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1099 - 1st Crusaders capture, plunder Jerusalem
1205 - Pope Innocent III states Jews are doomed to perpetual servitude and subjugation due to crucifixion of Jesus
1207 - John of England expels Canterbury monks for supporting Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton.
1240 - A Novgorodian army led by Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva.
1307 - Duke Henrik van Karinthi chosen king of Bohemia
1381 - John Ball, a leader in the Peasants' Revolt, is hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of Richard II of England.
1410 - Battle of Tannenburg-Teutonic Knights vs King Ladislas II of Poland
1500 - Duke Albrecht of Saxon beats Friese rebellion
1500 - "Blood Wedding" of Astorre Baglione & Lavinia Colonna in Perugia family Baglione massacre
1501 - Explorer Pedro Cabral back in Lisbon
1524 - Emperor Karel I bans German national synode
1538 - Peace talks between Karel & King Francois I
1662 - King Charles II charters Royal Society in London
1741 - Alexei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.
1755 - French ambassador recalled from London
1779 - US troops under Gen A Wayne conquer Ft Stony Point, NY
1783 - 1st steamboat, Pyroscaphe, 1st run in France
1787 - Parliament of Paris banished to Troyes
1789 - Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, is named by acclamation colonel-general of the new National Guard of Paris.
1795 - "Marseillaise" becomes French national anthem
1799 - The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign. The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptian granodiorite stele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all three scripts (with some minor differences between them), it provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.
1806 - Zebulon Pike began his journey to explore the Southwest
1808 - French marshal Joachim Murat becomes king of Naples
1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders at Rochefort & is later exiled on St Helena
1815 - 1st flat horse race held on Nottingham Hill at Cheltenham, England (day and month TBC)
1823 - A fire destroys the ancient Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome.
1830 - 3 Indian tribes, Sioux, Sauk & Fox, signs a treaty giving the US most of Minnesota, Iowa & Missouri
1840 - England, Russia, Austria & Prussia signs Quadruple Alliance
1850 - John Wisden bowls all 10 South batsmen, North v South at Lord's
1856 - Natal forms as a British colony separate from Cape Colony
1862 - CSS Arkansas vs USS Cardondelet & Queen of the West engage at Yazoo R
1863 - Pres Davis orders service duty for confederate army
1864 - Troop train loaded with Confederate prisoners collided with a coal train killing 65 & injuring 109 of 955 aboard
1867 - SF Merchant's Exchange opens
1869 - Margarine is patented by Hippolye Méga-Mouriès for use by French Navy
1870 - Georgia becomes last confederate to be readmitted to US
1870 - Manitoba becomes 5th Canadian province & NW Territories created
1870 - Hudson's Bay & Northwest Territories transferred to Canada
1876 - Baseball's 1st no-hitter, St Louis' George W Bradley no-hits Hartford
1888 - Bandai volcano (Japan) erupts for 1st time in 1,000 years
1893 - Commodore Perry arrives in Japan
1900 - President Steyn/General De Law escape Brandwater Basin
1901 - NY Giant Christy Mathewson no-hits St Louis, 5-0
1902 - Ranjitsinhji scores 180 before lunch, for Sussex v Surrey
1904 - 1st Buddhist temple in US forms, Los Angeles
1906 - Republic museum opens Rembrandt hall in Amsterdam
1909 - Ty Cobb hits 2 inside-the-park HRs
1911 - 46" of rain (begining 7/14) falls in Baguio, Philippines
1912 - British National Health Insurance Act goes into effect
1914 - Mexican president Huerta flees with 2 million pesos to Europe
1916 - 22.22" (56.4 cm) of rain falls in Altapass NC (state record)
1916 - Boeing Co (Pacific Aero) formed by William Boeing in Seattle Wash
1918 - 2nd Battle of Marne began during WW I
1920 - Ruth ties his record of 29 HRs in a season
1922 - 1st duck-billed platypus publicly exhibited in US, at NY zoo
1922 - 26th US Golf Open: Gene Sarazen shoots a 288 at Skokie CC in Ill
1923 - 27th US Golf Open: Bobby Jones shoots a 296 at Inwood CC in NY
1923 - Italian parliament accepts new constitution
1926 - VPRO (Free thinking Protestant Radio Broadcast) forms
1927 - 62nd British Golf Open: Bobby Jones shoots a 285 at St Andrews
1927 - Massacre of July 15, 1927: 89 protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna.
1929 - 1st airport hotel opens-Oakland Ca
1932 - President Hoover cuts own salary 15%
1933 - Wiley Post began 1st solo flight around world
1934 - Continental Airlines commences operations.
1936 - Dutch 2nd Chamber agree to temporarily increase defense budget
1937 - Buchenwald Concentration Camp opens
1937 - Japanese attack Marco Polo Bridge, invade China
1938 - Arthur Fagg completes 244 & 202 in the same cricket game for Kent
1939 - Clara Adams (NYC) is 1st woman to complete round world flight
1940 - 1st betatron placed in operation, Urbana, Il
1940 - Nazi occupiers seize library of IISG Amsterdam
1941 - Florey & Heatley present freeze dried mold cultures (Penicillin)
1942 - 1st deportation camp at Westerbork, Jews sent to Auschwitz
1942 - Dutch Jews invoked for "Labor camps"
1944 - Greenwich Observatory damaged by WW II flying bomb
1945 - 27th PGA Championship: Byron Nelson at Morraine CC Dayton Ohio
1946 - British North Borneo Co transfers rights to British crown
1948 - Alcoholic Anonymous founded in Britain
1948 - Pres Truman nominated for another term (Phila)
1949 - "Miss Liberty" opens at Imperial Theater NYC for 308 performances
1949 - Czech tennis stars Jaroslav Drobny & Vladimir Cernik, defect to US
1949 - WBTV TV channel 3 in Charlotte, NC (CBS) begins broadcasting
1952 - 1st transatlantic helicopter flight begins
1952 - Gerald D Lascelles (under English princess Mary) weds Angela Dowding
1954 - 110°F (43°C) at Balcony Falls, Virginia (state record)
1954 - 1st coml jet transport plane built in US tested (Boeing 707)
1954 - KOCO TV channel 5 in Oklahoma City, OK (ABC) begins broadcasting
1954 - WBOC TV channel 16 in Salisbury, MD (CBS/NBC/ABC) begins broadcasting
1955 - WNDU TV channel 16 in South Bend, IN (NBC) begins broadcasting
1955 - Eighteen Nobel laureates sign the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons, later co-signed by thirty-four others.
