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is a member state of the European Union located in its western region, with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents.[13] France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its main ideals expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.


Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is often referred to as L’Hexagone ("The Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of its territory. It is bordered (clockwise from the north) by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Spain and Andorra. France's overseas departments and collectivities also share land borders with Brazil and Suriname (bordering French Guiana), and the Netherlands Antilles (bordering Saint-Martin). France is linked to the United Kingdom by the Channel Tunnel, which passes underneath the English Channel.


France is the largest state in the European Union by area and the third largest in Europe behind Russia and Ukraine. It would be second if its extra-European territories like French Guiana were included. France has been a major power for many centuries with strong economic, cultural, military and political influence. During the 17th and 18th centuries, France colonised great parts of North America; during the 19th and early 20th centuries, France built the second largest empire of the time, including large portions of North, West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Pacific islands.

France is one of the most developed countries and possesses the fifth largest economy by nominal GDP and seventh largest economy by purchasing power parity. France enjoys a high standard of living, although its quality of life index rating ranks it 25th in the world behind that of Greece, Belgium and Portugal. The country has a high public education level, it's one of the most globalised nations, has 2009's second best international reputation and has also one of the world's highest life expectancy. It is the most visited country in the world, receiving 82 million foreign tourists annually. France is one of the founding members of the European Union. It is also a founding member of the United Nations, and a member of the Francophonie, the G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO and the Latin Union. It is one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, possesses the third largest number of nuclear weapons in the world and the largest number of nuclear power plants in the European Union.



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Oficial name:

(Native names)

République française

+ bre: Republik C’hall

cat: República Francesa

cos: Repubblica Francesa

eus: Frantziako Errepublika

gsw: Republik Frankriich / Republik Frankriich

nld-vls: Franse Republiek

oci: Republica francesa

tah: Repupirita farāni


Formation: French State 843 (Treaty of Verdun)

- Current constitution 1958 (5th Republic)



543.965 km2





Capital city:




Française, Breton, Corse, Deutsch, Basque, Catalan and Valam


Alemannisch [gsw] 1,500,000 in France (1988 Hawkins in B. Comrie). Northeastern France, Alsace. Alternate names: Alemannic. Dialects: Alsatian (Alsacien, Elsaessisch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic

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Auvergnat [auv] 1,315,000 (2004). Auvergne; Haut-Auvergnat in Cantal and south of Haute-Loire; Bas-Auvergnat in the north of Haute-Loire and in Puy-de-Dome. Alternate names: Auvernhas, Auverne, Occitan. Dialects: Haut-Auvergnat, Bas-Auvergnat. Highly fragmented dialect situation, with limited intelligibility between northern and southern varieties. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

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Basque, Navarro-Labourdin [bqe] 67,500 (1991). Population includes 45,000 Labourdin, 22,500 Lower Navarro. Total Basque speakers in France estimated at 80,000. Ethnic population: 730,000 (1993 Johnstone). French-Spanish border, 800 square miles surrounding Bayonne, Labourd (Lapurdi), and Basse-Navarre departments. Alternate names: Navarro-Labourdin. Dialects: Labourdin (Lapurdiera), Eastern Low Navarrese (Benaffarera, Bajo Navarro Oriental), Western Low Navarrese (Bajo Navarro Occidental). Navarro-Labourdin is diverse from other Basque dialects, and needs separate literature. Classification: Basque

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Basque, Souletin [bsz] 8,700 (1991). French-Spanish border, 800 square miles surrounding Bayonne, Soule, Pyrénées Atlantiques Province. Alternate names: Souletin, Souletino, Suletino, Xiberoera, Zuberoera, Suberoan. Dialects: Souletin is more diverse and speakers have difficulty understanding other varieties, especially for complex and abstract discourse. Separate literature desired and needed. Classification: Basque

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Breton [bre] 500,000 in France (1989 ICDBL). 1,200,000 know Breton who do not regularly use it. Population total all countries: 532,722. Western Brittany, and dispersed in Eastern Brittany and Breton emigrant communities throughout the world. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Brezhoneg. Dialects: Leonais, Tregorrois, Vannetais, Cornouaillais. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic

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Caló [rmr] 21,580 in France (2000 WCD). Southern France. Alternate names: Gitano, Iberian Romani. Dialects: Basque Calo, Catalonian Calo, Spanish Calo. Classification: Mixed Language, Iberian-Romani

