 4 1/5%. We had reached the end of the road.

 

One of our Governors was a near neighbour of the eminent architect Sir Edward Maufe R.A. who had a country home in Sussex. Sir Edward had designed the R.A.F. Memorial at Runnymede, Guildford Cathedral, and several delightful churches in Sussex.

 

At the end 0f 1957 it was decided to ask him to design a chapel reduced in size which could be built for £20,000. Sir Edward, with the agreement of the County Architect, consented to do this and his designs were exhibited in the Autumn Exhibition of the Royal Academy.

 

But we were not yet clear financially and money-raising efforts had to continue. A fresh appeal in 1958 to parents and Old Boys to support the new scheme brought in a wonderful response of £2,700. The Chairman of the Governors, an Old Etonian ex MP persuaded the Dulverton Trust to give us £2,000.

 

To provide goods for the stalls at Chapel Sales sewing parties were held in the evenings in Lewes or in their own localities by parents who lived at a distance. Weekly collections were made in each form. Several parents organised small local sales which produced sums of around £70 to £100.

 

The Headmaster wrote to some of the Public Schools and suggested that they might devote a collection at their own Sunday Chapel Service to our prospective chapel.

 

Fifteen schools including Eton responded and subscribed £177. A number of the staff of the "Sunday Times" visited the school and although no appeal was made, in the write-up which followed readers sent over £400 to the Headmaster.

 

Sir Edward, our architect, gave himself with complete dedication to his task. When I proposed that we could delay the erection of the figure of St. George, carved by a brilliant young sculptor, Alan Collins, over the West door, he decided to pay for it himself to save us £850. To have omitted it would have impaired the effect he aimed to achieve.

 

When a former Governor's family offered to give this figure as a memorial to a son who had been killed in 1940, Sir Edward gave us the altar and its hangings instead - an equally valuable gift. Every small detail received his personal attention.

 

In a letter to me he wrote on the designs he had made for the chapel, "I am so pleased that you like its classic character. I wanted this myself and think it was most right for your school. I was confident it could be done and yet bring people to their knees. Some people seem to think that this can only be done with Gothics but of course this is nonsense".

 

The Chapel was to be built in cast stonework, large concrete blocks treated on the surface with powdered Portland stone. A member of the firm which made them had Lewes connections and we were given a cost concession. Favoured treatment of this nature was enjoyed in other instances.

 

The cork floor of the nave and aisles was treated by Messrs Ronuk without charge. The firm supplying the cement used in the construction credited our account with £50 before the work commenced. The firm providing the bricks used in construction made a reduction of 10/- per thousand. All the paint required for the interior was given by a London firm of manufacturers.

 

That we received such generous and favoured treatment was due I think to the interest and sympathy which had been aroused by the magnitude and uniqueness of our venture and of course to its religious objective.

 

Even the indifferent caught the enthusiasm. A wealthy local farmer and landowner who at the outset had volunteered the information that he would make no contribution to the project, changed his mind.

 

He enquired how much the lighting installation would cost. The estimate was too much for him. No elaborate building was necessary in which to worship God. He was a Quaker. He paid for the drainage instead.

 

The Chairman of the Governors was tireless in his efforts. Unknown to me he had paid £500 into the Chapel Fund at the bank. When I raised the question of its origin he said "Well, I thought you might be worrying over how you could meet your commitments so I thought this would help a little".

 

At a Governors meeting in November 1958 a tender of £21,612, the lowest of five was accepted. This was submitted by a parent who, like the architect, was dedicated to his task. I was able to report that the money collected or promised would cover this sum. But only the fabric was included in the tender.

 

Another £4,000 was ultimately required for architect's fees, furnishings, stalls, seating, hassocks etc. As already explained and in addition, the organ, the altar with its hangings and the figure of St George were given privately. In the end the total sum amassed was £26,500 and this left us with a credit balance at the bank of about £500.

 

One further piece of good fortune was experienced. The Borough Surveyor, a parent, informed me that in a builder's yard in Lewes was a bell taken from the recently demolished Lewes Naval Prison. The bell was ours if we wanted it.

 

It had a mellow tone and was ideal for our purpose. Its value was enhanced by its historic connection. The prison had been built about 1793 to house prisoners taken in the Revolutionary Wars with France.

