new icn messageflickr-free-ic3d pan white
View allAll Photos Tagged Children s Internet Coup

1099 - 1st Crusaders capture, plunder Jerusalem

1205 - Pope Innocent III states Jews are doomed to perpetual servitude and subjugation due to crucifixion of Jesus

1207 - John of England expels Canterbury monks for supporting Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton.

1240 - A Novgorodian army led by Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva.

1307 - Duke Henrik van Karinthi chosen king of Bohemia

1381 - John Ball, a leader in the Peasants' Revolt, is hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of Richard II of England.

1410 - Battle of Tannenburg-Teutonic Knights vs King Ladislas II of Poland

1500 - Duke Albrecht of Saxon beats Friese rebellion

1500 - "Blood Wedding" of Astorre Baglione & Lavinia Colonna in Perugia family Baglione massacre

1501 - Explorer Pedro Cabral back in Lisbon

1524 - Emperor Karel I bans German national synode

1538 - Peace talks between Karel & King Francois I

1662 - King Charles II charters Royal Society in London

1741 - Alexei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.

1755 - French ambassador recalled from London

1779 - US troops under Gen A Wayne conquer Ft Stony Point, NY

1783 - 1st steamboat, Pyroscaphe, 1st run in France

1787 - Parliament of Paris banished to Troyes

1789 - Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, is named by acclamation colonel-general of the new National Guard of Paris.

1795 - "Marseillaise" becomes French national anthem

1799 - The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign. The Rosetta Stone is an ancient Egyptian granodiorite stele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion demotic script, and the lowest Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all three scripts (with some minor differences between them), it provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

1806 - Zebulon Pike began his journey to explore the Southwest

1808 - French marshal Joachim Murat becomes king of Naples

1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders at Rochefort & is later exiled on St Helena

1815 - 1st flat horse race held on Nottingham Hill at Cheltenham, England (day and month TBC)

1823 - A fire destroys the ancient Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome.

1830 - 3 Indian tribes, Sioux, Sauk & Fox, signs a treaty giving the US most of Minnesota, Iowa & Missouri

1840 - England, Russia, Austria & Prussia signs Quadruple Alliance

1850 - John Wisden bowls all 10 South batsmen, North v South at Lord's

1856 - Natal forms as a British colony separate from Cape Colony

1862 - CSS Arkansas vs USS Cardondelet & Queen of the West engage at Yazoo R

1863 - Pres Davis orders service duty for confederate army

1864 - Troop train loaded with Confederate prisoners collided with a coal train killing 65 & injuring 109 of 955 aboard

1867 - SF Merchant's Exchange opens

1869 - Margarine is patented by Hippolye Méga-Mouriès for use by French Navy

1870 - Georgia becomes last confederate to be readmitted to US

1870 - Manitoba becomes 5th Canadian province & NW Territories created

1870 - Hudson's Bay & Northwest Territories transferred to Canada

1876 - Baseball's 1st no-hitter, St Louis' George W Bradley no-hits Hartford

1888 - Bandai volcano (Japan) erupts for 1st time in 1,000 years

1893 - Commodore Perry arrives in Japan

1900 - President Steyn/General De Law escape Brandwater Basin

1901 - NY Giant Christy Mathewson no-hits St Louis, 5-0

1902 - Ranjitsinhji scores 180 before lunch, for Sussex v Surrey

1904 - 1st Buddhist temple in US forms, Los Angeles

1906 - Republic museum opens Rembrandt hall in Amsterdam

1909 - Ty Cobb hits 2 inside-the-park HRs

1911 - 46" of rain (begining 7/14) falls in Baguio, Philippines

1912 - British National Health Insurance Act goes into effect

1914 - Mexican president Huerta flees with 2 million pesos to Europe

1916 - 22.22" (56.4 cm) of rain falls in Altapass NC (state record)

1916 - Boeing Co (Pacific Aero) formed by William Boeing in Seattle Wash

1918 - 2nd Battle of Marne began during WW I

1920 - Ruth ties his record of 29 HRs in a season

1922 - 1st duck-billed platypus publicly exhibited in US, at NY zoo

1922 - 26th US Golf Open: Gene Sarazen shoots a 288 at Skokie CC in Ill

1923 - 27th US Golf Open: Bobby Jones shoots a 296 at Inwood CC in NY

1923 - Italian parliament accepts new constitution

1926 - VPRO (Free thinking Protestant Radio Broadcast) forms

1927 - 62nd British Golf Open: Bobby Jones shoots a 285 at St Andrews

1927 - Massacre of July 15, 1927: 89 protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna.

1929 - 1st airport hotel opens-Oakland Ca

1932 - President Hoover cuts own salary 15%

1933 - Wiley Post began 1st solo flight around world

1934 - Continental Airlines commences operations.

1936 - Dutch 2nd Chamber agree to temporarily increase defense budget

1937 - Buchenwald Concentration Camp opens

1937 - Japanese attack Marco Polo Bridge, invade China

1938 - Arthur Fagg completes 244 & 202 in the same cricket game for Kent

1939 - Clara Adams (NYC) is 1st woman to complete round world flight

1940 - 1st betatron placed in operation, Urbana, Il

1940 - Nazi occupiers seize library of IISG Amsterdam

1941 - Florey & Heatley present freeze dried mold cultures (Penicillin)

1942 - 1st deportation camp at Westerbork, Jews sent to Auschwitz

1942 - Dutch Jews invoked for "Labor camps"

1944 - Greenwich Observatory damaged by WW II flying bomb

1945 - 27th PGA Championship: Byron Nelson at Morraine CC Dayton Ohio

1946 - British North Borneo Co transfers rights to British crown

1948 - Alcoholic Anonymous founded in Britain

1948 - Pres Truman nominated for another term (Phila)

1949 - "Miss Liberty" opens at Imperial Theater NYC for 308 performances

1949 - Czech tennis stars Jaroslav Drobny & Vladimir Cernik, defect to US

1949 - WBTV TV channel 3 in Charlotte, NC (CBS) begins broadcasting

1952 - 1st transatlantic helicopter flight begins

1952 - Gerald D Lascelles (under English princess Mary) weds Angela Dowding

1954 - 110°F (43°C) at Balcony Falls, Virginia (state record)

1954 - 1st coml jet transport plane built in US tested (Boeing 707)

1954 - KOCO TV channel 5 in Oklahoma City, OK (ABC) begins broadcasting

1954 - WBOC TV channel 16 in Salisbury, MD (CBS/NBC/ABC) begins broadcasting

1955 - WNDU TV channel 16 in South Bend, IN (NBC) begins broadcasting

1955 - Eighteen Nobel laureates sign the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons, later co-signed by thirty-four others.

1956 - Beverly Hanson/Kathy Cornelius wins LPGA Hot Springs Golf Invitational

1956 - Iharos runs world record 10k (28:42.8)

1957 - Dutch Super Constellation crashes near New Guinea, 56 die

1957 - US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site

1958 - Pres Eisenhower sends US troops to Lebanon; they stay 3 months

1958 - US marines deployed in Lebanon

1959 - The steel strike of 1959 begins, leading to significant importation of foreign steel for the first time in United States history.

1960 - Balt Orioles' Brooks Robinson goes 5 for 5 including the cycle

1961 - "Donnybrook!" closes at 46th St Theater NYC after 68 performances

1961 - 90th British Golf Open: Arnold Palmer shoots a 284 at Royal Birkdale

1961 - Spain accept equal rights for men & women

1962 - Algeria becomes member of Arab League

1962 - Mickey Wright wins LPGA Milwaukee Golf Open

1962 - Neth & Indonesia accord over New-Guinea

1963 - KAIT TV channel 8 in Jonesboro, AR (ABC) begins broadcasting

1963 - Paul McCartney is fined £17 for speeding

1964 - Barry M Goldwater (Sen-R-Az) nominated for president by Republicans

1965 - "Mariner IV" sends back 1st pictures of Mars

1965 - Athanassiades Novas succeeds Papandreo as premier of Greece

1967 - "Sweet Charity" closes at Palace Theater NYC after 608 performances

1967 - LA Wolves beat Wash Whips 6-5 in OT to be United Soccer Ass champs

1967 - Roberto DeVicenzo of Argentina wins golf's British Open

1967 - USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR

1968 - "One Life to Live" premieres on TV

1968 - Commercial air travel begins between US & USSR

1968 - France performs nuclear Test at Muruora Island

1968 - NJ Americans moved to Comack & become NY Nets (ABA)

1968 - Soap opera "One Life To Live" premieres

1969 - Cincinnati Red Lee May hits 4 HRs in a doubleheader

1969 - Rod Carew ties record with his 7th steal of home in a season

1970 - Denmark beats Italy 2-0 in 1st world female soccer championship

1971 - Pres Nixon announces he would visit People's Rep of China

1972 - 101st British Golf Open: Lee Trevino shoots 278 at Muirfield Gullane

1972 - Sandra Palmer/Jane Blalock wins Angelo's Four-Ball Golf Championship

1973 - Calif Angel Nolan Ryan 2nd no-hitter beats Detroit Tigers, 6-0

1973 - Carole Jo Skala wins LPGA George Washington Golf Classic

1973 - Paul Getty III kidnapped

1973 - Ray Davies, announces retirement from Kinks then attempts suicide

1973 - Willie McCovey becomes 15th to hit 400 HRs

1974 - Military coup on Cyprus: archbishop/president Makarios flees

1975 - 46th All Star Baseball Game: NL wins 6-3 at County Stadium, Milwaukee

1975 - All star MVP: Bill Madlock (Pitts Pirates) & John Matlock (NY Mets)

1975 - Apollo 18 launched (will rendezvous with Soyuz)

1975 - Soyuz 19 & Apollo 18 launched; rendezvous 2 days later

1976 - 36-hr kidnap of 26 school children & their bus driver in Calif

1978 - 107th British Golf Open: Jack Nicklaus shoots a 281 at St Andrews

1979 - 34th US Women's Open Golf Championship won by Jerilyn Britz

1979 - Morarji Desai resigns as premier of India

1980 - Johnny Bench hits his 314th HR as a catcher breaks Yogi Berra's record

1982 - Body of Wendy Caulfield, 1st Green River victim, found near Seattle

1982 - Columbia flies to Kennedy Space Center via Dyess AFB, Texas

1982 - Senate confirms George Shultz as 60th sec of state by vote of 97-0

1983 - 8 killed, 54 wounded, by Armenian extremists bomb at Orly, France

1983 - Linda Ronstadt debuts as Mabel in "Pirates of Penzance"

1984 - 39th US Women's Open Golf Championship won by Hollis Stacy

1984 - John Lennon releases "I'm Stepping Out"

1985 - Deborah Carthy-Deu, of Puerto Rico, crowned 34th Miss Universe

1986 - 57th All Star Baseball Game: AL wins 3-2 at Astrodome, Houston

1986 - All star MVP: Roger Clemens (Boston Red Sox)

1987 - Boy George barred from British TV show, he may be a bad influence

1987 - John Poindexter testifies at Iran-Contra hearings

1987 - State of siege ends in Taiwan

1990 - 45th US Women's Open Golf Championship won by Betsy King

1991 - France performs nuclear Test at Muruora Island

1991 - US troops leave northern Iraq

1991 - Sandhi Ortiz-DelValle is 1st woman to officiate a men's pro basketball (USBL) game, game between New Haven Skyhawks & Phila Spirit

1992 - Pope John Paul II hospitalized for 3 weeks to have tumor removed

1994 - Gyula Horn sworn in as premier of Hungary

1994 - Israel & Jordan agree to talks in Wash DC on July 25th

1994 - NJ Nets Derrek Coleman accused of rape in Detroit

1994 - Sonia O'Sullivan runs 3K (8:21.64)

1995 - Birmingham Barracudas 1st CFL home game (vs Hamilton)

1995 - Jews take Jerusalem

1995 - Northern Virginia begins using new area code 540

1996 - After 2,216 consecutive games at shortstop, Cal Ripkin goes to 3rd

1996 - MSNBC begins Microsoft internet-NBC TV

1996 - Prince Charles & Princess Di sign divorce papers

1996 - Southern Mexico hit with 6.5 earthquake

1996 - A Belgian Air Force C-130 Hercules carrying the Royal Netherlands Army marching band crashes on landing at Eindhoven Airport.

1999 - The inaugural game at the Seattle Mariners' Safeco Field was held in Seattle, Washington.

2002 - "American Taliban" John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and to possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.

2002 - Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan hands down the death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life terms to three others suspected of murdering Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

2003 - AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape Communications Corporation. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day.

2009 - A 7.9 Magnitude earthquake registers 160km west of Invercargill, New Zealand, creating a small tsunami.

 

To whom it may concern. I leave tomorrow for Ireland. The details of this year's trip are secret of course, but trust me when i tell you that it will be dangerous. So i am posting a copy of my Last Will in preparation for the unlikely possibility that my enemies penetrate my defenses and somehow overpower me. This would require a force of human or cybernetic soldiers existing well beyond the scope of the worlds wealthiest military entities. So please do not worry, I am writing this because my lawyers are demanding it. My Will is divided into two parts, the first being a list of individuals to whom certain belongings have been awarded, and the second describes the post-mortem procedures I wish to to be performed on my body after careful examination by a qualified physician.

 

If you once found your name honored among the list of disciples, there is no guarantee that it remains. If this is the case i recommend you engage in a serious re-evaluation of your life from the perspective of the wayward child, and seek approbation as soon as I return. If the situation is reversed and you previously went conspicuously unrewarded but now find yourself illuminated among the chosen, then you should know that this reward does not mean I am happy with you. I am, simply put, short of people who are not on my revenge list. I remind you, as always, that this will is little more than a prescient announcement of the collapse of civilization, since the economic and political structures of the world will more than likely implode after the news of my demise is leaked to the public. So in addition to my will, I have provided a short survival guide detailing how to live through and possibly prosper in the impending anarchy. I offer this to you as consolation for your loss... your loss of me.

  

Part 1. Distribution of goods

 

1. The Mediterranean Island Compound. Brendan and Jen. You get the island but not the weapons. You two have never fully committed to my vision of the future and therefore I can not trust you with the arsenal. I also suggest that you avoid the western peninsula, as this is where I keep the genetically enhanced snakes.

 

2. W.M.D.'s I had given these to Brian, but now I think Marty might better be suited for this. He will more than likely forget about them and consequently they will not be used. The secret storehouse will be mine when I return.*

 

3. Videos of me cage fighting. These were lynda's, but now they go to Orange and K8. Shirtless, sweaty and mercilessly hot.

