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A very weird unmarked sculpture in the Columbia Slough Wildlife Refuge, in Portland OR, shot with my holga and filtered through photoshop.

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Baldwin County (GA) Copyright 2009 D. Nelson


Tessa ran her first Junior Hunter today. For those unfamiliar, the Junior Hunter (JH) is the first of three AKC hunting test, and a most basic one. Pointing breeds are judged in four categories:


Hunting Ability: Dog is scored from '0' to'10' on the basis of whether or not it evidences a keen desire to hunt, boldness and independence, and a fast, yet useful pattern of running.


Bird Finding Ability: Dogs are scored from '0' to '10' based upon demonstration of intelligence in seeking objectives, use of the wind, and the ability to find birds. To pass the test, the dog must find and point birds.


Pointing: Dog is scored from '0' to'10' on the basis of the intensity of its point, as well as its ability to locate (pinpoint) birds under difficult scenting conditions and/or confusing scent patterns.


Trainability: Dog is scored from '0' to '10' on the basis of its willingness to be handled, its reasonable obedience to commands and its gun response. If the handler is within reasonable gun range of a bird which has been flushed after a point, a blank pistol must be fired.


To pass the test and earn a leg towards the title, the scores must average out to 7, with a minimum of a score of 5 in each category. To obtain the JH title, the dog must pass the test four times. Tessa received a score of 8-6-4-7 respectively - not enough to qualify for her first leg. But while I was disappointed that she didn't show one of her nice points, I was very pleased with her performance, especially her nice cooperation.


Being new to all this, I was quite nervous. I decided to walk along with the first brace (dogs are run in twos) to see how things worked and wow, those dogs were mighty, mighty close to the horses. The field was very overgrown, making it difficult to see the dogs and what they are doing. So I was getting a little more nervous ...


Tessa was braced with Dexter, a 2-year old GSP who is really already at the SH level but is run through the JH anyway. He passed both Saturday and Sunday with pretty good scores. Dexter is an all-business dog that I had met before and I was very relieved to learn that they would run together, as I thought they have a similar work ethic.


We were brace No. 3 and started our 5-minute walk down the trail to the bird field; when we released the dogs they were off like two rockets - I seriously have never seen such a thing. Both Tessa and Dexter hunt wide, and they covered quite a bit of ground in no time. Now the trick is not to over-handle your dog, because each time you ask it to do something , non-compliance will affect the trainability score. So my plan was to just let Tessa do the hunting and keep quiet. My luck had it that within two minutes Tessa was sidetracked on the wrong trail and the judge asked me to call her back. Uh-oh! I whistled and to my delight she came running at 100 mph, right between the two horses at that, straight as an arrow, completely unfazed. I started to relax.


When we arrived at the bird field I started watching for a point. I walked, she ran, and sometimes I ran too to keep up with what she was doing; she figured out immediately where birds had been, and the judge suggested I take her somewhere fresh, these were old bird sites, so I did, and Tessa came along without any fuss. Close to the end she stopped, I could hear the birds chirping in the briars, and she worked all around them, but never went on a convincing point. I thought she may have pointed just enough, and when the birds flushed, I fired my pistol (blank). Hey, at least I got to fire! Then the judge said "15 more seconds". "Oh my" I thought, and "hunt 'em up Tessa", taking her the direction the quail had flown but nope - time up.


That was at 2 p.m. At 5 p.m. after the last brace, there was the free for all, and whoever was still there headed for the bird field. Not two minutes into it she pointed, and pointed, and pointed. Oh well!


I would have loved to bring some orange home tonight but I am actually okay with how it went, she was so much fun to watch. I don't know all the scores from today but I overheard a few other fails. One of the dogs in the first brace scored 0-0 on bird finding and pointing. It happens.



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This was a tough one to "process" in Photoshop. My venerable scanner leaves a little to be desired, so I usually have to fight my color images into compliance with my vision. I'm learning how to use layers to adjust color, thanks to Glen Bledsoe's off-the-cuff lesson after our Albany to Junction City excursion in July. I think I got this one about right after weeks of revisiting it. For my color images, I go for a realistic rendering of the scene. I'm not always successful because I largely don't know what I'm doing, and can't achieve the look I want until I throw up my hands and post what I have at that time, promising to revisit it at a later date. I don't go for flashy, or over-saturated colors, or HDR. I like to be out when the light is interesting, although, I rarely am (due to my work schedule), and when I get interesting light, I like to let Mother Nature speak for herself in my photos. I want to produce results that I can reproduce in the darkroom. The next thing I need to learn is how to make images look good on Flickr.


On this particular day in mid-May, the light was subtly fading to orange as the sun approached a cloud bank on the horizon. I had my camera set up just in time to snap a few pictures before it faded. It was a warm, peaceful evening on the coast--a rare event for spring on the Oregon Coast, and I wanted to convey that with this image.


Camera: Speed Graphic 4x5 with a 6x9 roll film back.

Lens: 127mm Kodak Ektar.

Film: Fuji Pro 400H


My Web Site:

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I'm finally on Facebook:

Today the weather was grim, nice and cloudy, with lots of lovely dark shades of cloud, perfect for a picture I have had in mind for a while. I have been wanting to shoot Chesterton Windmill for ages, and wanted to shoot it with the ten-stop with a really brooding stormy sky with some nice storm light on the windmill. Today looked like it was going to be perfect.


So, with promising skies and a foreboding looking weather forecast, the kids and I set off for an afternoon of shooting. When we arrived.... it was bright blue sky and barely a cloud in sight!!! grrrrrr.


The kids managed to pass half an hour or so messing about, and chucking one another in stinging nettles and generally beating one another up, and we adopted a dog which found us, with a lovely slobber covered ball which I had to chuck repeatedly for ages, as when i didn't throw the ball it sat on my camera bag. I am sure... it knew exactly how to ensure my compliance.


I then resorted to desperate measures, and shouted to the kids... "it is lovely weather, lets have a picnic" after half an hour the black clouds rolled in true to picnic form, and I got my shot, and we didn't have a picnic anyway! we just went to Nando's. Yum.

Well, except they messed up my sons order. Bless him, instead of a plain burger, they gave him a medium hot piri piri burger, I didn't know that colour red was possible for a person to go ... it matched the chilli peppers he was munching on. 1 bowl of frozen yoghurt later and he was able to laugh about it.


A successful day, Photographer 1 - Weather 0 (mwahahahaha)


(The info bit - This unique windmill stands on six stone pillars, supporting two raised floors. It was built in 1632, from a design attributed to Inigo Jones, and worked until 1910 when its machinery broke down. It not clear if it was originally intended as a functional windmill, or as a folly - an observatory has been suggested, which in many ways makes more sense. )

When I shot this photo I took care for the rule of thirds compliance, following the gridlines shown on the camera monitor.

A chimney is a structure for venting hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. Chimneys are typically vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the stack, or chimney, effect. The space inside a chimney is called a flue. Chimneys may be found in buildings, steam locomotives and ships. In the US, the term smokestack (colloquially, stack) is also used when referring to locomotive chimneys. The term funnel is generally used for ships' chimneys and sometimes to refer to locomotive chimneys.[1][2]. Chimneys are tall to increase their draw of air for combustion and to disperse pollutants in the flue gases over a greater area so as to reduce the pollutant concentrations in compliance with regulatory or other limits.


A chimney is a structure which provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. Chimneys are typically vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the stack, or chimney, effect. The space inside a chimney is called a flue. Chimneys may be found in buildings, steam locomotives and ships. In the United States, the term smokestack (colloquially, stack) is also used when referring to locomotive chimneys or ship chimneys, and the term funnel can also be used.


The height of a chimney influences its ability to transfer flue gases to the external environment via stack effect. Additionally, the dispersion of pollutants at higher altitudes can reduce their impact on the immediate surroundings. In the case of chemically aggressive output, a sufficiently tall chimney can allow for partial or complete self-neutralization of airborne chemicals before they reach ground level. The dispersion of pollutants over a greater area can reduce their concentrations and facilitate compliance with regulatory limits.

I titled this after a movie I watched the other night called “Compliance”. Based on a true story; it’s about a man pretending to be a police officer. He calls into a fast food restaurant; gets the management and other volunteers to do terrible things to an innocent coworker. If you get a chance to watch it please do. It’s very disturbing, degrading, dehumanizing; showing the failure of morality (a subject I touch upon often). You may ask yourself; how people can be so stupid to do things like this. TIs are surrounded by such stupid people and live through similar incidents every day.

I drive past this barn every time I venture south to Fresno. I have many pictures, exposures, but chose this one because it symbolizes many things in my life:


Stars and Strips: a country I served, but turns its back on so many.


Background: behind the barn you can barely see the foothills; beyond these foothills, covered in dark clouds is Yosemite National Park. This is one of many dark communities within this country. A community where humanity has regressed to a haunting low. The depths to which rational individuals will sink to obey self-anointed authority figures.


Cow Chips: some people are shit…..


Help us put a stop to Gang Stalking, Community Based Stalking, Workplace Mobbing by signing the following petitions:


As far as I can tell, this is a 55 Chevy pickup, Australian Compliance. Anyway, old wrecked and rusty, storm approaching, scary.


Or as one of my commenters have added, its a 52 Chevy.

Huge steam clouds rise from Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station, Nottinghamshire. View taken from Sawley in Derbyshire on the morning of 1st December 2008.


Extract fron Wikipedia:

Ratcliffe-on-Soar power station is a coal-fired power station operated by E.ON UK at Ratcliffe-on-Soar in Nottinghamshire, England. Commissioned in 1968 by the then Central Electricity Generating Board, the station has a capacity of 2034 MW. It has four coal-fired boilers made by Babcock and Wilcox that are used to drive Parsons steam turbines and generator sets.


Cooling water is taken from the nearby River Trent - about 48 million cubic metres a year - and evaporative losses through the eight cooling towers account for some 11 million cubic metres of that water.


E.ON UK has its Power Technology centre at the site, where the latest research and development on power generation takes place.


On April 10, 2007, 11 environmental activists from a group called Eastside Climate Action were arrested after they entered the power station and climbed onto equipment in order to draw attention to the energy industry's greenhouse gas emissions[1]


Ratcliffe power station is compliant with the Large Combustion Plant Directive (LCPD)[2], an EU directive that aims to reduce acidification, ground level ozone and particulates by controlling the emissions of sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and dust from large combustion plant. Compliance at this site has been achieved through fitting Flue Gas Desulphurisation[3], and Boosted Over Fire Air[4].


With its prominent position in the Trent valley, only a short distance from junction 24 of the M1, the power station dominates the skyline for many miles around. It provides a very valuable navigation aid for users of the nearby East Midlands Airport though the cooling steam that escapes its towers often produce very huge clouds.


More here:

A view from my office.... Even though clicking photographs inside office premises is against the compliance policy of my office, i couldn't resist myself when i saw the clouds hanging over my head

Le non respect de la régle des tiers est évidament volontaire ;))

The non compliance with the régle of thirds(third parties) is évidament volunteer ;))



Dès le début du XX è siècle, la « Reine des Plages du Nord », fréquentée et animée connaît son heure de gloire. Le long de la digue, on ne se lasse pas d’admirer les belles façades des villas à l'architecture unique. Malo-les-Bains est le quartier résidentiel de Dunkerque.



From the beginning of XX è century, " Queen of the Beaches(Ranges) of the North ", frequented and livened up knows its hour of glory. Along the dike, we do not grow tired of admiring the beautiful facades of villas in the unique(only) architecture. Malo-les-Bains is the residential area of the Dunkerque.


A 16TH Century Monument Built By Sher Shah Suri --- A UNESCO World Culture Heritage


Dedicated To A Good Fella With Same Nick And Age Rohtas :P



The Rohtas fort lies sprawling upon a low rocky hill north of Jhelum in a bend of the river Ghan (mostly spelled as Kahan). It occupies an uneven piece of land cut up by deep mountain torrents of which the ChandWali Kas and Parnata Kas are the most important. The eastern wall of the Anderkot follows the edge of the former whereas the corresponding walls the outer fort follows that of the latter.


The fort was built in compliance with the orders of Sher Shah (actual name Farid Khan) son of Hassan Khan, son of Ibrahim Khan, and Afghan of the Sur section of the Lodhi tribe. The project was financially looked after by Todar Mal, the finance minister of Sher Shah; it was executed by Shahu Sultani who acted in the capacity of what may presently be called a superintending engineer.


The project took many years to complete (perhaps 10 years) and was finished during the reign of Sher Shah’s son and successor Jalal Khan who assumed the title of Islam Shah at the time of his accession to the throne in AD 1545. The expenditure is variously recorded by the Tahrik I Daudi as eight crores five lace five thousand and two and half dams i.e. Bahluli’s and Tuzuk I Jehangiri as sixteen crores , ten lacs of dams and a little more. Both the source refer to inscribed to a stone slabs fixed on gates as their source of information, It is likely that the estimate if the Tahrik I Daudi pertains merely to the Anderkot and that of Tuzuk I Jehangiri to the outer fort.

An expansion franchise, the club was founded in Los Angeles in 1961. Then the Los Angeles Angels, the team was based at Los Angeles' Wrigley Field (not to be confused with Chicago's stadium of the same name). The team has gone through several name changes in their history, first changing to the California Angels in 1965 to emphasize their status as the only AL team in California and in recognition of their move from Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles to Anaheim Stadium in Anaheim. When The Walt Disney Company took control in 1997, it extensively renovated Angel Stadium on the condition that both the stadium's name and the team's name contain the word "Anaheim." Disney was hoping to capitalize on the proximity of nearby Disneyland to enhance the tourism in the area, and thus the team became the Anaheim Angels.


In 2005, new owner Arte Moreno wanted to include "Los Angeles" in the team's name, in order to better tap into the Los Angeles media market, the second largest in the country. In compliance with the terms of its lease with the city of Anaheim, the team changed its name to the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Hotly disputed when initially announced, the change was eventually upheld in court and the city dropped the suit in 2009, though the team usually refers to itself as simply the Angels in its home media market.

Taken at Picacho Peak State Park in Arizona. It's a rule that when you travel to Arizona you must take a sunset picture featuring a cactus. This is my compliance.


I have a fair number of sunset/sunrise pictures that I have put into a cleverly titled Sunrise/Sunset album.


Over the years, I've taken enough pictures in Arizona that I put them into an album which you can view, if you'd like to see some of what Arizona has to offer.


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Storm clouds are gathering over Chicago, and the Chicago Police Department is almost certainly facing increased scrutiny resulting from excessive force incidents throughout the U.S., as well as the Department's own traffic stop and "street stop" practices.


People who have been stopped by "the police" invariably complain that THEIR stop was without probable cause, and in some cases that may indeed be the case. Officers may have been trained to a uniform standard, but, with that training fading into the background as the years go by, the working habits of individual officers may vary considerably.


There are a myriad of factors that can affect an officer's conduct: age, race, number of years on the job, attitudes, frustrations at home, financial problems, and so on.


Officers do not operate in a vacuum. His attitudes may be influenced by the atmosphere in the District and the Watch he's assigned to. But the most important factor is almost always the partnership inside that squad car.


If you are a Field Training Officer working with a recruit, you tend to do things by the book. If both of you are rookies, you are likely to be more aggressive, eager to make your mark. Then there's the testosterone factor.


Two female officers are usually less likely to venture into harm's way, while a male officer working with a female can go either way: he may be more cautious than usual in an effort to shield the female officer from harm, or, he may be inclined to show off how big and bad he is. These are human traits that follow us wherever we go, and yes, they can affect how officers function on the street.


Not surprisingly, two old-timers who are coasting along to retirement are far less likely to go looking for trouble, but then again, you never know...


Each interaction between cops and civilians will have a history all its own: a chain of events that led to that particular stop. You have no control over the factors that motivate the police officers, but you have quite a bit of control over your own actions.


Generally speaking, it is almost always safer to walk, bike, or take public transportation, but sometimes you just can't get there any other way, and sometimes you're not making an informed decision.


Driving is not a right guaranteed by the Constitution, but a privilege. In return for that privilege, you promise to abide by a whole shitload of rules, and the police have the right to challenge your compliance with each and very one of those rules and regulations. When stopped, drivers are required to surrender their license and proof of insurance upon demand. In short, if you get into that car, you enter a realm where cops have the upper hand. All the more reason to live by the following rules...


1. If you decide to drive anyway, make sure your paperwork is in order. I know, it's not cool to be legal, but it can save you untold grief over the long run.


2. Make sure the driver's seat is in an upright position. You are operating a motor vehicle, you're not lounging by the pool. Don't do stupid shit that is going to attract unwanted attention. Remember, the cops may be the least of your problems, and you don't want to become yet another unintended victim of senseless gang violence.


3. Make sure there are no obvious defects, such as a broken tail light or a cracked windshield. Verify that your brake-lights are working properly and that you're not laying a smokescreen with a faulty exhaust system.


Make sure the license plates match the car they are on, and - if that car is registered with a Chicago address - make sure you have a current City Sticker on the windshield.


4. Don't drive with your Hi-Beams or Bright Lights on: it's a moving violation and, in certain makes and models, it's an indication that the vehicle's ignition has been tampered with, which is very likely to lead to a felony stop.


5. Don't turn up the volume on your car stereo to the point that you're blowing pedestrians off the sidewalk. Not only will you get pulled over, but the cops can tow and impound your car. You and your friends will get to walk home and the owner of the vehicle will need to go to court to get the car back. At the very least, this will cost you hundreds of dollars and untold grief.


6. Don't drive while you're impaired, and that includes being stoned out of your mind. If you really think that cops don't know what marijuana smells like, do carry on and you shall almost certainly discover the error of your ways...


7. If you are the driver, you need to exercise discretion as to who you allow into your vehicle. If you think it's cool to cruise around with known felons and gang-bangers, you will definitely raise your profile. In this scenario, the cops may be the least of your problems. If you end up with a bullet in your head, does it really make a difference that it was intended for the gang-banger sitting next to you?


8. Don't allow anyone who's carrying an illegal firearm into your vehicle. If your "friend" pulls out a weapon and starts blasting at pedestrians or passing vehicles, you run the risk of becoming a guest of the state for the rest of your life. If anyone gets killed, you will be charged with Murder under the Felony Murder rule. You, after all, are the accomplice who enabled the shooter by driving him to his intended victim and then drove off in an effort to evade responsibility for that crime. The bigger the gun, the greater the chances that you'll be convicted. No one will believe your excuse that you had no idea he would actually use that AK-47...


9. If you notice a squad car with its emergency lights activated in your rear-view mirror, you should pull over along the curb. If they're not trying to get by, but intend to stop you, put your vehicle in park and roll down both the driver's side and front passenger windows. Turn off the stereo so you can communicate with the officers and keep your hands where they can see them. Don't start fidgeting, trying to hide that roach in the ashtray, or that open beer bottle.


This is not a good time to try and hide anything, reach for the glove compartment, or sit on your hands. Trust me, the officers will always assume the worst possible scenario: that you are in the process of hiding or retrieving a gun. This is a situation that's fraught with danger for all parties involved, it's not a good time to start clowning around.


10. You need to think clearly. If your friend now informs you that he's holding something - dope or a gun - and asks you to hide it for him, you need to be firm and tell him he's on his own.


On the other hand, if you are legally licensed to carry a concealed firearm, you need to inform the officers right away. Meanwhile, keep your hands where they can see them and ask the officers what they want you to do.


Don't start reaching for your wallet to show them your ID. Tell the officers where you keep your ID as well as your weapon. When they ask to see your ID, tell them what you are doing: "I am reaching into my right front pocket..." and so on.


Trust me, people do the dumbest shit. I had an off-duty CHA-copper jump from his car while yelling "I've got a gun, I've got a gun!" The only reason he lived to tell is because I had very good firing discipline. Even so, if I had been armed with a Glock, or any other striker-fired weapon carried by most cops today, he probably wouldn't have been so lucky.