 

Fixtures of the Chapel, in addition to the figure of St. George, included a chancel floor of polished Purbeck freestone, sedilia on the South side of the chancel in York stone, the cork floor in the nave and aisles, conductive to silence, the altar hangings in blue cream and gold, toning with the blue of the ceiling and the blue kneelers and fluorescent lighting behind the altar cross.

 

The cross had been given by two Old Boys in memory of their parents. The aisles were raised above the level of the nave floor and were spanned at the base by beautifully constructed oak balusters. Seating in the aisles facing inwards behind the balusters considerably increased the capacity of the Chapel.

 

We could accommodate 300 with ease and more than that number if necessary. The names of our 55 fallen Old Boys were carved on the Portland stone wall inside the main entrance. Inscribed over them are the words of Pericles on the Greek dead at Thermopylae. "Seek for their resting place not in the earth but in the hearts of men".

 

The dawn of 1959 saw us free to go ahead at last. Even so we still had our frustrations including a gap of six weeks when work came to a standstill because building blocks of the required shape or size were not forthcoming. At last, on a Friday in June 1960 the builder's foreman came to my study and reported that they would be leaving that afternoon, all was finished.

 

I thought of a well-known prayer, so appropriate on this occasion ... "O Lord God, when thou givest to thy servant to undertake any great matter, grant us also to know that it is not the beginning but the continuing of the same until it be thoroughly finished which yieldeth the true glory".

 

We did not wait for the official dedication but began using the building straight away. The boys, who had shared in the struggle, and had watched the successful culmination, went home excited to tell their parents. On a lovely summer June morning I stood outside watching the boys enter the West door.

 

The mellow sound of the bell floated over the water meadows which stretched southwards to the coast. A six foot cross in gold-leaf on the belfry glistened against the sky, visible on both sides of the Ouse Valley.

 

The old groundsman who was working nearby shyly drew up to me and said "When I looks at it Sir, I calls to mind "When I survey", So the Chapel provided a silent witness to those outside as well as an inspiration to those within.

 

On Sunday afternoon, 10th July 1960, the Bishop of Chichester presided at a dedication service. Fifteen hundred parents, pupils and Old Boys were present. Parents of the dead were amongst those inside the chapel. Others were inside the school Assembly and Dining Halls and the service was relayed to them there.

 

Immediately following the dedication came an Act of Commemoration. I stood on the chancel steps, with four junior boys, each representing his house, "Let us remember here, in the presence of God those who gave their lives in the last war, particularly the Boys of this School", I said.

 

Each boy then read out the names of former members of his house who had been killed. This was followed by Bunyan's great and moving description of the passing of Mr. Valiant for Truth.

 

After this I said, "On the lintel of the door of this building are three words, "Dare Nec Computare" - "To give and not to count the cost", the School motto, to which the agonies of the war years gave birth.

 

And as you passed those names on the memorial tablets you no doubt read the inscription in the noble words chosen by our architect. "Seek for their resting place, not in the earth, but in the hearts of men".

 

Two thousand years ago a sacrifice was made on Cavalry without counting the cost and ever since has rested in the hearts of men. The conception of giving springs from Christ himself and leads us back to him.

 

Giving prompted those whose memory we commemorate this afternoon. Giving prompted you're affecting generosity, the dauntless struggles over the years, to erect a memorial to those who have given.

 

And that memorial is a house of God where the young people of this school may seek and find the One who has left the supreme example of giving. We start with Christ and we end with him.

 

This building is designed and built not for a day, not for a year, but for a thousand years. Those we commemorate, you who have built it. will rest in the hearts of men.

 

And many a boy in the quiet of this Chapel, will achieve an awareness of Christ and will learn the great lesson of giving.

 

And for those who have learnt and practised in the trumpet will sound on the other side. Sitting before me were parents who had suffered personal loss. Tears trickled down their cheeks.

 

Free Church as well as Anglican Clergy had taken part in the service. The Offertory was taken during the last hymn by craftsmen who had worked on the building and who had given up their Sunday afternoon leisure and travelled into Lewes to be present.

 

"From strength to strength go on; Wrestle and fight and pray; Tread all the powers of darkness down And win the well-fought day".