 

4. What is left of my sperm/genetic documentation. This information was to be donated to the insurrectionist rebel movement know as "The Fist of Democracy", who were going to use the data to create the perfect warrior. But now I think i will have it cloned and donated to sperm banks across the country in such prodigious numbers as to statistically outnumber any other potential father 200 to 1. The people of the world will need as much of me as they can get.

 

5. The computer map of the neuro-pathways of my brain. My lawyers engaged in a lengthy battle with the US military to regain control of this complicated Bio-software. It would be a waste to give it to any of you. I demand that this model be plugged into a computer and powered indefinitely. You may refer to it when in need of answers about life, strategic operations, or connect four.

 

6. My surfboard. Ben you asked for this. The caveat is that you may never ride it. In fact, I demand that you never even learn to surf.

 

7. Brian and suzette, As an engagement present, I am transferring ownership of my diamond mine to you both. The only problem is, it is currently staffed with slave children stolen from nearby villages so this is kind of like leaving 1,500 starving, overworked babies on your doorstep.

 

8. Albert and Juliet, You have both entered my life with the speed and fury of a level three, pandemic tropical disease. The resultant social dependence dictates that I offer you a place in the council of my future reign*. This will of course require that you are both frozen. I have alerted my Cryonics division, and on your respective 30th birthdays' you will be forcefully put to sleep.

 

8. Erin. You get my nanotechnology lab in silicon valley. I predict that you will squander the massive profits acquired from this resource. You are bad with money. Therefore all money will be placed into a trust fund. You will not be able to access this money until you have given birth to three male children. After the birth of your third son, who must be named William you may receive it in full. The choice in fathers is left to your questionable judgment.

 

9. Aieghdeigkna. I have something for you this time. I got you a pocket Chinese translator. Actually, he is less pocket sized than you might like since he is now 13. His name is Ling. Feed him well.

 

10. Tom. You get the videotapes of my old truck sitting on the street. This is my most prized possession.

 

11. Meredith: you are now the owner of my bedding design factory in SE Asia. We have a lab there filled with tiny beds in which tiny monkeys sleep to test our new products.

 

12. Trevor mcnaab. Fuck off... I will strike at you even from the grave..

 

13. Jennifer H. You get the robot guarded penthouse on Central park west. The robots have been programmed to kill you on site. They are armed with weapons such as, laser beam eyes, machine gun arms, and the ability to crush and stop your useless future right out of metaphysical existence. good luck.

 

14. Michelle, as a wedding present to you and Murat I give you the Atlantic undersea base. We have had some trouble lately with our hyper intelligent dolphins so you will have a bit of cleanup work to do once you take it over. My scientists have been telling me that the dolphins won't do any work without listening to Tina Turner.

 

15. Neinke, You still get southern Europe. I never really liked it anyway. Just check in at the Hague to collect. Oh yeah, they may "resist" at first so see #2 above. I'm sure Marty will let you borrow them.

 

16. Bryson, I have been developing a secret weapon. The weapon is designed to pull the moon closer to the earth. Earth's gravity will eventually kick in and the two planetary bodies will collide. This information was of course something I hoped would never reach the public. In fact I kind of regret building it in the first place but I was out late one night and when i got home I was sort of drunk and I guess it seemed like a good idea at the time, sooo... anyway, it's yours.

 

19. Steph, You are going to be with me on this trip so it is likely that if someone tries to kill me, I will have used your body as a shield. I therefore can not envision a situation in which you will be alive if I am dead, so I am not leaving you anything.

 

20. Corrina, You are given the apartment. You earned it. You must however seal off my room, curate it and once a year allow visitors in for a modest price.

 

18. The cadre of assassins is yours Damian. After all, you helped me train them. I can think of no one I trust them with more than you. I would ask one favor though. Please kill Trevor with them. Oh and just in case please kill Brian Ferrier as well. Thanks buddy.

 

19. Eric, We share the same birthday. In many ways we are very similar. This has forced me as i am sure it has you, to question life from the standpoint of astrology, genetics, behaviorism, sociology, psychology etc. etc. These analysis's are done in search of an answer for why we are so much alike. We are both architects, we both see the world as contemplative outsiders and we are the two greatest dancers in the world. It is for this reason that i demand we share the same death day. You have little time (if any) before they find you, better start running.

 

20. Mike Wrobel, Jon, and the rest of the "Demons of North" , You get my motorcycle. If at all possible, could you please MAKE IT FUCKING WORK! If you can't I demand that it be set on fire and pushed into the east river because I am pretty sure that it will be more useful down there than it is up here.

 

21. Kielty. You are given rights to the autobiography I paid someone to write for me.

 

22. Maureen. You get the Monster truck factory.

 

23. Ellen and Ute, you are both given architecture. All of it. From every basswood model to every non-cementatious epoxy based exterior panel slab. It is all yours, but I should warn you that it doesn't do anyone any actual good no matter how many late nights you waste on it.

 

24. Pinky, you get my hotel/internet dogfood empire. It is a rough combo.

 

24.5 Andy, my collection of priceless gems is yours. You must first solve a puzzle though. Please be at Union square at exactly 3:40 on January 31st 2008 under the statue of General Marquis de Lafayette to receive your first clue. Bring a change of underwear and whatever weapons you have.

 

25. There is a note written at the bottom which should be mailed to the president of the United States upon official statement of my death given by a qualified physician. Please send it for me.

 

26. Mom, Dad, Brianna, Virginia, James, Bwendan, Patrick... fuck it

the whole Oberlin, Dowd, Koneche, Goggin, Reilley, Gallagher, Jarabak, Cligget,

Pattersonian Tribe. As a special gift to you, just for having been born with even a shadowy resemblance to my messianic genetic coding, I offer you a seat in my future ruling council.*

(You must of course arrange and pay for your own Cryogenic storage.)

Anyone who makes it back will also be given a free yogurt.

 

To everyone else. As stated above, I offer you the knowledge that your civilizations will probably collapse shortly after they learn of my demise and therefore in the ensuing chaos, my possessions will not be of great importance to those who have received them. Please see the survival guide below.. I look forward to my awakening.

 

* See below funeral procedures explaining all matters relating to future reign.

 

Part 2. Funeral and Interment procedures

 

It is my wish that the physical manifestation of my self (ie. my body) undergo the following series of ceremonial and medical procedures after an official statement of death given by a qualified physician.

 

If I am proven dead.

1. Please carefully remove my brain. Please carefully reinsert my brain into a robot. Make sure the robot is designed with extremely powerful weapons and make sure that I am VERY relaxed at the time of insertion. (we all know what happens when the brain wakes up in the new robot body and in a fit of anxiety kills the room full of doctors.) Monitor my behavior for any signs of abnormality and then leave me alone so i can get down to business. It might be a good idea not to load the weapons until this point. Just as a precaution.

 

2. It is my wish that the liquid in my body be removed and replaced

with a gelatinous nitrogen mixture capable maintaining it's non-Newtonian, solid state at temperatures well below freezing. I then would very much appreciate being frozen. This is of course only after my brain has been removed and inserted into the Robot-Death-Machine (ummm. don't call it that publicly) described above.

 

3. After my rule is sufficiently established, a minimum of 100 years of tyranny (again please keep these descriptions to yourselves) I probably will want a body again. Since I really haven't seen anyone on this earth as strikingly handsome as myself, I will most likely want my own. Hence the freezing.

 

That is it. I do not expect much. I do expect swift and zealous obedience. Remember loyalty purchases reward. Hopefully none of this will be necessary yet but you never know. Have a good week.

 

William Oberlin

   

Letter to the president.

 

Dear mr president,

You are a puppet. Yes, sorry to have to tell it to you this way, but

you are nothing more than a figurehead who's policies and actions are the inevitable result of 60 years of armament build-up. When I return from the grave and peacefully rise to power, I look forward to sitting in your seat. Actually with my new robot body (you will see) I might have to install a much larger seat. In fact the white house of my rule will look slightly less neo-classical. The new architecture will have more of a shiny, stay-the-fuck-away, feel to it. Windows won't really be needed. All light will come from the fiber-optic treated exterior skin used to photo-voltaically power the hydrogen fuel cells and simultaneously light the sleek sexy interiors. These interiors will be occupied by models; beautiful ones in lingerie because I will have no need for a staff of weak-minded humans. My current brain, which is far superior to yours, will be augmented with state of the art processors upgraded weekly and funded with 1/3 of the world's countries' taxes. It will connected to a global network devoted to operating

the mechanical, electrical. political, and economic infrastructure of every city and suburb in the world. This will eliminate the need for a bureaucracy since I will run the entire planet myself, hence the models. They will be hot, mr. president. You are welcome to come visit occasionally. You can eat your puny-human foods, like egg sandwiches on a roll with cheese and sausage. You can have any delicious beverage you choose, it will be prepared by one of my beautiful sexy models!! We can discuss how similar my reign of terror is to your presidency, and if you get tired you can shut your brain down to take a nap while I communicate with the human colony on Z-Beta-Prime. So that is it. Hope to see you soon. The doctors will need to get me up and running quickly.

    

Survival Guide.

Ok, So if you are reading this then the world as you know it has ceased to function in a recognizable fashion. This could mean that your government has collapsed and the streets are occupied by mobs of shiv wielding looters. Or that the military, in response to what will have been referred to (i love to use pluperfect tense) as the greatest power vacuum in human history, has mobilized a coup. But whatever the case, it is certain that by now you have already killed your neighbor in an act of heroic self preservation. That's one down, 7 billion to go, because in your new world the only way to survive is to be the last one standing. This simple guide will provide the techniques and strategies that will keep you one step ahead of your post-apocalyptic competitors.

 

step one: mapping out your future.

there are two possible ways to survive in this new world and neither of them are pretty, but you will have to very quickly make your choice. You can either take a sedentary and consequently defensive approach, establishing a semi-permanent water source and agricultural life, or you can become a nomad scavenging, attacking and foraging whatever you come across. There are advantages and disadvantages to both.

The sedentary approach, if employed successfully, will allow you to lead a life of moderate comfort while the nomadic system offers you the opportunity to plunder which is equally important. Below are some simple rules to the establishment of both.

  

Sedentary Life Model

1. Do not wait for the dust of the apocalypse to clear before you join or start a settlement of humans. it is unadvisable to live in a fixed location outside the protection of a tribe or band. Those stationary few who shun the sheltered settlements in favor of isolation, will probably be forced to watch their families die at the hands of wandering raiding parties. This is usually just before being left for dead in a nuclear wasteland (if you are part of the raiding party, It should be noted that the people you leave alive tend to survive and seek revenge so be thorough and just kill them). Therefore, quickly seek out other survivors for defense and, if you have the courage, establish your role as leader.

2. Gather healthy people and valuables quickly. The strength of a society is dependant on the strength of it's citizens. Leave the old, sick, weak and injured behind. don't hesitate to remove their food, clothing and useful items as you do so. If they resist, kill them. In your world of violent resource acquisition young men and women between the ages of 16 and 30 are critical for the establishment of a well defended civilization. In the beginning these men and women will be used as farmers, builders and laborers as well as your fighting force. But soon, as your numbers grow, you will want to establish a professional military fed by the labor of the civilians. Never let this military forget who is in control. It is advised that you kill some of them in hand to hand combat duels about once a month just as a reminder.

3. Find a scientist. This can not be stressed enough. You will need a brain to your organizational brawn. In fact, find as many as possible but let us clarify the term scientist. We are not looking for meteorologists, microbiologists, agronomists, ethologists, cytologists sociologist, ect. Nor are we seeking any academic fields dependant on technologically expensive equipment. We need scientists of a practical nature. Like physicists, chemists, geologists, epidemiologists and this is the big one here, doctors, doctors, doctors. holy shit are these guys going to be cooler than they ever thought possible. You should keep them protected, give them immunity from your heavy handed legal system, shelter them and provide them with as much sex as they can handle. Their children will probably be just as valuable as they are.

4. Laws. step one, kill the lawyers, they will wrestle your newly acquired power away from you the first chance they get. Step two. establish a fighting arena to settle internal disputes because justice is best served at the hands of the individuals. Step three. establish a police force. Step four, remember that it is good to kill the troublemakers before they reach maturity. At the first sign of insurrection kill the troublemakers and his/her family. Kids love to grow up seeking revenge so don't give them the opportunity.

5. Stronghold. stronghold. stronghold. You need to keep your people and your food protected from your enemies. Caves are a good natural defense structure. If you don't have caves build walls. anyone who knows how to build, has a duty to work on your stronghold and palace ASAP. those who resist should quickly find themselves subjugated to waste management duty or thrown outside the protection of the camp.

6. Escape route. ALWAYS have a back-up plan. keep a hidden stash of food, weapons and clothing in a well fortified location far away from your settlement. If possible store enough provision to supply the minimum number of people you will need for a fresh start. If and when you are attacked and overrun take your best officers and their families with you to the new secret base. If necessary, use the lives of those subjects about whom you do not care as barter for your escape. Just make sure your conquerors don't follow.

 

Additional tips and helpful hints for the sedentary survivors.

try to keep as many skulls and disarticulated corpse parts staked or mounted around the perimeter of your encampment. This intimidates both the advancing raiding parties as well as any who might try to escape. Remember, signs and other nonverbal communication techniques might not work since few will know how to read. Since they won't be of much use to you, I suggest using the graphic designers of this world as your corpses.

Don't be too greedy. This applies to all levels of your life. Your new subjects might not appreciate your rule if they feel like you are going to swoop in any second and take their food or their women.

For some reason, children are relatively important to their parents, so try not to hurt them if possible, it breeds dissention.

 

Nomadic Life Model

 

The nomad is a hearty and healthy individual who has shunned the comforts of daily life in exchange for mobility and efficiency of resource collection. The nomad's life is an equation in search or balance. It is quite literally, an economy of means. One must travel light between water and food sources but never so light as to run short of supplies. The company of others is critical for survival, but never let your band expand large enough to outgrow your foraging intake. The successful nomad is constantly aware of his/her environment and never questions or challenges nature's wrath. The lack of shelter and protection from the elements is the Nomad's greatest enemy and the fight against this can only be fought with knowledge of your terrain. Use the rules below to help establish a working band of nomadic forgers.