Presumably, the object of your journey is to get from point A to point B, not to become a martyr for the "excessive force" movement, or a poster-boy for "what not to do..."


So, drive safely, and remember: life is beautiful and you'll want to enjoy every bit of it for as long as you can.


* * * * * * * * *


The photo above shows recruits outside the Chicago Police Training Academy practicing different scenarios.


If you are interested in reading more of my writings on this subject, go to the Album marked "Chicago Cop." You can also get my book "Chicago Cop: Tales from the Street" which is available in paperback as well as an e-book format from and its affiliates around the world. If you are an Amazon Prime member, you can even read it for FREE.


"The Beaurepaire Centre at the University of Melbourne was constructed in 1956-57 to the design of Eggleston, Macdonald & Secomb in collaboration with structural engineer Bill Irwin. It is an assured example of the so-called Post-War Melbourne Regional style (Melbourne School) which is distinguished by structural expression, radical functionalism and boldness in the use of colour and textures. The Beaurepaire Centre is included on the Victorian Heritage Register (H 1045). Comprising four main elements: Pool Hall; Trophy Hall; Gymnasium; and Lazer Wing, the building has always been an important element in the sporting activities and education programme of the University. Failing services, out-of-date technology, evolved statutory compliance standards and changing priorities for the type of physical activites that attract the fitness-conscious has resulted in a project that reinvigorates and represents the building as a 21st century sporting facility. Being cognisant of the original technical and aesthetic sophistication displayed in the design, structure and servicing of the building, this project has strived to reinterpret and enhance these fundamental gestures in the architecture, and alter, adapt and add sympathetically. The building now houses a modern pool and fitness facility with the attendant services, access and amenity that is of today while maintaining the fabric and spirit of the original."



An expansion franchise, the club was founded in Los Angeles in 1961. Then the Los Angeles Angels, the team was based at Los Angeles' Wrigley Field (not to be confused with Chicago's stadium of the same name). The team has gone through several name changes in their history, first changing to the California Angels in 1965 to emphasize their status as the only AL team in California and in recognition of their move from Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles to Anaheim Stadium in Anaheim. When The Walt Disney Company took control in 1997, it extensively renovated Angel Stadium on the condition that both the stadium's name and the team's name contain the word "Anaheim." Disney was hoping to capitalize on the proximity of nearby Disneyland to enhance the tourism in the area, and thus the team became the Anaheim Angels.


In 2005, new owner Arte Moreno wanted to include "Los Angeles" in the team's name, in order to better tap into the Los Angeles media market, the second largest in the country. In compliance with the terms of its lease with the city of Anaheim, the team changed its name to the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Hotly disputed when initially announced, the change was eventually upheld in court and the city dropped the suit in 2009, though the team usually refers to itself as simply the Angels in its home media market.


Here is a shot taken just a few months ago before the painting. Big A needing new paint

(Düsseldorf) Unternehmen sehen sich heutzutage einer nie dagewesen Menge an Daten gegenüber. Allein 2011 wuchs das weltweite Datenvolumen um 1,8 Zettabyte - eine Zahl mit 21 Nullen. Zum Vergleich: In einem Exabyte, einer Einheit unter Zettabyte, findet ein ca. 36.000 Jahre langes Video in HD-Qualität Platz. Und dieses Volumen wächst täglich weiter. Für Unternehmen ergeben sich aus diesen Daten große Chancen, "aber auch erhebliche Risiken", wie Compliance-Experte Bernd Fuhlert anmerkt. Unter dem Begriff "Big Data" werden diese Daten mit Spezialprogrammen analysiert und weiterverwertet.


Big Data soll die Datenflut nutzbringend verknüpfen, um durch die Bearbeitung aussagefähige Analysen erstellen und valide Prognonsen für die Zukunft treffen zu können.. So nutzen bspw. Supermarktketten Big Data in Form von Wetter- und Bon-Daten, um der Nachfrage nach bestimmten Produkten in bestimmten Gebieten gezielt nachzukommen. Zu den breiten Anwendungsfeldern von Big Data im Internet gehören u.a. Online-Shops. Mit Big Data können diese dann erkennen an welchen Stellen Kunden den eigenen Shop verlassen, welche Produkte am häufigsten angeklickt werden und wie die eigene Kundschaft finanziell gestellt ist. "Hinter Big Data-Datenverarbeitungsprozessen steht das Ziel, die Produktivität zu verbessern und Umsätze zu erhöhen", sagt Datenschutzexperte Bernd Fuhlert. Angesichts der riesigen Datenmengen und der erforderlichen Geschwindigkeit müssen die Datensammlungs- und Verarbeitungsprozesse automatisiert erfolgen. Viele Unternehmen verarbeiten Big Data daher auch mit Hilfe von Cloud-Systemen. "Diese automatische Bearbeitung von Big Data stellt viele Unternehmen jedoch vor technische und vor allem datenschutzrechtliche Probleme", betont Bernd Fuhlert und fügt an: "Cyber-Compliance, gerade im Bereich Big-Data und Cloud-Computing, wird von vielen Unternehmen und Dienstleistern noch immer sträflich vernachlässigt". Bernd Fuhlert merkt an, dass die Gefahr von Hacker-Angriffen, Wirtschaftsspionage und dem Ausspähen von sensiblen Persönlichkeitsdaten steigt. Durch Big Data stehen völlig andere und wie viel tiefgreifendere Persönlichkeitsprofile von Betroffenen zur Verfügung, als dies von Jahren möglich war "Die Folgen eines solchen Angriffes sind aus rechtlicher Sicht und mit Blick auf die Reputation fatal. Unternehmen, die durch Big Data Erkenntnisse gewinnen wollen, müssen die Themen Datenschutz, Cyber-Compliance und IT-Sicherheit im Allgemeinen äußerst ernst nehmen", so Bernd Fuhlert weiter.


Bernd Fuhlert ist Vorstand der Datatree AG und berät Unternehmen in den Bereichen Datenschutz, IT-Sicherheit und Cyber-Compliance. In seiner täglichen Arbeit mit Big Data beschäftigt sich Bernd Fuhlert immer wieder mit Fragen wie "Wem gehören Daten?" und "Wer darf Daten wie verwerten?". Neben seiner Tätigkeit bei der Datatree AG ist Bernd Fuhlert auch regelmäßig als Autor des privacyblog aktiv und bloggt über verschiedene Facetten der Cyber-Compliance.


Datatree AG

Bernd Fuhlert

Heubesstraße 10


40597 Düsseldorf





Telefon: +49 (0) 211-5989471



Datatree AG

Bernd Fuhlert

Heubesstraße 10


40597 Düsseldorf





Telefon: +49 (0) 211-5989471



International probe uncovers Malaysian loggers' legal offences


Independent review finds Interhill Logging failing to comply with the law and confirms numerous conflicts between loggers and indigenous Penan communities in Borneo

An independent review commissioned by Europe's leading tourism group, Accor, confirms that Interhill Logging, a Sarawak logging group, is routinely violating the forest legislation and failing to comply with internationally acknowledged social and environmental standards.


The review has been undertaken following accusations by indigenous Penan communities in the East Malaysian state of Sarawak that Interhill Logging was violating their rights and damaging their forest environment. Interhill employees have also been accused of intimidating the locals and of sexually abusing Penan girls and women. The Paris-based Accor group subsequently drew public criticism for its cooperation with Interhill on the construction of the "Pullman Interhill", a 23-storey luxury hotel in Sarawak's state capital of Kuching.


The report shows that Interhill's logging operations in Sarawak's Middle Baram region lack the free, prior and informed consent of the local communities. Conflicts between the company and the local communities have arisen on numerous issues, including the logging of community forest reserves, the felling of fruit and poison-dart trees, the pollution of drinking water supplies, the non-payment of adequate compensation and a lack of transparency with regard to the quantity of logs harvested. While the review provides details of how Penan have been intimidated by logging company officials, it does not draw any conclusions regarding the issue of sexual abuse, making reference to the official investigations into this matter.


Logging operations "very definitely not sustainable"


According to the review, Interhill entered the 61,000-hectare concession in Sarawak's Middle Baram region in 2002, immediately after another logging company had logged the area twice within ten years. Interhill expects to cut a total of 940,000 cubic metres of logs (20 tons per hectare) by 2013, whereas 2.2 million cubic metres (60 tons per hectare) had already been removed from the Penan's forests between 1989 and 2001.


Right from the start, the review underlines the fact that "logging in natural forest on such short cycles is very definitely not sustainable as can be seen from the reduced harvest volumes being achieved by Interhill compared to the much higher volumes achieved ten years ago (...)." It concludes that certification according to the internationally acknowledged FSC standards was out of the question, with the lack of long-term land tenure being another reason why such logging operations could not qualify as being sustainable.


While stating that "the forest is inevitably suffering degradation" from Interhill's operations and that the future of the forest is "already threatened", the review implicitly criticizes the fact that the Sarawak Government permits short cycle re-entry. Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia, by comparison, do not allow re-entry logging within a period of 35 years.


Compliance with the law in some cases minimal or absent


According to the review, Interhill Logging does not comply with the legal requirements as defined by Sarawak's Natural Resources and Environment Board: "Field observation indicated that full compliance was not being achieved and in some cases was minimal or absent".


While the review thus states that Interhill is committing a number of illegal acts, it fails to specify which legal requirements have not been met by the loggers. One major offence appears to be the company's failure to acquaint itself with the boundaries of the Native Customary Rights lands within the logging concession, as stipulated in the logging licence.


Another shortcoming of the review is that it fails to provide basic documentary evidence, such as the logging licence, the forest management plan or an apparently existing Environmental Impact Assessment Report. While Sarawak's logging industry is used to operating under a cloud of secrecy, the provision of such documents would be required for an external review to be credible and transparent. International standards for public access to environmental information were set out by the United Nations in the 1998 Aarhus Convention.


Logging fails to contribute to long-term development


Whereas the review suggests that the local communities derive some kind of benefit and compensation from Interhill's logging operations, the distribution of compensation is being handled arbitrarily, with several communities insisting they have not been compensated at all. It is significant to note that Interhill fails to keep records of the compensation allegedly provided to the communities.


More importantly, the review concludes that "there is no inherent long term development advantage" from the social benefits provided by the company: "When Interhill eventually completes the logging and presumably withdraws from the concession area, the Penan will be deprived of the current benefits received and are unlikely to have achieved much to elevate themselves from their current status, described by the Marudi District Officer as being among Malaysia's hard-core poor."


Sarawak's legal framework deeply unjust towards the local communities


While this review exposes a number of legal offences and shortcomings relating to a specific logging company, it must be borne in mind that Interhill is profiting from a deeply unjust legal and political framework that systematically disadvantages and discriminates against the indigenous communities.


It is generally acknowledged that Sarawak's forest legislation by no means fosters sustainability and that forest law enforcement is a serious problem. It is thus not surprising that the review states that official inspections of Interhill's operations "do not appear to be routinely conducted and are perhaps only very cursory" and that "the pressure to comply with legally required terms and conditions is not great."


Among the logging companies active in Sarawak, Interhill is a medium player, and other companies might engage in even worse behaviour. The Penan point, in particular, to misdeeds committed by Rimex, a company that had been logging the area before 2002, and by Samling, a multinational logging giant that is active in several adjacent concessions and shares logging roads and a timber camp with Interhill.


Conclusions and demands formulated by the Bruno Manser Fund


The Bruno Manser Fund welcomes the release of the independent review and thanks Accor for facilitating a dialogue process involving all the stakeholders, of which the current review marks an initial outcome. It must, however, be borne in mind that Interhill – and subsequently Accor as its business partner - will be judged by deeds and not by mere words.


For a company like Interhill, corporate social responsibility must first and foremost mean respecting the free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) of the local communities. All measures must be undertaken from a long-term perspective, permitting the local communities to engage in sustainable development in what is already a heavily damaged forest environment, even after the expiry of the current logging licence in 2013.


In practical terms, the Bruno Manser Fund asks Interhill


- to scale down its logging operations with immediate effect and to remove all machinery from areas in which the company lacks the free, prior and informed consent of the local communities.


- to remove from the field all employees who have intimidated the locals or who have factually or allegedly been involved in cases of sexual abuse.


- to stop denying that sexual abuse is a serious problem for the indigenous communities and to fully comply with and actively support police investigations.


- to acknowledge that the local communities, in particular the Penan, have legitimate claims to the forests within the Interhill concession and to refrain from legal action that is directed against the Penan's land claims


As for the social benefits and compensation owed by Interhill to the local communities for its past and current logging operations, a solution will have to be negotiated between the actors involved. Social benefits and compensation should be aimed at empowering the local communities and must not be allowed to corrupt indiviuals or to increase the communities’ dependency on the logging company.


- Ends -


Bruno Manser Fund, Association for the Peoples of the Rainforest


Socinstrasse 37, 4051 Basel, Switzerland


Tel. +41 61 261 94 74,

Like most years, 2011 aims to start off with great promise when it comes to

emerging IT technologies in the enterprise. There will no doubt be some

major advances in terms of cloud computing and smarter mobile computing

devices, and *great leaps forward in the area of IT




But 2011 is most likely to be remembered as a year in which IT organizations

rediscover the need to concentrate on fundamental data management issues. If

you take a close look at all the major issues that challenge IT

organizations today, whether it is cloud computing, storage, security or

compliance, they all point back to data management.


The simple and sad truth is that when it comes to managing data, most IT

organizations have not done a very good job of it over the last several

decades. The end result is that IT organizations randomly copy data all over

the organization, resulting in a waste of IT infrastructure and all kinds of

related potential security issues.


Now with *the rise of cloud


IT organizations are being asked to account for how they manage data.

Business leaders want to take advantage of the economic benefits of cloud

computing that are made possible by sharing IT infrastructure. The only

problem is that not only do most IT organizations not have the data

management tools they need to manage that process securely, they don’t even

know what data has the most business value to the organization. It’s

impossible to have an effective data management strategy when your IT

organization treats all data as if it has equal value.


The good news is that *2011 will bring a new class of tools that should

automate data management*.

Imagine being able to ascribe a business value to classes of data so a

policy engine could then automatically determine where best to store that

data based on its processing requirements and sensitivity. Imagine duplicate

sets of data automatically being erased by a central management system that

keeps track of the relationship between sets of data across the entire

enterprise. And because IT organizations are now effectively managing data,

imagine that most compliance and security issues are effectively resolved as

a byproduct of that effort.


Such a day is not very far off. In fact, many of the technologies needed to

implement a policy-based data management strategy are already available.

What’s missing in most IT organizations is the internal fortitude to put in

place a real data management system, so, as a result, the data winds up

managing the IT department versus the other way around.


During the course of 2011 we will hear a lot about the potential value of

any number of emerging enterprise technologies. But it’s becoming real clear

that unless IT organizations concentrate on the fundamentals of data

management, none of these technologies will make a substantial difference in

the final IT equation.


In fact, IT vendors will start to sound a lot like automobile manufacturers

touting the efficiencies of their cars after encouraging customers to guzzle

as much gas as possible for the better part of three decades. But instead of

cars, the subject of the efficiency campaign is going to be IT



There are, of course, other critical emerging technologies in 2011,

including *unified


, *HTML5*

, *intelligent Layer 2


, *unified storage* ,

*business process management*


and *data analytics*.

But none of them will make as much impact on the way IT is managed as

next-generation data management tools.


In the meantime, IT organizations should be working on getting their IT

houses in order to take advantage of all these emerging technologies. The

coming year will see a lot of advancement in terms of addressing practical

IT issues, but no one will really benefit from them without first

concentrating on the fundamentals of IT.

Identifier: midsummerevefair00hallrich

Title: Midsummer Eve : a fairy tale of loving and being loved

Year: 1870 (1870s)

Authors: Hall, S. C., Mrs., 1800-1881


Publisher: London : J. C. Hotten

Contributing Library: University of California Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN


View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book


Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.


Text Appearing Before Image:

ft as a shootingstar, the expected Queen, more radiant than ever, stood beside her sister. She is safe ! she is here ! resounded from rank to rank. Nightstarreturned the greetings of the multitudes, with folded wings, her arms crossedover her transparent bosom, and every eye that drank in the power of herpurity and beauty, saw how her spirit rejoiced—that her task had beenaccomplished; her frame quivered with emotion ; her eyes beamed withlove and tenderness. When the bursts of welcome were somewhatcalmed, and the banners ceased to wave, and the music sunk amid theechoes of the Eagles Nest, she advanced to address the denizens of Fairy 2o4 MIDSUMMER EVE Land; but as she turned towards the east, she espied the herakls ofiroRNiNG, proclaiming its presence on the hills. Behold! she exclaimed, pointing to the fast-coming influences; the hour is at hand : but to-night, friends, true and faithful—to-night!we will again make populous these glades and halls—to-night!—and fora purpose.


Text Appearing After Image:

Where went they?--fanning the air with unseen wings, leaving thetrail of their brightness above the dark morass-—while in u moment,oblivious of the past, the cleft-crown of ifangcrton and the crags of theKeeks—mingled in dim obscurity Avith lingering clouds. The tini(^-lionoured arch of Mucross cast its shadow lightly ovr Cormacs new-madegrave, spanning it as with a blessing! It swelled beside his motlier,.stately tomb, marked ]»y a simple urn—recording, in compliance with liis A FAUiY TALK OF LOVE. 255 latest wish, the phiin iuscription that preserves his name. The Castleof Eoss and the Island of Inisfallen, faded in the vapours of the Lake,and the Eagles Nest mingled with the Toomies and Gleua! In brief time,they would resume their proper characters ; for morning moved noiselesslyand joyfully onward ; it had not yet darted a single beam into the thickets


Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Unternehmen effektiv vor Cyber-Kriminellen schtzen


G Data auf der IT-SECURITY & COMPLIANCE 2011


Die Anzahl der Angriffe auf Unternehmensnetzwerke steigt kontinuierlich. Ein umfassender Schutz der IT-Infrastruktur ist daher unverzichtbar. Auf der Fachkongressreihe IT-SECURITY & COMPLIANCE 2011 erfahren Administratoren, wie sie ihre Systeme effektiv gegen Cyber-Angriffe und Schadprogramme absichern. G Data wird im Rahmen der Veranstaltungsreihe in Vortrgen und Live-Demos die Einsatzmglichkeiten seiner leistungsstarken Unternehmenslsungen vorstellen. Die Kongressreihe startet am 21. September 2011 in Frankfurt/Hanau und wird anschlieend bis zum 04. Oktober 2011 in Hamburg, Dsseldorf und Mnchen haltmachen.


Die IT-SECURITY & COMPLIANCE ist eine der wichtigsten Veranstaltungsreihen im Bereich IT Security fr Reseller und B2B-Endkunden in Deutschland, erklrt Uwe Rehwald, Leiter G Data Partnervertrieb. Als Hersteller von Security-Lsungen ist G Data seit 2006 dabei. Wir nutzen die Plattform der IT-BUSINESS Akademie, um unsere leistungsfhigen Netzwerklsungen vorzustellen und neue Geschftsbeziehungen mit Systemhusern und Businesskunden herzustellen.


Schwerpunkte der IT SECURITY & COMPLIANCE 2011

Die diesjhrige Fachkongressreihe behandelt fnf Hauptthemen:


- Cloud/Infrastruktur

- Daten

- Management & Compliance

- Mobile

- Kommunikation


Im Rahmen seines Fachvortrags Mit Sicherheit, mehr Produktivitt: die neue Generation der Endgerte-Sicherheit wird G Data ber aktuelle Angriffsszenarien informieren, Risiken durch fehlende IT-Richtlinien aufzeigen und die Vorzge ganzheitlicher IT-Security-Lsungen im Unternehmensumfeld prsentieren.