 

We sang with feeling and emotion. We too had wrestled, fought and prayed. Perhaps we could claim to have been true to the School Prayer, now pronounced by the Bishop before the Blessing.

 

"Teach us good Lord to serve thee as thou deservest; to give and not to count the cost; to fight and not to heed the wounds; to toil and not to seek for rest; to labour and not to ask for any reward, save that of knowing that we do thy will"

 

In three weeks time, my head mastership, which had lasted thirty years, would have ended. As those who had been outside the Chapel filed through to see what they had helped to accomplish I slipped quietly away. The task was finished. To discuss it at this juncture seemed out of place.

 

Lewes Scene Lewes Scenes Lewes Image Lewes Images

 

Lewes Bonfire Website, Click Below

 

www.lewesbonfirecelebrations.com/

  

Learn the fundamentals of how memory is constructed and managed in this guided introduction to the Linux® memory model. This guide includes an examination of the segment control unit and the paging models as well as a detailed look at the physical memory zone.

Understanding the memory models used in Linux is the first step to grasping Linux design and implementation on a grander scale, so this gives you an introductory-level tour of Linux memory models and management.

 

Linux uses the monolithic approach that defines a set of primitives or system calls to implement operating system services such as process management, concurrency, and memory management in several modules that run in supervisor mode. And although Linux maintains the segment control unit model as a symbolic representation for compatibility purposes, it uses this model at a minimal level.

 

The main issues that relate to memory management are:

 

a.. Virtual memory management, a logical layer between application memory requests and physical memory.

b.. Physical memory management.

c.. Kernel virtual memory management/kernel memory allocator, a component that tries to satisfy the requests for memory. The request can be from within the kernel or from a user.

d.. Virtual address space management.

e.. Swapping and caching.

This article can help you understand the Linux internals from a memory-management perspective within the operating system by addressing the following:

 

a.. The segment control unit model, in general, and specifically for Linux

b.. The paging model, in general, and specifically for Linux

c.. The physical details of the memory zone

This article does not detail how the memory is managed by the Linux kernel, but the information on the overall memory model and how it is addressed should give you a framework for learning more. This article focuses on the x86 architecture, but you can use the material in this article with other hardware implementations.

 

x86 memory architecture

 

In the x86 architecture, the memory is divided into three kinds of addresses:

 

a.. A logical address is a storage location address that may or may not relate directly to a physical location. The logical address is usually used when requesting information from a controller.

b.. A linear address (or a flat address space) is memory that is addressed starting with 0. Each subsequent byte is referenced by the next sequential number (0, 1, 2, 3, etc.) all the way to the end of memory. This is how most non-Intel CPUs address memory. Intel® architectures use a segmented address space in which memory is broken up into 64KB segments, and a segment register always points to the base of the segment that is currently being addressed. The 32-bit mode in this architecture is considered a flat address space, but it too uses segments.

c.. A physical address is an address represented by bits on a physical address bus. The physical address may be different from the logical address, in which case the memory management unit translates the logical address into a physical address.

The CPU uses two units to transform the logical address into physical addresses. The first is called the segmented unit and other is called the paging unit.

 

Figure 1. Two units convert address spaces

 

Let's examine the segment control unit model.

 

Back to top

 

Segment control unit model in general

 

The basic idea behind the segmentation model is that memory is managed using a set of segments. Essentially, each segment is its own address space. A segment consists of two components:

 

a.. A base address that contains the address of some physical memory location

b.. A length value that specifies the length of the segment

A segmented address also consists of two components -- a segment selector and an offset into the segment. The segment selector specifies the segment to use (that is, the base address and length values) while the offset component specifies the offset from the base address for the actual memory access. The physical address of the actual memory location is the sum of the offset and the base address values. If the offset exceeds the length of the segment, the system generates a protection violation.

 

To summarize the representation:

 

Segmented Unit is represented as -> Segment: Offset model

can also be represented as -> Segment Identifier: Offset

 

Each segment is a 16-bit field called a segment identifier or segment selector. x86 hardware consists of few programmable registers called segment registers which hold these segment selectors. These registers are cs (code segment), ds (data segment), and ss (stack segment). Each segment identifier identifies a segment which is represented by a 64-bit (8 bytes) segment descriptor. These segment descriptors are stored in a GDT (global descriptor table) and can be also stored in an LDT (local descriptor table).