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Catalan-Valencian-Balear [cat] 100,000 in France (1996). Catalonian France. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian

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Corsican [cos] 341,000 in Corsica (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 402,000. Corsica, Paris, Marseilles. Also spoken in Bolivia, Canada, Cuba, Italy, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela. Alternate names: Corsu, Corso, Corse, Corsi. Dialects: Sartenais, Vico-Ajaccio, Northern Corsican (Cape Cors, Bastia), Venaco. Corsican is in the Tuscan group of Italian varieties. Southern Corsican is closer to Northern Sardinian or Gallurese than other Corsican dialects (R. A. Hall, Jr.). Lexical similarity 79% to 89% among dialects of Bastia, Venaco, Vico, and Sartene. Bonifacio on the southern tip of the island has 78% lexical similarity (highest) with Bastia at extreme north. Ajaccio dialect is central and prestigious. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican

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Dutch [nld] 80,000 in Westhoek. Westhoek in the northeast corner of France between the Artois Hills and the Belgium border. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian

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Esperanto [epo] 200 to 2,000 (1996). Speakers in about 115 countries, used most widely in central and eastern Europe, China and other countries in eastern Asia, certain areas of South America, and southwest Asia. Alternate names: La Lingvo Internacia. Classification: Artificial language

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Franco-Provençal [frp] Population total all countries: 77,000. Savoie, Fribourg, and Valais, southeastern France, near the Italian and Switzerland borders. Also spoken in Italy, Switzerland. Alternate names: Patois, Arpitan. Dialects: Dauphinois, Lyonnais, Neuchatelais, Savoyard. Structurally separate language from Provençal, French, Piemontese, and Lombard (F. B. Agard). In Switzerland, every canton has its own dialect, with no standardization. Difficult intelligibility among the dialects, and especially with Fribourg. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern

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French [fra] 51,000,000 in France. Population total all countries: 64,858,311. Also spoken in Algeria, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, Guadeloupe, Guinea, Haiti, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Monaco, Morocco, New Caledonia, Niger, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Rwanda, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna. Alternate names: Français. Dialects: Standard French, Norman (Normand), Angevin, Berrichon, Bourbonnais, Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois, Gallo, Poitevin, Santongeais, Lorraine. Lexical similarity 89% with Italian, 80% with Sardinian, 78% with Rheto-Romance, 75% with Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish, 29% with German, 27% with English. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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French Sign Language [fsl] 50,000 to 100,000 primary users in France (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). 1,000 users of Marseille Sign Language (1975 Sallagooty). Southern FSL is used in Marseille, Toulon, La Ciotat, and Salon de Provence. Also used in Togo. Alternate names: Langue des Signes Française, LSF, FSL. Dialects: Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language). Many sign languages have been influenced by this, but are not necessarily intelligible with it. Reported to be partially intelligible with sign languages from Austria, Czech Republic, and Italy, at least. Lexical similarity 43% with American Sign Language in an 872-wordlist. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Gascon [gsc] 250,000 in France (1990 P. Blanchet). Population total all countries: 253,814. Ethnic population: 400,000 (1982) in the Béarn region of southern Gasconha, France; 51% speak Gascon, 70% understand it, 85% are in favor of saving it. Gascogne Province, from Médoc to the Pyrénées, from the Atlantic to the Catalan area. Béarnese is spoken by a strong majority in the Béarn. Also spoken in Spain. Alternate names: Occitan. Dialects: Landais, Béarnais (Biarnese), Ariégeois, Aranese. Gascon, Languedocien, and Limousin are structurally separate languages (F.B. Agard). Gascon speakers have some comprehension of Provençal; some or limited comprehension of Languedocien (reports differ). Inherently intelligible with Aranese Gascon in Spain, which is a dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

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Greek [ell] Cargese, Corsica. Dialects: Cargese. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic

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Interlingua [ina] Alternate names: Interlingua de Iala. Classification: Artificial language

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Italian [ita] 1,000,000 in France (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

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Languedocien [lnc] 5,000. Languedoc Province, from Montpellier to Toulouse, Bordeaux, Rodez, and Albi. Alternate names: Lengadoucian, Languedoc, Langadoc, Occitan, Occitani. Dialects: Bas-Languedocien, Languedocien Moyen, Haut-Languedocien, Guyennais. A separate language from Provençal (P. Blanchet 1990). Gascon speakers have limited intelligibility of Languedocien. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