Die Termine im berblick

- 21.09.2011: Frankfurt/Hanau Congress Park Hanau

- 27.09.2011: Hamburg Grand Elyse Hamburg

- 29.09.2011: Dsseldorf/Neuss Novotel Dsseldorf/Neuss am Rosengarten

- 04.10.2011: Mnchen Shearaton Mnchen Arabellapark


Weitere Informationen zur IT SECURITY & COMPLIANCE 2011 und Anmeldung unter


Shortlink zu dieser Pressemitteilung:


Permanentlink zu dieser Pressemitteilung:


=== Pressekontakt ===


Frau Kathrin Beckert


G Data Software AG

Knigsallee 178b







Telefon: +49.234.9762.376

Fax: +49.234.9762.299


=== G Data Software AG ===


Die G Data Software AG, mit Unternehmenssitz in Bochum, ist ein innovatives und schnell expandierendes Softwarehaus mit Schwerpunkt auf IT-Sicherheitslsungen. Als Spezialist fr Internetsicherheit und Pionier im Bereich Virenschutz entwickelte das 1985 in Bochum gegrndete Unternehmen bereits vor mehr als 20 Jahren das erste Antiviren-Programm.


G Data ist damit eines der ltesten Securitysoftware-Unternehmen der Welt. Seit mehr als fnf Jahren hat zudem kein anderer europischer Hersteller von Security-Software hufiger nationale und internationale Testsiege und Auszeichnungen errungen als G Data.


Das Produktportfolio umfasst Sicherheitslsungen fr Endkunden, den Mittelstand und fr Grounternehmen. G Data Security-Lsungen sind in weltweit mehr als 90 Lndern erhltlich.

Weitere Informationen zum Unternehmen und zu G Data Security-Lsungen finden Sie unter


Herr Thorsten Urbanski


G Data Software AG

Knigsallee 178b







Telefon: +49-(0) 234-9762-239


=== G Data Software AG (Bild) ===


G Data Software AG





The National Security Agency has obtained direct access to the systems of Google, Facebook, Apple and other US internet giants, according to a top secret document obtained by the Guardian.


The NSA access is part of a previously undisclosed program called Prism, which allows officials to collect material including search history, the content of emails, file transfers and live chats, the document says.


The Guardian has verified the authenticity of the document, a 41-slide PowerPoint presentation – classified as top secret with no distribution to foreign allies – which was apparently used to train intelligence operatives on the capabilities of the program. The document claims "collection directly from the servers" of major US service providers.


Although the presentation claims the program is run with the assistance of the companies, all those who responded to a Guardian request for comment on Thursday denied knowledge of any such program.


In a statement, Google said: "Google cares deeply about the security of our users' data. We disclose user data to government in accordance with the law, and we review all such requests carefully. From time to time, people allege that we have created a government 'back door' into our systems, but Google does not have a back door for the government to access private user data."


Several senior tech executives insisted that they had no knowledge of Prism or of any similar scheme. They said they would never have been involved in such a program. "If they are doing this, they are doing it without our knowledge," one said.


An Apple spokesman said it had "never heard" of Prism.


The NSA access was enabled by changes to US surveillance law introduced under President Bush and renewed under Obama in December 2012.


The program facilitates extensive, in-depth surveillance on live communications and stored information. The law allows for the targeting of any customers of participating firms who live outside the US, or those Americans whose communications include people outside the US.


It also opens the possibility of communications made entirely within the US being collected without warrants.


Disclosure of the Prism program follows a leak to the Guardian on Wednesday of a top-secret court order compelling telecoms provider Verizon to turn over the telephone records of millions of US customers.


The participation of the internet companies in Prism will add to the debate, ignited by the Verizon revelation, about the scale of surveillance by the intelligence services. Unlike the collection of those call records, this surveillance can include the content of communications and not just the metadata.


Some of the world's largest internet brands are claimed to be part of the information-sharing program since its introduction in 2007. Microsoft – which is currently running an advertising campaign with the slogan "Your privacy is our priority" – was the first, with collection beginning in December 2007.


It was followed by Yahoo in 2008; Google, Facebook and PalTalk in 2009; YouTube in 2010; Skype and AOL in 2011; and finally Apple, which joined the program in 2012. The program is continuing to expand, with other providers due to come online.


Collectively, the companies cover the vast majority of online email, search, video and communications networks.



By Barton Gellman and Laura Poitras, Published: June 6 | Updated: Friday, June 7, 7:51 AM


The National Security Agency and the FBI are tapping directly into the central servers of nine leading U.S. Internet companies, extracting audio and video chats, photographs, e-mails, documents, and connection logs that enable analysts to track foreign targets, according to a top-secret document obtained by The Washington Post.


The program, code-named PRISM, has not been made public until now. It may be the first of its kind. The NSA prides itself on stealing secrets and breaking codes, and it is accustomed to corporate partnerships that help it divert data traffic or sidestep barriers. But there has never been a Google or Facebook before, and it is unlikely that there are richer troves of valuable intelligence than the ones in Silicon Valley.


Equally unusual is the way the NSA extracts what it wants, according to the document: “Collection directly from the servers of these U.S. Service Providers: Microsoft, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, PalTalk, AOL, Skype, YouTube, Apple.”


London’s Guardian newspaper reported Friday that GCHQ, Britain’s equivalent of the NSA, also has been secretly gathering intelligence from the same internet companies through an operation set up by the NSA.


According to documents obtained by The Guardian, PRISM would appear to allow GCHQ to circumvent the formal legal process required in Britain to seek personal material such as emails, photos and videos from an internet company based outside of the country.


PRISM was launched from the ashes of President George W. Bush’s secret program of warrantless domestic surveillance in 2007, after news media disclosures, lawsuits and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court forced the president to look for new authority.


Congress obliged with the Protect America Act in 2007 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which immunized private companies that cooperated voluntarily with U.S. intelligence collection. PRISM recruited its first partner, Microsoft, and began six years of rapidly growing data collection beneath the surface of a roiling national debate on surveillance and privacy. Late last year, when critics in Congress sought changes in the FISA Amendments Act, the only lawmakers who knew about PRISM were bound by oaths of office to hold their tongues.


The court-approved program is focused on foreign communications traffic, which often flows through U.S. servers even when sent from one overseas location to another. Between 2004 and 2007, Bush administration lawyers persuaded federal FISA judges to issue surveillance orders in a fundamentally new form. Until then the government had to show probable cause that a particular “target” and “facility” were both connected to terrorism or espionage.


In four new orders, which remain classified, the court defined massive data sets as “facilities” and agreed to certify periodically that the government had reasonable procedures in place to minimize collection of “U.S. persons” data without a warrant.


In a statement issue late Thursday, Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper said “information collected under this program is among the most important and valuable foreign intelligence information we collect, and is used to protect our nation from a wide variety of threats. The unauthorized disclosure of information about this important and entirely legal program is reprehensible and risks important protections for the security of Americans.”


Clapper added that there were numerous inaccuracies in reports about PRISM by The Post and the Guardian newspaper, but he did not specify any.


Jameel Jaffer, deputy legal director of the American Civil Liberties Union, said: “I would just push back on the idea that the court has signed off on it, so why worry? This is a court that meets in secret, allows only the government to appear before it, and publishes almost none of its opinions. It has never been an effective check on government.”


Several companies contacted by The Post said they had no knowledge of the program, did not allow direct government access to their servers and asserted that they responded only to targeted requests for information.


“We do not provide any government organization with direct access to Facebook servers,” said Joe Sullivan, chief security officer for Facebook. “When Facebook is asked for data or information about specific individuals, we carefully scrutinize any such request for compliance with all applicable laws, and provide information only to the extent required by law.”


“We have never heard of PRISM,” said Steve Dowling, a spokesman for Apple. “We do not provide any government agency with direct access to our servers, and any government agency requesting customer data must get a court order.”


It is possible that the conflict between the PRISM slides and the company spokesmen is the result of imprecision on the part of the NSA author. In another classified report obtained by The Post, the arrangement is described as allowing “collection managers [to send] content tasking instructions directly to equipment installed at company-controlled locations,” rather than directly to company servers.


Government officials and the document itself made clear that the NSA regarded the identities of its private partners as PRISM’s most sensitive secret, fearing that the companies would withdraw from the program if exposed. “98 percent of PRISM production is based on Yahoo, Google and Microsoft; we need to make sure we don’t harm these sources,” the briefing’s author wrote in his speaker’s notes.


An internal presentation of 41 briefing slides on PRISM, dated April 2013 and intended for senior analysts in the NSA’s Signals Intelligence Directorate, described the new tool as the most prolific contributor to the President’s Daily Brief, which cited PRISM data in 1,477 items last year. According to the slides and other supporting materials obtained by The Post, “NSA reporting increasingly relies on PRISM” as its leading source of raw material, accounting for nearly 1 in 7 intelligence reports.


That is a remarkable figure in an agency that measures annual intake in the trillions of communications. It is all the more striking because the NSA, whose lawful mission is foreign intelligence, is reaching deep inside the machinery of American companies that host hundreds of millions of American-held accounts on American soil.


The technology companies, whose cooperation is essential to PRISM operations, include most of the dominant global players of Silicon Valley, according to the document. They are listed on a roster that bears their logos in order of entry into the program: “Microsoft, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, PalTalk, AOL, Skype, YouTube, Apple.” PalTalk, although much smaller, has hosted traffic of substantial intelligence interest during the Arab Spring and in the ongoing Syrian civil war.


Dropbox, the cloud storage and synchronization service, is described as “coming soon.”


Sens. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) and Mark Udall (D-Colo.), who had classified knowledge of the program as members of the Senate Intelligence Committee, were unable to speak of it when they warned in a Dec. 27, 2012, floor debate that the FISA Amendments Act had what both of them called a “back-door search loophole” for the content of innocent Americans who were swept up in a search for someone else.


“As it is written, there is nothing to prohibit the intelligence community from searching through a pile of communications, which may have been incidentally or accidentally been collected without a warrant, to deliberately search for the phone calls or e-mails of specific Americans,” Udall said.


Wyden repeatedly asked the NSA to estimate the number of Americans whose communications had been incidentally collected, and the agency’s director, Lt. Gen. Keith B. Alexander, insisted there was no way to find out. Eventually Inspector General I. Charles McCullough III wrote Wyden a letter stating that it would violate the privacy of Americans in NSA data banks to try to estimate their number.


Roots in the ’70s


PRISM is an heir, in one sense, to a history of intelligence alliances with as many as 100 trusted U.S. companies since the 1970s. The NSA calls these Special Source Operations, and PRISM falls under that rubric.


The Silicon Valley operation works alongside a parallel program, code-named BLARNEY, that gathers up “metadata” — technical information about communications traffic and network devices — as it streams past choke points along the backbone of the Internet. BLARNEY’s top-secret program summary, set down in the slides alongside a cartoon insignia of a shamrock and a leprechaun hat, describes it as “an ongoing collection program that leverages IC [intelligence community] and commercial partnerships to gain access and exploit foreign intelligence obtained from global networks.”


But the PRISM program appears to more nearly resemble the most controversial of the warrantless surveillance orders issued by President George W. Bush after the al-Qaeda attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Its history, in which President Obama presided over exponential growth in a program that candidate Obama criticized, shows how fundamentally surveillance law and practice have shifted away from individual suspicion in favor of systematic, mass collection techniques.


The Obama administration points to ongoing safeguards in the form of “extensive procedures, specifically approved by the court, to ensure that only non-U.S. persons outside the U.S. are targeted, and that minimize the acquisition, retention and dissemination of incidentally acquired information about U.S. persons.”


And it is true that the PRISM program is not a dragnet, exactly. From inside a company’s data stream the NSA is capable of pulling out anything it likes, but under current rules the agency does not try to collect it all.


Analysts who use the system from a Web portal at Fort Meade, Md., key in “selectors,” or search terms, that are designed to produce at least 51 percent confidence in a target’s “foreignness.” That is not a very stringent test. Training materials obtained by The Post instruct new analysts to make quarterly reports of any accidental collection of U.S. content, but add that “it’s nothing to worry about.”


Even when the system works just as advertised, with no American singled out for targeting, the NSA routinely collects a great deal of American content. That is described as “incidental,” and it is inherent in contact chaining, one of the basic tools of the trade. To collect on a suspected spy or foreign terrorist means, at minimum, that everyone in the suspect’s inbox or outbox is swept in. Intelligence analysts are typically taught to chain through contacts two “hops” out from their target, which increases “incidental collection” exponentially. The same math explains the aphorism, from the John Guare play, that no one is more than “six degrees of separation” from any other person.


A ‘directive’


In exchange for immunity from lawsuits, companies such as Yahoo and AOL are obliged to accept a “directive” from the attorney general and the director of national intelligence to open their servers to the FBI’s Data Intercept Technology Unit, which handles liaison to U.S. companies from the NSA. In 2008, Congress gave the Justice Department authority for a secret order from the Foreign Surveillance Intelligence Court to compel a reluctant company “to comply.”


In practice, there is room for a company to maneuver, delay or resist. When a clandestine intelligence program meets a highly regulated industry, said a lawyer with experience in bridging the gaps, neither side wants to risk a public fight. The engineering problems are so immense, in systems of such complexity and frequent change, that the FBI and NSA would be hard pressed to build in back doors without active help from each company.


Apple demonstrated that resistance is possible when it held out for more than five years, for reasons unknown, after Microsoft became PRISM’s first corporate partner in May 2007. Twitter, which has cultivated a reputation for aggressive defense of its users’ privacy, is still conspicuous by its absence from the list of “private sector partners.”


Google, like the other companies, denied that it permitted direct government access to its servers.


“Google cares deeply about the security of our users’ data,” a company spokesman said. “We disclose user data to government in accordance with the law, and we review all such requests carefully. From time to time, people allege that we have created a government ‘back door’ into our systems, but Google does not have a ‘back door’ for the government to access private user data.”


Microsoft also provided a statement: “We provide customer data only when we receive a legally binding order or subpoena to do so, and never on a voluntary basis. In addition we only ever comply with orders for requests about specific accounts or identifiers. If the government has a broader voluntary national security program to gather customer data we don’t participate in it.”


Yahoo also issued a denial.


“Yahoo! takes users’ privacy very seriously,” the company said in a statement. “We do not provide the government with direct access to our servers, systems, or network.”


Like market researchers, but with far more privileged access, collection managers in the NSA’s Special Source Operations group, which oversees the PRISM program, are drawn to the wealth of information about their subjects in online accounts. For much the same reason, civil libertarians and some ordinary users may be troubled by the menu available to analysts who hold the required clearances to “task” the PRISM system.


There has been “continued exponential growth in tasking to Facebook and Skype,” according to the PRISM slides. With a few clicks and an affirmation that the subject is believed to be engaged in terrorism, espionage or nuclear proliferation, an analyst obtains full access to Facebook’s “extensive search and surveillance capabilities against the variety of online social networking services.”


According to a separate “User’s Guide for PRISM Skype Collection,” that service can be monitored for audio when one end of the call is a conventional telephone and for any combination of “audio, video, chat, and file transfers” when Skype users connect by computer alone. Google’s offerings include Gmail, voice and video chat, Google Drive files, photo libraries, and live surveillance of search terms.


Firsthand experience with these systems, and horror at their capabilities, is what drove a career intelligence officer to provide PowerPoint slides about PRISM and supporting materials to The Washington Post in order to expose what he believes to be a gross intrusion on privacy. “They quite literally can watch your ideas form as you type,” the officer said.


Poitras is a documentary filmmaker and MacArthur Fellow. Julie Tate, Robert O’Harrow Jr., Cecilia Kang and Ellen Nakashima contributed to this report.


Graphic: NSA slides explain the PRISM data-collection program Special Report: Top Secret America

St Agatha's Monastery, also known as Easby Abbey, was officially founded in 1152 by Roald, Constable of nearby Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire, but evidence seems to suggest that it was an existing Anglo-Saxon minister which was simply converted into a Premonstratensian house - only the third of that order to be established in England by that date. to see the full set.


So its origins are clouded in a little mystery but that mystery continues with its demise. After hundreds of years of quiet religious devotion Easby - along with every other religious house in England - was closed by Henry VIII's Dissolution of the monasteries but sources differ on exactly when this happened at Easby. The likeliest date is 1536 as it had been valued in 1534/35 which implies it was already being appraised for potential closure - a closure supported by Act of Parliament and carried out under the cover of religious 'reform'. Henry VIII had claimed that only smaller houses with an alleged history of misconduct or lax practices were to be dissolved. Effectively he presented it as 'streamlining'. Serving monks and nuns were offered transfers to a larger and better ordered religious house. The king sold or rented out the properties and pocketed much of the cash.


However Easby's role in the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 saw Easby singled out for harsh treatment. The Pilgrimage of Grace was a northern rebellion against Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries (and other issues)


which saw rebels allow evicted monks and nuns back into the religious houses which had already been Dissolved. This might account for the various dates for Easby's demise, the original closure and the second and final closure.


King Henry VIII reacted with anger and blood. Written orders to the Duke of Norfolk on February 22, 1537 instructed him: " must cause such dreadful execution upon a good number of the inhabitants, hanging them on trees, quartering them and setting their heads and quarters up in every town, as such a fearful warning... at your repair to Salley, Hexham, Newminster, Lanercost, St Agatha (Easby) and such other places as have made resistance... you shall without pity or circumstance cause the monks to be tied up without further delay."


Precise events at Easby are unknown as few records were kept but events elsewhere suggest that monasticism at Easby did not die the easy death which is appears to have suffered at other sites. Indeed the second wave of Dissolutions in 1538/1540 did not even require an Act of Parliament - commissioners simply appeared at the gates of each house in turn, offered generous cash pensions and 'suggested' closure. Memories of the fate of the Abbot of Glastonbury (hung, drawn and quartered) and the wave of executions following the Pilgrimage of Grace may have weighed heavily towards compliance. The last, Waltham Abbey, closed in 1541.


Today Easby is a charming ruin in the care of English Heritage. The adjoining parish church is also well worth a visit as it contains several impressive murals dated to around 1250.

An expansion franchise, the club was founded in Los Angeles in 1961. Then the Los Angeles Angels, the team was based at Los Angeles' Wrigley Field (not to be confused with Chicago's stadium of the same name). The team has gone through several name changes in their history, first changing to the California Angels in 1965 to emphasize their status as the only AL team in California and in recognition of their move from Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles to Anaheim Stadium in Anaheim. When The Walt Disney Company took control in 1997, it extensively renovated Angel Stadium on the condition that both the stadium's name and the team's name contain the word "Anaheim." Disney was hoping to capitalize on the proximity of nearby Disneyland to enhance the tourism in the area, and thus the team became the Anaheim Angels.


In 2005, new owner Arte Moreno wanted to include "Los Angeles" in the team's name, in order to better tap into the Los Angeles media market, the second largest in the country. In compliance with the terms of its lease with the city of Anaheim, the team changed its name to the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Hotly disputed when initially announced, the change was eventually upheld in court and the city dropped the suit in 2009, though the team usually refers to itself as simply the Angels in its home media market.



‘Yes,’ said the dealer, ‘our windfalls are of various kinds. Some customers are ignorant, and then I touch a dividend on my superior knowledge. Some are dishonest,’ and here he held up the candle, so that the light fell strongly on his visitor, ‘and in that case,’ he continued, ‘I profit by my virtue.’


Markheim had but just entered from the daylight streets, and his eyes had not yet grown familiar with the mingled shine and darkness in the shop. At these pointed words, and before the near presence of the flame, he blinked painfully and looked aside.


The dealer chuckled. ‘You come to me on Christmas Day,’ he resumed, ‘when you know that I am alone in my house, put up my shutters, and make a point of refusing business. Well, you will have to pay for that; you will have to pay for my loss of time, when I should be balancing my books; you will have to pay, besides, for a kind of manner that I remark in you to-day very strongly. I am the essence of discretion, and ask no awkward questions; but when a customer cannot look me in the eye, he has to pay for it.’ The dealer once more chuckled; and then, changing to his usual business voice, though still with a note of irony, ‘You can give, as usual, a clear account of how you came into the possession of the object?’ he continued. ‘Still your uncle’s cabinet? A remarkable collector, sir!’