 

Figure 2. Interplay of segment descriptors and segment registers

 

Each time a segment selector is loaded on to segment registers, the corresponding segment descriptor is loaded from memory into a matching non-programmable CPU register. Each segment descriptor is eight bytes long and represents a single segment in memory. These are stored in LDTs or GDTs. The segment descriptor entry contains both a pointer to the first byte in the associated segment represented by the Base field and a 20-bit value (the Limit field) which represents the size of the segment in memory.

 

Several other fields contain special attributes such as a privilege level and the segment's type (cs or ds). The segment type is represented by a four-bit Type field.

 

Because we use the non-programmable register, GDT or LDT is not referred to while the translation from the logical address to the linear address is performed. This speeds the translation of memory.

 

A segment selector contains following:

 

a.. A 13-bit index that identifies the corresponding segment descriptor entry contained in the GDT or LDT.

b.. The TI (Table Indicator) flag that specifies whether the segment descriptor is included in GDT if the value is 0; if the value is 1, then the segment descriptor is included in the LDT.

c.. The RPL (request privilege level) defines the current privilege level of the CPU when the corresponding segment selector is loaded in the segment register.

Since a segment descriptor is eight bytes long, its relative address inside the GDT or LDT is obtained by multiplying the most significant 13 bits of segment selector by 8. For example, if the GDT is stored at address 0x00020000 and Index specified by segment selector is 2, then the address of corresponding segment descriptor is equal to (2*8) + 0x00020000. The total number of segment descriptor that can be stored in a GDT equals (2^13 - 1). This comes to 8191.

 

Figure 3 shows the graphical representation to obtain the linear address from logical address.

 

Figure 3. Obtaining a linear address from a logical address

 

Now how is this different with Linux?

 

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Segment control unit in Linux

 

In Linux, this model employs a small modification. I've already noted that Linux uses the segmentation model in limited way (mostly for compatibility purposes).

 

In Linux, all the segment registers point to the same range of segment addresses - in other words, each uses same set of linear addresses. This enables Linux to use a limited number of segment descriptors, therefore all descriptors can be kept in the GDT. Two advantages of this model is that:

 

a.. Memory management is simpler when all processes use the same segment register values (when they share same set of linear addresses).

b.. Portability with most architectures can be achieved. Several RISC processors also support segmentation in this limited way.

Figure 4 demonstrate this modification.

 

Figure 4. In Linux segment registers point to the same set of addresses

 

Segment descriptors

 

Linux uses following segments descriptors:

 

a.. The kernel code segment

b.. The kernel data segment

c.. The user code segment

d.. The user data segment

e.. The TSS segment

f.. The default LDT segment

Let's look at each of these in detail.

 

The kernel code segment descriptor in the GDT has the following values:

 

a.. Base = 0x00000000

b.. Limit = 0xffffffff (2^32 -1) = 4GB

c.. G (granularity flag) = 1 for segment size expressed in pages

d.. S = 1 for normal code or data segment

e.. Type = 0xa for code segment that can be read and executed

f.. DPL value = 0 for kernel mode

The linear address associated with this segment is 4 GB. S =1 and type = 0xa refers to the code segment. The selector is in the cs register. The macro in Linux through which the corresponding segment selector is accessed is via the _KERNEL_CS macro.

 

The kernel data segment descriptor for this has similar values to the kernel code segment except the file Type where its value is set to two. This represents that the segment is a data segment and the selector is stored in the ds register. The macro in Linux through which the corresponding segment selector is accessed is via the _KERNEL_DS macro.

 

The user code segment is shared by all the processes in the user mode. The corresponding segment descriptor stored in the GDT has following values:

 

a.. Base = 0x00000000

b.. Limit = 0xffffffff

c.. G = 1

d.. S = 1

e.. Type = 0xa for code segment that can be read and executed

f.. DPL = 3 for user mode

The macro used in Linux to access this segment selector is the _USER_CS macro.

 

In the user data segment descriptor, the only field that changes is Type which is set to two and which defines the data segment that can be read and written. The macro used in Linux to access this segment selector is the _USER_DS macro.