1956 - Beverly Hanson/Kathy Cornelius wins LPGA Hot Springs Golf Invitational
1956 - Iharos runs world record 10k (28:42.8)
1957 - Dutch Super Constellation crashes near New Guinea, 56 die
1957 - US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site
1958 - Pres Eisenhower sends US troops to Lebanon; they stay 3 months
1958 - US marines deployed in Lebanon
1959 - The steel strike of 1959 begins, leading to significant importation of foreign steel for the first time in United States history.
1960 - Balt Orioles' Brooks Robinson goes 5 for 5 including the cycle
1961 - "Donnybrook!" closes at 46th St Theater NYC after 68 performances
1961 - 90th British Golf Open: Arnold Palmer shoots a 284 at Royal Birkdale
1961 - Spain accept equal rights for men & women
1962 - Algeria becomes member of Arab League
1962 - Mickey Wright wins LPGA Milwaukee Golf Open
1962 - Neth & Indonesia accord over New-Guinea
1963 - KAIT TV channel 8 in Jonesboro, AR (ABC) begins broadcasting
1963 - Paul McCartney is fined £17 for speeding
1964 - Barry M Goldwater (Sen-R-Az) nominated for president by Republicans
1965 - "Mariner IV" sends back 1st pictures of Mars
1965 - Athanassiades Novas succeeds Papandreo as premier of Greece
1967 - "Sweet Charity" closes at Palace Theater NYC after 608 performances
1967 - LA Wolves beat Wash Whips 6-5 in OT to be United Soccer Ass champs
1967 - Roberto DeVicenzo of Argentina wins golf's British Open
1967 - USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1968 - "One Life to Live" premieres on TV
1968 - Commercial air travel begins between US & USSR
1968 - France performs nuclear Test at Muruora Island
1968 - NJ Americans moved to Comack & become NY Nets (ABA)
1968 - Soap opera "One Life To Live" premieres
1969 - Cincinnati Red Lee May hits 4 HRs in a doubleheader
1969 - Rod Carew ties record with his 7th steal of home in a season
1970 - Denmark beats Italy 2-0 in 1st world female soccer championship
1971 - Pres Nixon announces he would visit People's Rep of China
1972 - 101st British Golf Open: Lee Trevino shoots 278 at Muirfield Gullane
1972 - Sandra Palmer/Jane Blalock wins Angelo's Four-Ball Golf Championship
1973 - Calif Angel Nolan Ryan 2nd no-hitter beats Detroit Tigers, 6-0
1973 - Carole Jo Skala wins LPGA George Washington Golf Classic
1973 - Paul Getty III kidnapped
1973 - Ray Davies, announces retirement from Kinks then attempts suicide
1973 - Willie McCovey becomes 15th to hit 400 HRs
1974 - Military coup on Cyprus: archbishop/president Makarios flees
1975 - 46th All Star Baseball Game: NL wins 6-3 at County Stadium, Milwaukee
1975 - All star MVP: Bill Madlock (Pitts Pirates) & John Matlock (NY Mets)
1975 - Apollo 18 launched (will rendezvous with Soyuz)
1975 - Soyuz 19 & Apollo 18 launched; rendezvous 2 days later
1976 - 36-hr kidnap of 26 school children & their bus driver in Calif
1978 - 107th British Golf Open: Jack Nicklaus shoots a 281 at St Andrews
1979 - 34th US Women's Open Golf Championship won by Jerilyn Britz
1979 - Morarji Desai resigns as premier of India
1980 - Johnny Bench hits his 314th HR as a catcher breaks Yogi Berra's record
1982 - Body of Wendy Caulfield, 1st Green River victim, found near Seattle
1982 - Columbia flies to Kennedy Space Center via Dyess AFB, Texas
1982 - Senate confirms George Shultz as 60th sec of state by vote of 97-0
1983 - 8 killed, 54 wounded, by Armenian extremists bomb at Orly, France
1983 - Linda Ronstadt debuts as Mabel in "Pirates of Penzance"
1984 - 39th US Women's Open Golf Championship won by Hollis Stacy
1984 - John Lennon releases "I'm Stepping Out"
1985 - Deborah Carthy-Deu, of Puerto Rico, crowned 34th Miss Universe
1986 - 57th All Star Baseball Game: AL wins 3-2 at Astrodome, Houston
1986 - All star MVP: Roger Clemens (Boston Red Sox)
1987 - Boy George barred from British TV show, he may be a bad influence
1987 - John Poindexter testifies at Iran-Contra hearings
1987 - State of siege ends in Taiwan
1990 - 45th US Women's Open Golf Championship won by Betsy King
1991 - France performs nuclear Test at Muruora Island
1991 - US troops leave northern Iraq
1991 - Sandhi Ortiz-DelValle is 1st woman to officiate a men's pro basketball (USBL) game, game between New Haven Skyhawks & Phila Spirit
1992 - Pope John Paul II hospitalized for 3 weeks to have tumor removed
1994 - Gyula Horn sworn in as premier of Hungary
1994 - Israel & Jordan agree to talks in Wash DC on July 25th
1994 - NJ Nets Derrek Coleman accused of rape in Detroit
1994 - Sonia O'Sullivan runs 3K (8:21.64)
1995 - Birmingham Barracudas 1st CFL home game (vs Hamilton)
1995 - Jews take Jerusalem
1995 - Northern Virginia begins using new area code 540
1996 - After 2,216 consecutive games at shortstop, Cal Ripkin goes to 3rd
1996 - MSNBC begins Microsoft internet-NBC TV
1996 - Prince Charles & Princess Di sign divorce papers
1996 - Southern Mexico hit with 6.5 earthquake
1996 - A Belgian Air Force C-130 Hercules carrying the Royal Netherlands Army marching band crashes on landing at Eindhoven Airport.