 

1. Since this world will most likely be a barren wasteland of infertile soil, The foraging of the future will be based largely, if not exclusively, on the destruction of established settlements and the subsequent stripping of what few crops and storehouses they have. This will mean your foraging band (war party) will need to be fierce enough to attack and destabilize whatever strongholds you encounter. You will also require some method of transporting your spoils.

2. Find a vehicle. Even better than vehicles are pack animals. They provide companionship, Do not require gasoline or combustible fuel, and they can be used as an emergency food source.

 

3. Gather strong and healthy people to your group. Keep in mind that for every person you pick up you will need to acquire an equal amount in provisions during the raids. This can be a problem unless you have some resource wealthy targets within striking distance. At every conquered settlement it is advised to conscript new warriors from the young if needed.

 

4. Do not keep a fixed position for too long. Once you overrun a fortification, stay as long as it takes to re-supply and recoup from your attack then pack up and leave. Don't forget to arm yourself with as many weapons as are available. If you linger, you are open to retaliation from satellite camps, scavengers looking to capitalize on your work, and worse, rebellion from the conquered. Since it is not good to leave angry victims in your flank, you should kill anyone who might cause trouble before you advance.

 

5. Establish a code of law. Don't get too fancy here. Just pick some catch phrase that can be shouted by the masses but still allows sufficient room for your subjective interpretation. Just so the people know who is in charge make sure to slap your name on it. Something like "williams code, . An enemy of your brother is your enemy too. b. Stealing from your brother is stealing from the people! " Something like that. keep it simple. remember, there is no prison when you are on the move and resources are too scarce to justify mercy. Therefore, the penalty for all indiscretions should be death.

 

Additional tips:

Get a harem, you need to procreate prolifically.

Never miss an opportunity to attack. This is true even if you are outnumbered. Your enemies need to fear you more than you need your warriors.

Send the heads of your victims on a cart or a wagon to your next target just to let them know you're coming.

 

So that should do it. I recommend you keep this guide on you at all times during my trip because if something does go wrong and I don't make it, this may very well be the only possession you have left.

SINDH 1956-1976 (1979)

Sources:

Historique de la flotte des Messageries Maritimes du commandant Lanfant

Le grand Siècle des Messageries Maritimes du Dr Paul Bois Tome V

Encyclopédie des Messageries Maritimes de Philippe Ramona (site sur le web)

Le forum des anciens des Messageries. De nombreuses photographies, anecdotes et précisons sont régulièrement mises en ligne.

Monsieur Xavier Escallier qui a très amicalement mis à ma disposition sa collection de cartes postales des Messageries.

Les différents sites internet sur la marine marchande, qu'ils soient Britanniques, Espagnols, Français ou autres.

Différents ouvrages personnel sur l'histoire de la marine marchande française.

Indexe (1) : Données du commandant Lanfant dans ouvrage.

Indexe (2) : Données du Docteur Paul Bois dans son ouvrage.

Indexe (3) : Données de Mr Philippe Ramona sur son site web

--------------------------------------------

4ème de la série de 10 des cargos de 8300 tonnes de port en lourd de Type F commandés à partir de 1954

Construit par les chantiers et Ateliers de Provence de La Ciotat

1956 le 4 février: Lancement Commandant du navire durant la construction Pailhes. Marraine Mme Ludovic Tron.

1956 Livré le 21 juin: à Marseille

 

CARACTÉRISTIQUES :

Navire à Shelter deck, 3 ponts continus. La méthode de construction soudée a été largement employée.

Longueur: 148,99 mHT et 139,06 m PP

Largeur: 18.8 m

Jauge brute 7000 tjb 7051 tjb (2)

Jauge nette: (2) 3887 tn

Port en lourd 9000 tonnes, - 9090 t (2)

Déplacement: 13800 t

Capacité 15000 m3 dont 600m3 en 3 cuves pour le latex ou l'huile et 120 m3 en cales frigos.(NB avant chaque chargement (agrumes – pommes –poires ou viande congelée ou ''child'' selon les lignes) par ozonisation.

Cales: 5

Manutention: Cales desservies par 10 mâts de charge de5 tonnes, 4 de 10 t et 2 bigues de 30 et 60 tonnes.

Fermetures par panneaux Mac Gregor single pull.

Ventilation des cales: système cargocaire

 

PROPULSION :

1 moteur Burmeister et Wain 2 temps simple effet, 9 cylindres 974 VTF 160

Combustible: Fuel lourd à la mer en Route Libre. Manœuvres au Diesel oil.

Puissance: 8300 cv a 115 t/mn

Vitesse: 18 nds aux essais et 16 nds en service

1 hélice accouplement fixe.

1 cheminée.

ÉLECTRICITÉ:

3 Groupes électrogènes Allen Dujardin de 250 Kw et 220 v

1 Chaudière de récupération à la mer de 2000 k/h sous 4 bars

1 Chaudière de mouillage Menpenti au fuel de 1000 k/h sous 4 bars au port.

 

PERSONNEL :

État-major 10 Officiers

Équipage: 23 hommes, réduit à 17 hommes en 1970.(accord tripartites Armement - Syndicats - État)

Pas de conditionnement d'air à bord.

 

PASSAGERS :

Passagers 6 - supprimés en 1970 avec la réduction d'effectif.

 

LIGNE :

1956 le 16 Juillet: Départ de Marseille du voyage inaugural

1956 août Mis en service sur la ligne Hambourg- Philippines/Japon puis la ligne de Chine.

1962 Mis en service sur la ligne du Sud Est Asiatique

  

ÉVÉNEMENTS :

1956 Marseille Avarie de vireur du Moteur. Réparation provisoire. 2 j. de retard.

1956 KOBE Réparation définitive du vireur. 10 j. de retard.

1961 le 11 décembre: Appareillant d'Anvers par coup de vent, heurte la drague FABIOLA. Avaries peu importantes.

1962 le 16 janvier: Relâche à Messine pour débarquer le matelot Chi Haoui atteint d'une appendicite aiguë.

1963 le 10 février: En accostant à Sihanoukville occasionne des avaries importantes à l'appontement et à sa coque.

1964 le 3 janvier: Au large de Terneuzen par temps de brume, il aborde le pétrolier BORDER FUSILIER. Peu d'avaries.

1964 le 26 décembre: En prenant avec le pilote le chenal de l'Escaut-Oriental il s'échoue. Fais appel verbalement en hollandais à deux remorqueurs Hollandais qui le déséchoue. Contrat verbal d'assistance transformé en contrat de simple remorquage par Monsieur Roch Ménés inspecteur de la Compagnie.

1965 le 27 décembre: En déhalant à Anvers, heurte avec son étrave, celle du britannique ELYSIA. Légères avaries.

1966 le 2 décembre: En remontant le Donaï (rivière de Saïgon) il est mitraillé et canonné. De nombreux impacts, un obus de mortier non explosé dans le local mâtereau où sont entreposées les bouteilles de gaz Oxygène et acétylène. Carré des officiers (venant juste d'être évacué) vitres des sabords sont complètement pulvérisées. Un éclat de mortier dessertis le hublot du Second Capitaine et vient se planter sous le lit où celui-ci faisait la sieste. Il n'y aura heureusement que deux blessés légers.

1967. 5 juin: Commandant Touchard. En convoi vers la Méditerranée bloqué dans le canal lors de l'attaque Israélienne avec 12 autres navires.

1967 le 17 juin: Le consul de France se rend à bord 3 Officiers et 21 hommes sur 45 en tout seront rapatriés le 27 juin. Ensuite relève tous les 6 mois d'un noyau d'équipage, pour l'entretien du navire et appareiller pour faire un tour du Lac Amer et essayer les appareils.

1968 le 8 février: J'y embarquerai comme second mécanicien via Le Caire et Ismaïlia avec le chef mécanicien Prédal Adolphe ainsi que 3 ou 4 autres membres de l'équipage. (Plus de souvenir des noms) Escale à Rome, puis Rome Le Caire (nous étions les seuls passagers). Arrivée au Caire pour la nuit. Départ le lendemain pour Ismaïlia. En pleine zone de guerre.

 

RETRAIT et FIN:

1967 le 5 juin: Attaque Israélienne contre l'Égypte. Le convoi montant (vers la Méditerranée) est bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer du Canal de Suez. Commandant Touchard.

1970 Août: Abandon du navire et du fret.

1970 Août: Vendu par les assurances en Norvège comme épave pour la somme de 305.000 £.

1970 en août: Prend le nom de ESSAYONS reste bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer.

1975 Vendu à sa sortie du Canal à l'Arabie Saoudite il prend le nom de BADR.

1983 Disparaît des listes du Lloyd.

  

SINDH 1956-1976 (1979)

Sources:

Historique de la flotte des Messageries Maritimes du commandant Lanfant

Le grand Siècle des Messageries Maritimes du Dr Paul Bois Tome V

Encyclopédie des Messageries Maritimes de Philippe Ramona (site sur le web)

Le forum des anciens des Messageries. De nombreuses photographies, anecdotes et précisons sont régulièrement mises en ligne.

Monsieur Xavier Escallier qui a très amicalement mis à ma disposition sa collection de cartes postales des Messageries.

Les différents sites internet sur la marine marchande, qu'ils soient Britanniques, Espagnols, Français ou autres.

Différents ouvrages personnel sur l'histoire de la marine marchande française.

Indexe (1) : Données du commandant Lanfant dans ouvrage.

Indexe (2) : Données du Docteur Paul Bois dans son ouvrage.

Indexe (3) : Données de Mr Philippe Ramona sur son site web

--------------------------------------------

4ème de la série de 10 des cargos de 8300 tonnes de port en lourd de Type F commandés à partir de 1954

Construit par les chantiers et Ateliers de Provence de La Ciotat

1956 le 4 février: Lancement Commandant du navire durant la construction Pailhes. Marraine Mme Ludovic Tron.

1956 Livré le 21 juin: à Marseille

 

CARACTÉRISTIQUES :

Navire à Shelter deck, 3 ponts continus. La méthode de construction soudée a été largement employée.

Longueur: 148,99 mHT et 139,06 m PP

Largeur: 18.8 m

Jauge brute 7000 tjb 7051 tjb (2)

Jauge nette: (2) 3887 tn

Port en lourd 9000 tonnes, - 9090 t (2)

Déplacement: 13800 t

Capacité 15000 m3 dont 600m3 en 3 cuves pour le latex ou l'huile et 120 m3 en cales frigos.(NB avant chaque chargement (agrumes – pommes –poires ou viande congelée ou ''child'' selon les lignes) par ozonisation.

Cales: 5

Manutention: Cales desservies par 10 mâts de charge de5 tonnes, 4 de 10 t et 2 bigues de 30 et 60 tonnes.

Fermetures par panneaux Mac Gregor single pull.

Ventilation des cales: système cargocaire

 

PROPULSION :

1 moteur Burmeister et Wain 2 temps simple effet, 9 cylindres 974 VTF 160

Combustible: Fuel lourd à la mer en Route Libre. Manœuvres au Diesel oil.

Puissance: 8300 cv a 115 t/mn

Vitesse: 18 nds aux essais et 16 nds en service

1 hélice accouplement fixe.

1 cheminée.

ÉLECTRICITÉ:

3 Groupes électrogènes Allen Dujardin de 250 Kw et 220 v

1 Chaudière de récupération à la mer de 2000 k/h sous 4 bars

1 Chaudière de mouillage Menpenti au fuel de 1000 k/h sous 4 bars au port.

 

PERSONNEL :

État-major 10 Officiers

Équipage: 23 hommes, réduit à 17 hommes en 1970.(accord tripartites Armement - Syndicats - État)

Pas de conditionnement d'air à bord.

 

PASSAGERS :

Passagers 6 - supprimés en 1970 avec la réduction d'effectif.

 

LIGNE :

1956 le 16 Juillet: Départ de Marseille du voyage inaugural

1956 août Mis en service sur la ligne Hambourg- Philippines/Japon puis la ligne de Chine.

1962 Mis en service sur la ligne du Sud Est Asiatique

  

ÉVÉNEMENTS :

1956 Marseille Avarie de vireur du Moteur. Réparation provisoire. 2 j. de retard.

1956 KOBE Réparation définitive du vireur. 10 j. de retard.

1961 le 11 décembre: Appareillant d'Anvers par coup de vent, heurte la drague FABIOLA. Avaries peu importantes.

1962 le 16 janvier: Relâche à Messine pour débarquer le matelot Chi Haoui atteint d'une appendicite aiguë.

1963 le 10 février: En accostant à Sihanoukville occasionne des avaries importantes à l'appontement et à sa coque.

1964 le 3 janvier: Au large de Terneuzen par temps de brume, il aborde le pétrolier BORDER FUSILIER. Peu d'avaries.

1964 le 26 décembre: En prenant avec le pilote le chenal de l'Escaut-Oriental il s'échoue. Fais appel verbalement en hollandais à deux remorqueurs Hollandais qui le déséchoue. Contrat verbal d'assistance transformé en contrat de simple remorquage par Monsieur Roch Ménés inspecteur de la Compagnie.

1965 le 27 décembre: En déhalant à Anvers, heurte avec son étrave, celle du britannique ELYSIA. Légères avaries.

1966 le 2 décembre: En remontant le Donaï (rivière de Saïgon) il est mitraillé et canonné. De nombreux impacts, un obus de mortier non explosé dans le local mâtereau où sont entreposées les bouteilles de gaz Oxygène et acétylène. Carré des officiers (venant juste d'être évacué) vitres des sabords sont complètement pulvérisées. Un éclat de mortier dessertis le hublot du Second Capitaine et vient se planter sous le lit où celui-ci faisait la sieste. Il n'y aura heureusement que deux blessés légers.

1967. 5 juin: Commandant Touchard. En convoi vers la Méditerranée bloqué dans le canal lors de l'attaque Israélienne avec 12 autres navires.

1967 le 17 juin: Le consul de France se rend à bord 3 Officiers et 21 hommes sur 45 en tout seront rapatriés le 27 juin. Ensuite relève tous les 6 mois d'un noyau d'équipage, pour l'entretien du navire et appareiller pour faire un tour du Lac Amer et essayer les appareils.

1968 le 8 février: J'y embarquerai comme second mécanicien via Le Caire et Ismaïlia avec le chef mécanicien Prédal Adolphe ainsi que 3 ou 4 autres membres de l'équipage. (Plus de souvenir des noms) Escale à Rome, puis Rome Le Caire (nous étions les seuls passagers). Arrivée au Caire pour la nuit. Départ le lendemain pour Ismaïlia. En pleine zone de guerre.