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Ligurian [lij] Bonifacio, Corsica, and between the Italian border and Monaco. Alternate names: Ligure. Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

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Limousin [lms] 10,000. Limousin Province. Haut-Limousin around Limoges, Guéret, and Nontron in Charente; Bas-Limousin around Correze and Périgord. Alternate names: Lemosin, Occitan. Dialects: Haut-Limousin, Bas-Limousin. Limousin, Languedocien, and Gascon are structurally separate languages (F. B. Agard). Partially intelligible to Provençal. In the north of the province people use a transition dialect with certain Oïl (north French) features. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

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Luxembourgeois [ltz] 40,000 in France (2001 J. Nousse). Spoken along the border with Germany and Luxemburg in the Moselle Department, Thionville, France. Alternate names: Frankish, Platt. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian

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Lyons Sign Language [lsg] Dialects: 250 miles from Paris, but difficult and little intelligibility of French Sign Language. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Picard [pcd] Most of the Region de Picardie (Amiens, Abbeville, Beauvais, St. Quentin), the Region Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Lille, Douai, Cambrai, Arras, Valenciennes, Boulogne sur Mer, Calais), except the Dunkerque District, and a little eastern zone (border with Picardie of the Region de Haute Normandie near Dieppe). Also spoken in Belgium. Alternate names: Rouchi, Chtimi. Dialects: Ponthieu, Vimeu, Hainaut, Artois, Lillois, Boulonnais, Santerre, Calaisis, Cambresis, Vermandois, Amienois (Amies). All dialects, including those in Belgium, are inherently intelligible to speakers. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Portuguese [por] 750,000 in France (1989 National Geographic). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician

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Provençal [prv] 250,000 in France (1990 P. Blanchet). Population total all countries: 354,500. Southeastern France, province of Provence, south of Dauphiné, region of Nimes in Languedoc. Also spoken in Italy, Monaco. Alternate names: Prouvençau, Mistralien. Dialects: Transalpin, Niçard (Niçois), Maritime Provençal (Marseillais, Toulonnais, Varois), Gavot (Alpin, Valeien, Gapian, Forcalquieren), Rhodanien (Nimois), Dauphinois (Dromois). Gascon, Languedocien, and Limousin are structurally separate languages (F. Agard). Provençal and Languedocien (Occitan) are separate languages (P. Blanchet 1990). No Provençal variety is universally accepted as the standard literary form. Niçard and Northern Gavot (Valeien and Gapian) are more difficult for other dialect speakers to understand. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

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Romani, Balkan [rmn] 10,500 in France. Population includes 10,000 Arlija, 500 Dzambazi. Dialects: Arlija, Dzambazi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan

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Romani, Sinte [rmo] 28,434 in France (2000 WCD). Alternate names: Sinti, Rommanes, Tsigane. Dialects: Manouche (Manuche, Manush). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern

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Romani, Vlax [rmy] 10,000 in France. Population includes 8,000 Kalderash, 2,000 Lovari. Alternate names: Romenes, Rom, Tsigane, Vlax. Dialects: Kalderash, Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax

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Spanish [spa] Alternate names: Castillan. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Vlaams [vls] 10,000 in France (1984 Menheere, 1993 Evenhuis). Westhoek (French Flanders). Alternate names: Flamand, Flemish, Vlaemsch. Dialects: Frans Vlaams (Vlaemsch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian

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Extinct languages

Shuadit [sdt] Extinct. Department of Vaucluse in southern France, and city of Avignon. Alternate names: Shuadi, Judeo-Provençal, Judeo-Comtadine. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

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Zarphatic [zrp] Extinct. Alternate names: Judeo-French. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French


Meaning country name: French derivation of Francia, "Land of the Franks". A frankon was a spear used by the early Franks, thus giving them their name. The term "Frank" later became associated with "free" as the Franks were the only truly freemen, since they subjugated the Romanized Gauls.

Gallia (Latin) from the name of a Celtic tribe. Many Celtic groups used similar names: compare Gaul and Galatia.