1999 - The inaugural game at the Seattle Mariners' Safeco Field was held in Seattle, Washington.
2002 - "American Taliban" John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and to possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.
2002 - Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan hands down the death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life terms to three others suspected of murdering Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
2003 - AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape Communications Corporation. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day.
2009 - A 7.9 Magnitude earthquake registers 160km west of Invercargill, New Zealand, creating a small tsunami.
My highest compliments to all concerned for excellent site."Sir, You have taken a right step to get those Swings removed from site of Harrapa" , Visitors thanked great scholar Dani when I visited his house in 2005. I had taken years to get it done by publishing many articles requesting peoples to create more facilities at cultural heritage sites. My kids and wife would had been cursing me for taking them to Harrapa quite often , My family was not craking Indus Scripts in 1989 because I had more than one computer as Manager Army Computer Club Okara but they had to crack Indus Scripts in 1995 becaue we had just one 486 computer for 3 kids and myself. What attraction kids and families had in ruins visiting 7th time.
“ What you think about round stone with stone round rod in the center and other on the top with hole in the center like grinding stone on top” , my expert visitor Egyptian asked on my 7th visit to Museum of Sasi & Punu two lovers near Twin port Karachi. Being from stone age cultural area , still using hand grinding in 1980 , acting as guide to my guest during last 6 tours , I thought it some sort of grinding though grinding stone are opposite to this , top has a wooen handle to move the stone , hole in the center has wooden piece a slot to where fulcrum from lower stone stone rest. Lower stone has a hole and tappered wooden piece is used for adjust ment of fuckrum. “ But how you would move this set for grinding , this is from tepmle used by issueless women “ , my expert visitor guided me on 7th visit.
My compliments to Thailand tourism , Ms Nani and the driver , she guided me in such an excellent fashon in 1995 that I still remember her. “ No guidence in the way , I would sit with driver , you have to be VIP not speaking a word “ , Nani gave the briefing on a cup of coffe before we started for visit of Royal Palace. She was such an excellent guide that she even gave out out cost of golden budda’s constume , golden bricks on the outer wall of golden temple. They had even kept book on Bhuddaism in my room. Bhudaism started from Taxila Pakistan but we have to make living model of previous prehistoric cultures of snake worshipers and other
1st success decryption of Indus Scripts confirmed through works of Dani, B B Lal , Mehdewan, Fair Server , Mark, Russian Professoers and many others in the century was approved by Dani in 2005. South Asia as most peaceful global trader and protector of global trading routes was known as ‘golden sparrow’.Everyone got job at his home and economy was stable. “ We must share our research work because there is no government support” Dani said . We have many secrets from Indus Script decryption that can make South Asia as most peaceful region for global trading. Global Peace Mega Project at. twitter.com/#!/nazeeraahmadch. We salute Anhazari for greatmove against anti corruption
Harappan civilization reached improbable heights and evolved amazing scripts .
Ancient inscriptions and pictorials starting from Mehrgarh Gedrosia 7000 BC till fall of civilization have always been an enigma. The glories of the ruined cities and their amazing un-deciphered script had many researchers imagining a gentle society of priests and scribes. Our decrypted secrets explain a culture that reached the heights of artistic achievement during 1900-1300 BC termed as Harappan civilization. New clues, unearthed from research on ruins and from our decrypted secrets point to new civilization of global trading termed as Matured Harappan
The settlement of Kot Diji culture mostly remained l hidden under the ruins of Mohenjodaro , Harappa and other big cities now known as Harappan Civilization 2600-1900 BC . Ethno-archaeological model is assuming much as it was when the first 50 hunting groups arrived in perhaps 8000 – 7000 BC connected with the arrival of Adam on earth. A dense forest , marshes and barren land where wild animals ruled was shared by manlike creatures . scarlet macaws, toucans, and vultures nest in towering tropical hardwoods. Scorpions , mountain , goats , fish , water buffalos lived together . These creatures and monkeys swing from branches and vines and howler monkeys bellow in the distance. It had been a land of jungle , marshes , mud, serpents and sweat, and tigers and horned tigers the lord of the jungle . The earliest arrivals of these creatures has been excavated in Samma Soan Valley of stone age where we find caves is probably had no choice—overcrowding elsewhere may have forced them into this forbidding environment. But once there, they mastered its challenges. Settling near rivers, lakes, and swamps, they learned to maximize the thin soil's productivity. They cleared the forest for maize, squash, and other crops by slashing and burning, much as today's Maya do, then re-enriched the land by alternating crops and letting fields lie fallow.
As populations grew, they adopted more intensive methods of cultivation—composting, terracing, irrigation. They filled in swamps to create fields and carried silt and muck from bottomlands to fertilize enclosed gardens. Artificial ponds yielded fish, and corrals held deer and other game flushed from the forest. The ancient Maya ultimately coaxed enough sustenance from the meager land for several million people, many times more than now live in the region.
Over the centuries, as the Maya learned to prosper in the rain forest, the settlements grew into city-states, and the culture became ever more refined. The Maya built elegant multiroom palaces with vaulted ceilings; their temples rose hundreds of feet toward the heavens. Ceramics, murals, and sculpture displayed their distinctive artistic style, intricate and colorful. Though they used neither the wheel nor metal tools, they developed a complete hieroglyphic writing system and grasped the concept of zero, adopting it for everyday calculations. They also had a 365-day year and were sophisticated enough to make leap-year-like corrections. They regularly observed the stars, predicted solar eclipses, and angled their ceremonial buildings so that they faced sunrise or sunset at particular times of year.