 

RETRAIT et FIN:

1967 le 5 juin: Attaque Israélienne contre l'Égypte. Le convoi montant (vers la Méditerranée) est bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer du Canal de Suez. Commandant Touchard.

1970 Août: Abandon du navire et du fret.

1970 Août: Vendu par les assurances en Norvège comme épave pour la somme de 305.000 £.

1970 en août: Prend le nom de ESSAYONS reste bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer.

1975 Vendu à sa sortie du Canal à l'Arabie Saoudite il prend le nom de BADR.

1983 Disparaît des listes du Lloyd.

  

SINDH 1956-1976 (1979)

Sources:

Historique de la flotte des Messageries Maritimes du commandant Lanfant

Le grand Siècle des Messageries Maritimes du Dr Paul Bois Tome V

Encyclopédie des Messageries Maritimes de Philippe Ramona (site sur le web)

Le forum des anciens des Messageries. De nombreuses photographies, anecdotes et précisons sont régulièrement mises en ligne.

Monsieur Xavier Escallier qui a très amicalement mis à ma disposition sa collection de cartes postales des Messageries.

Les différents sites internet sur la marine marchande, qu'ils soient Britanniques, Espagnols, Français ou autres.

Différents ouvrages personnel sur l'histoire de la marine marchande française.

Indexe (1) : Données du commandant Lanfant dans ouvrage.

Indexe (2) : Données du Docteur Paul Bois dans son ouvrage.

Indexe (3) : Données de Mr Philippe Ramona sur son site web

--------------------------------------------

4ème de la série de 10 des cargos de 8300 tonnes de port en lourd de Type F commandés à partir de 1954

Construit par les chantiers et Ateliers de Provence de La Ciotat

1956 le 4 février: Lancement Commandant du navire durant la construction Pailhes. Marraine Mme Ludovic Tron.

1956 Livré le 21 juin: à Marseille

 

CARACTÉRISTIQUES :

Navire à Shelter deck, 3 ponts continus. La méthode de construction soudée a été largement employée.

Longueur: 148,99 mHT et 139,06 m PP

Largeur: 18.8 m

Jauge brute 7000 tjb 7051 tjb (2)

Jauge nette: (2) 3887 tn

Port en lourd 9000 tonnes, - 9090 t (2)

Déplacement: 13800 t

Capacité 15000 m3 dont 600m3 en 3 cuves pour le latex ou l'huile et 120 m3 en cales frigos.(NB avant chaque chargement (agrumes – pommes –poires ou viande congelée ou ''child'' selon les lignes) par ozonisation.

Cales: 5

Manutention: Cales desservies par 10 mâts de charge de5 tonnes, 4 de 10 t et 2 bigues de 30 et 60 tonnes.

Fermetures par panneaux Mac Gregor single pull.

Ventilation des cales: système cargocaire

 

PROPULSION :

1 moteur Burmeister et Wain 2 temps simple effet, 9 cylindres 974 VTF 160

Combustible: Fuel lourd à la mer en Route Libre. Manœuvres au Diesel oil.

Puissance: 8300 cv a 115 t/mn

Vitesse: 18 nds aux essais et 16 nds en service

1 hélice accouplement fixe.

1 cheminée.

ÉLECTRICITÉ:

3 Groupes électrogènes Allen Dujardin de 250 Kw et 220 v

1 Chaudière de récupération à la mer de 2000 k/h sous 4 bars

1 Chaudière de mouillage Menpenti au fuel de 1000 k/h sous 4 bars au port.

 

PERSONNEL :

État-major 10 Officiers

Équipage: 23 hommes, réduit à 17 hommes en 1970.(accord tripartites Armement - Syndicats - État)

Pas de conditionnement d'air à bord.

 

PASSAGERS :

Passagers 6 - supprimés en 1970 avec la réduction d'effectif.

 

LIGNE :

1956 le 16 Juillet: Départ de Marseille du voyage inaugural

1956 août Mis en service sur la ligne Hambourg- Philippines/Japon puis la ligne de Chine.

1962 Mis en service sur la ligne du Sud Est Asiatique

  

ÉVÉNEMENTS :

1956 Marseille Avarie de vireur du Moteur. Réparation provisoire. 2 j. de retard.

1956 KOBE Réparation définitive du vireur. 10 j. de retard.

1961 le 11 décembre: Appareillant d'Anvers par coup de vent, heurte la drague FABIOLA. Avaries peu importantes.

1962 le 16 janvier: Relâche à Messine pour débarquer le matelot Chi Haoui atteint d'une appendicite aiguë.

1963 le 10 février: En accostant à Sihanoukville occasionne des avaries importantes à l'appontement et à sa coque.

1964 le 3 janvier: Au large de Terneuzen par temps de brume, il aborde le pétrolier BORDER FUSILIER. Peu d'avaries.

1964 le 26 décembre: En prenant avec le pilote le chenal de l'Escaut-Oriental il s'échoue. Fais appel verbalement en hollandais à deux remorqueurs Hollandais qui le déséchoue. Contrat verbal d'assistance transformé en contrat de simple remorquage par Monsieur Roch Ménés inspecteur de la Compagnie.

1965 le 27 décembre: En déhalant à Anvers, heurte avec son étrave, celle du britannique ELYSIA. Légères avaries.

1966 le 2 décembre: En remontant le Donaï (rivière de Saïgon) il est mitraillé et canonné. De nombreux impacts, un obus de mortier non explosé dans le local mâtereau où sont entreposées les bouteilles de gaz Oxygène et acétylène. Carré des officiers (venant juste d'être évacué) vitres des sabords sont complètement pulvérisées. Un éclat de mortier dessertis le hublot du Second Capitaine et vient se planter sous le lit où celui-ci faisait la sieste. Il n'y aura heureusement que deux blessés légers.

1967. 5 juin: Commandant Touchard. En convoi vers la Méditerranée bloqué dans le canal lors de l'attaque Israélienne avec 12 autres navires.

1967 le 17 juin: Le consul de France se rend à bord 3 Officiers et 21 hommes sur 45 en tout seront rapatriés le 27 juin. Ensuite relève tous les 6 mois d'un noyau d'équipage, pour l'entretien du navire et appareiller pour faire un tour du Lac Amer et essayer les appareils.

1968 le 8 février: J'y embarquerai comme second mécanicien via Le Caire et Ismaïlia avec le chef mécanicien Prédal Adolphe ainsi que 3 ou 4 autres membres de l'équipage. (Plus de souvenir des noms) Escale à Rome, puis Rome Le Caire (nous étions les seuls passagers). Arrivée au Caire pour la nuit. Départ le lendemain pour Ismaïlia. En pleine zone de guerre.

 

RETRAIT et FIN:

1967 le 5 juin: Attaque Israélienne contre l'Égypte. Le convoi montant (vers la Méditerranée) est bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer du Canal de Suez. Commandant Touchard.

1970 Août: Abandon du navire et du fret.

1970 Août: Vendu par les assurances en Norvège comme épave pour la somme de 305.000 £.

1970 en août: Prend le nom de ESSAYONS reste bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer.

1975 Vendu à sa sortie du Canal à l'Arabie Saoudite il prend le nom de BADR.

1983 Disparaît des listes du Lloyd.

  

is a member state of the European Union located in its western region, with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents.[13] France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its main ideals expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

 

Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is often referred to as L’Hexagone ("The Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of its territory. It is bordered (clockwise from the north) by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Spain and Andorra. France's overseas departments and collectivities also share land borders with Brazil and Suriname (bordering French Guiana), and the Netherlands Antilles (bordering Saint-Martin). France is linked to the United Kingdom by the Channel Tunnel, which passes underneath the English Channel.

 

France is the largest state in the European Union by area and the third largest in Europe behind Russia and Ukraine. It would be second if its extra-European territories like French Guiana were included. France has been a major power for many centuries with strong economic, cultural, military and political influence. During the 17th and 18th centuries, France colonised great parts of North America; during the 19th and early 20th centuries, France built the second largest empire of the time, including large portions of North, West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Pacific islands.

France is one of the most developed countries and possesses the fifth largest economy by nominal GDP and seventh largest economy by purchasing power parity. France enjoys a high standard of living, although its quality of life index rating ranks it 25th in the world behind that of Greece, Belgium and Portugal. The country has a high public education level, it's one of the most globalised nations, has 2009's second best international reputation and has also one of the world's highest life expectancy. It is the most visited country in the world, receiving 82 million foreign tourists annually. France is one of the founding members of the European Union. It is also a founding member of the United Nations, and a member of the Francophonie, the G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO and the Latin Union. It is one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, possesses the third largest number of nuclear weapons in the world and the largest number of nuclear power plants in the European Union.

 

History

Please go to

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_France

 

Geography

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_France

 

Other info

Oficial name:

(Native names)

République française

+ bre: Republik C’hall

cat: República Francesa

cos: Repubblica Francesa

eus: Frantziako Errepublika

gsw: Republik Frankriich / Republik Frankriich

nld-vls: Franse Republiek

oci: Republica francesa

tah: Repupirita farāni

 

Formation: French State 843 (Treaty of Verdun)

- Current constitution 1958 (5th Republic)

 

Sup:

543.965 km2

 

Inhabitants:

63.587.700

 

Capital city:

Paris

 

Languages:

Française, Breton, Corse, Deutsch, Basque, Catalan and Valam

 

Alemannisch [gsw] 1,500,000 in France (1988 Hawkins in B. Comrie). Northeastern France, Alsace. Alternate names: Alemannic. Dialects: Alsatian (Alsacien, Elsaessisch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic

More information.

 

Auvergnat [auv] 1,315,000 (2004). Auvergne; Haut-Auvergnat in Cantal and south of Haute-Loire; Bas-Auvergnat in the north of Haute-Loire and in Puy-de-Dome. Alternate names: Auvernhas, Auverne, Occitan. Dialects: Haut-Auvergnat, Bas-Auvergnat. Highly fragmented dialect situation, with limited intelligibility between northern and southern varieties. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

More information.

 

Basque, Navarro-Labourdin [bqe] 67,500 (1991). Population includes 45,000 Labourdin, 22,500 Lower Navarro. Total Basque speakers in France estimated at 80,000. Ethnic population: 730,000 (1993 Johnstone). French-Spanish border, 800 square miles surrounding Bayonne, Labourd (Lapurdi), and Basse-Navarre departments. Alternate names: Navarro-Labourdin. Dialects: Labourdin (Lapurdiera), Eastern Low Navarrese (Benaffarera, Bajo Navarro Oriental), Western Low Navarrese (Bajo Navarro Occidental). Navarro-Labourdin is diverse from other Basque dialects, and needs separate literature. Classification: Basque

More information.

 

Basque, Souletin [bsz] 8,700 (1991). French-Spanish border, 800 square miles surrounding Bayonne, Soule, Pyrénées Atlantiques Province. Alternate names: Souletin, Souletino, Suletino, Xiberoera, Zuberoera, Suberoan. Dialects: Souletin is more diverse and speakers have difficulty understanding other varieties, especially for complex and abstract discourse. Separate literature desired and needed. Classification: Basque

More information.

 

Breton [bre] 500,000 in France (1989 ICDBL). 1,200,000 know Breton who do not regularly use it. Population total all countries: 532,722. Western Brittany, and dispersed in Eastern Brittany and Breton emigrant communities throughout the world. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Brezhoneg. Dialects: Leonais, Tregorrois, Vannetais, Cornouaillais. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic

More information.

 

Caló [rmr] 21,580 in France (2000 WCD). Southern France. Alternate names: Gitano, Iberian Romani. Dialects: Basque Calo, Catalonian Calo, Spanish Calo. Classification: Mixed Language, Iberian-Romani

More information.

 

Catalan-Valencian-Balear [cat] 100,000 in France (1996). Catalonian France. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian

More information.

 

Corsican [cos] 341,000 in Corsica (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 402,000. Corsica, Paris, Marseilles. Also spoken in Bolivia, Canada, Cuba, Italy, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela. Alternate names: Corsu, Corso, Corse, Corsi. Dialects: Sartenais, Vico-Ajaccio, Northern Corsican (Cape Cors, Bastia), Venaco. Corsican is in the Tuscan group of Italian varieties. Southern Corsican is closer to Northern Sardinian or Gallurese than other Corsican dialects (R. A. Hall, Jr.). Lexical similarity 79% to 89% among dialects of Bastia, Venaco, Vico, and Sartene. Bonifacio on the southern tip of the island has 78% lexical similarity (highest) with Bastia at extreme north. Ajaccio dialect is central and prestigious. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican

More information.

 

Dutch [nld] 80,000 in Westhoek. Westhoek in the northeast corner of France between the Artois Hills and the Belgium border. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian

More information.

 

Esperanto [epo] 200 to 2,000 (1996). Speakers in about 115 countries, used most widely in central and eastern Europe, China and other countries in eastern Asia, certain areas of South America, and southwest Asia. Alternate names: La Lingvo Internacia. Classification: Artificial language

More information.

 

Franco-Provençal [frp] Population total all countries: 77,000. Savoie, Fribourg, and Valais, southeastern France, near the Italian and Switzerland borders. Also spoken in Italy, Switzerland. Alternate names: Patois, Arpitan. Dialects: Dauphinois, Lyonnais, Neuchatelais, Savoyard. Structurally separate language from Provençal, French, Piemontese, and Lombard (F. B. Agard). In Switzerland, every canton has its own dialect, with no standardization. Difficult intelligibility among the dialects, and especially with Fribourg. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern

More information.

 

French [fra] 51,000,000 in France. Population total all countries: 64,858,311. Also spoken in Algeria, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, Guadeloupe, Guinea, Haiti, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Monaco, Morocco, New Caledonia, Niger, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Rwanda, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna. Alternate names: Français. Dialects: Standard French, Norman (Normand), Angevin, Berrichon, Bourbonnais, Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois, Gallo, Poitevin, Santongeais, Lorraine. Lexical similarity 89% with Italian, 80% with Sardinian, 78% with Rheto-Romance, 75% with Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish, 29% with German, 27% with English. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

More information.

 

French Sign Language [fsl] 50,000 to 100,000 primary users in France (1986 Gallaudet Univ.). 1,000 users of Marseille Sign Language (1975 Sallagooty). Southern FSL is used in Marseille, Toulon, La Ciotat, and Salon de Provence. Also used in Togo. Alternate names: Langue des Signes Française, LSF, FSL. Dialects: Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language). Many sign languages have been influenced by this, but are not necessarily intelligible with it. Reported to be partially intelligible with sign languages from Austria, Czech Republic, and Italy, at least. Lexical similarity 43% with American Sign Language in an 872-wordlist. Classification: Deaf sign language

More information.