And the little pale, round-shouldered dealer stood almost on tip-toe, looking over the top of his gold spectacles, and nodding his head with every mark of disbelief. Markheim returned his gaze with one of infinite pity, and a touch of horror.


‘This time,’ said he, ‘you are in error. I have not come to sell, but to buy. I have no curios to dispose of; my uncle’s cabinet is bare to the wainscot; even were it still intact, I have done well on the Stock Exchange, and should more likely add to it than otherwise, and my errand to-day is simplicity itself. I seek a Christmas present for a lady,’ he continued, waxing more fluent as he struck into the speech he had prepared; ‘and certainly I owe you every excuse for thus disturbing you upon so small a matter. But the thing was neglected yesterday; I must produce my little compliment at dinner; and, as you very well know, a rich marriage is not a thing to be neglected.’


There followed a pause, during which the dealer seemed to weigh this statement incredulously. The ticking of many clocks among the curious lumber of the shop, and the faint rushing of the cabs in a near thoroughfare, filled up the interval of silence.


‘Well, sir,’ said the dealer, ‘be it so. You are an old customer after all; and if, as you say, you have the chance of a good marriage, far be it from me to be an obstacle. Here is a nice thing for a lady now,’ he went on, ‘this hand glass—fifteenth century, warranted; comes from a good collection, too; but I reserve the name, in the interests of my customer, who was just like yourself, my dear sir, the nephew and sole heir of a remarkable collector.’


The dealer, while he thus ran on in his dry and biting voice, had stooped to take the object from its place; and, as he had done so, a shock had passed through Markheim, a start both of hand and foot, a sudden leap of many tumultuous passions to the face. It passed as swiftly as it came, and left no trace beyond a certain trembling of the hand that now received the glass.


‘A glass,’ he said hoarsely, and then paused, and repeated it more clearly. ‘A glass? For Christmas? Surely not?’


‘And why not?’ cried the dealer. ‘Why not a glass?’


Markheim was looking upon him with an indefinable expression. ‘You ask me why not?’ he said. ‘Why, look here—look in it—look at yourself! Do you like to see it? No! nor I—nor any man.’


The little man had jumped back when Markheim had so suddenly confronted him with the mirror; but now, perceiving there was nothing worse on hand, he chuckled. ‘Your future lady, sir, must be pretty hard favoured,’ said he.


‘I ask you,’ said Markheim, ‘for a Christmas present, and you give me this—this damned reminder of years, and sins and follies—this hand-conscience! Did you mean it? Had you a thought in your mind? Tell me. It will be better for you if you do. Come, tell me about yourself. I hazard a guess now, that you are in secret a very charitable man?’


The dealer looked closely at his companion. It was very odd, Markheim did not appear to be laughing; there was something in his face like an eager sparkle of hope, but nothing of mirth.


‘What are you driving at?’ the dealer asked.


‘Not charitable?’ returned the other, gloomily. Not charitable; not pious; not scrupulous; unloving, unbeloved; a hand to get money, a safe to keep it. Is that all? Dear God, man, is that all?’


‘I will tell you what it is,’ began the dealer, with some sharpness, and then broke off again into a chuckle. ‘But I see this is a love match of yours, and you have been drinking the lady’s health.’


‘Ah!’ cried Markheim, with a strange curiosity. ‘Ah, have you been in love? Tell me about that.’


‘I,’ cried the dealer. ‘I in love! I never had the time, nor have I the time to-day for all this nonsense. Will you take the glass?’


‘Where is the hurry?’ returned Markheim. ‘It is very pleasant to stand here talking; and life is so short and insecure that I would not hurry away from any pleasure—no, not even from so mild a one as this. We should rather cling, cling to what little we can get, like a man at a cliff’s edge. Every second is a cliff, if you think upon it—a cliff a mile high—high enough, if we fall, to dash us out of every feature of humanity. Hence it is best to talk pleasantly. Let us talk of each other: why should we wear this mask? Let us be confidential. Who knows, we might become friends?’


‘I have just one word to say to you,’ said the dealer. ‘Either make your purchase, or walk out of my shop!’


‘True true,’ said Markheim. ‘Enough, fooling. To business. Show me something else.’


The dealer stooped once more, this time to replace the glass upon the shelf, his thin blond hair falling over his eyes as he did so. Markheim moved a little nearer, with one hand in the pocket of his greatcoat; he drew himself up and filled his lungs; at the same time many different emotions were depicted together on his face—terror, horror, and resolve, fascination and a physical repulsion; and through a haggard lift of his upper lip, his teeth looked out.


‘This, perhaps, may suit,’ observed the dealer: and then, as he began to re-arise, Markheim bounded from behind upon his victim. The long, skewerlike dagger flashed and fell. The dealer struggled like a hen, striking his temple on the shelf, and then tumbled on the floor in a heap.


Time had some score of small voices in that shop, some stately and slow as was becoming to their great age; others garrulous and hurried. All these told out the seconds in an intricate, chorus of tickings. Then the passage of a lad’s feet, heavily running on the pavement, broke in upon these smaller voices and startled Markheim into the consciousness of his surroundings. He looked about him awfully. The candle stood on the counter, its flame solemnly wagging in a draught; and by that inconsiderable movement, the whole room was filled with noiseless bustle and kept heaving like a sea: the tall shadows nodding, the gross blots of darkness swelling and dwindling as with respiration, the faces of the portraits and the china gods changing and wavering like images in water. The inner door stood ajar, and peered into that leaguer of shadows with a long slit of daylight like a pointing finger.


From these fear-stricken rovings, Markheim’s eyes returned to the body of his victim, where it lay both humped and sprawling, incredibly small and strangely meaner than in life. In these poor, miserly clothes, in that ungainly attitude, the dealer lay like so much sawdust. Markheim had feared to see it, and, lo! it was nothing. And yet, as he gazed, this bundle of old clothes and pool of blood began to find eloquent voices. There it must lie; there was none to work the cunning hinges or direct the miracle of locomotion—there it must lie till it was found. Found! ay, and then? Then would this dead flesh lift up a cry that would ring over England, and fill the world with the echoes of pursuit. Ay, dead or not, this was still the enemy. ‘Time was that when the brains were out,’ he thought; and the first word struck into his mind. Time, now that the deed was accomplished—time, which had closed for the victim, had become instant and momentous for the slayer.


The thought was yet in his mind, when, first one and then another, with every variety of pace and voice—one deep as the bell from a cathedral turret, another ringing on its treble notes the prelude of a waltz-the clocks began to strike the hour of three in the afternoon.


The sudden outbreak of so many tongues in that dumb chamber staggered him. He began to bestir himself, going to and fro with the candle, beleaguered by moving shadows, and startled to the soul by chance reflections. In many rich mirrors, some of home design, some from Venice or Amsterdam, he saw his face repeated and repeated, as it were an army of spies; his own eyes met and detected him; and the sound of his own steps, lightly as they fell, vexed the surrounding quiet. And still, as he continued to fill his pockets, his mind accused him with a sickening iteration, of the thousand faults of his design. He should have chosen a more quiet hour; he should have prepared an alibi; he should not have used a knife; he should have been more cautious, and only bound and gagged the dealer, and not killed him; he should have been more bold, and killed the servant also; he should have done all things otherwise: poignant regrets, weary, incessant toiling of the mind to change what was unchangeable, to plan what was now useless, to be the architect of the irrevocable past. Meanwhile, and behind all this activity, brute terrors, like the scurrying of rats in a deserted attic, filled the more remote chambers of his brain with riot; the hand of the constable would fall heavy on his shoulder, and his nerves would jerk like a hooked fish; or he beheld, in galloping defile, the dock, the prison, the gallows, and the black coffin.


Terror of the people in the street sat down before his mind like a besieging army. It was impossible, he thought, but that some rumour of the struggle must have reached their ears and set on edge their curiosity; and now, in all the neighbouring houses, he divined them sitting motionless and with uplifted ear—solitary people, condemned to spend Christmas dwelling alone on memories of the past, and now startingly recalled from that tender exercise; happy family parties struck into silence round the table, the mother still with raised finger: every degree and age and humour, but all, by their own hearths, prying and hearkening and weaving the rope that was to hang him. Sometimes it seemed to him he could not move too softly; the clink of the tall Bohemian goblets rang out loudly like a bell; and alarmed by the bigness of the ticking, he was tempted to stop the clocks. And then, again, with a swift transition of his terrors, the very silence of the place appeared a source of peril, and a thing to strike and freeze the passer-by; and he would step more boldly, and bustle aloud among the contents of the shop, and imitate, with elaborate bravado, the movements of a busy man at ease in his own house.


But he was now so pulled about by different alarms that, while one portion of his mind was still alert and cunning, another trembled on the brink of lunacy. One hallucination in particular took a strong hold on his credulity. The neighbour hearkening with white face beside his window, the passer-by arrested by a horrible surmise on the pavement—these could at worst suspect, they could not know; through the brick walls and shuttered windows only sounds could penetrate. But here, within the house, was he alone? He knew he was; he had watched the servant set forth sweet-hearting, in her poor best, ‘out for the day’ written in every ribbon and smile. Yes, he was alone, of course; and yet, in the bulk of empty house above him, he could surely hear a stir of delicate footing—he was surely conscious, inexplicably conscious of some presence. Ay, surely; to every room and corner of the house his imagination followed it; and now it was a faceless thing, and yet had eyes to see with; and again it was a shadow of himself; and yet again behold the image of the dead dealer, reinspired with cunning and hatred.


At times, with a strong effort, he would glance at the open door which still seemed to repel his eyes. The house was tall, the skylight small and dirty, the day blind with fog; and the light that filtered down to the ground story was exceedingly faint, and showed dimly on the threshold of the shop. And yet, in that strip of doubtful brightness, did there not hang wavering a shadow?


Suddenly, from the street outside, a very jovial gentleman began to beat with a staff on the shop-door, accompanying his blows with shouts and railleries in which the dealer was continually called upon by name. Markheim, smitten into ice, glanced at the dead man. But no! he lay quite still; he was fled away far beyond earshot of these blows and shoutings; he was sunk beneath seas of silence; and his name, which would once have caught his notice above the howling of a storm, had become an empty sound. And presently the jovial gentleman desisted from his knocking, and departed.


Here was a broad hint to hurry what remained to be done, to get forth from this accusing neighbourhood, to plunge into a bath of London multitudes, and to reach, on the other side of day, that haven of safety and apparent innocence—his bed. One visitor had come: at any moment another might follow and be more obstinate. To have done the deed, and yet not to reap the profit, would be too abhorrent a failure. The money, that was now Markheim’s concern; and as a means to that, the keys.


He glanced over his shoulder at the open door, where the shadow was still lingering and shivering; and with no conscious repugnance of the mind, yet with a tremor of the belly, he drew near the body of his victim. The human character had quite departed. Like a suit half-stuffed with bran, the limbs lay scattered, the trunk doubled, on the floor; and yet the thing repelled him. Although so dingy and inconsiderable to the eye, he feared it might have more significance to the touch. He took the body by the shoulders, and turned it on its back. It was strangely light and supple, and the limbs, as if they had been broken, fell into the oddest postures. The face was robbed of all expression; but it was as pale as wax, and shockingly smeared with blood about one temple. That was, for Markheim, the one displeasing circumstance. It carried him back, upon the instant, to a certain fair-day in a fishers’ village: a gray day, a piping wind, a crowd upon the street, the blare of brasses, the booming of drums, the nasal voice of a ballad singer; and a boy going to and fro, buried over head in the crowd and divided between interest and fear, until, coming out upon the chief place of concourse, he beheld a booth and a great screen with pictures, dismally designed, garishly coloured: Brown-rigg with her apprentice; the Mannings with their murdered guest; Weare in the death-grip of Thurtell; and a score besides of famous crimes. The thing was as clear as an illusion; he was once again that little boy; he was looking once again, and with the same sense of physical revolt, at these vile pictures; he was still stunned by the thumping of the drums. A bar of that day’s music returned upon his memory; and at that, for the first time, a qualm came over him, a breath of nausea, a sudden weakness of the joints, which he must instantly resist and conquer.


He judged it more prudent to confront than to flee from these considerations; looking the more hardily in the dead face, bending his mind to realise the nature and greatness of his crime. So little a while ago that face had moved with every change of sentiment, that pale mouth had spoken, that body had been all on fire with governable energies; and now, and by his act, that piece of life had been arrested, as the horologist, with interjected finger, arrests the beating of the clock. So he reasoned in vain; he could rise to no more remorseful consciousness; the same heart which had shuddered before the painted effigies of crime, looked on its reality unmoved. At best, he felt a gleam of pity for one who had been endowed in vain with all those faculties that can make the world a garden of enchantment, one who had never lived and who was now dead. But of penitence, no, not a tremor.


With that, shaking himself clear of these considerations, he found the keys and advanced towards the open door of the shop. Outside, it had begun to rain smartly; and the sound of the shower upon the roof had banished silence. Like some dripping cavern, the chambers of the house were haunted by an incessant echoing, which filled the ear and mingled with the ticking of the clocks. And, as Markheim approached the door, he seemed to hear, in answer to his own cautious tread, the steps of another foot withdrawing up the stair. The shadow still palpitated loosely on the threshold. He threw a ton’s weight of resolve upon his muscles, and drew back the door.


The faint, foggy daylight glimmered dimly on the bare floor and stairs; on the bright suit of armour posted, halbert in hand, upon the landing; and on the dark wood-carvings, and framed pictures that hung against the yellow panels of the wainscot. So loud was the beating of the rain through all the house that, in Markheim’s ears, it began to be distinguished into many different sounds. Footsteps and sighs, the tread of regiments marching in the distance, the chink of money in the counting, and the creaking of doors held stealthily ajar, appeared to mingle with the patter of the drops upon the cupola and the gushing of the water in the pipes. The sense that he was not alone grew upon him to the verge of madness. On every side he was haunted and begirt by presences. He heard them moving in the upper chambers; from the shop, he heard the dead man getting to his legs; and as he began with a great effort to mount the stairs, feet fled quietly before him and followed stealthily behind. If he were but deaf, he thought, how tranquilly he would possess his soul! And then again, and hearkening with ever fresh attention, he blessed himself for that unresting sense which held the outposts and stood a trusty sentinel upon his life. His head turned continually on his neck; his eyes, which seemed starting from their orbits, scouted on every side, and on every side were half-rewarded as with the tail of something nameless vanishing. The four-and-twenty steps to the first floor were four-and-twenty agonies.


On that first storey, the doors stood ajar, three of them like three ambushes, shaking his nerves like the throats of cannon. He could never again, he felt, be sufficiently immured and fortified from men’s observing eyes, he longed to be home, girt in by walls, buried among bedclothes, and invisible to all but God. And at that thought he wondered a little, recollecting tales of other murderers and the fear they were said to entertain of heavenly avengers. It was not so, at least, with him. He feared the laws of nature, lest, in their callous and immutable procedure, they should preserve some damning evidence of his crime. He feared tenfold more, with a slavish, superstitions terror, some scission in the continuity of man’s experience, some wilful illegality of nature. He played a game of skill, depending on the rules, calculating consequence from cause; and what if nature, as the defeated tyrant overthrew the chess-board, should break the mould of their succession? The like had befallen Napoleon (so writers said) when the winter changed the time of its appearance. The like might befall Markheim: the solid walls might become transparent and reveal his doings like those of bees in a glass hive; the stout planks might yield under his foot like quicksands and detain him in their clutch; ay, and there were soberer accidents that might destroy him: if, for instance, the house should fall and imprison him beside the body of his victim; or the house next door should fly on fire, and the firemen invade him from all sides. These things he feared; and, in a sense, these things might be called the hands of God reached forth against sin. But about God himself he was at ease; his act was doubtless exceptional, but so were his excuses, which God knew; it was there, and not among men, that he felt sure of justice.


When he had got safe into the drawing-room, and shut the door behind him, he was aware of a respite from alarms. The room was quite dismantled, uncarpeted besides, and strewn with packing cases and incongruous furniture; several great pier-glasses, in which he beheld himself at various angles, like an actor on a stage; many pictures, framed and unframed, standing, with their faces to the wall; a fine Sheraton sideboard, a cabinet of marquetry, and a great old bed, with tapestry hangings. The windows opened to the floor; but by great good fortune the lower part of the shutters had been closed, and this concealed him from the neighbours. Here, then, Markheim drew in a packing case before the cabinet, and began to search among the keys. It was a long business, for there were many; and it was irksome, besides; for, after all, there might be nothing in the cabinet, and time was on the wing. But the closeness of the occupation sobered him. With the tail of his eye he saw the door—even glanced at it from time to time directly, like a besieged commander pleased to verify the good estate of his defences. But in truth he was at peace. The rain falling in the street sounded natural and pleasant. Presently, on the other side, the notes of a piano were wakened to the music of a hymn, and the voices of many children took up the air and words. How stately, how comfortable was the melody! How fresh the youthful voices! Markheim gave ear to it smilingly, as he sorted out the keys; and his mind was thronged with answerable ideas and images; church-going children and the pealing of the high organ; children afield, bathers by the brookside, ramblers on the brambly common, kite-flyers in the windy and cloud-navigated sky; and then, at another cadence of the hymn, back again to church, and the somnolence of summer Sundays, and the high genteel voice of the parson (which he smiled a little to recall) and the painted Jacobean tombs, and the dim lettering of the Ten Commandments in the chancel.


And as he sat thus, at once busy and absent, he was startled to his feet. A flash of ice, a flash of fire, a bursting gush of blood, went over him, and then he stood transfixed and thrilling. A step mounted the stair slowly and steadily, and presently a hand was laid upon the knob, and the lock clicked, and the door opened.


Fear held Markheim in a vice. What to expect he knew not, whether the dead man walking, or the official ministers of human justice, or some chance witness blindly stumbling in to consign him to the gallows. But when a face was thrust into the aperture, glanced round the room, looked at him, nodded and smiled as if in friendly recognition, and then withdrew again, and the door closed behind it, his fear broke loose from his control in a hoarse cry. At the sound of this the visitant returned.


‘Did you call me?’ he asked, pleasantly, and with that he entered the room and closed the door behind him.


Markheim stood and gazed at him with all his eyes. Perhaps there was a film upon his sight, but the outlines of the new comer seemed to change and waver like those of the idols in the wavering candle-light of the shop; and at times he thought he knew him; and at times he thought he bore a likeness to himself; and always, like a lump of living terror, there lay in his bosom the conviction that this thing was not of the earth and not of God.


And yet the creature had a strange air of the commonplace, as he stood looking on Markheim with a smile; and when he added: ‘You are looking for the money, I believe?’ it was in the tones of everyday politeness.


Markheim made no answer.


‘I should warn you,’ resumed the other, ‘that the maid has left her sweetheart earlier than usual and will soon be here. If Mr. Markheim be found in this house, I need not describe to him the consequences.’


‘You know me?’ cried the murderer.


The visitor smiled. ‘You have long been a favourite of mine,’ he said; ‘and I have long observed and often sought to help you.’


‘What are you?’ cried Markheim: ‘the devil?’


‘What I may be,’ returned the other, ‘cannot affect the service I propose to render you.’


‘It can,’ cried Markheim; ‘it does! Be helped by you? No, never; not by you! You do not know me yet; thank God, you do not know me!’


‘I know you,’ replied the visitant, with a sort of kind severity or rather firmness. ‘I know you to the soul.’


‘Know me!’ cried Markheim. ‘Who can do so? My life is but a travesty and slander on myself. I have lived to belie my nature. All men do; all men are better than this disguise that grows about and stifles them. You see each dragged away by life, like one whom bravos have seized and muffled in a cloak. If they had their own control—if you could see their faces, they would be altogether different, they would shine out for heroes and saints! I am worse than most; myself is more overlaid; my excuse is known to me and God. But, had I the time, I could disclose myself.’


‘To me?’ inquired the visitant.