Mediating between the heavens and earth were the Maya kings—the kuhul ajaw, or holy lords, who derived their power from the gods. They functioned both as shamans, interpreting religion and ideology, and rulers who led their subjects in peace and war. Demarest and others have described the Maya centers as "theater states" in which the kuhul ajaw conducted elaborate public rituals to give metaphysical meaning to movements of the heavens, changes of the calendar, and the royal succession.
Behind the cloak of ritual, the Maya cities acted like states everywhere, making alliances, fighting wars, and trading for goods over territory that ultimately stretched from what is today southern Mexico through the Petén to the Caribbean coast of Honduras. Well-worn trails and stucco-paved causeways crisscrossed the forest, and canoes plied the rivers. But until Fire Is Born arrived, the Maya remained politically fragmented, the city-states charting their own courses in the jungle.
By 378 Waka was a prestigious center, boasting four main plazas, hundreds of buildings, temple mounds up to 300 feet (90 meters) tall, ceremonial palaces clad in painted stucco, and courtyards graced with carved limestone altars and monuments. A trading power, it occupied a strategic location on the San Pedro River, which flowed westward from the heart of the Petén. Its market was filled with Maya foodstuffs such as maize, beans, chilies, and avocados, along with chicle harvested from sapodilla trees to make glue, and latex from rubber trees to make balls for ceremonial games. Exotic goods found their way to Waka as well. Jade for sculpture and jewelry and quetzal feathers for costumes came from the mountains to the south, and obsidian for weapons and pyrite for mirrors from the Mexican plateau to the west, the domain of Teotihuacan.
A sprawling metropolis of 100,000 people or more—perhaps the largest city in the world at the time—Teotihuacan left no records that epigraphers have been able to decipher. But its motives in dispatching Fire Is Born to the Maya region seem clear. Waka sat on a promontory overlooking a tributary of the San Pedro with a protected harbor, excellent for berthing large canoes. "It was a perfect staging area" for military action, notes Southern Methodist University archaeologist David Freidel, co-director of excavations at Waka. Which may be precisely what Fire Is Born had in mind.
Waka appears to have been key to the envoy's mission: to bring the entire central Petén into Teotihuacan's orbit, through persuasion if possible, force if necessary. His principal target was Tikal, a kingdom 50 miles (80 kilometers) east of Waka. Tikal was the most influential city-state in the central Petén. Bring Tikal into the fold, and the other cities would follow.
Fire Is Born's soldiers were probably shock troops, designed principally to display his bona fides and demonstrate good faith. He needed reinforcements, and he had come to Waka to get them. In return, he could offer the goodwill of his patron, a mysterious ruler known from inscriptions as Spear-thrower Owl, probably a highland king, perhaps even the lord of Teotihuacan.
Waka's ruler, Sun-faced Jaguar, apparently welcomed Fire Is Born. Based on hints in texts from Waka and other sources, Freidel, project co-director Héctor Escobedo, and epigrapher Stanley Guenter suggest that the two rulers cemented their alliance by building a fire shrine to house the sacred flame of Teotihuacan.
Along with moral support, Fire Is Born probably secured troops. His expeditionary force likely carried the spear-throwers and javelins typical of Teotihuacan and wore backshields covered with glittery pyrite, perhaps meant to dazzle the enemy when the soldiers spun around to hurl their weapons. Now warriors from the Petén, equipped with stone axes and short stabbing spears, swelled their ranks. As armor, many wore cotton vests stuffed with rock salt. Eleven hundred years later, the Spanish conquistadores shed their own metal armor in the sweltering rain forest in favor of these Maya "flak jackets."
The military expedition most likely set out for Tikal in war canoes, heading east, up the San Pedro River. Reaching the headwaters, the soldiers disembarked and marched either along the river or on the canyon rim overlooking it.
Garrisons probably dotted the route. News of the advancing column must have reached Tikal, and somewhere along the stretch of riverbank and roadway, perhaps at a break in the cliffs about 16 miles (26 kilometers) from the city, Tikal's army tried to stop Fire Is Born's advance. Inscribed slabs, called stelae, later erected at Tikal suggest that the defenders were routed. Fire Is Born's forces continued their march on the city. By January 16, 378—barely a week after his arrival in Waka—the conqueror was in Tikal.
The date is noted on Tikal's now famous Stela 31, which yielded early clues to Fire Is Born's importance when David Stuart of the University of Texas at Austin deciphered it in 2000. The second passage on the stela records what happened after the city fell: Tikal's king, Great Jaguar Paw, died that very day, probably at the hands of the vanquishers.
Fire Is Born appears to have dropped whatever pretense he had assumed as a goodwill ambassador. His forces destroyed most of Tikal's existing monuments—stelae put in place by 14 earlier rulers of Tikal. A new era had begun, and later monuments celebrated the victors. Stela 31, erected long after the conquest, describes Fire Is Born as Ochkin Kaloomte, or Lord of the West, probably referring to his origins in Teotihuacan. Some Maya experts have also suggested another meaning: that Fire Is Born represented a faction that had fled to the west—to Teotihuacan—after a coup d'état by Great Jaguar Paw's father years earlier and had now returned to power.
It apparently took Fire Is Born some time to pacify Tikal and its environs. But a year after his arrival, Tikal's monuments record that he presided over the ascension of a new, foreign king. Inscriptions identify him as the son of Spear-thrower Owl, Fire Is Born's patron in Teotihuacan. According to Stela 31, the new king was less than 20 years old, so Fire Is Born probably became Tikal's regent. He was certainly the city's de facto overlord.
In the years that followed the conquest, Tikal itself went on the offensive, expanding its reach across the Maya region. Fire Is Born appears to have masterminded the campaign, or at least inspired it. References to him have been identified in cities as distant as Palenque, more than 150 miles (240 kilometers) to the northwest. But the most poignant testimony to his empire-building comes from Uaxactún, just 12 miles (19 kilometers) from Tikal. There a mural shows a Maya nobleman giving homage to a warrior in Teotihuacan regalia—perhaps one of Fire Is Born's troops. A stela depicting a similar warrior guards a tomb where archaeologists found the remains of two women, one pregnant, a child, and an infant. Freidel and others have concluded that these were the remains of Uaxactún's royal family, slain by Tikal's forces. The king, presumably, was taken to Tikal and sacrificed there.