 

In addition to these segment descriptors, the GDT contains two more segment descriptors for each process created -- the TSS and LDT segments.

 

Each TSS segment descriptor refers to a different process. TSS holds hardware context information for each CPU which helps to take effect in context switching. For example, during a U->K mode switch, the x86 CPU gets the address of the kernel mode stack from TSS.

 

Each process has its own TSS descriptor for the corresponding process stored in the GDT. Following are the values of the descriptors:

 

a.. Base = &tss (the address of the TSS field of the corresponding process descriptor; for example, &tss_struct) which is defined in the schedule.h file of the Linux kernel

b.. Limit = 0xeb (TSS segment is 236 bytes long)

c.. Type = 9 or 11

d.. DPL = 0. The user mode does not access TSS. The G flag is cleared

All the processes share the default LDT segment. By default it contains a null segment descriptor. This default LDT segment descriptor is stored in the GDT. The LDT generated by Linux has a size of 24 bytes. By default, three entries are always present:

 

LDT[0] = null

LDT[1] = user code segment

LDT[2] = user data/stack segment descriptor

 

Calculating TASKS

 

Understanding NR_TASKS (a variable that determines the number of simultaneous processes that Linux supports -- the default value in the kernel source is 512, allowing a maximum of 256 simultaneous connections to a single instance) is necessary to calculate the maximum permissible entries in the GDT.

 

The total number of entries allowed in the GDT can be determined by following formula:

 

Number of entries in GDT = 12 + 2 * NR_TASKS.

As mentioned earlier GDT can have entries = 2^13 -1 = 8192.

 

Out of 8192 segment descriptors, Linux uses 6 segment descriptors, 4 additional ones cover for APM features (advanced power management features) and 4 entries in the GDT are left unused. Therefore, the net number of entries possible in the GDT is equal to 8192 - 14 or 8180.

 

At any point of time we cannot have more than 8180 number of entries in GDT, therefore:

 

2 * NR_TASKS = 8180

And NR_TASKS = 8180/2 = 4090

 

(Why 2 * NR_TASKS? Because for each process created, not only is just the TSS descriptor (used for maintaining context-switch context) being loaded, but an LDT descriptor is being loaded too.)

 

This restriction on number of processes in the x86 architecture was a component of Linux 2.2, but since kernel 2.4, this problem has been eliminated, partly by doing away with hardware context switching (which made using TSS inevitable) and replacing it with process switching.

 

Next, let's look at the paging model.

 

Back to top

 

Paging model in general

 

The paging unit translates the linear addresses into physical ones (see Figure 1). A set of linear addresses are grouped together to form pages. These linear addresses are contiguous in nature -- the paging unit maps these sets of contiguous memory to corresponding set of contiguous physical addresses called page frames. Note that the paging unit visualizes RAM to be partitioned into a fixed size of page frames.

 

Because of this, paging has following advantages:

 

a.. Access rights defined for a page will hold good for those group of linear addresses forming a page

b.. The length of page equals length of page frame

The data structure that maps these pages to page frames is called a page table. These page tables are stored in main memory and are properly initialized by the kernel before enabling paging unit. Figure 5 shows a page table.

 

Figure 5. A page table matches pages to page frames

 

Note that the set of addresses contained within the Page1 matches with the corresponding set of addresses contained within the Page Frame1.

 

Linux uses the paging unit more than it does the segmentation unit. As we saw earlier in the section on Linux and segmentation, each segment descriptor uses same set of addresses for linear addressing, minimizing the need to use the segmentation unit to convert logical addresses to linear addresses. By using the paging unit more than the segmentation unit, Linux greatly facilitates memory management and portability across different hardware platforms.

 

Fields used in paging

 

Here's a description of the fields used to specify paging in x86 architectures which help to achieve paging in Linux. The paging unit gets in the linear address as an output of segmentation unit which it then further divides into the following fields:

 

a.. Directory is represented by 10 MSBs (Most Significant Bit is the bit position in a binary number having the greatest value -- the MSB is sometimes referred to as the left-most bit).

b.. Table is represented by the intermediate 10 bits

c.. Offset is represented by 12 LSBs. (A Least Significant Bit is the bit position in a binary integer giving the units value, that is, determining whether the number is even or odd. The LSB is sometimes referred to as the right-most bit. It is analogous to the least significant digit of a decimal integer which is the digit in the ones or right-most position.)