Description Flag:

In brief we can accept that the colours are basically those of Paris as used on the day of the storming of the Bastille, mixed with the Royal white. It is thought that the Marquis de Lafayette was responsible for inventing the red, white and blue cockade which soon became compulsory for Revolutionaries in 1789. We don't have to believe that the combination arose because the King placed a red-blue cockade in his hat next to a Royal white one, but combinations of Revolutionary and Royal emblems were common at that time.

The flag was created in 1790 but with the colours the reverse of what they are today, i.e. with red at the hoist, and revised in 1794 to the modern form. The 1790 flag existed only as part of the jack and ensign of the navy.

The flag went out of use with Napoléon I's defeat at Waterloo, but was brought back in 1830 (again by Lafayette) and has remained in use ever since. Although significances have been attached to the colours these are all spurious and invented after the fact. The red and blue of Paris were the livery colours of the coat of arms and natural ones for use by the militia.

The colors of the French flag "combine" different symbols, invented after the fact:

Blue is the color of Saint Martin, a rich Gallo-Roman officer who ripped his blue coat with his sword to give one half of it to a poor who was begging him in the snow. This is the symbol of care, of the duty that the rich had to help the poor.

White is the color of the Virgin Mary, to whom the Kingdom of France was consecrated by Louis XIII in the 17th century; it is also the color of Joan of Arc, under whose banner the English were finally driven out of the Kingdom (15th century). It became logically the color of Royalty. The King's vessels carried plain white flags at sea.

Red is the color of Saint Denis, the saint patron of Paris. The original oriflamme (war banner) of the Kings was the red oriflamme of Saint Denis.


Coat of arms:

The current coat of arms of France has been a symbol of France since 1953, although it does not have any legal status as an official coat of arms. It appears on the cover of French passports and was originally adopted by the French Foreign Ministry as a symbol for use by diplomatic and consular missions in 1912 using a design drawn up by the sculptor Jules-Clément Chaplain.

In 1953, France received a request from the United Nations for a copy of the national coat of arms to be displayed alongside the coats of arms of other member states in its assembly chamber. An interministerial commission requested Robert Louis (1902–1965), heraldic artist, to produce a version of the Chaplain design. This did not, however, constitute an adoption of an official coat of arms by the Republic.

Technically speaking, it is an emblem rather than a coat of arms, since it does not respect heraldic rules—heraldry being seen as an aristocratic art, and therefore associated with the Ancien Régime. The emblem consists of:

The symbol is used on plaques marking French consulatesA wide shield with lion-head terminal bears a monogram "RF" standing for République Française (French Republic).

An olive branch symbolises peace.

An oak branch symbolises perenity or wisdom.

The fasces is a symbol associated with justice (from Roman lictor's axes, in this case not fascism).



" Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité "


National Anthem: La Marselleise


Allons enfants de la Patrie,

Le jour de gloire est arrivé

Contre nous de la tyrannie

L'étendard sanglant est levé.

L'étendard sanglant est levé:

Entendez-vous dans les campagnes

Mugir ces féroces soldats!

Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras

Égorger vos fils et vos compagnes.

Aux armes citoyens,

Formez vos bataillons.

Marchons! Marchons!

Qu'un sang impur

Abreuve nos sillons

Que veut cette horde d'esclaves

De traîtres, de rois conjurés?

Pour qui ces ignobles entraves

Ces fers dès longtemps préparés

Ces fers dès longtemps préparés

Français, pour nous, Ah quel outrage

Quel transport il doit exciter!

C'est nous qu'on ose méditer

De rendre à l'antique esclavage

Quoi! Des cohortes étrangères

Feraient la loi dans nos foyers!

Quoi! Ces phalanges mercenaires

Terrasseraient nos fiers guerriers.

Terrasseraient nos fiers guerriers.

Grand Dieu! Par des mains enchaînées

Nos fronts, sous le joug, se ploieraient.

De vils despotes deviendraient

Les maîtres de nos destinées

Tremblez tyrans, et vous perfides

L'opprobe de tous les partis.

Tremblez, vos projets parricides

Vont enfin recevoir leur prix!

Vont enfin recevoir leur prix!

Tout est soldat pour vous combattre.

S'ils tombent nos jeunes héros,

La terre en produit de nouveaux

Contre vous, tous prêts à se battre

Français en guerriers magnanimes

Portez ou retenez vos coups.

Épargnez ces tristes victimes

A regrets s'armant contre nous!

A regrets s'armant contre nous!