 

Gascon [gsc] 250,000 in France (1990 P. Blanchet). Population total all countries: 253,814. Ethnic population: 400,000 (1982) in the Béarn region of southern Gasconha, France; 51% speak Gascon, 70% understand it, 85% are in favor of saving it. Gascogne Province, from Médoc to the Pyrénées, from the Atlantic to the Catalan area. Béarnese is spoken by a strong majority in the Béarn. Also spoken in Spain. Alternate names: Occitan. Dialects: Landais, Béarnais (Biarnese), Ariégeois, Aranese. Gascon, Languedocien, and Limousin are structurally separate languages (F.B. Agard). Gascon speakers have some comprehension of Provençal; some or limited comprehension of Languedocien (reports differ). Inherently intelligible with Aranese Gascon in Spain, which is a dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

More information.

 

Greek [ell] Cargese, Corsica. Dialects: Cargese. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic

More information.

 

Interlingua [ina] Alternate names: Interlingua de Iala. Classification: Artificial language

More information.

 

Italian [ita] 1,000,000 in France (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

More information.

 

Languedocien [lnc] 5,000. Languedoc Province, from Montpellier to Toulouse, Bordeaux, Rodez, and Albi. Alternate names: Lengadoucian, Languedoc, Langadoc, Occitan, Occitani. Dialects: Bas-Languedocien, Languedocien Moyen, Haut-Languedocien, Guyennais. A separate language from Provençal (P. Blanchet 1990). Gascon speakers have limited intelligibility of Languedocien. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

More information.

 

Ligurian [lij] Bonifacio, Corsica, and between the Italian border and Monaco. Alternate names: Ligure. Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

More information.

 

Limousin [lms] 10,000. Limousin Province. Haut-Limousin around Limoges, Guéret, and Nontron in Charente; Bas-Limousin around Correze and Périgord. Alternate names: Lemosin, Occitan. Dialects: Haut-Limousin, Bas-Limousin. Limousin, Languedocien, and Gascon are structurally separate languages (F. B. Agard). Partially intelligible to Provençal. In the north of the province people use a transition dialect with certain Oïl (north French) features. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

More information.

 

Luxembourgeois [ltz] 40,000 in France (2001 J. Nousse). Spoken along the border with Germany and Luxemburg in the Moselle Department, Thionville, France. Alternate names: Frankish, Platt. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian

More information.

 

Lyons Sign Language [lsg] Dialects: 250 miles from Paris, but difficult and little intelligibility of French Sign Language. Classification: Deaf sign language

More information.

 

Picard [pcd] Most of the Region de Picardie (Amiens, Abbeville, Beauvais, St. Quentin), the Region Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Lille, Douai, Cambrai, Arras, Valenciennes, Boulogne sur Mer, Calais), except the Dunkerque District, and a little eastern zone (border with Picardie of the Region de Haute Normandie near Dieppe). Also spoken in Belgium. Alternate names: Rouchi, Chtimi. Dialects: Ponthieu, Vimeu, Hainaut, Artois, Lillois, Boulonnais, Santerre, Calaisis, Cambresis, Vermandois, Amienois (Amies). All dialects, including those in Belgium, are inherently intelligible to speakers. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

More information.

 

Portuguese [por] 750,000 in France (1989 National Geographic). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician

More information.

 

Provençal [prv] 250,000 in France (1990 P. Blanchet). Population total all countries: 354,500. Southeastern France, province of Provence, south of Dauphiné, region of Nimes in Languedoc. Also spoken in Italy, Monaco. Alternate names: Prouvençau, Mistralien. Dialects: Transalpin, Niçard (Niçois), Maritime Provençal (Marseillais, Toulonnais, Varois), Gavot (Alpin, Valeien, Gapian, Forcalquieren), Rhodanien (Nimois), Dauphinois (Dromois). Gascon, Languedocien, and Limousin are structurally separate languages (F. Agard). Provençal and Languedocien (Occitan) are separate languages (P. Blanchet 1990). No Provençal variety is universally accepted as the standard literary form. Niçard and Northern Gavot (Valeien and Gapian) are more difficult for other dialect speakers to understand. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

More information.

 

Romani, Balkan [rmn] 10,500 in France. Population includes 10,000 Arlija, 500 Dzambazi. Dialects: Arlija, Dzambazi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan

More information.

 

Romani, Sinte [rmo] 28,434 in France (2000 WCD). Alternate names: Sinti, Rommanes, Tsigane. Dialects: Manouche (Manuche, Manush). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern

More information.

 

Romani, Vlax [rmy] 10,000 in France. Population includes 8,000 Kalderash, 2,000 Lovari. Alternate names: Romenes, Rom, Tsigane, Vlax. Dialects: Kalderash, Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax

More information.

 

Spanish [spa] Alternate names: Castillan. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

More information.

 

Vlaams [vls] 10,000 in France (1984 Menheere, 1993 Evenhuis). Westhoek (French Flanders). Alternate names: Flamand, Flemish, Vlaemsch. Dialects: Frans Vlaams (Vlaemsch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian

More information.

  

Extinct languages

Shuadit [sdt] Extinct. Department of Vaucluse in southern France, and city of Avignon. Alternate names: Shuadi, Judeo-Provençal, Judeo-Comtadine. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc

More information.

 

Zarphatic [zrp] Extinct. Alternate names: Judeo-French. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

 

Meaning country name: French derivation of Francia, "Land of the Franks". A frankon was a spear used by the early Franks, thus giving them their name. The term "Frank" later became associated with "free" as the Franks were the only truly freemen, since they subjugated the Romanized Gauls.

Gallia (Latin) from the name of a Celtic tribe. Many Celtic groups used similar names: compare Gaul and Galatia.

 

Description Flag:

In brief we can accept that the colours are basically those of Paris as used on the day of the storming of the Bastille, mixed with the Royal white. It is thought that the Marquis de Lafayette was responsible for inventing the red, white and blue cockade which soon became compulsory for Revolutionaries in 1789. We don't have to believe that the combination arose because the King placed a red-blue cockade in his hat next to a Royal white one, but combinations of Revolutionary and Royal emblems were common at that time.

The flag was created in 1790 but with the colours the reverse of what they are today, i.e. with red at the hoist, and revised in 1794 to the modern form. The 1790 flag existed only as part of the jack and ensign of the navy.

The flag went out of use with Napoléon I's defeat at Waterloo, but was brought back in 1830 (again by Lafayette) and has remained in use ever since. Although significances have been attached to the colours these are all spurious and invented after the fact. The red and blue of Paris were the livery colours of the coat of arms and natural ones for use by the militia.

The colors of the French flag "combine" different symbols, invented after the fact:

Blue is the color of Saint Martin, a rich Gallo-Roman officer who ripped his blue coat with his sword to give one half of it to a poor who was begging him in the snow. This is the symbol of care, of the duty that the rich had to help the poor.

White is the color of the Virgin Mary, to whom the Kingdom of France was consecrated by Louis XIII in the 17th century; it is also the color of Joan of Arc, under whose banner the English were finally driven out of the Kingdom (15th century). It became logically the color of Royalty. The King's vessels carried plain white flags at sea.

Red is the color of Saint Denis, the saint patron of Paris. The original oriflamme (war banner) of the Kings was the red oriflamme of Saint Denis.

 

Coat of arms:

The current coat of arms of France has been a symbol of France since 1953, although it does not have any legal status as an official coat of arms. It appears on the cover of French passports and was originally adopted by the French Foreign Ministry as a symbol for use by diplomatic and consular missions in 1912 using a design drawn up by the sculptor Jules-Clément Chaplain.

In 1953, France received a request from the United Nations for a copy of the national coat of arms to be displayed alongside the coats of arms of other member states in its assembly chamber. An interministerial commission requested Robert Louis (1902–1965), heraldic artist, to produce a version of the Chaplain design. This did not, however, constitute an adoption of an official coat of arms by the Republic.

Technically speaking, it is an emblem rather than a coat of arms, since it does not respect heraldic rules—heraldry being seen as an aristocratic art, and therefore associated with the Ancien Régime. The emblem consists of:

The symbol is used on plaques marking French consulatesA wide shield with lion-head terminal bears a monogram "RF" standing for République Française (French Republic).

An olive branch symbolises peace.

An oak branch symbolises perenity or wisdom.

The fasces is a symbol associated with justice (from Roman lictor's axes, in this case not fascism).

 

Motto:

" Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité "

 

National Anthem: La Marselleise

 

Allons enfants de la Patrie,

Le jour de gloire est arrivé

Contre nous de la tyrannie

L'étendard sanglant est levé.

L'étendard sanglant est levé:

Entendez-vous dans les campagnes

Mugir ces féroces soldats!

Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras

Égorger vos fils et vos compagnes.

Aux armes citoyens,

Formez vos bataillons.

Marchons! Marchons!

Qu'un sang impur

Abreuve nos sillons

Que veut cette horde d'esclaves

De traîtres, de rois conjurés?

Pour qui ces ignobles entraves

Ces fers dès longtemps préparés

Ces fers dès longtemps préparés

Français, pour nous, Ah quel outrage

Quel transport il doit exciter!

C'est nous qu'on ose méditer

De rendre à l'antique esclavage

Quoi! Des cohortes étrangères

Feraient la loi dans nos foyers!

Quoi! Ces phalanges mercenaires

Terrasseraient nos fiers guerriers.

Terrasseraient nos fiers guerriers.

Grand Dieu! Par des mains enchaînées

Nos fronts, sous le joug, se ploieraient.

De vils despotes deviendraient

Les maîtres de nos destinées

Tremblez tyrans, et vous perfides

L'opprobe de tous les partis.

Tremblez, vos projets parricides

Vont enfin recevoir leur prix!

Vont enfin recevoir leur prix!

Tout est soldat pour vous combattre.

S'ils tombent nos jeunes héros,

La terre en produit de nouveaux

Contre vous, tous prêts à se battre

Français en guerriers magnanimes

Portez ou retenez vos coups.

Épargnez ces tristes victimes

A regrets s'armant contre nous!

A regrets s'armant contre nous!

Mais ce despote sanguinaire

Mais les complices de Bouillé

Tous les tigres qui sans pitié

Déchirent le sein de leur mère!

Amour Sacré de la Patrie

Conduis, soutiens nos braves vengeurs.

Liberté, Liberté chérie

Combats avec tes défenseurs

Combats avec tes défenseurs

Sous nos drapeaux, que la victoire

Accoure à tes mâles accents

Que tes ennemis expirants

Voient ton triomphe et nous, notre gloire

(« Couplet des enfants »)

Nous entrerons dans la carrière

Quand nos aînés n'y seront plus

Nous y trouverons leur poussière

Et la trace de leur vertus!

Et la trace de leur vertus!

Bien moins jaloux de leur survivre

Que de partager leur cercueil.

Nous aurons le sublime orgueil

De les venger ou de les suivre

Aux armes citoyens,

Formez vos bataillons.

Marchons! Marchons!

Qu'un sang impur

Abreuve nos sillons

 

English

 

Arise, children of the fatherland

The day of glory has arrived!

Against us, the tyranny's

Bloody banner is raised. (repeat)

Do you hear in the fields

The howling of these savage soldiers?

They are coming into your midst

To cut the throats of your sons, your wives!

 

To arms, citizens!

Form your battalions!

Let us march, let us march!

May tainted blood

Water our fields!

 

What does this horde of slaves,

Traitors, and plotting kings want?

For whom these vile chains

These long-prepared irons? (repeat)

Frenchmen, for us, ah! What outrage,

What fury it must arouse!

It is us they dare plan

To return to the old slavery!

 

To arms, citizens...

 

What! These foreign cohorts!

They would make laws in our homes!

What! These mercenary phalanxes

Would cut down our proud warriors! (repeat)

Good Lord! By chained hands

Our brow would yield under the yoke

The vile despots would become

The masters of our destinies!

 

To arms, citizens...

 

Tremble, tyrants and traitors

The shame of all good men

Tremble! Your parricidal schemes

Will receive their just reward! (repeat)

Against you, we are all soldiers

If our young heroes fall,

The earth will bear new ones,

Ready to join the fight against you!

 

To arms, citizens...

 

Frenchmen, as magnanimous warriors,

Bear or hold back your blows!

Spare these sad victims

That they may regret taking up arms against us (repeat)

But not these bloody despots

These accomplices of Bouillé

All these tigers who mercilessly

Ripped out their mother's breast!

 

To arms, citizens...

 

Sacred patriotic love,

Lead and support our avenging arms

Liberty, cherished liberty,

Fight back with your defenders! (repeat)

Under our flags, let victory

Hurry to your manly tone,

So that your enemies, in their last breath,

See your triumph and our glory!

 

To arms, citizens...

 

(Children's Verse)

We shall enter the career

When our elders will no longer be there

There we shall find their dust

And the mark of their virtues (repeat)

Much less jealous of surviving them

Than of sharing their coffins,

We shall have the sublime pride

Of avenging or following them!

To arms, citizens...