The translation of linear addresses into their corresponding physical location is a two-step process. The first step uses a translation table called Page Directory (goes from the Page Directory to the Page Table) and the second step uses translation table called Page Table (which is the Page Table plus the Offset to required page frame). You can see this in Figure 6.

 

Figure 6. Paging fields

 

To start with, the physical address of Page Directory is loaded into cr3 register .The directory field within the linear address determines the entry in Page Directory that points to the proper Page Table. The address in table field determines the entry in the Page Table that contains the physical address of the page frame containing the page. The offset field determines relative position within the page frame. Since this offset is 12 bits long, each page contains 4 KB of data.

 

To summarize the physical address computation:

 

1.. cr3 + Page Directory (10 MSBs) = points to table_base

2.. table_base + Page Table (10 intermediate bits) = points to page_base

3.. page_base + Offset = physical address (gets the page frame)

Since Page Directory and Page Table are 10 bits long, the addressable limit possible from them is equal to 1024*1024 KB and Offset can address up to 2^12 (4096 bytes). Therefore, in total the addressable limit by Page Directory is equal to 1024*1024*4096 (equal to 2^32 memory cells which comes to 4 GB). So on x86 architectures, the total addressable limit is 4 GB.

 

Extended paging

 

Extended paging is obtained by removing the Page Table translation table; then the division of linear address is done in between the Page Directory (10 MSBs) and the Offset (22 LSBs).

 

The 22 LSBs form the 4 MB boundary for the page frame (2^22). Extended paging coexists with normal paging and is enabled to map large contiguous linear addresses into corresponding physical ones. The operating system removes the Page Table and thus provides the extended paging. This is enabled by setting the PSE (page size extension) flag.

 

The 36-bit PSE extends 36-bit physical address support to 4 MB pages while maintaining a 4- byte page-directory entry thereby providing a simple mechanism to address physical memory above 4 GB without requiring major design changes to operating systems. This approach has practical limitations with respect to demand paging.

 

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Paging model in Linux

 

Paging in Linux is similar to general paging, but the x86 architecture introduced a three-level page table mechanism consisting of:

 

a.. Page Global Directory (pgd), the abstracted top level of the multi-level page tables. Each level of page table deals with different sizes of memory -- this global directory may deal with areas 4 MB in size. Each entry will be a pointer to a lower table of a smaller-sized directory, so the pgd is a directory of page tables. When code traverses this structure (some drivers do this), it is said to "walk" the page tables.

b.. Page Middle Directory (pmd), the middle level of page tables. On x86 architectures, the pmd is not present in hardware, but is folded in to the pgd in the kernel code.

c.. Page Table Entry (pte), the bottom level which deals in pages directly (look for PAGE_SIZE), is a value containing the physical address of a page along with associated bits indicating, for example, that the entry is valid and the related page is present in real memory.

This three-level paging scheme also got incorporated into Linux in order to support large memory areas. When large-memory-area support is not required, you can fall back to two-level paging by defining the pmd as "1."

 

The levels are optimized at compile time, enabling both the second and third levels (using the same set of code) by just enabling or disabling the middle directory. The 32-bit processor uses pmd paging and 64-bit processors use pgd paging.

 

Figure 7. Three levels of paging

 

Just so you know, in 64-bit processors:

 

a.. 21 MSBs are unused

b.. 13 LSBs are represented by page offset

c.. The remaining 30 bits are divided into

a.. 10 bits for Page Table

b.. 10 bits for Page Global Directory

c.. 10 bits for Page Middle Directory

As we see from the architecture, actually 43 bits are used for addressing. So effectively on a 64-bit processor the virtual memory available for usage is 2 to the power of 43.

 

Each process has its own set of page directories and page tables. In order to reference a page frame which contains actual user data, the operating system begins by loading the (on x86 architectures) pgd into the cr3 register. Linux saves in the TSS segment the content of the cr3 register and then loads another value from the TSS segment into the cr3 register whenever a new process is executed on CPU. The result is that the paging unit refers to correct set of page tables.