Mais ce despote sanguinaire

Mais les complices de Bouillé

Tous les tigres qui sans pitié

Déchirent le sein de leur mère!

Amour Sacré de la Patrie

Conduis, soutiens nos braves vengeurs.

Liberté, Liberté chérie

Combats avec tes défenseurs

Combats avec tes défenseurs

Sous nos drapeaux, que la victoire

Accoure à tes mâles accents

Que tes ennemis expirants

Voient ton triomphe et nous, notre gloire

(« Couplet des enfants »)

Nous entrerons dans la carrière

Quand nos aînés n'y seront plus

Nous y trouverons leur poussière

Et la trace de leur vertus!

Et la trace de leur vertus!

Bien moins jaloux de leur survivre

Que de partager leur cercueil.

Nous aurons le sublime orgueil

De les venger ou de les suivre

Aux armes citoyens,

Formez vos bataillons.

Marchons! Marchons!

Qu'un sang impur

Abreuve nos sillons




Arise, children of the fatherland

The day of glory has arrived!

Against us, the tyranny's

Bloody banner is raised. (repeat)

Do you hear in the fields

The howling of these savage soldiers?

They are coming into your midst

To cut the throats of your sons, your wives!


To arms, citizens!

Form your battalions!

Let us march, let us march!

May tainted blood

Water our fields!


What does this horde of slaves,

Traitors, and plotting kings want?

For whom these vile chains

These long-prepared irons? (repeat)

Frenchmen, for us, ah! What outrage,

What fury it must arouse!

It is us they dare plan

To return to the old slavery!


To arms, citizens...


What! These foreign cohorts!

They would make laws in our homes!

What! These mercenary phalanxes

Would cut down our proud warriors! (repeat)

Good Lord! By chained hands

Our brow would yield under the yoke

The vile despots would become

The masters of our destinies!


To arms, citizens...


Tremble, tyrants and traitors

The shame of all good men

Tremble! Your parricidal schemes

Will receive their just reward! (repeat)

Against you, we are all soldiers

If our young heroes fall,

The earth will bear new ones,

Ready to join the fight against you!


To arms, citizens...


Frenchmen, as magnanimous warriors,

Bear or hold back your blows!

Spare these sad victims

That they may regret taking up arms against us (repeat)

But not these bloody despots

These accomplices of Bouillé

All these tigers who mercilessly

Ripped out their mother's breast!


To arms, citizens...


Sacred patriotic love,

Lead and support our avenging arms

Liberty, cherished liberty,

Fight back with your defenders! (repeat)

Under our flags, let victory

Hurry to your manly tone,

So that your enemies, in their last breath,

See your triumph and our glory!


To arms, citizens...


(Children's Verse)

We shall enter the career

When our elders will no longer be there

There we shall find their dust

And the mark of their virtues (repeat)

Much less jealous of surviving them

Than of sharing their coffins,

We shall have the sublime pride

Of avenging or following them!

To arms, citizens...


Internet Page:


France in diferent languages


eng | fra | frp | fur | jnf | wln: France

ast | cos | glg | ina | ita | lld-bad | scn | spa: Francia

cat | oci | por: França

tet | tur | zza: Fransa

afr | fry: Frankryk

arg | lld-grd: Franzia

est | vor: Prantsusmaa

hat | ibo: Frans

ind | msa: Perancis / ڤرانچيس

isl | non: Frakkland

kaa | uzb: Frantsiya, Fransiya / Франция

kin | run: Ubufaransa

lav | slv: Francija

lim | stq: Frankriek

nor | swe: Frankrike

nso | sot: Foranse

roh-enb | roh-gri: Frantscha

acf: Lafwans; Fwans

aze: Fransa / Франса

bam: Faransi

bos: Francuska / Француска

bre: Bro-C’hall; Frañs

ces: Francie

cor: Pow Frynk

crh: Frenkistan / Френкистан

csb: Frańcëskô; Francëjô

cym: Ffrainc

dan: Frankrig

deu: Frankreich / Frankreich

dsb: Francojska

epo: Francujo; Francio

eus: Frantzia

fao: Frakland

fin: Ranska

gag: Franţiya / Франция

gla: An Fhraing

gle: An Fhrainc / An Ḟrainc

glv: Yn Rank

hau: Faransi; Faransai

haw: Palani; Farani

hrv: Francuska

hsb: Francoska

hun: Franciaország

jav: Perancis

kab: Fransa / ⴼⵔⴰⵏⵙⴰ


kal: Franskit Nunaat (France); Frankrigi

kmr: Fransî / Франси / فرانسی; Fransê / Франсе / فرانسێ; Fransizîstan / Франсьзистан / فرانسزیستان