‘To you before all,’ returned the murderer. ‘I supposed you were intelligent. I thought—since you exist—you would prove a reader of the heart. And yet you would propose to judge me by my acts! Think of it; my acts! I was born and I have lived in a land of giants; giants have dragged me by the wrists since I was born out of my mother—the giants of circumstance. And you would judge me by my acts! But can you not look within? Can you not understand that evil is hateful to me? Can you not see within me the clear writing of conscience, never blurred by any wilful sophistry, although too often disregarded? Can you not read me for a thing that surely must be common as humanity—the unwilling sinner?’


‘All this is very feelingly expressed,’ was the reply, ‘but it regards me not. These points of consistency are beyond my province, and I care not in the least by what compulsion you may have been dragged away, so as you are but carried in the right direction. But time flies; the servant delays, looking in the faces of the crowd and at the pictures on the hoardings, but still she keeps moving nearer; and remember, it is as if the gallows itself was striding towards you through the Christmas streets! Shall I help you; I, who know all? Shall I tell you where to find the money?’


‘For what price?’ asked Markheim.


‘I offer you the service for a Christmas gift,’ returned the other.


Markheim could not refrain from smiling with a kind of bitter triumph. ‘No,’ said he, ‘I will take nothing at your hands; if I were dying of thirst, and it was your hand that put the pitcher to my lips, I should find the courage to refuse. It may be credulous, but I will do nothing to commit myself to evil.’


‘I have no objection to a death-bed repentance,’ observed the visitant.


‘Because you disbelieve their efficacy!’ Markheim cried.


‘I do not say so,’ returned the other; ‘but I look on these things from a different side, and when the life is done my interest falls. The man has lived to serve me, to spread black looks under colour of religion, or to sow tares in the wheat-field, as you do, in a course of weak compliance with desire. Now that he draws so near to his deliverance, he can add but one act of service—to repent, to die smiling, and thus to build up in confidence and hope the more timorous of my surviving followers. I am not so hard a master. Try me. Accept my help. Please yourself in life as you have done hitherto; please yourself more amply, spread your elbows at the board; and when the night begins to fall and the curtains to be drawn, I tell you, for your greater comfort, that you will find it even easy to compound your quarrel with your conscience, and to make a truckling peace with God. I came but now from such a deathbed, and the room was full of sincere mourners, listening to the man’s last words: and when I looked into that face, which had been set as a flint against mercy, I found it smiling with hope.’


‘And do you, then, suppose me such a creature?’ asked Markheim. ‘Do you think I have no more generous aspirations than to sin, and sin, and sin, and, at the last, sneak into heaven? My heart rises at the thought. Is this, then, your experience of mankind? or is it because you find me with red hands that you presume such baseness? and is this crime of murder indeed so impious as to dry up the very springs of good?’


‘Murder is to me no special category,’ replied the other. ‘All sins are murder, even as all life is war. I behold your race, like starving mariners on a raft, plucking crusts out of the hands of famine and feeding on each other’s lives. I follow sins beyond the moment of their acting; I find in all that the last consequence is death; and to my eyes, the pretty maid who thwarts her mother with such taking graces on a question of a ball, drips no less visibly with human gore than such a murderer as yourself. Do I say that I follow sins? I follow virtues also; they differ not by the thickness of a nail, they are both scythes for the reaping angel of Death. Evil, for which I live, consists not in action but in character. The bad man is dear to me; not the bad act, whose fruits, if we could follow them far enough down the hurtling cataract of the ages, might yet be found more blessed than those of the rarest virtues. And it is not because you have killed a dealer, but because you are Markheim, that I offer to forward your escape.’


‘I will lay my heart open to you,’ answered Markheim. ‘This crime on which you find me is my last. On my way to it I have learned many lessons; itself is a lesson, a momentous lesson. Hitherto I have been driven with revolt to what I would not; I was a bond-slave to poverty, driven and scourged. There are robust virtues that can stand in these temptations; mine was not so: I had a thirst of pleasure. But to-day, and out of this deed, I pluck both warning and riches—both the power and a fresh resolve to be myself. I become in all things a free actor in the world; I begin to see myself all changed, these hands the agents of good, this heart at peace. Something comes over me out of the past; something of what I have dreamed on Sabbath evenings to the sound of the church organ, of what I forecast when I shed tears over noble books, or talked, an innocent child, with my mother. There lies my life; I have wandered a few years, but now I see once more my city of destination.’


‘You are to use this money on the Stock Exchange, I think?’ remarked the visitor; ‘and there, if I mistake not, you have already lost some thousands?’


‘Ah,’ said Markheim, ‘but this time I have a sure thing.’


‘This time, again, you will lose,’ replied the visitor quietly.


‘Ah, but I keep back the half!’ cried Markheim.


‘That also you will lose,’ said the other.


The sweat started upon Markheim’s brow. ‘Well, then, what matter?’ he exclaimed. ‘Say it be lost, say I am plunged again in poverty, shall one part of me, and that the worse, continue until the end to override the better? Evil and good run strong in me, haling me both ways. I do not love the one thing, I love all. I can conceive great deeds, renunciations, martyrdoms; and though I be fallen to such a crime as murder, pity is no stranger to my thoughts. I pity the poor; who knows their trials better than myself? I pity and help them; I prize love, I love honest laughter; there is no good thing nor true thing on earth but I love it from my heart. And are my vices only to direct my life, and my virtues to lie without effect, like some passive lumber of the mind? Not so; good, also, is a spring of acts.’


But the visitant raised his finger. ‘For six-and-thirty years that you have been in this world,’ said be, ‘through many changes of fortune and varieties of humour, I have watched you steadily fall. Fifteen years ago you would have started at a theft. Three years back you would have blenched at the name of murder. Is there any crime, is there any cruelty or meanness, from which you still recoil?—five years from now I shall detect you in the fact! Downward, downward, lies your way; nor can anything but death avail to stop you.’


‘It is true,’ Markheim said huskily, ‘I have in some degree complied with evil. But it is so with all: the very saints, in the mere exercise of living, grow less dainty, and take on the tone of their surroundings.’


‘I will propound to you one simple question,’ said the other; ‘and as you answer, I shall read to you your moral horoscope. You have grown in many things more lax; possibly you do right to be so—and at any account, it is the same with all men. But granting that, are you in any one particular, however trifling, more difficult to please with your own conduct, or do you go in all things with a looser rein?’


‘In any one?’ repeated Markheim, with an anguish of consideration. ‘No,’ he added, with despair, ‘in none! I have gone down in all.’


‘Then,’ said the visitor, ‘content yourself with what you are, for you will never change; and the words of your part on this stage are irrevocably written down.’


Markheim stood for a long while silent, and indeed it was the visitor who first broke the silence. ‘That being so,’ he said, ‘shall I show you the money?’


‘And grace?’ cried Markheim.


‘Have you not tried it?’ returned the other. ‘Two or three years ago, did I not see you on the platform of revival meetings, and was not your voice the loudest in the hymn?’


‘It is true,’ said Markheim; ‘and I see clearly what remains for me by way of duty. I thank you for these lessons from my soul; my eyes are opened, and I behold myself at last for what I am.’


At this moment, the sharp note of the door-bell rang through the house; and the visitant, as though this were some concerted signal for which he had been waiting, changed at once in his demeanour.


‘The maid!’ he cried. ‘She has returned, as I forewarned you, and there is now before you one more difficult passage. Her master, you must say, is ill; you must let her in, with an assured but rather serious countenance—no smiles, no overacting, and I promise you success! Once the girl within, and the door closed, the same dexterity that has already rid you of the dealer will relieve you of this last danger in your path. Thenceforward you have the whole evening—the whole night, if needful—to ransack the treasures of the house and to make good your safety. This is help that comes to you with the mask of danger. Up!’ he cried; ‘up, friend; your life hangs trembling in the scales: up, and act!’


Markheim steadily regarded his counsellor. ‘If I be condemned to evil acts,’ he said, ‘there is still one door of freedom open—I can cease from action. If my life be an ill thing, I can lay it down. Though I be, as you say truly, at the beck of every small temptation, I can yet, by one decisive gesture, place myself beyond the reach of all. My love of good is damned to barrenness; it may, and let it be! But I have still my hatred of evil; and from that, to your galling disappointment, you shall see that I can draw both energy and courage.’


The features of the visitor began to undergo a wonderful and lovely change: they brightened and softened with a tender triumph, and, even as they brightened, faded and dislimned. But Markheim did not pause to watch or understand the transformation. He opened the door and went downstairs very slowly, thinking to himself. His past went soberly before him; he beheld it as it was, ugly and strenuous like a dream, random as chance-medley—a scene of defeat. Life, as he thus reviewed it, tempted him no longer; but on the further side he perceived a quiet haven for his bark. He paused in the passage, and looked into the shop, where the candle still burned by the dead body. It was strangely silent. Thoughts of the dealer swarmed into his mind, as he stood gazing. And then the bell once more broke out into impatient clamour.


He confronted the maid upon the threshold with something like a smile.


‘You had better go for the police,’ said he: ‘I have killed your master.’

Das Open Cloud Project beinhaltet ein Testlabor für Proof-of-Concept mit Sitz in Silicon Valley, um fortlaufende Tests und Support für die Entwicklung des CEF CloudE 1.0 Open Cloud Environment bereitzustellen. Es bildet zudem die Basis für zukünftiges Compliance- und Benchmark-Testing. Auf Basis der Erfahrung des MEF hinsichtlich der Vorteile, die eine schnelle und iterative Standardentwicklung für die Cloud-Industrie bringt, unternimmt das CEF den ersten Schritt, um Testing von Beginn an in den Entwicklungsprozess einzubeziehen.


Die initiale Arbeit fokussiert auf drei Bereiche: Application-Performance-Management, Cloud-Security und Traffic-Load-Balancing. Das offene Testprogramm bildet die Basis für eine vollständig interaktive Cloud-Umgebung und die Entwicklung von Best-Practices für das Management von OTT und Cloud-Services.


"Dabei handelt es sich um eine wichtige Arbeit, um die Fragmentierung der Cloud zu verhindern", erklärt James Walker, CEF President und Vice President Managed Network Services bei Tata Communications. "Cloud-Services beruhen auf einer Ende-zu-Ende-Interoperabilität vieler verschiedener Player - Unternehmen, Hersteller von Netzwerk- und Rechenzentrums-Equipment, Datacenter-Betreiber, Orchestration-Layer, Management- und Reporting-Plattformen, SIcherheits-Devices, Netzwerk-Service-Provider und andere mehr. Das MEF hat ein erfolgreiches Modell für die Definition von Service-Typen und -Attributen vorgelegt, das von allen Beteiligten anerkannt wird. Mit diesem Test-Bed können wir das Modell übernehmen und der Cloud-Industrie bereitstellen. Solange wir keine Best-Practices und globale Standards für eine offene Cloud-Umgebung definiert haben, besteht die Gefahr, dass Cloud-Services zunehmend fragmentiert und schwierig zu integrieren sind."


Das Open Cloud Project ist ein Programm des CEF, einer mit dem MEF eng verbundenen Organisation, die von führenden Ausrüstungs- und Cloud-Software-Herstellern sowie den weltweit größten Telekommunikationsanbietern und Kabelbetreibern getragen wird. Zusammengenommen haben beide Organisationen mehr als 240 Mitglieder.


"Netzwerk-Sicherheit und Application-Performance-Management sind zwei wichtige Bereiche der zukünftigen Arbeit", ergänzt Nan Chen, President des MEF. "Das Projekt soll einen offenen Testprozess für NFV, SDN und Carrier-Ethernet-Anwendungen schaffen. Wir planen zudem die Zusammenarbeit mit anderen einflussreichen Industrieforen, um die Effizienz zu maximieren und doppelte Arbeiten zu vermeiden."


"Die Branche steht vor einer echten Herausforderung: der simultanen Integration dreier relativ neuer Konzepte - NFV, SDN und Carrier Ethernet - um ein offenes Cloud-Environment zu schaffen", erläutert Jeff Schmitz, CEF Chairman und Executive Vice President von Spirent Communications. "Hier ergibt sich die Chance, Cloud-Services zu testen und zu standardisieren. Der Fokus liegt auf Application-Performance-Management, Cloud-Security und Traffic-Load-Balancing. Das CEF bietet die Möglichkeit, neue Ideen für die Zukunft der Cloud zu testen.


Der Analyst Rohit Mehra, Vice President Network Infrastructure bei IDC, stimmt der Notwendigkeit einer derartigen Initiative zu: "IDC erwartet weltweite Ausgaben von mehr als 100 Milliarden Dollar für öffentliche IT-Cloud-Services bis zum Jahr 2017. Das entspricht einer jährlichen Wachstumsrate von 23,5 Prozent für die Periode 2013-2017 - fünfmal so viel wie die IT-Branche insgesamt verzeichnet. Deshalb ist es wichtig, die Cloud-Interoperabilität als Schlüsselziel für das gesamte Spektrum an Herstellern und Cloud-Service-Providern, die an diesem Wachstum partizipieren, anzusehen."


Das CEF hat bereits damit begonnen, eine Referenzarchitektur für die Cloud-Interoperabilität zu definieren, einschließlich der Diskussion mit anderen Standardisierungsgremien, um eine gemeinsame Arbeit sicherzustellen. Das Ziel für dieses Jahr ist die Verabschiedung initialer und fundamentaler Kriterien für standardisierte, offene und interoperable Cloud-Spezifikationen unter dem Namen "CloudE 1.0". Das Testlabor wird dabei eine Schlüsselrolle übernehmen, um praxisgerechte und offene Standards schneller zu etablieren.


CloudEthernet Forum

Uwe Scholz

Albrechtstr. 119


12167 Berlin





Telefon: 01723988114




Uwe Scholz

Albrechtstr. 119


12167 Berlin





Telefon: 01723988114

Bye bye, brands


With the news that the Yanks have been messing with our Cadbury Creme Eggs, we thought it might be interesting to take a look at other iconic British brands now in foreign hands.


So there you are cruising around a picturesque village in the Cotswolds in your Aston Martin Rapide, eating your bacon sandwich covered in lashings of HP sauce and ready to chase it down with a bag of Smarties.


What could be more British than that? A Bond car, a sauce with the Houses of Parliament on the front and a sweet that has been a part of British childhood since 1937.


But change is afoot. Aston Martin is considering building the Rapide abroad, Smarties has moved production from York to Hamburg in Germany and the last bottle of British HP plopped mournfully off the line in Aston in March, giving way to production in Elst, in the Netherlands.


In a totally non-UKIP way, Here is a list of food and drink products familiar to UK shoppers, dating from as far back as 1778 but now owned by Johnny Foreigner.


1. Sarson's Malt Vinegar


There's nothing quite as British as fish and chips. But unfortunately that vinegar you shake on it isn't quite so British anymore. Store cupboard staple and the UK's number one vinegar brand Sarson's was sold off to the Japanese Mizkan Group in 2005.


Created in Shoreditch, London, by Thomas Sarson, the popular vinegar has been traditionally brewed in vats since 1794. Those vats are just now in Japan.


2. Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce


U.S. company Heinz has owned the Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce brand since 2005.


This is ironic, considering it's doubtful Americans can pronounce it properly.


It is at least still produced in Worcester, rather than Heinz's native Pennysylvania-shire.


Devised by Worcester chemists John Wheeley Lea and William Henry Perrins to please a nobleman, the sauce has a distinctive flavour. The recipe has been a closely guarded secret since the 1830s, and is actually slightly different in the States, although both versions contain anchovies.


In the ad campaign we've chosen to highlight, the brand recommends adding Lea & Perrins to traditional British cuisine, to create new twists on old classics such as "bangers and splash" and "splish and chips."


3. Boddingtons Draught Bitter


Boddingtons Draught Bitter ("The Cream of Manchester") is as Mancunian as Coronation Street, the Madchester movement and a certain football club, right?


Wrong. Although the brewery was British-owned at the time of the infamous "Do you want a flake with that, love?" ad, it now belongs to a Belgian-Brazilian-American multinational behemoth. Despite history dating back to 1778, production in Manchester stopped in 2005.


4. Beefeater London Dry Gin


Britain built an empire on gin. It's running in our very veins. There's not a lot a good gin and tonic can't cure, from a common cold to a bad day at work. Heck, we practically put it on our cornflakes.


Since 1862 Beefeater London Dry Gin has been proudly made in the UK's capital. It looks British, thanks to the Yeomen of the Guard on the label. It tastes like gin.


But it's technically no longer a British brand. French company Pernod Ricard bought it (no doubt just to tick us off) in the 1980s.


However, Beefeater is still made in Kennington, and it just opened quite a snazzy Beefeater Distillery museum and visitor's centre, so it's kind of all good. We suppose.


5. Hovis Bread


With Britons once voting the Ridley Scott-directed "Gold Hill" Hovis ad their favourite of all time, you can be sure the brand has a special place in the nation's heart. So special in fact, the company felt confident to release this heartstring-tugging nostalgia fest of a commercial as a 122-second way to commemorate the company's 122-year history.


They may as well make the next ad on Mulholland Drive, though, as L.A.-based investment company The Gores Group now owns the majority stake in the bread-maker.


6. Branston Pickle


Every patriotic Brit knows a cheddar sandwich can only be improved with a handsome dollop of Branston Pickle. Created by Crosse & Blackwell in Branston, a suburb of Burton upon Trent, in 1922, generations of Britons have grown up with cheese and pickle sandwiches in their lunch boxes.


Fast forward to 2013 and struggling Premier Foods flogs our nation's favourite pickled chutney to Japan. Mizkan again. What's next, we wonder? Some kind of "small chunk" abomination?


There's nothing particularly British about the ad we're highlighting, apart from Harry Hill's dulcet tones.


7. Terry's Chocolate Orange


The Yanks might have snagged Cadbury, but we still have Terry's Chocolate Orange, right?


Actually, no. That's also owned by U.S. interests in the form of Mondelez International, an American multinational conglomerate.


Despite Terry's of York being able to trace its roots back to 1923, Chocolate Oranges have been made in Poland since 2005. They better not mess with the recipe, though, or next Christmas Britain will actually revolt.


You may remember the vintage Terry's Chocolate Orange campaign. It was on well before fat Dawn French started scoffing them all.


8. Tetley Tea


Joseph Tetley & Co. was started way back in 1837. The world's second-largest tea brand is now available in 70 countries, even ones where they put the milk in first.


But it's not British anymore. It's owned by Indian giant Tata Global Beverage. Tata bought the company in 2000 in what was then the biggest acquisition in Indian corporate history, after Tetley got into a spot of bother with a shrinking UK market and competition from whippersnapper rivals.


Incidentally, Tetley was the first company to sell tea bags in the UK in the 1950s, hence posh Prunella in the above ad trying to persuade British housewives they don't need the fuss of tea leaves.


9. HP Brown Sauce


The ultimate condiment for a classic English breakfast or bacon sandwich, HP Brown Sauce is named for the Houses of Parliament and even features the distinctive building on its label.


Created in 1899 by a grocer from Nottingham, the sauce was made in the Midlands from the early 1900s right up until 2007, when the factory at Aston was closed down as new owner Heinz moved production to the Netherlands.


In 2012, an advertising campaign emphasizing the sauce's Britishness saw a social media backlash. It's reported that sales of brown sauce of all types dropped 19% in 2014.


This amusingly bad advert from HP Brown Sauce's golden years shows a family of Brits abroad impressing the natives with the condiment. Maybe if they'd just shut up, it would still be ours.


10. Lyle's Golden Syrup


We've saved the sweetest 'til last. Syrup sponge pudding, golden syrup cake, treacle sponge, treacle tart – all these quintessentially British comfort foods have one thing in common: Golden Syrup.


Launched by Abram Lyle in 1881 as "Goldie" syrup, from a sugar refinery on the banks of the Thames in London, the story goes that the sticky stuff was soon selling like the hot cakes it was used to make.


Still available in its delightfully old-fashioned tin – which Guinness World Records confirmed a few years back as the world's oldest unchanged brand packaging – it's now owned by another American megacorp, American Sugar Refining, Inc.