Decades after the arrival of Fire Is Born and long after he must have died, the aggressive rulers of Tikal continued to invoke Fire Is Born and his patron state, Teotihuacan. In 426, Tikal took over Copán, 170 miles (274 kilometers) to the south in present-day Honduras, and crowned its own king, Kinich Yax Kuk Mo, who became the founder of a new dynasty. A posthumous portrait shows him wearing a costume typical of central Mexico—a reference to Teotihuacan—and like Fire Is Born, he bore the title Lord of the West.
Some Mayanists believe that Tikal was acting as a vassal state for Teotihuacan, expanding its dominion throughout the Maya lowlands, with Fire Is Born acting as a kind of military governor. Others see him less as a conqueror and more as a catalyst who spurred Tikal to expand its own power and influence.
His fate is a mystery. There is no known record of his death, and no evidence that he ever ruled a Maya kingdom. But his prestige lived on. The Waka stela recording his arrival there wasn't erected until a generation later, indicating that even a long-ago visit from the great Fire Is Born was a matter of civic pride.
For more than a millennium, the Maya had entrusted their religious and temporal well-being to their god-kings. These leaders displayed their might and majesty in lavish rituals and pageants, in opulent art and architecture, and in written records of their triumphs, inscribed on stone, murals, and ceramics.
The system prospered—indeed, its excesses created the artistic achievements and learning that defined the Maya as one of the ancient world's great cultures—as long as the land could satisfy people's basic needs. This was easy at first when cities were small and resources relatively plentiful, but over time, growing populations, an expanding nobility, and rivalry between the city-states strained the limits of the environment.
Today the Petén, geographically the largest province in Guatemala, has a population of 367,000, living in isolated towns scattered through a forested wilderness. In the eighth century, by some estimates, ten million people lived in the Maya lowlands. The landscape was an almost unbroken fabric of intensely cultivated farms, gardens, and villages, linked by a web of trails and paved causeways connecting monumental city-states.
Maya farmers were well schooled in sophisticated techniques designed to get maximum production from delicate tropical soils. But beginning in the ninth century, studies of lake-bed sediments show, a series of prolonged droughts struck the Maya world, hitting especially hard in cities like Tikal, which depended on rain both for drinking water and to reinvigorate the swampland bajos where farmers grew their crops. River ports like Cancuén might have escaped water shortages, but across much of the Maya region the lake-bed sediments also show ancient layers of eroded soil, testimony to deforestation and overuse of the land.
When bad times came, there was little the kuhul ajaw could do to help their people. Monoculture farming—growing one staple food crop that could be accumulated and stored for hard times or for trade—could not be sustained in the rain forest. Instead, each city-state produced small quantities of many different food items, such as maize, beans, squash, and cacao. There was enough, at least at first, to feed the kingdom, but little left over.
Meanwhile, Maya society was growing dangerously top heavy. Over time, elite polygamy and intermarriage among royal families swelled the ruling class. The lords demanded jade, shells, feathers from the exotic quetzal bird, fancy ceramics, and other expensive ceremonial accoutrements to affirm their status in the Maya cosmos. A king who could not meet the requirements of his relatives risked alienating them.
The traditional rivalry among states only made matters worse. The kuhul ajaw strove to outdo their neighbors, building bigger temples and more elegant palaces and staging more elaborate public pageants. All of this required more labor, which required larger populations and, perhaps, more wars to exact tribute in forced labor from fallen enemies. Overtaxed, the Maya political system began to falter.
This period marked the golden age of Classic Maya civilization. The kuhul ajaw were in full flower in these two great alliances, competing in art and monuments as well as in frequent but limited wars. Calakmul defeated Tikal in a major battle in 562 but destroyed neither the city nor its population. Eventually Tikal rebounded and defeated Calakmul, subsequently building many of its most spectacular monuments.
Simon Martin, with Nikolai Grube of the University of Bonn, compares the Tikal-Calakmul rivalry to the superpower struggle of the 20th century, when the U.S. and the Soviet Union competed to outdo each other in fields ranging from weaponry to space travel. With neither side ever able to gain the upper hand, the Cold War arguably brought stability, and so did the standoff in the Maya world. "There was a certain degree of destruction" because of the rivalry, says Guatemalan archaeologist Héctor Escobedo. "But there was also equilibrium."
It did not last. Martin suggests the balance may have been intrinsically unstable, like the competition among the city-states of ancient Greece, or the nervous grappling between North and South in the United States prior to the Civil War. Or perhaps an overstressed environment finally caught up with the proud Maya powers, bringing a new edge of desperation to their rivalry. Either way, the unraveling began at the small garrison state of Dos Pilas, near the Pasión River downstream of Cancuén.
In 630 Tikal, trying to reassert a presence along Pasión River trade routes increasingly dominated by Calakmul, expanded an existing outpost near two large springs—pilas, in Spanish. The site had little else to recommend it. Dos Pilas grew no crops and sold nothing. Scholars call it a "predator state" that depended on tribute from the surrounding countryside. War, for Dos Pilas, was not only a ritual to glorify kings and appease gods. War was what Dos Pilas did to survive.
The kingdom's history of violence and duplicity began when Tikal installed one of its princes, Balaj Chan Kawiil, as Dos Pilas's ruler in 635. The garrison slapped together a fancy-looking capital for the young prince, using carved facades to mask loose and unstable construction fill. But in 658 Calakmul overran Dos Pilas and drove Balaj Chan Kawiil into exile.
We know the next chapter thanks to a thunderstorm that toppled a tree at Dos Pilas six years ago, exposing a carved stairway hidden beneath its roots. Inscriptions on the stairway reveal that Balaj Chan Kawiil returned two years after his exile—but as a Calakmul surrogate. Dos Pilas's turncoat king helped Calakmul cement its control over the Pasión Valley during the next two decades. Then Calakmul delivered fateful news. Its rulers ordered Balaj Chan Kawiil to fight his brother in Tikal itself.