kur: Fransa / فرانسا

lat: Gallia; Francogallia; Francia

lin: Falansia

lit: Prancūzija

liv: Prantsūzmō

ltz: Frankräich / Frankräich

lug: Bufaransa

mfe: Lafrans

mlg: Frantsa

mlt: Franza

mol: Franţa / Франца

mri: Wīwī

nds: Frankriek / Frankriek

nld: Frankrijk

nrm: Fraunce

pap: Fransha

pol: Francja

que: Phransya

rmo: Váltši

rmy: Frančiya / क़्रान्चिया

roh-eno: Frauntscha

roh-srs: Frontscha

ron: Franţa

rup: Gallia; Frantsia

sag: Farânzi

sco: Fraunce

slk: Francúzsko

slo: Francia / Франциа; Franczem / Францзем

sme: Fráŋkriikka

smg: Prancūzėjė

smo: Farani

som: Faransiis; Faransa

sqi: Franca

srd: Frantza

swa: Ufaransa

szl: Francyjo

tah: Farāni

tgl: Pransya; Pransiya

tly: Fırəng / Фырәнг; Fırəngıston / Фырәнгыстон

ton: Falanise

tpi: Pranis

tuk: Fransiýa / Франция

vie: Pháp

vol: Fransän

wol: Faraas

xho: iFransi

zul: iFulansi

chu: Франкія (Frankīja)

abq | alt | bul | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | rus | tyv | udm: Франция (Francija)

ady | kbd: Францие (Francie)

che | chv: Франци (Franci)

mon | oss: Франц (Franc)

bak: Франция / Franciya

bel: Францыя / Francyja

chm: Франций (Francij)

kaz: Франция / Francïya / فرانتسيا

mkd: Франција (Francija)

srp: Француска / Francuska

tat: Франция / Fransiä

tgk: Фаронса / فرانسه / Faronsa; Франсия / فرنسیه / Fransija

ukr: Франція (Francija)

xal: Пранц (Pranc)

ara: فرنسا (Faransā)

ckb: فەڕەنسا / Feṟensa; فەرەنسا / Ferensa

fas: فرانسه (Farānse)

prs: فرانسه (Frānsâ)

pus: فرانسه (Frānsâ); فرانس (Frāns)

snd: فرانس (Frānsa)

swb: فَرًتْسَ / Farantsa

uig: فرانسىيە / Fransiye / Франция

urd: فرانس (Farāns)

div: ފްރާންސް (Frāns); ފަރަންސޭސިވިލާތް (Faransēsivilāt)

syr: ܦܪܢܣܐ (Pransā)

heb: צרפת (Tsarəfat)

lad: פ'ראנסיה / Fransia

yid: פֿראַנקרײַך (Frankrayḫ)

amh: ፈረንሣይ (Färänśay); ፈረንሳይ (Färänsay); ፍራንስ (Frans)

tir: ፈረንሳ (Färänsa)

ell: Γαλλία (Gallía)

hye: Ֆրանսիա (Fransia)

kat: საფრანგეთი (Saṗrangeṭi)

mar | nep: फ्रान्स (Pʰrāns)

hin: फ़्रांस (Frāṁs); फ्रांस (Pʰrāṁs); फ़्राँस (Frā̃ns)

ben: ফ্রান্স (Pʰrāns)

guj: ફ્રાંસ (Pʰrāṁs); ફ્રાઁસ (Pʰrā̃s)

pan: ਫਰਾਂਸ (Pʰrā̃s)

sin: ප්රංශය (Praṁšaya)

kan: ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ (Pʰrāns); ಪ್ರಾಂಸ್ (Prāṁs)

mal: ഫ്രാന്സ് (Pʰrāns)

tam: பிரான்ஸ் (Pirāṉs); பிரெஞ்சு (Pireñču); பிரான்சு (Pirāṉču)

tel: ఫ్రాన్స్ (Pʰrāns)

zho: 法國/法国 (Fǎguó); 法蘭西/法兰西 (Fǎlánxī)

yue: 法國/法国 (Faatgwok); 法蘭西/法兰西 (Faatlāahnsāi)

jpn: フランス (Furansu)

kor: 프랑스 (Peurangseu)

bod: ཕ་རན་སི་ (Pʰ; ཧྥ་རན་ས་ (Hpʰ; ཧྥ་གོ་ (Hpʰa.go.)