11. Twinings Tea


Nothing is as quintessentially English as a cup of tea. Thomas Twining began selling tea from a stand in the Strand in 1706. But today although Twinings still packs tea here, in Andover, Hampshire, if you open one of those little sachets in your hotel room it will have been made in Poland after almost 300 British workers were sacked in an efficiency drive.


12. Smarties


Whatever next, made in Germany? Well, yes, the popular tubes of sweets now roll off production lines in Hamburg after being made in York by Nestlé for 69 years.


The company says other top brands such as Quality Street will not be moving to Germany. After all, Quality Strasse just doesn't sound right.


13. Cadbury


Much of the confusion over flags of convenience seems to originate when British companies are sold to new foreign owners who pay scant regard to our proud manufacturing history. A classic example is Cadbury, with its long tradition of confectionery making in the UK. Its chocolate, including Britain’s bestselling brand Dairy Milk, is still made in Bournville, Birmingham. However, following the controversial purchase of the company by American giant Kraft, if you fancy a Crunchie or Turkish Delight it will have been manufactured in Poland.


14. Robertson's


Like Branston pickle, the marmalade firm was owned by Premier Foods.


It was sold, along with other famous spreads like Hartley’s jam, Gale’s honey and Sun-Pat peanut butter to an -American firm Hain Celestial for £200million earlier this year.


15. Weetabix


Chinese company Bright Foods bought the majority stake in the company, which also makes Alpen and Ready Brek, valuing the firm at £1.2billion.


16. Newcastle Brown Ale


Scottish & Newcastle, makers of the famous ale, was bought by Dutch brewer Heineken and Denmark’s Carlsberg in 2008 for a combined £7.8billion.


S&N was the UK’s largest and world’s seventh biggest brewer. It was split between Carlsberg and Heineken.


17. Jaffa Cakes


Jaffa Cakes and McVitie’s maker sold to Turkish food group in £2bn deal. United Biscuits will now be part of Yildiz, making the new owner the world’s third-largest biscuit manufacturer.


18. Shippam's fish paste


It was founded in 1750 by Shipston Shippam, a quality butcher based in Chichester on the south coast of England. Now wholly owned subsidiary of Mitsubishi Corporation since 1989.


19. Walker Crisps


Walker Crisps are 56% of all crisps and popcorn sold in Britain. The brand was bought by PepsiCo back in 1989.


20. Hartley's Jam


was bought by American corporation Hain Celestial in 2012, for £200 million.


21. Milk


A third of the milk drunk in Britain is owned by foreign companies: Wiseman Milk is now part of the German group Müller, which bought it in 2012.


Britain has sold more than half its companies to foreigners


Just for a moment, imagine being a tourist in search of the full British experience. Where would you start? Well, you might take a sight-seeing trip around London on a red double-decker bus.


You’d possibly visit a quintessentially British store, such as Boots the chemist, Selfridges or Harrods, before having a proper English tea at the Savoy, Fortnum & Mason or the Dorchester.


You’d almost certainly go home, via a British airport, thinking you’d seen a slice of the real Britain. But, in one sense at least, you’d be totally wrong.


That bus you boarded at Trafalgar Square is run by a German company. Boots fell to the Italians in 2007. Selfridges, Fortnum & Mason and the Savoy are owned by Canadians; Harrods has been bought by a firm based in Qatar; the Dorchester by one based in Brunei. As for our airports, most of them are now run by a Spanish firm.


Maybe a tourist wouldn’t care all that much, even if he knew. But should we? After all, does it make any real difference if a British company has a foreign master?


For the past three decades, the UK has had a completely relaxed attitude about selling off its assets to companies based abroad. Indeed, most of the time, the swallowing up of yet another great British institution barely makes a headline.


How The Monarchy Can Make You Millions


• Shadow leader of the House of Commons calls for £4bn system of royal warrants to be overhauled;


• Dozens of companies which hold royal warrants benefit from corporate structures with bases in tax havens including royal “crown” jeweller Mappin & Webb


• Several firms have closed UK factories and no longer make their royal warranted products in the UK


• Royal warrants are used on products high in sugar and marketed at children


• Royal warrant given to firm that makes guns used to kill elephants and other big game hunting.


Royal warrants have been granted to companies for centuries and a regal seal of approval can be hugely valuable but an investigation by Channel 4 Dispatches has led to calls for the warrant system to be overhauled.


The Queen, Prince Philip or Prince Charles can grant a warrant to a company whose products have been used by the royal household for more than 5 years but the process is far from transparent.


For the past two months Dispatches has been scrutinising those companies with royal warrants


- an award that allows firms to put a royal coat of arms on their product stamped with the words ‘by royal appointment.’


City firm Brand Finance estimate royal warrants are worth £4.5bn to companies with the royal seal of approval. They claim firms with warrants are able to charge more for their products and generate a higher volume of sales into the future.


The programme – led by reporter Antony Barnett - discovered that a number of the royal family’s favourite firms are owned by companies that could benefit from offshore tax havens. These include royal “crown” jeweller Mappin & Webb whose parent company is based in Luxembourg.


Mappin & Webb holds warrants from the Queen and Prince Charles as royal jeweller, goldsmiths and silversmiths. In 2012 the Queen appointed Mappin & Webb’s master craftsman the prestigious role of crown jeweller whose job is , among other things, to prepare the jewels for the state opening of Parliament. Dispatches traced Mappin & Webb’s parent company to the controversial tax haven of Luxembourg and reveals how it is using complex financial methods that could reduce the tax it pays in Britain. Prem Sikka, Professor of Accounting at Essex University, scrutinised the firm’s accounts and calculated that its legal use of offshore tax havens has cut its UK tax bill by £3m in the last two years. There is no suggestion that the company is doing anything illegal however Dispatches asks if it’s appropriate that the company hold a royal warrant.


Mappin & Webb told Dispatches: “Mappin & Webb… …act transparently and responsibly in all our tax affairs… …Mappin & Webb and the Aurum Group are fully resident in the UK for tax purposes and always have been.”


Dispatches also found that several of the royal’s favourite brands with warrants have closed production in the UK and moved it overseas. Some of these include Hunter wellies, Bendicks Bittermints, HP Sauce and Pringle of Scotland.


Shadow leader of the House Chris Bryant, who campaigned to get Burberry stripped of its warrant when they closed a factory in his Welsh constituency, told Dispatches:


The whole point of a Royal Warrant is it’s a kind of statement of British satisfaction and it must add phenomenal value to a brand especially overseas in markets like China, the far east, the middle east - and I think that it should underline modern British values and that means it should be a company that pays taxes in this country, employs people in this country, does most of its business in this country


Bryant added: It’s a statement of Britishness which I think in a way doesn’t belong to the Royal Family…it belongs to the whole of us as citizens, and subjects of this country.


An opinion poll conducted for the programme revealed that 68%of people asked said royal warrants should only be given to companies whose products are made in Britain and more than three-quarters said they should not be given to products whose owners are based in tax havens.


The programme also reveals how Kellogg’s, the US firm that has a royal warrant from the Queen as ‘purveyors of Cereals’ legitimately puts royal warrants on many of its products including those high in sugar and marketed at children such as Pop Tarts, Coco Pops, Kraves , Rice Krispie cereal bars.


Dispatches also considers gunmaker Holland & Holland which has a royal warrant from Prince Charles and discovers the firm sells rifles that could be used for big game trophy hunting including the killing of lions and elephants. Whilst there is nothing illegal in this Dispatches notes that both Prince Charles and his son Prince Harry have been outspoken against the ivory trade and threats to endangered species.


On calling for the system of granting warrants to be overhauled, Chris Bryant said:


There’s a great cloud of unknowing…... I think it should be transparent…If I ran a British company now I’d be desperate for it to get a Royal Warrant, from any one of the members of the Royal Family who can grant them now. But when William and Harry come along, and they start to be able to issue Royal Warrants, that value will go up exponentially. And that’s why I think even, before we get to that point it’s all the more important that we have a proper review of the process so that it’s open and transparent and the whole of the country- the subjects and citizens of this country, get to understand how these things are awarded.


Made in Britain


Royal warrant firms that have moved all or most of their production overseas include:


• Bendicks Mints of Mayfair which is now made in Germany


• Parker Pens who have moved all operations to France


• Pringle of Scotland which is now made entirely in Asia


• HP sauce which is made in the Netherlands


In a statement to Dispatches, the Lord Chamberlain’s office said:


Standards are monitored, and any credible allegation that a warrant holder was acting unlawfully would result in an immediate review and may lead to a warrant being cancelled. It would be a breach of commercial confidence to reveal the details of those who were not successful in applying for, or retaining, a Warrant.


The Royal Warrant Holders Association told Dispatches they do not comment on the operations of specific warrant holding companies and the system is monitored for compliance on an on-going basis.


Regarding firms which move production overseas, the Association said these are commercial decisions made against the backdrop of a global market… some warrant holding companies have decided to relocate production and other functions to the UK.


How The Monarchy Can Make You Millions: Channel 4 Dispatches, Monday 14 December at 8pm

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November 2005




The announcement on September 2, 2004, by the then Home Secretary, David Blunkett, of three pilot projects testing the effectiveness of the GPS (Global Positioning System) Tracking Tag portends a major breakthrough in penology in England and Wales.


The effectiveness to be tested would be both technical and penal.


If the pilots indicate potential effectiveness, the Tracking Tag promises to become widely used in due course as a means of penal restraint and surveillance throughout the United Kingdom and eventually the rest of the technologically sophisticated world, not least the US where it is already in use in 27 States.


The Home Office's initiative points to the fulfilment of the original proposal and pre-feasibility study presented to the Home Office in 1981 by the founders of the Offender's Tag Association, and of the OTA's sustained advocacy, privately and publicly since 1982, of what electronic monitoring of offenders can offer.


Hitherto, the Curfew Tag alone has been the only mode of electronic monitoring of offenders in Britain.


The curfew tag was first tested in England as a practical constraint in 1989, when Douglas Hurd was Home Secretary.


It was revived by Michael Howard, on the same Office of State, in the mid 1990s, and its use expanded substantially (and effectively) by successive Labour government Home Secretaries since 1999.


The Curfew Tag confirms the presence of the tag-wearer at stipulated premises, usually the tagee s home.


It is widely used today in England and Wales in a quasi-parole, early-release situation, and also as a monitored constraint on those serving community orders in the regular field of Criminal Justice and young offenders undergoing intensive supervision (see below 2a ii).


The Curfew Tag has proved convincingly successful overall, notwithstanding some criticism to which part could be ascribed a political motivation.


The arrival of the Tracking Tag in Britain vastly expands the potential of electronic monitoring in both the handling and treatment of offenders.


It permits 24-hour-a-day surveillance with a high degree of precision (see below 1c) while providing a record of the detailed movement of the tagee minute-by-minute.


Subject to any perceived requirement to punish, it is applicable to all offenders willing to live lawfully and temperamentally capable of living lawfully.


Whatever it may lack in a punitive function it may stand to gain in a rehabilitative function.


In terms of reducing crime, or curtailing the growth of crime, it is of unprecedented significance.




The Home Office's pilot projects, begun in September 2004, originally to be conducted over a 12-month period in three areas were extended in July 2005 to continue to June 2006 with an evaluation in March.


The three areas are Greater Manchester covering also Bolton, Tameside, Salford and Wigan; the West Midlands in the Birmingham area including Sandwell, Dudley and Smethwick; and a part of Hampshire, covering Fareham, Gosport, Havant, Portsmouth and Southampton.


The purpose was to assess through the course of the period the efficiency of the system on 120 offenders, using an average of 40 per area at any time, and covering a wide range of offending categories.


All three areas were to tag prolific offenders and those convicted of domestic violence.


Greater Manchester alone was additionally tag a sample of those convicted of sexual offences, and Hampshire young (under 21) prolific offenders.


The West Midlands and Hampshire pilots was to test tagees on a so-called passive tracking basis.


This enables authority to check retrospectively each day where the tag-wearer has been throughout the previous 24 hours: whether, for instance, he (or she) has violated any restriction on where a court may have stipulated the tagee may not go. Greater Manchester will additionally pilot what is known as 'hybrid tracking', by which the regional monitoring authority will be alerted instantly in the case of a tagee entering a stipulated exclusion zone such as a convicted paedophile the vicinity of a school.


The larger and heavier component of the tagee's kit is the GPS unit.


The size of this varies from that of a small cigar box, (6x3.25x2.5 ins.) to that of a pc mouse, both weighing about 12 ounces, which locates the precise whereabouts of the tagee every few seconds by fixing on signals received from satellites 12,000 miles out in space.


At present there are 24 satellites available to public access, permanently orbiting the planet, whose primary function is to serve the requirements of the US Department of Defense.


European satellites will soon be available for the same borrowed function.


A minimum of 3 satellites at any moment is of course required to pinpoint the position of a tagee's GPS position on a flat plane, placing the tag-wearer's whereabouts on an electronic map.


The addition of a fourth satellite signal allows for the elevation to be calculated: the floor level, for instance, in a high-rise block, measurable by the time taken by the radio signals to reach the wearer's unit.


As a rule, signals from a cluster of satellites will be engaged, with one satellite taking over the function of another as each orbits out of range.


The smaller component is the PID (Personal Identity Device), strapped to the tagee's ankle, to which the GPS unit (if not already integrated with the PID see below) may transmit and which in turn communicates with the regional monitoring centre by cellular radio, the terrestrial matrix used by mobile telephones.


Technically, the GPS unit may either store the continuous information it is receiving, to be downloaded on demand at the end of any day, as is to be required by the current pilots; or, alternatively, it may instantly pass on its information via the tagee's PID for transmission there and then to the monitoring centre for the centre's own storage or, if required, continuous scrutiny.


The GPS unit's sustained electronic vigilance is, however, demanding on electrical power.


Its battery therefore requires daily re-charging.


This is done via a charging unit plugged into a normal power socket in the tagee's home.


The hitherto familiar type of GPS unit is worn by the tagee separately from the PID, usually on the belt, while the PID is permanently strapped to the tagee's ankle and cannot be tampered with without alerting the monitoring authority to this violation.


It is the tagee's responsibility to wear or carry his/her GPS unit constantly, except when re-charging its battery or bathing, when he or she is to remain within a few feet of it.


If the tagee becomes separated from the GPS unit, the tagee s PID automatically alerts the monitoring authority to this violation, and appropriate action such as arrest will follow.


Already available is a device, commercially entitled the Blutag, combining the GPS unit and the PID in a single unit strapped permanently in all circumstances (i.e. sleeping, bathing etc ) to the ankle, and itself as small as a pc mouse.


The battery of the Blutag is, similarly, re-chargeable daily from a regular wall socket daily for a period of at least half-an-hour, while the wearer, having plugged himself or herself in, sits alongside still wearing the tag.


The piloted tagees are thus to be held to a strict regime of compliance with the basic requirements. These are:

a) regular re-charging of the GPS unit/Blutag battery

b) permanent wearing of the twin device

c) a pattern of movement consonant with the requirement of the court.


About half of those currently curfew tagged have allocated to them, by order of the court, a superviser.


Under the GPS pilots, there is no person-to-person supervision but, rather, a more impersonal supervision by what the Home Office calls multi-agency management teams, or Youth Offending Teams , charged with evaluating compliance, and presumably encouraging it.


(The Probation Service, somewhat demoralised just now, and HM Prison Service have recently been combined as the National Offender Management Service NOMS ¬ but, awaiting appropriate legislation, are still operating independently.


Root-and-branch reorganisation is foreshadowed.)




In the early days of the serving of a GPS tag sentence, a fairly high level of failure on the part of the offender to comply with the three requirements noted above was expected, in the light of US experience.


This is mostly on account of indiscipline. Notwithstanding a measure of non-compliance, however, new crime committed by GPS tag-wearers under the surveillance regime is likely to be rare.


Part of the purpose of the English pilots has been to indicate which categories of offenders comply most reliably with tracking tag rules.


GPS signals do not penetrate underground.


Where comprehensive surveillance is required, as it usually is, tagees can be forbidden to travel underground.


Moreover, certain formations of dense high-rise buildings can weaken or eliminate GPS signals. In such a situation, however, the PID will continue sending its signal by the cellular radio network to the regional monitoring centre.


Given that the point where the GPS signal has been impeded by high-rise buildings is determinable, the approximate location of the GPS tagee can thereafter be imdicated by the PID cellular radio signal: the vertical locating, as it were, being superseded by the horizontal.


A tagee in a high rise building can be required, on receipt of a beep signal, to place himself in a situation where a GPS signal can be received, for the verification of his whereabouts.


In any case, of course, a tagee's signals will be picked up again as soon as he leaves the GPS-occluded area.


Heavy cloud can weaken a satellite signal but not eliminate it.


Under passive tracking (see above 1b), the practice in the US hitherto has been for the movements of the tagees to be reviewed retrospectively at the end of the day while the GPS unit is being re-charged and a land-line telephone can be used (to save the power of the portable PID) to transmit that day's record.


At the same time, where necessary, the tagee may receive telephoned guidance from the monitoring authority or superviser.


The GPS unit can, however, be polled at any time of the day or night by the monitoring authority to warn an offender against violation, for example, or tell him or her to contact the monitoring centre.


Under 'hybrid' tracking, any breach of locational conditions by the tagee will instantly alert the monitoring authority to the breach, resulting in either the transmission of a warning signal to the tagee or, of course, arrest.


Setting a so-called 'hot zone' which a tagee is forbidden to enter can be programmed by the monitoring operator in minutes.


Such 'hot zones' can cover areas surrounding sites deemed by a court to be potentially conducive to criminal behaviour by the offender in question, such as Tube stations or crowded emporia for those with convictions for pick-pocketing, public houses and the like for those convicted for drunken behaviour, the residences of children deemed in danger of abduction by an aggrieved parent, the premises of former sexual partners in fear of molestation, and so on.


The monitoring Companies allocated in October 2004 the role of conducting the pilots were the same as those already contracted by the Home Office to run the continuing Curfew tagging programmes in the respective regions in England and Wales where the selected pilots fell. Contracts were renewed in April 2005.


The Greater Manchester and the Hampshire pilots are now operated by Securicor, the West Midlands pilot by Premier.


These two companies operate the current electronic monitoring contracts (GPS + Curfew) for the newly-defined 4 areas of England and Wales (see below 2a) until 2010.


Both companies are multi-national commercial operations, involving British and American management; and use state-of-the-art equipment and software developed in the US and in Britain.


An internal Home Office of July leaked in August 2005 revealed that out of 178 offenders who had by then been released on the tracking tag under the current pilot schemes, 83 had been recalled to prison, 29 had completed their sentences successfully, and 66 were in the course of the their tracking tag sentences.


The Home Office commented on what the document reportedly described as poor results by stressing that the handling of the technology was improving.


We ourselves would add that notions of success or failure are not appropriate in the context of the pilots.


The technical capacities and limitations of the GPS tracking tag are thoroughly known already.


The management of the device by the monitors calls for familiarity and practice, currently under way; and the response to the application of the tracking tag by various categories of offenders is open to testing, which is also under way.


The Tracking Tag (mooted by ourselves to the Home Office in 1981) was first introduced in Florida in 1998.


Although many states have now entered the field, Florida remains the biggest player.


With many functions of the US penal and 'correctional' system devolved to State, District or County levels, federal statistics are not available nor, indeed, easily calculable on the use of electronic monitoring, whether on a curfew or tracking principle.


As of late 2004, however, the approximate number of tracking tagees in the US was 7000.


This represented 5.8 per cent of the total of (approximately) 120,000 under electronic surveillance at any time in the US.


This percentage was forecast to have risen to 14 per cent (say, 16,800) by the year 2006, in the light of the fairly recent US Defense Department move to end their degrading of satellite GPS signals by which, until 2003, precision of location was deliberately denied to non-defence users.