 

Each entry into the pgd table points to a page frame containing an array of pmd entries which in turns points to a page frame containing pte which finally points to a page frame containing the user data. If the page being looked for has been swapped out, a swap entry is stored at in the pte table which is used (when there is a page fault) for finding the page frame to reload in memory.

 

Figure 8 shows that we are adding offsets at each page table level to map to corresponding page frame entry. We get these offsets by breaking the linear addresses we receive as an output from segmentation unit. To break the linear address corresponding to each page table component, various macros are used in the kernel. Without going into detail about these macros, let's diagrammatically see the split of linear address.

 

Figure 8. Linear addresses have different address lengths

 

Reserved page frame

 

Linux reserves few page frames exclusively for the kernel code and data structures. These pages are never swapped to disk. Linear address from 0x0 to 0xc0000000 (PAGE_OFFSET) are referred by both user code and kernel code. From PAGE_OFFSET up to 0xffffffff is addressed by kernel code.

 

This means that out of 4 GB, only 3 GB are available for user application.

 

How paging is enabled

 

The paging mechanism used by Linux processes is set up in two phases:

 

a.. At bootstrapping, the system sets up the page table for 8 MB of physical memory.

b.. Then, the second phase completes the mapping for rest of the physical memory.

In the bootstrap phase, the startup_32() call is responsible for initiating the paging. This is implemented in within the arch/i386/kernel/head.S file. The mapping of this 8 MB happens at address above PAGE_OFFSET. The initialization begins with a statically defined compile-time array called swapper_pg_dir.This is placed at a particular address (0x00101000) at compile time.

 

This action establishes page table entries for two pages defined statically in the code -- pg0 and pg1. The sizes of these page frames are by default 4 KB unless the page size extension bit is set (see the Extended paging section for more on the PSE). The sizes are 4 MB each. The data address pointed to by the global array is stored at the cr3 register which I suppose is first step in setting the paging unit for Linux processes. The rest of the page entries are set up in the second phase.

 

The second phase is taken care by the method call paging_init().

 

RAM mapping is done between the PAGE_OFFSET and the address represented by fourth GB limit (0xFFFFFFFF) in the x86 32-bit architecture. That means the RAM of approximately 1 GB can be mapped when Linux starts and this happens by default. However, if someone has set up HIGHMEM_CONFIG, then physical memory of more than 1 GB could be also mapped to kernel - keep in mind that this is a temporary arrangement. It is done by a kmap() call.

 

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Physical memory zone

 

I've already shown you that the Linux kernel (on a 32-bit architecture) divides the virtual memory into a 3:1 ratio, 3 GB virtual memory for user space and 1 GB for kernel space. The kernel code and its data structures must reside in this 1 GB of address space, but an even bigger consumer of this address space is the virtual mappings for the physical memory.

 

This is done because kernel cannot manipulate the memory if it is not mapped into its address space. Thus, the maximum amount of physical memory that could be handled by the kernel was the amount that could be mapped into kernel's virtual address space minus the space needed to map the kernel code itself. As a result, an x86-based Linux system could work with a maximum of little less than 1 GB of physical memory.

 

In order to cater to large numbers of users, to support more memory, to improve performance, and to establish an architecture-independent way to describe memory, the Linux memory model had to evolve. To achieve these goals, the newer model arranged memory into banks assigned to each CPU. Each bank is called a node; each node is divided into zones. Zones (which represent ranges within memory) are further categorized into following types:

 

a.. ZONE_DMA (0-16 MB): The memory range residing in the lower physical memory area which certain ISA/PCI devices require.

b.. ZONE_NORMAL (16-896 MB): The memory range that is directly mapped by the kernel into the upper regions of physical memory. All kernel operations can only take place using this memory zone, therefore it is the most performance-critical zone.

c.. ZONE_HIGHMEM (896 MB and higher): The remaining available memory in the system which is not mapped by the kernel.

The node concept is implemented in kernel by using structure struct pglist_data. A zone is described by using structure struct zone_struct. The physical page frame is represented by structure struct Page and all these structs are kept in global structure array struct mem_map which is stored at beginning of NORMAL_ZONE. The basic relationships between node, zone, and page frame are shown in Figure 9.