 

Internet Page: www.franceguide.com

www.france.com

www.francetourism.com

www.service-public.fr

 

France in diferent languages

 

eng | fra | frp | fur | jnf | wln: France

ast | cos | glg | ina | ita | lld-bad | scn | spa: Francia

cat | oci | por: França

tet | tur | zza: Fransa

afr | fry: Frankryk

arg | lld-grd: Franzia

est | vor: Prantsusmaa

hat | ibo: Frans

ind | msa: Perancis / ڤرانچيس

isl | non: Frakkland

kaa | uzb: Frantsiya, Fransiya / Франция

kin | run: Ubufaransa

lav | slv: Francija

lim | stq: Frankriek

nor | swe: Frankrike

nso | sot: Foranse

roh-enb | roh-gri: Frantscha

acf: Lafwans; Fwans

aze: Fransa / Франса

bam: Faransi

bos: Francuska / Француска

bre: Bro-C’hall; Frañs

ces: Francie

cor: Pow Frynk

crh: Frenkistan / Френкистан

csb: Frańcëskô; Francëjô

cym: Ffrainc

dan: Frankrig

deu: Frankreich / Frankreich

dsb: Francojska

epo: Francujo; Francio

eus: Frantzia

fao: Frakland

fin: Ranska

gag: Franţiya / Франция

gla: An Fhraing

gle: An Fhrainc / An Ḟrainc

glv: Yn Rank

hau: Faransi; Faransai

haw: Palani; Farani

hrv: Francuska

hsb: Francoska

hun: Franciaország

jav: Perancis

kab: Fransa / ⴼⵔⴰⵏⵙⴰ

 

kal: Franskit Nunaat (France); Frankrigi

kmr: Fransî / Франси / فرانسی; Fransê / Франсе / فرانسێ; Fransizîstan / Франсьзистан / فرانسزیستان

kur: Fransa / فرانسا

lat: Gallia; Francogallia; Francia

lin: Falansia

lit: Prancūzija

liv: Prantsūzmō

ltz: Frankräich / Frankräich

lug: Bufaransa

mfe: Lafrans

mlg: Frantsa

mlt: Franza

mol: Franţa / Франца

mri: Wīwī

nds: Frankriek / Frankriek

nld: Frankrijk

nrm: Fraunce

pap: Fransha

pol: Francja

que: Phransya

rmo: Váltši

rmy: Frančiya / क़्रान्चिया

roh-eno: Frauntscha

roh-srs: Frontscha

ron: Franţa

rup: Gallia; Frantsia

sag: Farânzi

sco: Fraunce

slk: Francúzsko

slo: Francia / Франциа; Franczem / Францзем

sme: Fráŋkriikka

smg: Prancūzėjė

smo: Farani

som: Faransiis; Faransa

sqi: Franca

srd: Frantza

swa: Ufaransa

szl: Francyjo

tah: Farāni

tgl: Pransya; Pransiya

tly: Fırəng / Фырәнг; Fırəngıston / Фырәнгыстон

ton: Falanise

tpi: Pranis

tuk: Fransiýa / Франция

vie: Pháp

vol: Fransän

wol: Faraas

xho: iFransi

zul: iFulansi

chu: Франкія (Frankīja)

abq | alt | bul | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | rus | tyv | udm: Франция (Francija)

ady | kbd: Францие (Francie)

che | chv: Франци (Franci)

mon | oss: Франц (Franc)

bak: Франция / Franciya

bel: Францыя / Francyja

chm: Франций (Francij)

kaz: Франция / Francïya / فرانتسيا

mkd: Франција (Francija)

srp: Француска / Francuska

tat: Франция / Fransiä

tgk: Фаронса / فرانسه / Faronsa; Франсия / فرنسیه / Fransija

ukr: Франція (Francija)

xal: Пранц (Pranc)

ara: فرنسا (Faransā)

ckb: فەڕەنسا / Feṟensa; فەرەنسا / Ferensa

fas: فرانسه (Farānse)

prs: فرانسه (Frānsâ)

pus: فرانسه (Frānsâ); فرانس (Frāns)

snd: فرانس (Frānsa)

swb: فَرًتْسَ / Farantsa

uig: فرانسىيە / Fransiye / Франция

urd: فرانس (Farāns)

div: ފްރާންސް (Frāns); ފަރަންސޭސިވިލާތް (Faransēsivilāt)

syr: ܦܪܢܣܐ (Pransā)

heb: צרפת (Tsarəfat)

lad: פ'ראנסיה / Fransia

yid: פֿראַנקרײַך (Frankrayḫ)

amh: ፈረንሣይ (Färänśay); ፈረንሳይ (Färänsay); ፍራንስ (Frans)

tir: ፈረንሳ (Färänsa)

ell: Γαλλία (Gallía)

hye: Ֆրանսիա (Fransia)

kat: საფრანგეთი (Saṗrangeṭi)

mar | nep: फ्रान्स (Pʰrāns)

hin: फ़्रांस (Frāṁs); फ्रांस (Pʰrāṁs); फ़्राँस (Frā̃ns)

ben: ফ্রান্স (Pʰrāns)

guj: ફ્રાંસ (Pʰrāṁs); ફ્રાઁસ (Pʰrā̃s)

pan: ਫਰਾਂਸ (Pʰrā̃s)

sin: ප්රංශය (Praṁšaya)

kan: ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ (Pʰrāns); ಪ್ರಾಂಸ್ (Prāṁs)

mal: ഫ്രാന്സ് (Pʰrāns)

tam: பிரான்ஸ் (Pirāṉs); பிரெஞ்சு (Pireñču); பிரான்சு (Pirāṉču)

tel: ఫ్రాన్స్ (Pʰrāns)

zho: 法國/法国 (Fǎguó); 法蘭西/法兰西 (Fǎlánxī)

yue: 法國/法国 (Faatgwok); 法蘭西/法兰西 (Faatlāahnsāi)

jpn: フランス (Furansu)

kor: 프랑스 (Peurangseu)

bod: ཕ་རན་སི་ (Pʰa.ran.si.); ཧྥ་རན་ས་ (Hpʰa.ran.sa.); ཧྥ་གོ་ (Hpʰa.go.)

dzo: ཕརཱནསི་ (Pʰrānsi.)

mya: ပ္ရင္သစ္ (Pẏĩṯiʿ)

tha: ฝรั่งเศส (Farầṅsēt)

lao: ຝະລັ່ງ (Falầṅ); ຝຣັ່ງ (Frầṅ)

khm: បារាំង (Bārāṁṅ); បារាំងសែស (Bārāṁṅsæs)

 

Is a landlocked country in Western Africa. Mali is the seventh largest country in Africa, bordering Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and the Côte d'Ivoire on the south, Guinea on the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania on the west. Its size is just over 1,240,000 km² with a population more than 14 million. Its capital is Bamako.

Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country's southern region, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Sénégal rivers. The country's economic structure centers around agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's natural resources include gold, uranium, and salt. Mali is considered to be one of the poorest nations in the world.

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (from which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. In the late 1800s, Mali fell under French control, becoming part of French Sudan. Mali gained independence in 1959 with Senegal, as the Mali Federation. A year later, the Mali Federation became the independent nation of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.

 

History

Please go to

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Mali

 

Geography

Mali is a landlocked nation in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria. At 1,240,000 square kilometres (478,767 sq mi), Mali is the world's 24th-largest country and is comparable in size to South Africa or Angola. Most of the country lies in the southern Sahara, which produces a hot, dust-laden the Sudanian savanna zone. Mali is mostly flat, rising to rolling northern plains covered by sand. The Adrar des Ifoghas lies in the northeast.

The country's climate ranges from tropical in the south to arid in the north. Most of the country receives negligible rainfall; droughts are frequent. Late June to early December is the rainy season. During this time, flooding of the Niger River is common, creating the Inner Niger Delta. The nation has considerable natural resources, with gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite, salt and limestone being most widely exploited. Mali faces numerous environmental challenges, including desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate supplies of potable water.Martin, p. 134. Each region has a governor. Since Mali's regions are very large, the country is subdivided into 49 cercles, totaling 288 arrondissements. Mayors and elected members of the city councils officiate the arrondissements.

 

Other info

Oficial Name:

Republique du Mali

 

Independence:

September 22, 1960

 

Area:

1.248.574km2

 

Inhabitants:

14.678.000

 

Languages:

Arabic, Hasanya [mey] 106,100 in Mali (1991). Nioro and Nara. Alternate names: Maure, Mauri, Moor, Suraka, Suraxxé, Hassaniyya, Hassani. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

More information.

 

Bamako Sign Language [bog] Bamako school for deaf children, separated into 3 grade classes. It is not known if it is widely used elsewhere or not. Dialects: Not related to other sign languages. Classification: Deaf sign language

More information.

 

Bamanankan [bam] 2,700,000 in Mali (1995). Population includes 75,000 Ganadugu (1991 Vanderaa), 41,200 Wasulu. Population total all countries: 2,786,385. Also spoken in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Mauritania, Senegal. Alternate names: Bambara, Bamanakan. Dialects: Standard Bambara, Somono, Segou, San, Beledugu, Ganadugu, Wasulu (Wasuu, Wassulunka, Wassulunke), Sikasso. There are many local dialects. The main division is Standard Bambara, influenced heavily by Western Maninkakan, and rural dialects. Bamanankan dialects are spoken in varying degrees by 80% of the population. Wasulu is a dialect of Bamanankan in Mali and of Western Maninkakan in Guinea. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana

More information.

 

Bankagooma [bxw] 5,085 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,085. North of Sikasso in Danderesso Administrative District, towns of Nougoussouala (Nonko), Fourouma, Mamarasso (Mora), Famsara, and Zantiguila. Alternate names: Banka, Bankagoma, Bankagoroma, Bankaje. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo

More information.

 

Bobo Madaré, Northern [bbo] 18,400 in Mali (2000 WCD). An approximate rectangle in Mali around Bura and Mafune. Alternate names: Bobo Fing, Bobo Fign, Bobo Fi, Bobo, Black Bobo, Finng, Bobo Da. Dialects: Benge, Sogokiri, Sya (Sia), Vore. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo

More information.

 

Bomu [bmq] 102,000 in Mali (1976 census). Population total all countries: 158,000. A triangle between San and Sofara on the Bani River in Mali, and Soumbara, west of Nouna, in Burkina Faso. The Mao subdialect is separate from the others and straddles the Mali-Burkina Faso border about 40 km east-west by 20 km north-south, and is on the main San to Bobo-Dioulasso road. Also spoken in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Boomu, Bore, Western Bobo Oule, Western Red Bobo, Western Bwamu, Bobo Wule. Dialects: Dwemu, Dahanmu. Dwemu subdialects are Terekongo (Terekoungo), Wahu (between Téné and the Bani River), Togo. Dahanmu subdialects are Koniko, Mandiakuy, Bomborokuy, and Mao (Mahou). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu

More information.

 

Bozo, Hainyaxo [bzx] 117,696 (1987 census). From Miérou (near Ke-Maacina) to Tamani on the Niger River. They can be found working the major rivers in much of West Africa. Alternate names: Hainyaxo, Hanyaxo, Xanyaxo, Xan, Hain, Kelenga, Kélinga, Kéllingua, Boso. Dialects: Lexical similarity 48% with Tieyaxo Boso (closest). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern

More information.

 

Bozo, Jenaama [bze] 100,000 in Mali (1991 Vanderaa). Administrative circles of Djenné, Mopti, Youwarou, Tenenkou and Bandiagara. Between the Bani and Niger rivers (Pondori dialect), between the Diaka and Niger rivers (Kotya dialect), along the Niger River from Mopti to Lake Débo (Korondougou dialect), north of Kotya and around Lake Debo (Debo dialect). Some in Côte d'Ivoire around the Kosson and Ayamé dams. Also spoken in Nigeria. Alternate names: Sorogaama, Corogaama, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Djenaama, Nononke, Boso. Dialects: Pondori, Kotya (Kotyaxo), Korondougou, Débo. Lexical similarity 53% with Tieyaxo Bozo (closest). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama

More information.

 

Bozo, Tièma Cièwè [boo] 2,500 (1991). Population includes 831 in Enguem, 1,315 in Aouré. Administrative circle of Youwarou, Arrondissement Guidio Saré; Enghem (Enguem), Aouré (Aoré), and Kamago Sébi villages, where the Niger River leaves Lake Debo. Alternate names: Tièma Cièwè, Tié, Boso. Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Tieyaxo Boso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern

More information.

 

Bozo, Tiéyaxo [boz] 117,696 (1987 census). From Koa to Miérou on the Niger River, and Diafarabié to Sendédaga on the Diaka River (a tributary). They work the major rivers in much of West Africa. Alternate names: Tieyaxo, Tigemaxo, Tiemaxo, Tyeyaxo, Tiéyakho, Tiguémakho, Tie, Tégué, Boso. Dialects: Lexical similarity 53% with Sorogama Boso (closest), 30% with Soninke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern

More information.

 

Dogon, Bangeri Me [dba] 1,200 (1998 Durieux). Spoken in 7 villages in the extreme northwest of the plateau. Numadaw might relate to ethnonym 'Nononke'. Alternate names: Bangeri Me, Numadaw. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Dogon, Bondum Dom [dbu] 24,700 (1998 Durieux). Along the northern border of the plateau, separated from the Tommo So area to its south by a mainly uninhabited plain east of Dia, and a deep ravine running westward from Dia to the cliff that ends the plateau. Borko village (14,57 N; 3,21 W) is about center of the language area. Alternate names: Bondum-Dom. Dialects: Kindjim, Nadjamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Dogon, Dogul Dom [dbg] 15,700 (1998 Durieux). 14 villages about 20 km northeast of Bandiagara with Nandoli as center. Alternate names: Dogul-Dom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Dogon, Donno So [dds] 45,300 (1998 Durieux). Kamba So is spoken around Kamba, and Donno So around Bandiagara. Alternate names: Kamba So. Dialects: Kamma So, Donno So. Similar to Tommo So. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Dogon, Jamsay [djm] 130,000 in Mali (1998 Durieux). Large but sparsely populated area east of the Dogon cliffs extending into Burkina Faso. Also spoken in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Dyamsay Tegu. Dialects: Domno, Gono, Bama, Guru. Degree of comprehension between dialects uncertain. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Dogon, Kolum So [dkl] 24,000 (1998 Durieux). Area between Sevare and Bandiagara, in Pinia administrative area. Alternate names: Edyenge Dom, Idyoli Donge, Piniari. Dialects: Mombo (Helabo, Miambo), Ambange (Ampari). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Dogon, Tene Kan [dtk] 127,000 (1998 Durieux). From Bankass nearly to Koro. Alternate names: Tene Tingi, Tene Kan. Dialects: Tengu Tingi, Togo Kan, Sagara, Guimini Kan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Dogon, Tomo Kan [dtm] 132,800 in Mali (1998 Durieux). Large area southwest of Bankass. Also spoken in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Tomo-Kan. Dialects: Distinct from Tommo So (Tombo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Dogon, Toro So [dts] 50,000 (1998 Durieux). Spoken along the cliff from Yendoumman to Idyeli. Alternate names: Dogoso, Bomu Tegu, Toro So. Dialects: Different from Dogoso and Dogosé in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Dogon, Toro Tegu [dtt] 2,900 (1998 Durieux). About 80 km east of Douentza along a paved road. Approximately 15 villages. Alternate names: Tandam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

More information.

 

Duungooma [dux] 70,000 (1991 Vanderaa). 3rd Region (Sikasso), prefectures of Kadiolo and Sikasso. Kai is the largest town. Alternate names: Samogho, Samogo, Samoro, Du, Mali Duun, Duungo, Western Duun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo

More information.