For a time, fleeing nobles could find refuge in Cancuén, a quiet port at the headwaters of the Pasión River. Even as downriver cities sank into chaos during the eighth century, Cancuén prospered by trading luxury items and providing sumptuous lodgings for elite visitors. The architect of this golden age was King Taj Chan Ahk, who came to power in 757 at the age of 15. Cancuén had a long history as a strategic trading post, but Taj Chan Ahk transformed the city into a stunning ceremonial center. Its heart was a 270,000-square-foot (25,000 square meters), three-story royal palace with vaulted ceilings and 11 courtyards, made of solid limestone and elegantly placed on a riverside promontory. It was a perfect stage for a Maya god-king, and Taj Chan Ahk was master of the role, even as it was dying out elsewhere.
There is no evidence that Taj Chan Ahk ever fought a war or even won a battle. Instead he managed to dominate the upper Pasión Valley for nearly 40 years by coaxing advantage through patronage and alliances. An altar monument at Cancuén dated 790 shows him in action, engaged in a ceremonial ball game with an unknown noble, perhaps to celebrate a treaty or a state visit.
Taj Chan Ahk died in 795 and was succeeded by his son Kan Maax, who sought to trump his father by expanding the palace. But pomp and ritual—the old trappings of kingship—could no longer hold the Maya universe together. Within five years the spreading chaos had reached the gates of the city. In one terrible day its glory winked out, another light extinguished in the world of the Classic Maya.
Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry
Independent Researcher from Pakistan
Author & Researcher: Decryption of Harappan Ciphers 1st successful solution in a century
President TPI Inc., President IT Genetics , Manager Asia Women Global Justice Group , Chairman Welfare Committee,
TPI has offered over 0.5 million free predicted solutions at all levels. Integrated solution based on Borderland Sciences, cryptanalysis, forecasting techniques Delphi, Scenarios and multi scenarios, war gaming and other spiritual techniques. We attach no claim with free predicted solutions. Error correction techniques and analysis may be carried out by users.
An analysis might be carried out if I can be of any use for establishing global peace by ending terrorism. I have been subjected to over 30 killing attacks, killing of over 10 members of my family and losses in millions. I have given details at petitions at Care-2, Peace pink, yahoo and other comments. Mega project research work aimed at establishing peace and security at global level by ending terrorism. I desire global board of directors sponsored by UNO to come forward for benefits of all.
I offer 1st decryption of Harappan Scripts in a century; the decrypted secrets not yet published have solution to many problems. The strategic location of Pakistan offer global trading of $ 7.5 billion per year to global community, oil and gas trading of over $ 15 trillions. I have been trained by over 250 foreign telecomm firms; I had lot of interaction with my friends from many countries as class fellows, R&D Engineer at Research Establishment, visit to Thailand, Ministry of Interior Saudi Arabia Border Guards, as operational engineer, as Zonal Manager of NGO and service in the army. I have given lot of material at Internet. My friends , colleagues , group members and others can carry out an analysis of mega project including integrated energy , renewable energy , befouls , safety and security of global trading, safe train link, herbal foods , new employments , new concepts in housing , overhauling of education systems , innovations and integration of new global technologies and many others.. We must establish an accountability system to stop official terrorists and corrupt gangs failing all the global projects.
Mega Project: Problems in offering Global Solutions
The establishment of global peace and stability by ending terrorism has been delayed due to 30 killing attacks on me, killing of 10 members of my family, loss in millions, terrorists attack on 3 sick and crippled women of 3 families, 11 of witnesses and me. Petitions have been registered. May I request global peace lovers to sign the petitions; they may not display their names.
Research Interests Nazeer ’s fundamental research is on discovering and understanding the problems and offering free solutions by forecasting/prediction through economic, social, organizational and technical interactions and techniques evolved through TPI Inc. Over 0.5 million free solutions have been offered at all level but aim of ending terrorism, corruption and prevention of fraud at any level has yet to achieve. Research Projects • Research in any field that can give protection to mankind from fraud, terrorism and human right protection. • Ethno-archaeological Model on Harappan Ciphers: Decryption of Harappan Cipher is over 30 years research project, the 1st successful cryptanalysis in the century • Axiomatic Education Strategy for 21st Century • Prevention of Fraud: Nazeer and his wife Hamida are heir to the lands & property of about 7 families hence an effort underground had been going on for killing of every member of this family. It is very interesting research work scanning the centuries how people slaughter others to become landlords by using fraud and terrorism. • Security and public policy was forced on Nazeer to accept almost all responsibilities in Home County being heir to 7 people. He suffered over 30 killing attacks, killing of 10 members of his family by the snakes brought up by them; the relatives of his step mother.
o1.2 Research Work
B.Sc. Telecomm Engineering, B Sc Honors, Technical Graduate NUST-EME, LLB, PEC, MIE Pak, IEEEP, IEEE, IEEE Computer Society, IEEE- ISST
MBA , M. Phil. Electronics Engineering , MA , Cryptology NUST-MCS , Arabic AIOU , Ph D Total Technology approved researcher Bradford
•B.Sc. (Telecomm. Engineering), Member:PEC,IEEE &Computer Society IEEE USA MIE (Pak.)
•M.B.A. Preston Univ. 1995 , M.A.( Political Science), B.Sc. (Honors War Studies), L.L.B. , Arabic Diploma AIOU Islamabad
•Doctor of Philosophy in Total Technology at University of Bradford UK approved researcher in since 1995. M Phil at MUET was accepted for credit in Ph.D. Second part M.B.A completed from Preston University USA, Courses /research/ 15 years experience/foreign firm training from 250 firms as R&D engineer in cryptographic security completed. Member PEC , TSO graduate from NUST Campus ,Advance Cryptology Course , Refresher Cryptology Course from NUST
•M. Phil. (Electronics Engineering,) Cryptology (NUST), Technical Staff Course (NUST,, Ph.D. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering) approved researcher at Uni. of Bradford U.K. Masters of Science and M Phil at MUET Jamshoro Pakistan was got transferred for PhD
•M.B.A. from Preston University USA from Islamabad Campus getting 98 % in MIS, Organizational Communication and International Marketing subjects. (98 % marks in Information Theory in Advance Cryptology NUST Campus. M.A. (Political Science) from Sindh Uni.