The Tracking Tag in the US is made a condition of bail to men and women awaiting trial, and to those on parole. Indications of the effectiveness of the Tracking Tag are obtainable piecemeal.

Here are two samples. In the year 2000 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1141 people awaiting trial were tracking-tagged.


Of these, 7 failed to appear in court, representing a substantial reduction in the average level of bailee absconding. (Of these 7, 6 were apprehended within 48 hours.) In 2003 the State of Florida reviewed the rate of re-offence while on the tag by the 15,000 offenders who had served tracking tag sentences up to that date.


This was calculated at 1 per cent, a figure to be compared with 63 per cent rate of re-offence over an equivalent period by similar offenders left to their own devices after release from jail.




The relaxation of constraints on GPS satellite precision, referred to above, has narrowed the location of a Tracking Tagee to a radius as tight as 2 or 3 metres and never looser than the size of a small flat.


This of course obviates many opportunities to cheat the surveillance.


It reinforces public confidence in the system.


Quite apart from potential penal and rehabilitative advantages, the Tracking Tag offers substantial economic benefit over custody.


In round figures, the accepted American calculation puts the cost of keeping an offender in jail at nearly $50 a day and the cost of electronically monitoring and handling an offender on the Tracking Tag at under $10 a day.


The English pilots, working to a £3m budget for start-up costs and evaluation over a full 12 months and involving a total of 120 offenders at any time, works out at £68 a day.


In sustained operation, there is no reason to suppose the British experience will differ much from the American, and that a cost reduction of tracking tagging over custody will be in the order of a factor of 5.




Meanwhile, the Curfew Tag has become a significant adjunct in the handling of offenders in North America, in Britain, and in several other countries worldwide It is used both as an alternative to prison and as a means of monitoring compliance with home curfew orders often handed down by the courts.


The English and Welsh judiciary were mostly fairly slow to awake to the potential and significance of the tagging option.


Since around 2003, awareness on the part of judges and magistrates has markedly increased, and interest is accelerating.






In early 2005, the Curfew Tag was being used on approximately 4 per cent of those in England and Wales who would otherwise be in jail.


In broad figures, without the use of the Curfew Tag those serving sentences in England and Wales would number 77,000 (a further 12000 being held in custody awaiting trial).


As it is, approximately 3500 convicted offenders (as of November 2005) were serving the last part of their sentences out of jail, on release under the Home Detention Curfew (HDC) scheme.


HDC allows for low-risk offenders, sentenced to prison for three months or longer, to be selected by a panel of assessors, usually chaired by the offender's prison governor, for early release on a home curfew of not less than 9 hours in the 24 and not more than 12. A typical HDC will cover 12 hours daily, running from 7pm to 7am.


Such early release under HDC is calculated on a pretty flexible pro rata basis against the length of the original sentence, with a maximum of 18 weeks on the tag available to appropriate offenders sentenced to four years or longer, to a minimum of 2 weeks available to those sentenced to three months.


Since 1999, HDC has been brought into play nationally by the Home Office more or less unashamedly as a handy and inexpensive method of freeing up prison spaces during a period when courts - since the mid-1990s - have tended to impose longer sentences and when, in some categories of custodiable offending, crime has been rising.


Nonetheless, HDC curfew tagging has worked effectively in three respects:

* in easing the severe pressure on prison spaces and diminishing the often highly unsatisfactory recourse to the use of police cells for prisoners on remand;

* in financial a saving; and

* rehabilitatively, by achieving a high level of compliance with the curfew regime, and the personal discipline that implies.


The large majority of HDC parolees - 83 per cent - complete their curfewed sentences without significant violation. Those who fail to do so are returned to prison and do not get a second chance.


The last, rehabilitative, aspect is of course the most significant, in that the word implies a self-willed curtailment of criminal behaviour.


An offender on HDC is indeed able to re-offend during daylight hours.


That said, his or her daily conduct is under varying degrees of personal supervision, either by the assigned probation officer or the monitoring agent concerned, or both.


An offender with a record of drug dealing, for instance, would warrant close scrutiny.


The HDC offender's opportunity to commit crime undetected during the day is small and the detection rate of any crime committed is likely to be high.


The rate of conviction for crimes committed by offenders under HDC is 2.1 per cent. It is reasonable to suppose that such a figure is close to the reality of crimes actually committed, and that undetected crime is minuscule


This 2.1 percentage should be set against the commonly accepted estimate among probation workers of over half of ex-prisoners re-offending within the first few weeks of (untagged) release from jail.


(The re-conviction rate of released prisoners in England and Wales is 59 per cent within 2 years of release.)


In August 2004, the Opposition leader, Michael Howard (a former Home Secretary), announced the Conservative Party's intention to scrap the HDC scheme should his Party be returned to power.

Such is easier promised than done.


To return the current 3500 or more HDC curfewees to jail at a stroke would be impossible: the cell beds would not exist; nor the staff to handle them.


At least two large new jails would have to be built, at a cost of £220m each, and a time-scale of three years.


We expect the Opposition's stance to be reviewed under whichever new leader of the Conservative Party emerges in later 2005.


As Home Secretary from 1993 to 1997 Mr Howard's slogan of 'prison works' was indeed borne out in that strict sentencing and longer sentences kept more potential criminals out of circulation for longer periods and crime indeed fell.


The effectiveness of such a policy had been demonstrated elsewhere, as for example, New York City under the administration of Mayor Giuliani.


But there is little firm evidence that longer sentences act as a deterrent (except in so far as repeated offenders may grow old in prison and tire of law-breaking and its consequences).


Meanwhile, there is no evidence that use of electronic monitoring across a wide range of offenders would not be more effective than prison: effective in curtailing recidivism in both the shorter and the longer term, at a far lower cost in money, alienation and human dereliction.


Indications are perceptible (if not yet convincing) that experience of life on the tag in some areas of criminal propensity does reduce re-offending, when set against the record of similar offenders released from jail.


For tagging purposes, England and Wales from April were divided into five Criminal Justice Areas: West Midlands and Wales, covering Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Staffordshire, West Mercia; London and Eastern, covering Beds, Herts, Cambridgeshire, and all of East Anglia; North East and North West, including Manchester, Merseyside, Lancashire, Durham, Cleveland, Cheshire, Cumbria and Northumbria; East Midlands, covering Yorkshire, Humberside, Leicester, Notts and Derbyshire; and South-East and South-West.


Each of these regions is monitored from a single centre, the first two are run by Premier; the last by Group 4-Securicor.


Reservations concerning HDC come from two directions: those who see the option as being 'soft on crime' (i.e. insufficiently punitive, especially in the popular perception); and those working within the system who regard sentences foreshortened to a matter of weeks as being too brief for any prison-based programmes designed to engender behavioural change to take place effectively.


As to national organisation, the Home Office has established its Electronic Monitoring Team in Horseferry House, Westminster, as a wing of the National Probation Directorate. Scotland has entered the field of electronic monitoring (referred to locally as 'restriction of liberty' orders) rather later than England and Wales.


Scottish Parliamentary legislation was expected to allow for the introduction of an equivalent of an HDC (early release) system from early 2006. Northern Ireland has yet to start tagging in any form.




Some 6000 further adult offenders 'on the tag' in England and Wales as of November 2005 were serving their electronic monitoring orders not in the context of early release from prison (HDC) but as a sentence standing alone or as an adjunct to a community service order or as a condition of Parole. Of those tagged in this so-called 'Criminal Justice' category (as distinct from HDC), the largest single group (43 per cent) are being tagged on home curfew for failure to pay fines. (Courts have a right to waive a fine; but in practice, tag sentences are not served in lieu: the fine is still payable.)


Approximately 20 per cent of adults serving (non-HDC) tag sentences are doing so as an alternative to custody, and 22 per cent as an adjunct to a community service order handed down by the courts.


A small proportion of curfew tagging orders are issued as a bail condition, currently somewhat more than 100 adults and nearly 600 'juveniles' (under-18's).


The 1997 Crime (Sentences) Act allows for curfew tag sentences on offenders in the 10-15 age group, for a maximum of 3 months: more than 800 such offenders were under curfew from between 2 to 12 hours a day in early 2005.


Voice verification, by landline phone from the curfewee's home, is slowly gaining acceptability by courts in England and Wales as a dependable means of confirmation of the presence of an offender in his or her home, in fulfilment of a curfew order. (Voice verification may now be considered foolproof.


In so far as it is simultaneously possible to verify both the offender as speaker and the location of his or her telephone - whether by landline from a known location or by GPS - we must expect an expanding role for this technology in penal or correctional affairs.)


So far, some 900 offenders, most of them bailees, have been monitored by voice verification alone since the technology was introduced in 2001.


In England and Wales, a maximum tagging sentence is 6 months, in Scotland a year. Maximum daily 'criminal justice' tag penalties are for 10 hours, minimum 2 hours.


There is no restriction, however, on the hours for which a bailee may be tagged daily.


In the field of Youth Justice, there are currently 8 different curfew programmes involving tag monitoring in use in England and Wales for the handling and so-called treatment of (currently some 650) offenders under 18.


These are managed by the Home Office's Youth Justice Board, under Intensive Surveillance and Supervision Programmes (ISSP).


The Crime (Sentences) Act of 1997 permits the use of the curfew tag for offenders as young as 10, in order to verify their presence at home at certain periods.


The sound intention is to establish a discipline of calm and regularity.


In practice so far, the youngest tagged have been in their early teens, and the bulk of them in their middle and late teens.


All will have offended repeatedly.


In practice, the tag restraint has been slackly handled, with repeated violations left unpunished, leading to a widespread discrediting of the system. It could also be that the tag restraint is administered too late.


American experience is that, on young offenders, the tag induces behavioural change most successfully on those of the (sometimes very) young who have not already been contaminated by the effect of custody and where there is a passably stable home.


Most of the (British) ISSP tagees will have had seriously disrupted backgrounds or mental health problems, or both.


All are supported by sustained supervisory attention, often on a one-to-one basis.


Under the ISSP, the tag is being used to monitor compliance with curfew orders designed to break persistent offending habits. The curfew periods therefore often fall in the daytime.


The purpose is to save as many offenders as possible from being locked up in the Secure Centres for the under 15s ands the Young Offender Institutions for the 15 to 20-year-olds, both of which have the malign consequences of institutionalizing the youngsters, quite possibly for evermore.


Despite the high rate of violation, any analysis of the effectiveness of tag-backed ISS Programmes for young offenders published in September 2004 indicated the frequency of re-offence in the year following ISSP to have fallen on average by 43 per cent compared with the year prior to undertaking ISSP.


Meanwhile, a comparable series of programmes (ICCP)has been making widespread use of similarly targeted tag regimes for adult offenders.




In the US - a country where some 5 million offenders at any time are under one or another form of supervision within the community - the electronic tag is an established contributor to the correctional system and has been in use as a penal restraint in all States since the early 1990s.


The Tracking Tag is now shaping to supersede the Curfew Tag, and in an expanded role.


The caseload of electronically monitored offenders is today estimated at around 120,000.


This year, the highest profile American tagee, wearing her electronic monitoring bracelet, has been the lifestyle guru Martha Stewart.


Tag sentences are more commonly handed down to sex offenders, drunk drivers, and those convicted of domestic violence.


The refinement of Tracking Tag technology is set to extend tag use.


Curfew tagging has been successfully applied across the spectrum: as an adjunct to bail, in lieu of a jail sentence, for early parole equivalent to the British HDC, and also as a means of monitoring curfews imposed alongside community penalties.


Tag sentences range widely from a couple of weeks to many months, and in some cases years where the original offence has been serious.


Elsewhere, Sweden has led continental Europe in the use of the Curfew Tag, with the tag option credited with reducing the prison population by more than 20 per cent.


It is widely applied to drunken drivers who would previously have gone to prison.


The average age of Sweden's tagees is over 30, which makes for an unusually high level of compliance.


Curfew tagging programmes are in operation in various provinces of Canada and states of Australia, and also in New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, Argentina, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Israel, Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany. Various other Governments or national departments of Justice are assessing the tagging option.




Since its formation in 1982, the OTA has fulfilled its task of keeping politicians, the judiciary, the forces of law and order, the media, and appropriate public figures alert to the potential of electronic monitoring as a means of dealing with criminals and reducing crime in a civilized society.


We have further provided sound guidance on what is technologically feasible and available, and politically manageable.


What we have achieved so far by participation in radio and television programmes, articles and letters in the press, briefing media correspondents, attending seminars, and enlightening politicians, civil servants, and members of the judiciary, and by issuing our occasional overviews, of which the latest is normally available on the web ( We are motivated by no more than a desire for penal advance on the premise of human redeemability.


In terms of punishment, it should be remembered that the tag can be made punitively restrictive and yet, in contrast to the prison cell, it can preserve the offender's chance to restore his/her role in life and self-respect which are so commonly lost in prison, and allow the offender to hang on to what there may be in the way of a home and family life, generally recognised as crucial to rehabilitation.


Over more than two decades we have witnessed a heartening shift in the manner in which others concerned with crime, punishment and human rights have responded to the ideas and proposals which originated from us and, of course, continue to be propagated by us.


We have seen hostility overtaken by goodwill by leading voices in many fields probation, the police, other penal reform organisations, civil libertarian groups, and political parties.


We note that the American Civil Liberties Union has come out in public support for the introduction of GPS tracking of offenders. We have seen the Economic and Social Research Council of Birmingham University conducting, under Dr Mike Nellis, a series of well-balanced seminars involving leading figures from a wide range of disciplines and skills - criminological, sociological, technical, judicial - on the realities and shorter and longer term prospects of electronic monitoring.


The future role for the tag is assured; what deserves sustained consideration is its best and fullest use so as to diminish crime and diminish recourse to the penitentiary.


The Home Secretary of the time, David Blunkett, member of a Party whose Front Bench spokesmen were energetically deriding tagging in the 1980s, was in September 2004 welcoming the launch of the Home Office pilots for the GPS Tracking Tag as a 'prison without bars'.


These three words portend a seismic shift in penological thinking - as significant, it may be claimed, as the shift towards building penitentiaries nearly two centuries ago to supersede the gallows, stocks and dungeons which preceded them as the favoured means of handling and deterring offenders.


We look to the day when, as a principle of justice, we confine prison as punishment to those of the guilty who have no wish or intention to live lawfully and as a disabling restaint to those manifestly incapable of doing so.


November 2005






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I decline any liability for the misuse of my images from other subjects . Save, download and capture screenshots for any image of my property will be considered a serious violation of the copyright laws and therefore be prosecuted according to the copyright laws.

Remembering that these can not be used in any way and in any form both for publications and for other intentions because they were acquired by violating the law

The purpose of my work is to celebrate the beauty and complexity of the world , both natural and human, and not slander, defame , mock people, things and places .

I do my apologies to anyone that could feel offended by any of my picture. The picture that could offend the sensibility of anyone will be removed when you will signal it to me


The character of my work is essentially non-profit . The portraits and photographs of people were taken following the spirit and philosophy of street photography and photojournalism. They have therefore essentially cultural and artistic nature and are governed by the law 633/1941 as established by Article 97 l.n. 633/1941 and in compliance with the constitutional values of freedom of press, freedom of opinion, and freedom of report.


Non avete il mio permesso per utilizzare in alcun modo mie immagini. Chiunque intendesse utilizzarle deve essere in possesso di una mia autorizzazione scritta e firmata. Chiunque violasse questo principio sarà considerato violatore delle leggi sulla privacy, sulla protezione dei dati e sul copyright e quindi sarà perseguito a norma di legge.

Declino ogni responsabilità per eventuali usi distorti delle mie immagini da parte di terzi. Salvare, scaricare o acquisire mediante screenshot una o più immagini di mia proprietà sarà considerato come una seria e grave violazione del copyright. Qualora qualcuno non rispettasse quanto appena detto ricordo che le immagini acquisite illegalmente non potranno essere utilizzate in alcun modo e per nessuno scopo in quanto acquisite illegalmente.

Scopo del mio lavoro è celebrare la bellezza e la complessità del mondo, sia umano che naturale e non calunniare, diffamare, danneggiare e offendere persone cose o persone. Faccio preventivamente le mie scuse a quanti dovessero sentirsi offesi da una o più delle mie immagini. le immagini ritenute offensive saranno rimosse non appena me ne giungerà la segnalazione.


Il carattere del mio lavoro è essenzialmente non-profit e quindi senza scopo di lucro. I ritratti e le fotografie di persone sono state scattate seguendo lo spirito e la filosofia della street photography e della fotografia di reportage hanno quindi carattere essenzialmente culturale e artistico e sono quindi disciplinate secondo quanto fissato dall'Articolo 97 l.n. 633/1941 e nel rispetto dei valori costituzionali della libertà di stampa, opinione, espresione e di cronoca

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cardioid chide coincident continually crowd

cardiologist chiding coincidental continuance crowded

cardiology chief coincidentally continuation crowding

cardiomyopathy chief executive officer coinsurance continuative crown

cardiopulmonary chief of staff coir continue crown fire

cardiopulmonary resuscitation chiefly coital continued crown jewels

cardiovascular chieftain coition continuing crown prince

cardoon chieftainship coitus continuity crowned

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cardsharp chigger coke continuous crucial

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career chilblain colchicine contorted crucifer

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careful child's play cold feet contour line cruciform

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careless childcare cold snap contrabass crude

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caress childish cold turkey contraception crudeness

caressing childishly cold war contraceptive crudites

caret childishness cold work contract crudity

caretaker childless coldcock contract bridge cruel

careworn childlessness coldly contracted cruelly

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cargo childproof cole contractility cruelty

cargo hold chili coleslaw contracting cruet

cargo vessel chili con carne coleus contraction cruise

carhop chili dog colewort contractor cruise control

caribou chili pepper colic contradict cruise missile

carica chiliad coliseum contradiction cruiser

caricature chiliasm colitis contradiction in terms crumb

caricaturist chiliast collaborate contradictory crumble

caries chiliastic collaboration contradistinction crumbliness

carillon chill collaborative contradistinguish crumbly

carina chiller collaborator contrail crummy

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carious chilly collar contralto crumpled

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carminative chimera collards contrariety crus

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carnality chin collation contravention crushed

carnallite chin music colleague contretemps crushing

carnally china collect contribute crust

carnation chinaman collectable contributing crustacea

carnauba chinaware collected contribution crustacean

carnauba wax chinch collectedly contributor crusty

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carnival chine collecting contritely crux

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carnivore chino collective contrition crybaby

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carol chip collectivist control cryolite

caroler chip in collector control character cryometer

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carom chipotle collegial control panel cryoscope

carotene chipper collegiate control room cryosurgery

carotenoid chips collet control surface crypt

carotid chirography collie controllable cryptanalysis

carousal chiromancy collier controlled cryptanalyst

carouse chironomidae colligate controlled substance cryptic

carousel chiropodist collimation controller cryptogam

carouser chiropody collimator controlling cryptogram

carp chiropractic collinear controversial cryptographer

carpal chiropractor collins controversy cryptography

carpal bone chirp collision controvert cryptology

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carpenter chirrup collodion contumaciously crystal