dzo: ཕརཱནསི་ (Pʰrānsi.)

mya: ပ္ရင္သစ္ (Pẏĩṯiʿ)

tha: ฝรั่งเศส (Farầṅsēt)

lao: ຝະລັ່ງ (Falầṅ); ຝຣັ່ງ (Frầṅ)

khm: បារាំង (Bārāṁṅ); បារាំងសែស (Bārāṁṅsæs)


Identifier: youngfolkslibrar09aldr

Title: Young folks library

Year: 1902 (1900s)

Authors: Aldrich, Thomas Bailey, 1836-1907

Subjects: Children's literature

Publisher: Boston, CT : Hall and Locke

Contributing Library: Internet Archive

Digitizing Sponsor: Internet Archive


View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book


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Text Appearing Before Image:

of Famous Explorers regions, wants but a little of tlie neatness and finish ofart — mosques and kiosks, palaces and villas, gardensand orchards — contrasting with the profuse lavishnessand magnificence of nature, and diversifying the un-broken coup doeil of excessive vegetation, to rival, if not to excel, themost admiredscenery of theclassic regions.The riant shoresof this vastcrevasse ap-peared doublybeautiful to meafter the silentand spectralmangrove - creekson the EastAfrican sea-board, and the melancholy,monotonous experience ofdesert and jungle scenery,tawny rock and sun-parched plain or rankherbage and flats of black mire. Truly it was a revelfor soul and sight. Ujiji — also called Manyofo, which appears, how-ever, peculiar to a certain sultanat or district — is thename of a province, not, as has been represented, of asingle town. It was first visited by the Arabs about1840, ten years after they had penetrated to Unyam-Wezi; they found it conveniently situated as a mart


Text Appearing After Image:

Fording the Unguwwb. Discovery of Tanganyika Lake 347 upon the Tanganyika Lake, and a central point wheretheir depots might be established, and whence theirfactors and slaves could navigate the waters and collectslaves and ivory from the tribes upon its banks. The bazaar at Ujiji is well suppHed. Fresh fish ofvarious kinds is always procurable, except during theviolence of the rains : the people, however, invariablycut it up and clean it out before bringing it to market.Good honey abounds after the wet monsoon. By thefavor of the chief, milk and butter may be purchasedevery day. Long-tailed sheep and well-bred goats,poultry and eggs — the two latter are never eaten bythe people — are brought in from the adjoining coun-tries : the Arabs breed a fewManilla ducks, and the peoplerear, but will not sell, pigeons. The Wajiji are a burly raceof barbarians, far stronger thanthe tribes hitherto traversed,with dark skins, plain features,and straight, sturdy limbs : theyare larger and heavie


Note About Images

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Leanne Franson


Leanne Franson is a bilingual anglophone cartoonist and children's illustrator living in the Plateau Mont-Royal. Born in Saskatchewan in 1963, she moved to Montréal in 1983 to complete her Bachelor of Fine Arts degree at Concordia University.


Leanne has been earning her living illustrating English and French language children's books, both trade and educational, since 1991. Some of her clients include Souliéres èditeur, Éditions de la courte échelle, Éditions les 400 Coups, Éditions Pierre-Tisseyre, Scholastic, Annick Press and Second Story Press. Her book "The Girl Who Hated Books" ("La fille qui détestait les livres") written by Manjusha Pawagi, Second Story Press, was the 2003 TD Canadian Children's Book Week giveaway book, distributed to all grade one students in Canada. She is a member of l'AIIQ (L'association des illustrateurs et illustratrices du Québec), RAAV, Communication Jeunesse, and Picture Book Artists.


Her illustration work can be seen at


Leanne does comics, mostly for adults, in her own time, since 1991. She has put out 44 self-published mini-zines, as well as three softcover tradebooks: "Assume Nothing", and "Teaching Through Trauma". Her work has been published in anthologies by Conigliore Editore (Italy), Soft Skull Press, Cleis Press, Boy Trouble Books, and The Crossing Press as well as Utne Reader and the Comics Journal.


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