 

French [fra] 9,000 in Mali (1993 Johnstone). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

More information.

 

Fulfulde, Maasina [ffm] 911,200 in Mali (1991). Population total all countries: 919,700. Central Mali. The western dialect is spoken around Segou and Macina. The eastern dialect is spoken from north of Mopti to Boni in the east. Also spoken in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana. Alternate names: Peul, Macina. Dialects: Western Macina, Eastern Macina. There are some dialect differences, but popular opinion is that all dialects in Mali are inherently intelligible. Substantial Bambara influence. There is skewing between the ethnic and linguistic relationships. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central

More information.

 

Jahanka [jad] 500 in Mali (2001). Kotema and Niebore villages, near the Guinea border. Possibly more villages farther east. Alternate names: Jahanque, Jahonque, Diakkanke, Diakhanke, Dyakanke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding

More information.

 

Jalunga [yal] 9,000 in Mali (2002 SIL). Extreme southwest corner along the Guinea border, Faleya Region, to where the Baafing River comes to the Mali-Guinea border. Alternate names: Yalunka, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Dialonke, Jalonke, Yalunke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka

More information.

 

Jowulu [jow] 10,000 in Mali (2002). Population total all countries: 11,000. 3rd Region, Prefecture of Kadiolo, Subprefecture of Loulouni. Also spoken in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Jo, Samogho. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo

More information.

 

Jula [dyu] 50,000 in Mali (1991). Alternate names: Dyoula, Diula, Dioula, Djula, Dyula. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana

More information.

 

Kagoro [xkg] 15,000 (1998 Valentin Vydrine). Ethnic population: 21,500 (1991 Vanderaa). Kaarta-Bine and Gumbu regions, about 70 ethnic Kagoro villages (Vydrine 1998). Alternate names: Kakolo. Dialects: Close to Khasonke. Bamanankan speakers have poor comprehension of Kagoro. Lexical similarity 86% with Kita Maninkakan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West

More information.

 

Koromfé [kfz] 100 in Mali. Near Burkina Faso border southeast of Dinangourou (east of Sangha) including Yoro, Kindi, Bougal, Nassouwele, Youmnetao, Ouri, Boutou, Lou, Tidore, Boulagadji, Kalalgaobe. Dialects: Eastern Koromfe, Western Koromfe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe

More information.

 

Maninkakan, Kita [mwk] 600,000 (1991 Vanderaa). Population includes 50,000 Fulanke (based on 1991 Vanderaa). From Kita west to the Tambaoura cliff range. Alternate names: Malinke, Kita Maninka, Central Malinke. Dialects: Fulanke. Kita speakers have 64% intelligibility of Bambara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West

More information.

 

Maninkakan, Western [mlq] 100,000 in Mali (based on Vanderaa 1991). West of Tambaoura cliff range at border of Mali and Guinea. Alternate names: Northwestern Maninka, Malinke, Malinka, Western Malinke. Dialects: Kenieba Maninka, Nyoxolonkan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West

More information.

 

Marka [rkm] 25,000 in Mali (1991). Around the villages of Koula, Diarani, Yelené, Kuna; Dialassagou, Ouenkoro, Bai. Alternate names: Marka-Dafin, Dafing, Meka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin

More information.

 

Mòoré [mos] 17,000 in Mali (1980). Some villages in the Dogon area, near the Burkina Faso border, and elsewhere. Alternate names: More, Mole, Mossi, Moshi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest

More information.

 

Pana [pnq] 2,800 in Mali (1982 SIL). South of Bandiagara, straddling the Mali-Burkina Faso border east of the Sourou River, due north of Kassoum in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Sama. Dialects: Pana North, Pana South. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern

More information.

 

Pulaar [fuc] 175,000 in Mali (1995). Population includes 40,000 Fulbe Jeeri. Settled primarily in northwestern Mali around Nioro and Kayes. Pockets found in Segou and Bandiagara, which are remnants of Umar Tal's conquest in the middle 1800s. Alternate names: Pulaar Fulfulde, Peul, Peuhl. Dialects: Toucouleur (Tukolor, Tukulor, Pulaar, Halpulaar, Haalpulaar, Fulbe Jeeri). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Western

More information.

 

Pular [fuf] 50,000 in Mali (1991). Western Mali from Guinea up to about Keniéba, especially in the administrative districts of Faléa and Faraba. Alternate names: Fuuta Jalon, Futa Jallon, Fouta Dyalon, Fulfulde Jalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Foula Fouta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central

More information.

 

Sàmòmá [knz] Lògrèmmá dialect spoken in at least six villages in Mali: Dian, Sougou, Zon, Ponghon, Gako, and Soyma. Alternate names: Kalamsé, Kalemsé, Kalenga, Sàmó. Dialects: Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern

More information.

 

Senoufo, Mamara [myk] 737,802 (2000 WCD). Alternate names: Miniyanka, Minya, Mianka, Minianka, Mamara, Tupiire. Dialects: Sõghoo, Bàjii, Nafãã, Mìjuu, Kle Noehmõ, Nejuu, Koloo, Kujaa, Suõõ. Close to Supyire Senoufo, but intercomprehension is difficult. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara

More information.

 

Sénoufo, Sìcìté [sep] Villages of Bakoronidougou, Gouaniéresso, Finkolo-Zanso, and Missidougou, east of Sikasso near the Burkina Faso border. Alternate names: Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Sìcìré, Sucite, Tagba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara

More information.

 

Senoufo, Supyire [spp] 364,000 (1991). At Sikasso. Alternate names: Supyire, Sup'ide, Suppire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara

More information.

 

Senoufo, Syenara [shz] 136,500 (1991 Vanderaa). South of the Duun language area around Kadiolo. Alternate names: Syenara, Shenara, Senare, Senari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari

More information.

 

Songhay, Humburi Senni [hmb] 15,000 in Mali (1999 Heath). Hombori area, halfway between Gao and Mopti. Alternate names: Songay Senni, Songoy, Songhoy, Songai, Songhai, Songay, Songoi, Songhay, Sonrai, Sonrhai, Central Songai, Hombori Songhay. Dialects: Djenne Chiini. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern

More information.

 

Songhay, Koyra Chiini [khq] 200,000 (1999 SIL). On the Niger River from Djenné to just east of Timbuktu. Alternate names: Songay, Songoy, Songhoy, Songai, Songhai, Songoi, Songhay, Sonrai, Sonrhai, West Songhoy, Timbuktu Songhoy. Dialects: Koyra Chiini, Djenné Chiini. The main dialect division is between Timbuktu and the upriver towns from Diré to Niafunké. A very distinct dialect is in Djenné city. Closely related languages: Koyraboro Senni Songhay, Humburi Senni Songhay, Zarma, Dendi. Lexical similarity 77% between Gao and Timbuktu dialects, 50% lexical similarity with Tadaksahak. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern

More information.

 

Songhay, Koyraboro Senni [ses] 400,000 (1999 Dan Stauffer). Southeast, along the Niger River from Gourma Rharous, just east of Timbuktu, through Bourem, Goa, and Ansongo on to the Mali-Niger border. Borders Kaado (Zarma) in Niger, but boundary zone not well studied. Alternate names: Koyra Senni, Koroboro Senni, Songay Senni, Songoy, Songai, Songhai, Songay, Songoi, Songhay, Sonrai, Sonrhai, East Songhay, Gao Songhay, Koyra Senni Songhay. Dialects: Intelligibility is good of all dialects on the Niger River. Fulan Kirya variety has more limited intelligibility because of heavy lexical borrowing from Fulfulde and Humburi Senni Songhay. Closely related languages: Koyra Chiini Songhay, Humburi Senni Songhay, Zarma, Dendi. Lexical similarity 77% between Gao and Timbuktu dialects, lexical similarity 50% with Tadaksahak. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern

More information.

 

Soninke [snk] 700,000 in Mali (1991). Population includes 125,000 Diawara (1991 Vanderaa), 374,042 first-language Marka speakers (1987 census). Population total all countries: 1,096,795. Nioro, Nara, Banamba, Yélémané, Kayes are principal towns in Mali. Also possibly Niger. Also spoken in Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal. Alternate names: Marka, Maraka, Sarakole, Sarakule, Sarawule, Serahuli, Silabe, Toubakai, Wakore, Gadyaga, Aswanik, Diawara. Dialects: Azer (Adjer, Aser), Kinbakka, Xenqenna. Dialects in Mali, Senegal, Mauritania, and possibly Gambia are close enough to use the same literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke

More information.

 

Tadaksahak [dsq] 30,000 in Mali (1995). Population total all countries: 31,800. 7th region, about 300 km east-west by 200 km north-south with Ménaka as geographic center. They travel into Niger and Algeria. Also spoken in Algeria. Alternate names: Dausahaq, Daoussak, Daoussahaq, Dawsahaq, Daosahaq. Dialects: Close to Tagdal (Niger), Tasawaq (Niger), Korandje (Algeria). Northern Songhay Languages share features from Songhay and Tamasheq. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Northern

More information.

 

Tamajaq [ttq] 190,000 in Mali (1991). East Mali, Menaka, and Gao regions. Alternate names: Tamajeq, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, Tamashekin, "Tuareg", "Tourage", Tahoua, Tajag. Dialects: Tawallammet Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden), Tawallammat Tan Ataram. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern

More information.

 

Tamasheq [taq] 250,000 in Mali (1991). Population total all countries: 281,169. Central, Timbuktu area, and northeast Mali. Also spoken in Algeria, Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Kidal Tamasheq, Tomacheck, Tamashekin, "Tuareg", Timbuktu, Kidal. Dialects: Timbuktu (Tombouctou, Tanaslamt), Tadhaq (Kidal). It may be two separate languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern

More information.

 

Xaasongaxango [kao] 120,000 in Mali (1991). Population total all countries: 128,170. Principal towns are Bafoulabé, Kayes. Also spoken in Gambia, Senegal. Alternate names: Xasonga, Kassonke, Khassonka, Khassonké, Khasonke, Kasonke, Kasson, Kasso, Xaasonga, Xasonke. Dialects: Highly intelligible with Western Maninkakan and a little less with Bambara, but for sociolinguistic reasons they are not considered dialects. 90% inherent intelligibility of Malinke in eastern Senegal. Lexical similarity 70% with Mandinka of Gambia and Senegal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West

More information.

 

Zarmaci [dje] Tabankort and Akabar villages south of Menaka at Niger border. Alternate names: Zarma, Dyerma, Dyarma, Dyabarma, Adzerma, Djerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern

 

Capital city:

Bamako

 

Meaning country name:

After the ancient West African kingdom of the same name, upon which a large part of the modern state lies. The word "Mali" came in turn from the Malinké people.

 

Description Flag:

The flag of Mali is a tricolor with three equal vertical stripes. From the hoist, the colours are green, gold, and red, the pan-African colors.

The current flag was adopted on March 1, 1961. The original flag was adopted on April 4, 1959, when Mali joined the Mali Federation. This flag was the same, except the golden stripe had a human stick figure, a kanaga, in black, with arms raised to the sky. The figure was removed because of Islamic aniconism, the belief against making pictures of the human figure. (Mali is about 90% Muslim.)

 

Coat of arms:

The motto of the Republic of Mali is "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" (One People, One Goal, One Faith), as prescribed by article 25 of the Constitution.

The coat of arms of the Republic of Mali has a circular shape. It shows on a light blue background:

in the middle, the mosque of Djenné, in gold colour

above the mosque, a vulture in gliding flight, in gold colour

below, the rising sun, in gold colour

in front of the sun, two opposed bows bent by their arrow, in white colour

in the surround, the writings "République du Mali" above and "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" below, in black capital letters.

 

Motto:

"Un peuple, un but, une foi"

 

National Anthem: Pour l'Afrique et pour toi, Mali

 

Pour l'Afrique et pour toi, Mali,

Notre drapeau sera liberté.

Pour l'Afrique et pour toi Mali

Notre combat sera unité.

Ô Mali d'aujourd'hui

Ô Mali de demain

Les champs fleurissent d'espérance

Les cœurs vibrent de confiance

 

English

 

For Africa and for you, Mali,

Our banner shall be liberty.

For Africa and for you, Mali,

Our fight shall be for unity.

Oh, Mali of today,

Oh, Mali of tomorrow,

The fields are flowering with hope

And hearts are thrilling with confidence.

 

Internet Page: www.officetourisme-mali.com

www.gov-mali.com

 

Mali in diferent languages

 

eng | afr | bam | bre | cat | ces | cor | cym | dan | dsb | est | eus | fao | fin | fra | frp | fur | hat | hau | hrv | hsb | hun | ibo | ina | ita | jav | jnf | kin | lav | lim | lin | lld | mlg | mlt | nld | nor | nrm | oci | pol | por | que | roh | ron | run | rup | scn | slk | slv | sme | smo | sqi | swa | swe | szl | tgl | tur | vor | wln | wol | zza: Mali

aze | bos | crh | kaa | mol | slo | tuk | uzb: Mali / Мали

ast | glg | isl | spa | tet: Malí

deu | ltz | nds: Mali / Mali

ind | msa: Mali / مالي

lit | smg: Malis

xho | zul: iMali

arg: Mali; Malí

epo: Malio

fry: Maly

gla: Màili; Mailidh

gle: Mailí / Mailí

glv: Malee

kmr: Malî / Мали / مالی

kur: Malî / مالی

lat: Malia; Malium

rmy: Mali / माली

som: Maali

srd: Malì

vie: Ma-li

vol: Maliyän

alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mkd | mon | oss | rus | tyv | udm: Мали (Mali)

bak | srp | tat: Мали / Mali

abq: Мали (Małi)

bel: Малі / Mali

kaz: Мали / Malï / مالي

tgk: Малӣ / ملی / Malī

ukr: Малі (Mali)

ara: مالي (Mālī)

ckb: مالی / Malî

fas: مالی / Mâli

prs: مالی (Mālī)

pus: مالي (Mālī)

uig: مالى / Mali / Мали

urd: مالی (Mālī)

div: މާލީ (Mālī)

syr: ܡܠܝ (Malī)

heb: מלי (Malî); מאלי (Mâlî)

lad: מאלי / Mali

yid: מאַלי (Mali)

amh: ማሊ (Mali)

ell: Μάλι (Máli); Μαλί (Malí)

hye: Մալի (Mali)

kat: მალი (Mali)

hin: माली (Mālī)

ben: মালি (Māli); মালী (Mālī)

pan: ਮਾਲੀ (Mālī)

kan: ಮಾಲಿ (Māli)

mal: മാലി (Māli)

tam: மாலி (Māli)

tel: మాలి (Māli)

zho: 馬里/马里 (Mǎlǐ)

jpn: マリ (Mari)

kor: 말리 (Malli)

mya: မာလီ (Mali)

tha: มาลี (Mālī)

khm: ម៉ាលី (Mālī)

 

The Republic of the Congo (French: République du Congo; Kongo: Repubilika ya Kongo; Lingala: Republiki ya Kongó), also known as Congo-Brazzaville, Little Congo, or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly known as Zaire), the Angolan exclave province of Cabinda, and the Gulf of Guinea.