•1996-1997 Telecommunication Engineers at Ministry of Interior Saudi Arabia Border Guards
•1978- 1994 Telecommunication Engineer in Sindh and Baluchistan Provinces , Technical Staff Course , Research & Development Engineer at Signals Research Establishment . Telecommunication Engineer and Communication officer in Army 1972-1994
•Teaching: Teaching Assistant and teaching staff for science and technology subjects at Higher Secondary School, Signal Training Center, Computer Clubs, Divisional Battle School NUST Campus MCS, National Institute of Computer Sciences
•Administration: Zonal Manager Hamdard Laboratories Rawalpindi Zone (1998-1999). 24 years experience in Pakistan Army
•Training: Training by foreign Telecom firms from USA, UK, Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Norway, Sweden and many other countries as R&D Engineer.
Computers: Student Member IEEE USA (1994-95), Manager Army Computer Clubs at Okara and Hyderabad, Teaching Staff National Institute of Computer Sciences Rawalpindi (1995)
•Engineering: Student Member IEEE USA (1994-1997), Telecommunication Member Pakistan Engineering Council, Member Institute of Electrical Engineers Pakistan
 Research Work
Decryption of Indus Valley Scripts has been my research work since last 30 years .This is 1st successful decryption in a century. Dani had confirmed the decryption in 2005 though 1st script was decrypted in 1995 when Secure MIS high security high compression book draft was approved by Artech House USA and Dorrance Publishers USA approved the draft for publication both books not yet published. Rolex Award also approved the research for an award.
B.B. Lal , Russian Professors , and US Scholars Farmer , Sprout , Fair Service, Mark , Durani , F.A. Khan, Mughal and many conclusions of the decryption supported by many other scholars through their written work.
•In 2004, Steve Farmer published, The Collapse of the Indus-Script Thesis: The Myth of a Literate Harappan Civilization, arguing that the Indus valley figures are merely a non-structured symbol system and do not represent a full language.
•In ancient cryptography used by Egyptians or code & ciphers used by lovers, diarists and underworld people, you don't require full language. As a kid, he had just a chance by compulsion to evolve coded language and a writing system to be read by kid girls who could just read Arabic without understanding it.
•All most all the population counted as the people of Indus Valley counted. He was 1st student to qualify Matric (O level) in 1968 and taught new science syllabus to his class as volunteer teacher because his science teacher declined to teach the syllabus unless he had undergone a course.
•He had over 50 of teacher’s 1st &2nd World War soldiers and there were few who had been living in the jungle. His county of 7 treasures in oldest Stone Age culture got electricity in 1990.They used ancient agricultural tools and animal transport like camels, horses, donkeys, bulls and buffalos were used.
•Large number of Design and modification projects in Telecommunication Engineering and Cryptology
•Research in any field that can give protection to mankind from fraud, terrorism and human right protection.
•Ethno-archaeological Model on Harappan Ciphers : Decryption of Harappan Cipher is over 30 years research project the 1st successful cryptanalysis in the century
•Axiomatic Education Strategy for 21st Century
•Prevention of Fraud: 50 years Research Work
•Security and public policy was forced on Nazeer to accept almost all responsibilities in Home County being heir to 7 people.
•Codes and Ciphers: Evolution of Coded Language based on Harappan Scripts
•Codes and Ciphers: Evolution of Written Script based on Harappan Scripts
•Design & Development of Maintenance Free Exchange for Desert Working
•Design & Development of Secrecy Electronics Communication System
•Cryptology : Design of High Security High Compression System
•Design & Development of Exchange for Nuclear Warfare
•Design & Development of Battery Charging and Lighting System on Wind Energy
•Design & Development of Energy Saying System
•Decryption of Moenjodaro Scripts
•Decryption of Matured Harappan Scripts
•Herbal Medicine : Medicated Foods and Treatment of Cancer
•Herbal Medicine : New Treatment for Asthma
•Evolution of Recycling Technologies for Low Cost Housing
•Evolution of Integrated Technologies for Energy Crisis
1.Decryption of Moenjodaro Scripts approved in 1995 based on the Thesis: Integration of TCP/IP Protocol Suites with Cryptographic Security approved Ph. D. Electrical & Electronics Engg.) In Total Technology thesis at University of Bradford U.K. Not yet published.
2.Nazeer Ahmad , Secure MIS book draft sent to Artic House Norwood
3.Nazeer Ahmad, Secure MIS in Business Communication, Research Paper in MIS.