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carpet chit colloquially conundrum crystallisation

carpet bomb chitin colloquium conurbation crystallization

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carpeted chiton collusion convalescent crystallography

carpeting chitterlings colly convect ctenoid

carping chivalric cologne convection ctenophore

carpobrotus chivalrous colombian convene cub

carport chivalrously colon convenience cuban

carpus chivalry colonel convenience food cuban heel

carrack chive colonial convenience store cubby

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carrel chivvy colonic convenient cube

carriage chivy colonisation conveniently cube root

carriage bolt chlamydia colonise convent cubeb

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carrick bend chloramine colonization convention cubic centimeter

carrier chlorate colonize conventional cubic centimetre

carrier bag chloric acid colonnade conventionally cubic foot

carrier wave chloride colonnaded conventual cubic meter

carrion chlorinated lime colonoscope converge cubic metre

carrion crow chlorination colonoscopy convergence cubic yard

carrot chlorine colony converging cubical

carrottop chlorine dioxide colophon conversant cubicle

carroty chlorine water colophony conversation cubism

carrousel chlorinity color conversational cubit

carry chlorite color blindness conversationalist cuboid

carry away chlorofluorocarbon color television converse cuboid bone

carry on chloroform color wheel conversely cuckold

carry out chlorophyll coloration conversion cuckoldry

carryall chlorophyllous coloratura converso cuckoo

carrycot chlorophyte colored convert cucumber

carsick chloroplast colorful converted cucurbitaceae

cart chlorosis colorimeter converter cucurbitaceous

cartage chlorous acid coloring convertible cud

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carter chockablock colorlessness convey cudgel

carthorse chocolate colors conveyance cue

cartilage chocolate bar colossal conveyancer cue ball

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carting choir colossus conveying cufflink

cartload choirboy colostomy conveyor cuirass

cartographer choirmaster colostrum conveyor belt cuisine

cartographic choke colour convict cul

cartography chokecherry colour bar conviction culinary

carton choked colour blindness convince cull

cartoon chokepoint colour television convinced cullender

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cartouche choking coloured convincingly culminate

cartridge cholecalciferol colourful convivial culmination

cartwheel cholecystectomy colouring convocation culotte

cartwright cholecystitis colourise convoke culpability

carve choler colourless convoluted culpable

carved cholera colours convolution culprit

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carving choline colugo convulsively cultivate

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caryatid chomping columbarium coo cultivation

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cascabel chooser columnar cooked culture medium

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cascara chop shop colza cookie cultus

case chop suey coma cooking culverin

case law chophouse comal cooking apple culvert

casebook chopin comatose cooking utensil cum

cased chopine comb cookout cumber

casein chopped combat cool cumbersome

casement chopper combatant cool it cumbersomeness

casement window choppiness combative cool off cumbrous

casework chopping board combativeness coolant cumin

caseworker choppy comber cooler cummerbund

cash chopstick combination coolie cumulation

cash cow choral combinatory cooling cumulative

cash flow chorale combine coolly cumulonimbus

cash in chorally combined coolness cumulus

cash machine chord combining coon cuneal

cash on delivery chordal combining form coonskin cuneate

cash register chordate combust coop cuneiform

cashed chore combustible cooper cuneiform bone

cashew chorea combustion cooperation cuniculus

cashew nut choreograph come cooperative cunnilingus

cashier choreographer come about cooperatively cunning

cashmere choreographic come across cooperativeness cunningly

casing choreography come around cooperator cunt

casino chorion come out of the closet coordinate cup

cask chorister come round coordinate bond cup of tea

casket chorizo come through coordinate system cupbearer

casque choroid come to coordinated cupboard

cassava chortle come up coordinating conjunction cupboard love

casserole chorus comeback coordination cupcake

cassette chosen comedian coordination compound cupful

cassia chou comedienne coordinator cupid

cassock chough comedo coot cupidity

cassowary chow comedy cooter cupola

cast chow mein comeliness cootie cuppa

cast iron chowder comely cop cupric

cast off chrestomathy comer cop out cuprite

cast on chrism comestible copacetic cuprous

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castaway christening cometary cope curable

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castellated chromatic comfit copier curare

caster chromatic aberration comfort copilot curate

castigate chromatically comfortable coping curative

castigation chromatid comfortableness copious curator

casting chromatin comfortably copiously curatorial

castle chromatographic comforted copiousness curb

castling chromatography comforter coplanar curb bit

castor chrome comforting copolymer curbstone

castor bean chrome red comforts copout curd

castor oil chromic acid comfy copper cure

castrated chromium comic copper sulfate cured

castration chromoblastomycosis comic book copper sulphate curettage

castrato chromophore comic strip copperhead curette

castro chromosomal comical copperplate curfew

casual chromosome coming coppersmith curia

casually chromosphere comity coppice curie

casualness chronic comma copra curie temperature

casualty chronically command coprolite curing

casuist chronicle commandant coprophagia curio

casuistic chronicler commander coprophagy curiosity

casuistry chronograph commander in chief copse curious

casus belli chronological commandery copula curiously

cat chronologically commanding copular curiousness

cat box chronologise commandment copulate curium

cat burglar chronology commando copulation curl

cat food chronometer commemorating copy curled

cat's chronoscope commemoration copy editing curlew

cat's cradle chrysalis commemorative copy editor curliness

catabiosis chrysanthemum commence copycat curling

catabolic chrysomelid commencement copyhold curling iron

catabolism chrysoprase commend copyholder curly

catabolize chthonian commendable copying curmudgeon

cataclysm chthonic commendation copyist currant

cataclysmal chub commensal copyright currency

cataclysmic chubbiness commensalism copyright infringement current

catacomb chubby commensurable copyrighted current account

catadromous chuck commensurate copywriter currently

catafalque chuck wagon comment coquet curricular

catalan chuckhole commentary coquetry curriculum

catalase chuckle commentate coquette curriculum vitae

catalectic chuddar commentator coquettish currier

catalepsy chufa commerce coquille curry

cataleptic chuff commercial cor anglais curry powder

catalexis chuffed commercialism cora curse

catalogue chug commercialization coracle curse word

cataloguer chukka commercially coral cursed

catalpa chukker commie coral reef cursive

catalyse chum comminate coral snake cursor

catalysis chumminess commination corbel cursorily

catalyst chummy comminute corbelled cursory

catalytic chump commiserate cord curst

catalytic converter chump change commiseration cordage curt

catalyze chunk commissar cordate curtail

catamaran chunky commissary cordial curtain

catamenia church commission cordiality curtain call

catamenial churchgoer commissioned cordially curtal

catamite churchgoing commissioned officer cordite curtilage

catamount churchman commissioner cordless curtly

cataphract churchwarden commissioning cordon curtsey

catapult churchyard commissure cordon bleu curtsy

cataract churl commit cordovan curvaceous

catarrh churlish commit suicide cords curvaceousness

catastrophe churlishly commitment corduroy curvature

catastrophic churn committed corduroys curve

catastrophically churning committee cordwood curved

catatonia chute commix core curvet

catatonic chutney commode coreligionist curvilinear

catawba chutzpa commodious corgi curving

catbird chutzpah commodity coriaceous cuscus

catboat chyle commodore coriander cushat

catcall chyme common corinthian cushion

catch chymosin common cold corium cushy

catch fire cicada common eland cork cusp

catch up cicatrice common fraction corked cuspid

catchall cicatrise common ground corker cuss

catcher cicatrix common law corking cussed

catching cicatrize common man corkscrew custard

catchment cicer common noun corky custard apple

catchment basin cichlid common sense corm custard pie

catchphrase ciconia common year cormorant custodian

catchword cider commoner corn custody

catchy cigar commonly corn liquor custom

catechesis cigarette commonness corn salad customarily

catechism cigarillo commonplace corn syrup customary

catechist cilantro commonplace book cornbread customer

catechize ciliary commons corncob customize

catecholamine ciliate commonweal corncrake customs

catechumen ciliated commonwealth cornea cut

categorial cilium commotion corneal cut corners

categorical cimmerian communal corned cut down

categorically cinch communally corned beef cut in

categorisation cinchona commune cornel cut out

categorise cincture communicate corner cut up

categorization cinder communicating corner kick cutaneous

category cinder block communication cornerback cutaway

catena cinema communications cornered cutback

catenary cinematic communicative cornerstone cutch

cater cinematise communion cornet cute

catercorner cinematographer communique cornfield cuticle

caterer cinematography communism cornflower cuticula

catering cingulate gyrus communist cornice cutis

caterpillar cinnabar community cornish pasty cutlass

caterwaul cinnamon commutation cornmeal cutlery

catfish cinnamon bread commutative cornpone cutlet

catgut cinque commutator cornsilk cutpurse

catharsis cipher commuter cornstalk cutter

cathartic ciprofloxacin comp cornstarch cutthroat

cathect circadian compact cornu cutting

cathectic circadian rhythm compact disc cornucopia cutting edge

cathedral circinus compactness corny cutting room

catheter circle companion corolla cuttlefish

catheterization circlet companionable corollary cutworm

catheterize circuit companionate corona cwm

cathexis circuit board companionship coronal cyan

cathode circuit breaker companionway coronal suture cyanamide

cathodic circuitous company coronary cyanic acid

catholic circuitry comparability coronary heart disease cyanide

catholicity circular comparable coronary thrombosis cyanide process

catholicon circular file comparative coronation cyanogen

cathouse circular function comparative degree coroner cyanohydrin

cation circularity comparatively coronet cyanosis

cationic circularize comparing corporal cyanuric acid

catkin circularly comparison corporal punishment cybercafe

catmint circulate compartment corporate cybernetic

catnap circulating compartmentalisation corporation cybernetics

catnip circulation compartmentalization corporatism cyberpunk

catoptric circulatory compass corporeal cybersex

catsup circulatory system compass point corposant cyberspace

cattail circumambulate compassion corps cyborg

cattiness circumcise compassionate corpse cycad

cattish circumcision compatibility corpulence cyclamen

cattle circumference compatible corpulent cycle

cattle car circumferential compatriot corpus cycle per second

cattleman circumflex compeer corpus callosum cyclic

catty circumlocution compel corpus luteum cyclic redundancy check

catwalk circumlocutory compelling corpuscle cyclical

caucasoid circumnavigate compendious corrade cyclicity

caucus circumnavigation compendium corral cycling

cauda circumpolar compensate correct cyclist

caudal circumscribe compensated corrected cycloid

caudal fin circumscription compensation correction cyclone

caudally circumspect compere corrections cyclone cellar

caudex circumspection compete corrective cyclonic

caul circumspectly competency correctly cyclopaedia

cauldron circumstance competent correctness cyclopean

caulescent circumstances competently correlated cyclopedia

cauliflower circumstantial competition correlation cyclopropane

cauliflower ear circumstantially competitive correlative cyclops

cauline circumvallate competitiveness correspondence cyclorama

caulk circumvention competitor correspondent cycloserine

caulking circus compilation corresponding cyclosis

causa cirrhosis compile correspondingly cyclostome

causal cirrocumulus compiler corridor cyclothymia

causality cirrostratus complacence corrie cyclotron

causally cirrus complacency corrigenda cygnet

causation cis complacent corrigendum cygnus

causative cisalpine complacently corroborate cylinder

cause cisco complainant corroboration cylinder head

cause of action cislunar complainer corrode cylindrical

causeless cistern complaining corroding cylix

causerie cistron complaint corrosion cymbal

causeway citadel complaisant corrosive cymbalist

caustic citation complect corrosive sublimate cymene

caustic soda cite complement corrugate cynic

caustically citified complementary corrugated cynical

cauterization citify complementary angles corrugated iron cynically

cauterize citizen complementary medicine corrugation cynicism

cautery citizenry complete corrupt cynocephalus

caution citizenship completed corrupted cynophobia

cautionary citrate completely corruptible cynosure

cautious citric completeness corrupting cypher

cautiously citric acid completing corruption cypress

cautiousness citric acid cycle completion corruptness cyst

cavalcade citrine complex corsage cysteine

cavalier citron complex conjugate corsair cystic

cavalierly citrus complex number corse cystic fibrosis

cavalry city complex sentence corselet cystine

cavalryman city block complexify corset cystitis

cave city boy complexion corslet cytogenesis

cave in city council complexity cortege cytokine

caveat city hall complexly cortes cytokinesis

caveat emptor city slicker compliance cortex cytologic

caveman city state compliant cortical cytological

cavern civet complicated corticosteroid cytologist

cavernous civic complication corticosterone cytology

cavia civics complicity cortisol cytolysis

caviar civil compliment cortisone cytophotometer

caviare civil disobedience complimentary corundum cytophotometric

cavil civil servant compliments coruscate cytophotometry

caviler civil service compline coruscation cytoplasm

cavity civil time complot corvette cytoplasmic

cavort civil war comply corvine cytosine

cavy civilian component corvus cytoskeleton

caw civilisation compos mentis corymb cytosol

cay civilised compose coryza cytotoxic

cayenne civilization composed cosecant cytotoxicity

cayenne pepper civilize composer coseismal cytotoxin

cayman civilized composing coseismic czar

cayuse civilly composite cosh czarina

cazique civvies composite material cosher czarist


Using special software for retail auditing automation provides advanced analytics and a closed-loop approach to each point-of-sales. If you are looking for a cost-effective software solutions for retail audits, implement the VisitBasis Retail Audit App. Start performing store audits using cloud software for Android and Apple smartphones or tablets to improve efficiency and effectiveness of you field reps.


The 2013 Cyber Security Summit took place on September 25, 2013 at The Hilton in New York City.


The Cyber Security Summit connects senior executives responsible for protecting their company’s critical

infrastructure with innovative solution providers.


This educational and informational forum focuses on educating attendees on how to best protect highly vulnerable business applications and critical infrastructure. Attendees have the opportunity to meet the nation’s leading solution providers and discover the latest products and services for enterprise cyber defense.


Keynote addresses and panel discussions address emerging threats, risk factors and strategic priorities to keep organizations at the forefront of cyber security and most importantly, secure.


About Websense: Websense, Inc. is a global leader in protecting organizations from the latest cyberattacks and data theft. Websense® TRITON® comprehensive security solutions unify web security, email security, mobile security and data loss prevention (DLP) at the lowest total cost of ownership. Tens of thousands of enterprises rely on Websense TRITON security intelligence to stop advanced persistent threats, targeted attacks and evolving malware. Websense prevents data breaches, intellectual property theft and enforces security compliance and best practices. A global network of channel partners distributes scalable, unified appliance- and cloud-based Websense TRITON solutions.


Learn more:


2013 Cyber Security Summit sponsors included: AirWatch, Blue Coat Systems, Brite Computers, CipherPoint Software, Cognizant, Dickstein Shapiro, eSentire, F5 Networks, FireEye, Guidepoint Security, HillCrest Agency, Information Security Solutions, Lookingglass , McAfee, Mocana Corporation, Norman Shark, Norse, Novetta Solutions, PhishMe, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Red Sky Alliance, Reservoir Labs, RSA, The Security Division of EMC, Savvis Federal Systems, Security Innovation, Security Innovation Network (SINET), Skybox Security , STIGroup , ThreatGRID, ThreatTrack Security, Triumfant, Websense, Welz & Weisel Communications, ZenSar Technologies, Ziften, Zscaler and more.


For more information on the 2013 Cyber Security summit, please visit the event website:



VinAsset is a Hybrid Group Purchasing Organization (GPO) in the adult beverage industry created to connect our members to the right suppliers. We help members and suppliers manage overall spend by reducing purchasing risk, conserving cash and improving productivity, all within our Vertically Integrated Network. Our cloud-based technology platform enables higher connectivity, visibility, compliance and profitability, simplifying procurement along the way.



VinAsset is a Hybrid Group Purchasing Organization (GPO) in the adult beverage industry created to connect our members to the right suppliers. We help members and suppliers manage overall spend by reducing purchasing risk, conserving cash and improving productivity, all within our Vertically Integrated Network. Our cloud-based technology platform enables higher connectivity, visibility, compliance and profitability, simplifying procurement along the way.

Alexandra Allred

Midlothian, Texas


When my family moved to Midlothian, Texas (a.k.a. the cement capital of Texas), we knew very little about the cement plants other than what we were told: "They're in compliance!" and "It's just steam coming out." We were more excited about the fact that we could actually afford land, own horses and goats, that we had an incredibly cool creek in the back filled with snapping turtles, crawfish, snakes, owls, coyotes, a bobcat and more.


But shortly after moving to Midlothian, my then two-year-old son, Tommy, became sick. Pneumonia, double pneumonia, bronchitis, fever, unexplained coughing and shortness of breath. We couldn't figure out what was going on because the rest of us—older, with stronger lung capacity—were fine. Only after a doctor at Children's Hospital in Dallas perused Tommy's medical file did he say, "Oh ... you live in Midlothian."


This was the beginning.


As I began to research, talk to my neighbors, teachers, school nurses and parents, I discovered that there was indeed a problem. School nurses talked to me about their "asthma baskets" and how the number of children with inhalers was growing. Later, my son's school would be named in a USA Today report as being in the upper 1 percent of the most toxic schools in the nation—the same school I butted heads with cement plant executives about being under the toxic plumes while children were at recess.


By age 5, Tommy risked being held back because of the number of days he missed due to severe asthma and upper respiratory problems. He was rushed to Emergency and put under doctor's care six times in two months! It was a horrible and terrifying time … made worse only by the fact that local government/city officials and cement industry did everything they could to keep this dirty little problem a dirty little secret.


In 2006 when it was discovered that a cement quarry was planned 500 feet from an elementary school playground, the response from AshGrove Cement (a company that is suing the city of Dallas and surrounding cities for supporting "green" cement) was, "We were here first." I cannot express how little concern is given to the health and welfare of children or any residents of Midlothian.

Image excerpt from How I met the President, a short story by Tommy Allred

Read a storybook about Tommy's asthma and his meeting with Sen. Barack Obama,

written by Tommy and illustrated by his sister, Kerri Leigh Allred.


In 2006, my son Tommy—who has asthma—met then Sen. Obama, and they had an impromptu discussion about asthma. Sen. Obama told Tommy about his own daughter's asthma. We left that meeting on Cloud 9 believing this would be a man who would do something about our air pollution problem. I want President Obama to recall his words to my son, to remember the frustrations the Senator felt about his own daughter's asthma, to feel the certain pride and definite commitment he made to this nation and DEMAND cleaner air.


I ask that members of Congress and the EPA listen to us and make decisions based upon principle. A man or woman who truly loves his/her nation is ready to put service above self.

St Agatha's Monastery, also known as Easby Abbey, was officially founded in 1152 by Roald, Constable of nearby Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire, but evidence seems to suggest that it was an existing Anglo-Saxon minister which was simply converted into a Premonstratensian house - only the third of that order to be established in England by that date. to see the full set.


So its origins are clouded in a little mystery but that mystery continues with its demise. After hundreds of years of quiet religious devotion Easby - along with every other religious house in England - was closed by Henry VIII's Dissolution of the monasteries but sources differ on exactly when this happened at Easby. The likeliest date is 1536 as it had been valued in 1534/35 which implies it was already being appraised for potential closure - a closure supported by Act of Parliament and carried out under the cover of religious 'reform'. Henry VIII had claimed that only smaller houses with an alleged history of misconduct or lax practices were to be dissolved. Effectively he presented it as 'streamlining'. Serving monks and nuns were offered transfers to a larger and better ordered religious house. The king sold or rented out the properties and pocketed much of the cash.


However Easby's role in the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 saw Easby singled out for harsh treatment. The Pilgrimage of Grace was a northern rebellion against Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries (and other issues)


which saw rebels allow evicted monks and nuns back into the religious houses which had already been Dissolved. This might account for the various dates for Easby's demise, the original closure and the second and final closure.


King Henry VIII reacted with anger and blood. Written orders to the Duke of Norfolk on February 22, 1537 instructed him: " must cause such dreadful execution upon a good number of the inhabitants, hanging them on trees, quartering them and setting their heads and quarters up in every town, as such a fearful warning... at your repair to Salley, Hexham, Newminster, Lanercost, St Agatha (Easby) and such other places as have made resistance... you shall without pity or circumstance cause the monks to be tied up without further delay."


Precise events at Easby are unknown as few records were kept but events elsewhere suggest that monasticism at Easby did not die the easy death which is appears to have suffered at other sites. Indeed the second wave of Dissolutions in 1538/1540 did not even require an Act of Parliament - commissioners simply appeared at the gates of each house in turn, offered generous cash pensions and 'suggested' closure. Memories of the fate of the Abbot of Glastonbury (hung, drawn and quartered) and the wave of executions following the Pilgrimage of Grace may have weighed heavily towards compliance. The last, Waltham Abbey, closed in 1541.


Today Easby is a charming ruin in the care of English Heritage. The adjoining parish church is also well worth a visit as it contains several impressive murals dated to around 1250.

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