 

Figure 9. Relationships among the node, zone, and page frame

 

The high memory zone made its appearance in kernel memory management when support for both Pentium II's virtual memory extension was implemented (to access up to 64 GBs by means of PAE -- Physical Address Extension -- on 32-bit systems) and support for 4 GB of physical memory (again, on 32-bit systems). It is a concept applied to x86 and SPARC platforms. Generally this 4 GB of memory is made accessible by mapping the ZONE_HIGHMEM onto ZONE_NORMAL by means of kmap(). Please note that it is not advisable to have more than 16 GB of RAM on a 32-bit architecture, even when PAE is enabled.

 

(PAE is an Intel-provided memory address extension that enables processors to expand the number of bits that can be used to address physical memory from 32 bits to 36 bits through support in the host operating system for applications using the Address Windowing Extensions API.)

 

The management of this physical memory zone is done by a zone allocator. It is responsible for dividing memory into a number of zones; it treats each zone as a unit for allocation purposes. Any particular allocation request utilizes a list of zones from which the allocation may be attempted, in a most-preferred-to-least-preferred order.

 

For example:

 

a.. A request for a user page should be filled first from the "normal" zone (ZONE_NORMAL);

b.. if that fails, from ZONE_HIGHMEM;

c.. and if that fails, from ZONE_DMA.

The zone list for such allocations consists of the ZONE_NORMAL, ZONE_HIGHMEM, and ZONE_DMA zones, in that order. On the other hand, a request for a DMA page may only be fulfilled from the DMA zone, so the zone list for such requests contains only the DMA zone.

 

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Conclusion

 

Memory management is a large, complex, and time-consuming set of tasks, one that is difficult to achieve because crafting a model how systems behave in real-world, multi-programmed environments is a tough job. Components like scheduling, paging behavior, and multiple-process interactions presents a considerable challenge. I hope this article will help you decipher the basic knowledge required to engage the challenge of Linux memory management, providing you with a start.

 

Resources

 

Learn

 

a.. Inside memory management (developerWorks, November 2004) provides an overview of the memory management techniques that are available in Linux, including how memory management works, how to manage memory manually, semi-manually, and automatically.

 

b.. Kernel comparison: Improved memory management in the 2.6 kernel (developerWorks, March 2004) details new techniques to improve the use of large amounts of memory, reverse mapping, storage of page-table entries in high memory, and the greater stability of the memory manager.

 

c.. Linux, outside the (x86) box (developerWorks, May 2005) will show you what to do for non-x86 architectures.

 

d.. Use shared objects on Linux (developerWorks, May 2004) shows you how to make the most of shared memory.

 

e.. This Outline of the Linux Memory Management System is a set of experience-based notes on how Linux memory management works in the real world.

 

f.. Linux Device Drivers, Third Edition (O'Reilly, February 2005) has an excellent chapter on memory management and DMA.

 

g.. Understanding the Linux Kernel, Third Edition (O'Reilly, November 2005) provides a guided tour of the code that forms the core of all Linux operating systems.

 

h.. Understanding the Linux Virtual Memory Manager (Prentice Hall, April 2004) provides a comprehensive guide to Linux virtual memory.

 

i.. Find more resources for Linux developers in the developerWorks Linux zone.

 

Get products and technologies

 

a.. Order the SEK for Linux, a two-DVD set containing the latest IBM trial software for Linux from DB2®, Lotus®, Rational®, Tivoli®, and WebSphere®.

 

b.. Build your next development project on Linux with IBM trial software, available for download directly from developerWorks.

 

Discuss

 

a.. Get involved in the developerWorks community by participating in developerWorks blogs.

 

About the author

 

Vikram Shukla, with more than six year's experience in development and design using object-oriented languages, currently works as a staff software engineer in the Java Technology Center at IBM, Banglore, India, supporting IBM JVM on Linux.

Albany College of NanoScale Sciences and Engineering Albany New York Chris Milian Professional aerial photographer 518-495-7983 photos www.photosfromonhigh.com September 12 2011 9/11/11 Aerial Photo

Albany College of NanoScale Sciences and Engineering Albany New York Chris Milian Professional aerial photographer 518-495-7983 photos www.photosfromonhigh.com September 12 2011 9/11/11 Aerial Photo Albany Nanotech Expansion College of Nanoscale Sciences Chris Milian