4.Nazeer Ahmad ,Protection of Radio Tele-printing Circuits, The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1987,pp 25-29
5.Nazeer A. Chaudhry ,Protection of Speech and Data Communication Circuits , The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1988,pp 52-56
6.Nazeer Ahmad ,Neo-Communication Security Environments, The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1990,pp 25-29
7.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry ,Communication Systems , MS Thesis MUET Jamshoro 1990-1992,
8.N. A. Chaudhry , Protection of Electronics & Electrical Equipment, The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , volume 22 , 22-29 December 1994
9.N. A. Chaudhry , Tele-computers and Security Beyond Year 2000, The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , January 1995
10.N. A. Chaudhry , Tele-computers and Security Beyond Year 2000, The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1994
11.N. A. Chaudhry , Tactical Nuclear Operations : Indian Option for 21st Century, Pakistan Defense Review, Volume 6, 1994, pp 80-92
12.N. A. Chaudhry , Integrated National Defense , Pakistan Army Green Book, 1991, pp343-346
13.N. A. Chaudhry , Safety Equipment for Nuclear Operations , T.S.O. Research Paper , E.M.E. College NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1985
14.Nazeer Ahmad. Chaudhry , Pre- Evolution History Corps of Signals 1847-1947, SRC Publishers Hyderabad, 1992
15.Nazeer Ahmad. Chaudhry, Design and Development of Secrecy Electronics Communication System, M. Phil. ( Electronics Engg. ) thesis at MUET Jamshoro, 1993-1995
16.Nazeer Ahmad. Chaudhry , Electronics Warfare Doctrine Under Hostile Environments , Pakistan Army Green Book, 1991, pp 287-290
17.Nazeer A. , Cryptographic and Computer Security , The Hilal Magazine ,19 January 1995
18.N. A. Chaudhry ,Evolution of Codes and Ciphers , The Hilal Magazine ,8 February 1995
19.N. A. Chaudhry , Cryptographic Security Systems , The Hilal Magazine , 15 December 1994
20.N. A. Chaudhry , Protection of Electronics & Electrical Equipment, The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , volume 22 , 22-29 December 1994
21.N. A. Chaudhry , Axiomatic Educational Strategy for 21st Century , Research Paper presented at IEEEP Lahore ,1995 and published in local press
22.Nazeer Ahmad , Quality Education , Pakistan Observer Daily, 18 November 1998
23.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Education System & National Development , The Jung Daily, 6 February 1995
24.Nazeer Ahmad, Legal Settlement of Kashmir Problem , Pakistan Army Journal , U.N. and Kashmir Issue , Pakistan Observer Daily, 15 November 1994
25.Nazeer Chaudhry , Islamic Requirements of Justice System, , Daily Markaz, 22 February1998
26.Nazeer Chaudhry , Islamic System of Saudi Arabia , Daily Markaz, 8 September 1998 Islamabad
27.Nazeer Ahmad , Face Reading : Integration of Forecasting and Prediction Technologies for Solution of Problems , Bazem –i- Alm –o-Fun Islamabad 2000
28.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to National Problems , Daily Markaz, 21 September,1998
29.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to National Problems , Daily Markaz, 3 April,1999,
30.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to National Problems , Daily Markaz, April,1999
31.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to National Problems , Daily Markaz, 11 April,1999, Islamabad
32.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to Public Problems , The Exclusive Weekly, Islamabad, 26 September 1996
33.Nazeer Chaudhry, Budget and Unemployment , Asas Daily , 20 June 1999
34.Nazeer Ahmad , Time to Shake Hands With India , The Exclusive Weekly, Islamabad, 16 July 1991
35.Nazeer Ahmad , Face Reading : Integration of Forecasting and Prediction Technologies for Solution of Problems , Defense Digest Monthly, October 1992, pp 53-87
36.Nazeer Ahmad , We can’t Progress Without Science Education, Pakistan Observer Daily, 2 November 1994
37.Nazeer Chaudhry, South Asian Economy and Kashmir , Al Akhbar Daily, 16 October 1999
38.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Peace, Security &Development, Daily Markaz, 17 Agust,1998, Islamabad
39.N. A. Chaudhry , Modern Technology Impacts of Defense , Pakistan Army Journal , 1994, pp62-74
40.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development , The Parwaz Monthly Islamabad, June 1999
41.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development in Pakistan , Friday News Weekly, 6 July 1999
42.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development , The Parwaz Monthly Islamabad, September 1999
43.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development , The Parwaz Monthly Islamabad, June 1999
44.Nazeer Ahmad , 21st Century Challenges for Our Engineers, Pakistan Observer , 11 December 1994
45.Nazeer Ahmad , New Trends in Energy Generation, Pakistan Observer Daily, 2 November 1994
46.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Eastern Science of Medicine, Pakistan Observer Daily, 18 March 1995
47.N.A. Chaudhry, Kala Bagh Dam , Niwa –i- Waqat Daily, 14 July 1998
48.Nazeer Chaudhry, Pakistan –US Relations, Markaz Daily 22 July 1998, Islamabad
49.Nazeer Chaudhry, Pakistan –US Relations, Markaz Daily 28 July 1998, 1974.
50.Nazeer Chaudhry, Expected Attack on Atomic Instillations Pakistan , Osaf Daily 5June 1998,
51.Nazeer Chaudhry, Regional Cooperation and Pakistani Forces, Markaz Daily 30 June 1999,
52.Nazeer Chaudhry, Circulation of Money Al Akhbar Daily 17 February 2003, Islamabad
53.Nazeer Chaudhry, Solution of Unemployment Problem , Daily Subha, , 17 April 2004
54.Nazeer Chaudhry, Inflation, Unemployment and Terrorism, Daily Subha, , 9 August 2004,
55.Nazeer Chaudhry, Social and Economic Welfare of Society , Daily Ehsas , 6 April 1999,
56.Nazeer A. Chaudhry, Strategic Dimension of Pakistan, Submitted to Pakistan Defense Review, 2005
57.Nazeer A. Chaudhry, Solution to Kashmir Problem, Submitted to Pakistan Defense Review ,1995
58.Nazeer Chaudhry, How to End Terrorism, Daily Markaz , 8 November 1998 , Islamabad
59.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry , Neo Scenario for Armed Forces of Pakistan , Pakistan Army Journal ( Urdu) , Winter 2009 , pp 25-42
60.ibid, PAJ, The J curve , Rise and Fall of Nations by Ian Beemer , Book Review , pp107-108
61.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry , Science & Technology : New Challenges for Defense , Pakistan Army Journal ( Urdu) , Summer 2009 , pp 15-25
62.ibid, PAJ , Curveball: Spies, Lies and the Con Man Who caused a War by Bob Dorgan , Book Review , pp- 85-87
63.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry , Nuclear Strategy for Future , Pakistan Army Journal ( Urdu) , Winter 2008 , pp 45-55
64.ibid, PAJ, the Failure of American Foreign Policy and Next Great Crisis in Middle East by Ali M. An sari , Book Review , pp104-106
65.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry , Defense Strategy for Future , Pakistan Army Journal ( Urdu) , Summer 2008 , pp 42-51
66.ibid, PAJ , Winning the Right War by Phillips H Gordon, Book Review , pp 85-87