The region was dominated by Bantu tribes, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. The republic is a former French colony. Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. The People's Republic of the Congo was a Marxist-Leninist single-party state from 1970 to 1991. Multiparty elections have been held since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in a 1997 civil war.

 

History

The earliest inhabitants of the region were Pygmy people, who later were largely displaced and absorbed by Bantu who found tribes during the Bantu expansions. The Bakongo are a Bantu ethnicity that also occupied parts of present-day Angola, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of the Congo, forming the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those countries. Several Bantu kingdoms—notably those of the Kongo, the Loango, and the Teke—built trade links leading into the Congo River basin.

The inhabitants of the Congo river delta first came into contact with Europeans in the late 15th century with Portuguese expeditions charting the African coastline. Commercial relationships were quickly established between the inland Bantu kingdoms and European merchants who traded various commodities, manufactured goods, and slaves captured from the hinterlands. For centuries, the Congo river delta was a major commercial hub for transatlantic trade. However, when direct European colonization of the African continent began in the late 19th century, the power of the Bantu societies in the region eroded.

The area came under French sovereignty in the 1880s. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa (AEF), comprising its colonies of Middle Congo (modern Congo), Gabon, Chad, and Oubangui-Chari (modern Central African Republic). Brazzaville was selected as the federal capital. Economic development during the first 50 years of colonial rule in Congo centered on natural resource extraction. Conference of 1944 heralded a period of major reform in French colonial policy. Congo benefited from the postwar expansion of colonial administrative and infrastructure spending as a result of its central geographic location within AEF and the federal capital at Brazzaville.

Following independence as the Congo Republic on August 15, 1960, Fulbert Youlou ruled as the country's first president until labour elements and rival political parties instigated a three-day uprising that ousted him. The Congolese military took charge of the country briefly and installed a civilian provisional government headed by Alphonse Massamba-Débat. Under the 1963 constitution, Massamba-Débat was elected President for a five-year term. The regime adopted "scientific socialism" as the country's constitutional ideology.

In 1965, Congo established relations with the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, North Korea and North Vietnam. Massamba-Débat was unable to reconcile various institutional and ideological factions and his regime was ended abruptly with an August 1968 coup d'état. Marien Ngouabi, who had participated in the coup, assumed the presidency on December 31, 1968. One year later, President Ngouabi proclaimed Congo to be Africa's first "people's republic" and announced the decision of the National Revolutionary Movement to change its name to the Congolese Labour Party (PCT). On March 16, 1977, President Ngouabi was assassinated. An 11-member Military Committee of the Party (CMP) was named to head an interim government with Joachim Yhombi-Opango to serve as President of the Republic. Two years later, Yhombi-Opango was forced from power and Denis Sassou Nguesso become the new president.

Sassou Nguesso aligned the country with the Eastern Bloc and signed a twenty-year friendship pact with the Soviet Union. Over the years, Sassou had to rely more on political repression and less on patronage to maintain his dictatorship.

Lissouba, another socialist, did not bring much change. He delayed economic reforms.

Congo's democratic progress was derailed in 1997 when Lissouba and Sassou started to fight over power. As presidential elections scheduled for July 1997 approached, tensions between the Lissouba and Sassou camps mounted. On June 5, President Lissouba's government forces surrounded Sassou's compound in Brazzaville and Sassou ordered members of his private

Controversial elections in 2002 saw Sassou win with almost 90% of the vote cast. His two main rivals Lissouba and Bernard Kolelas were prevented from competing and the only remaining credible rival, Andre Milongo, advised his supporters to boycott the elections and then withdrew from the race. A new constitution, agreed upon by referendum in January 2002, granted the president new powers and also extended his term to seven years as well as introducing a new bicameral assembly. International observers took issue with the organization of the presidential election as well as the constitutional referendum, both of which were reminiscent in their organization of Congo's era of the single-party state. Following the presidential elections, fighting restarted in the Pool region between government forces and rebels lead by Pastor Ntumi; a peace treaty to end the conflict was signed in April 2003.

The regime held the presidential election in July 2009. According to the Congolese Observatory of Human Rights, a non-governmental organisation, the election was marked by "very low" turnout and "fraud and irregularities." The regime announced Sassou as the winner.

 

Geography

Congo is located in the central-western part of sub-Saharan Africa, along the Equator. To the south and east of it is the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is also bounded by Gabon to the west, Cameroon and the Central African Republic to the north, and Cabinda (Angola) to the southwest. It has a short Atlantic coast.

The capital, Brazzaville, is located on the Congo River, in the south of the country, immediately across from Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The southwest of the country is a coastal plain for which the primary drainage is the Kouilou-Niari River; the interior of the country consists of a central plateau between two basins to the south and north. Forests are under increasing exploitation pressure.

Since the country is located on the Equator, the climate is consistent year-round, with the average day temperature being a humid 24 °C (75.2 °F) and nights generally between 16 °C (60.8 °F) and 21 °C (69.8 °F). The average yearly rainfall ranges from 1,100 millimetres (43.3 in) in south in the Niari valley to over 2,000 millimetres (78.7 in) in central parts of the country. The dry season is from June to August while in the majority of the country the wet season has two rainfall maxima: one in March–May and another in September–November.

In 2006–07, researchers from the Wildlife Conservation Society studied gorillas in heavily forested regions centered on the Ouesso district of the Sangha Region. They suggest a population on the order of 125,000 Western Lowland Gorillas, whose isolation from humans has been largely preserved by inhospitable swamps.

 

Other Info

Oficial Name:

Republique du Congo

 

Native names:

ktu: Repubilika ya Kongo

lin: Republiki ya Kongó

 

Independence:

15 August 1960

 

Area:

342.000 km2

 

Inhabitants:

3.000.000

 

Capital :

Brazzaville

 

Languages:

Aka Akwa Bangandu Beembe Bekwil Bobangi Bomitaba Bomwali Bongili Bonjo Bwisi Dibole Doondo Fang French Gbaya Kaamba Kituba Koongo Kota Koyo Kunyi Laari Likuba Likwala Lingala Lumbu Mbandja Mbangwe Mbere Mboko Mbosi Moi Monzombo Mpyemo Ndasa Ngbaka Ngbaka Ma'bo Ngom Ngundi Ngungwel Njebi Njyem Ombamba Pomo Punu Suundi Teke-Eboo Teke-Fuumu Teke-Ibali Teke-Kukuya Teke-Laali Teke-Tege Teke-Tsaayi Tsaangi Vili Wumbvu Yombe

 

Meaning of the country name:

Named after the former Kongo kingdom, in turn named after the Bakongo people.

 

Description Flag:

The flag of the Republic of the Congo was originally adopted on August 18, 1958. It was abandoned in 1970, but then readopted on June 10, 1991. The colors are the traditional Pan-African colors, and stem from the colors of the flag of Ethiopia.

 

Coat of arms:

The Coat of Arms of the Republic of Congo has a shield with a rampant red lion holding a torch. The background color of the shield is yellow with a green wavy stripe in the middle. A golden crown sits above the shield. Two large African elephants support the shield. A banner with the national motto "Unité Travail Progrès" is draped from a bar supporting the elephants.

 

Motto:

"Unité, Travail, Progrès"

 

National Anthem: La Congolaise

 

French Lyrics

En ce jour le soleil se lève

Et notre Congo resplendit.

Une longue nuit s'achève,

Un grand bonheur a surgi.

Chantons tous avec ivresse

le chant de la liberté.

 

CHORUS:

Congolais, debout fièrement partout,

Proclamons l'union de notre nation,

Oublions ce qui nous divise,

soyons plus unis que jamais,

Vivons pour notre devise:

Unité, travail, progrès!

Vivons pour notre devise:

Unité, travail, progrès!

 

Des forêts jusqu'à la savanne,

Des savannes jusqu'à la mer,

Un seul peuple, une seule âme,

Un seul coer, ardent et fier,

Luttons tous, tant que nous sommes,

Pour notre vieux pays noir.

 

CHORUS

 

Et s'il nous faut mourir, en somme

Qu'importe puisque nos enfants,

Partout, pourront dire comme

On triomphe en combattant,

Et dans le moindre village

Chantent sous nos trois couleurs.

 

CHORUS

 

English Translation

 

On this day the sun rises

And our Congo stands resplendent.

A long night is ended,

a great happiness has come.

Let us all, with wild joyfulness, sing

The song of freedom.

 

CHORUS:

Arise, Congolese, proud every man,

Proclaim the unity of our nation.

Let us forget what divides us

And become more united than ever.

Let us live our motto:

Unity, work, progress.

Let us live our motto:

Unity, work, progress.

 

From the forest to the bush,

From the bush to the ocean,

One people, one soul,

One heart, ardent and proud.

Let us all fight, every one of us,

For our black country.

 

CHORUS

 

And if we have to die,

What does it really matter? Our children

Everywhere will be able to say how

Triumph comes through battle,

And in the smallest village

Sing beneath our three colours.

 

CHORUS

 

Internet Page: www.presidence.cg

 

Congo in diferent languages

 

eng | arg | ast | cat | cos | cym | dan | fra | fur | glg | ina | ita | jnf | lld | nld | por | roh | ron | rup | spa | srd | wln: Congo

afr | bre | ces | cor | dsb | est | eus | fao | fin | fry | hat | hrv | hsb | jav | kin | lav | mlg | mlt | nor | pol | run | slk | slv | sme | sqi | swa | swe | tur | vor | zza: Kongo

bos | crh | kaa | slo | tuk | uzb: Kongo / Конго

deu | ltz | nds: Kongo / Kongo

hun | isl | lin: Kongó

aze: Konqo / Конго

bam: Kɔngo

epo: Kongolo; Kongo

frp: Congô

gla: A’ Chongo

gle: An Chongó / An Ċongó

glv: Yn Chongo

hau: Kongo; Congo

ibo: Kọṅgo

ind: Kongo / كوڠڬو

kmr: Kongo / Конго / کۆنگۆ

kur: Kongo / کۆنگۆ

lat: Congoa; Congum; Congus

lit: Kongas

mol: Congo / Конго

msa: Congo / كوڠڬو

nrm: Coungo

oci: Còngo

que: Kungu

rmy: Kongo / कोन्गो

sag: Kongö

scn: Concu

smg: Kuongs

smo: Kogo

som: Koongo

szl: Kůngo

tet: Kongu

tgl: Konggo

vie: Công-gô

vol: Kongoän

wol: Kongóo

zul: iKongo

abq | alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mkd | mon | oss | rus | tyv | udm: Конго (Kongo)

bak | srp | tat: Конго / Kongo

bel: Конга / Konha

kaz: Конго / Kongo / كونگو

tgk: Конго / کانگا / Kongo

ukr: Конґо (Kongo)

ara: الكونغو (al-Kūnġū); الكونجو (al-Kūngū)

ckb: کۆنغۆ / Konx̱o

fas: کنگو / کونگو (Kongo)

prs: کانگو (Kāngō)

pus: کانګو (Kāngo); کونګو (Kongo)

snd: ڪانگو (Kāngō)

uig: كونگو / Kon’go / Конго

urd: کانگو (Kāngo); کونگو (Kôngo)

div: ކޮނގޯ (Koṅgō)

heb: קונגו (Qôngô)

lad: קונגו / Kongo

yid: קאָנגאָ (Kongo)

amh: ኮንጎ (Kongo)

ell: Κογκό (Kogkó); Κονγκό (Kongkó)

hye: Կոնգո (Kongo)

kat: კონგო (Kongo)

hin: कांगो (Kāṁgo); कोन्गो (Kongo)

ben: কঙ্গো (Kôṅgo)

pan: ਕਾਂਗੋ (Kā̃go)

kan: ಕಾಂಗೋ (Kāṁgō)

mal: കോംഗോ (Kōṁgō)

tam: கொங்கோ (Koṅkō); காங்கோ (Kāṅkō)

tel: కాంగో (Kāṁgō)

zho: 剛果/刚果 (Gāngguǒ)

yue: 剛果/刚果 (Gònggwó)

jpn: コンゴ (Kongo)

kor: 콩고 (Konggo)

bod: ཀོང་ཀོ་ (Koṅ.ko.); ཀོང་གོ་ (Koṅ.go.)

mya: က္ဝန္ဂုိ (Kũgo)

tha: คองโก (Kʰɔ̄ṅkō)

khm: កុងហ្គោ (Kuṅhkō); កុងហ្គូ (Kuṅhkū)

 

Is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. With Ecuador, it is one of two countries in South America which do not border Brazil. The Pacific coastline of Chile is 6,435 kilometres. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas and Easter Island. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

Chile's unusual ribbon-like shape—4,300 kilometres (2,700 mi) long and on average 175 kilometres (109 mi) wide—has given it a varied climate, ranging from the world's driest desert—the Atacama—in the north, through a Mediterranean climate in the centre, to a rainy temperate climate in the south. The northern desert contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.

Prior to arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, northern Chile was under Inca rule while the indigenous Araucanians inhabited central and southern Chile. Chile declared its independence on February 12, 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879–83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Araucanians were completely subjugated.Although relatively free of the coups and arbitrary governments that blighted South America, Chile endured a 17-year military dictatorship (1973–1990) that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing.

Currently, Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations. It leads Latin American nations in human development, competitiveness, quality of life, political stability, globalization, economic freedom, low perception of corruption and comparatively low poverty rates. It also ranks high regionally in freedom of the press and democratic development. However, it has a high income inequality, as measured by the Gini index. In December 2009 Chile became the first South American country to be invited to join the OECD.[8] Chile is also a founding member of both the United Nations and the Union of South American Nations.

 

Etymology

There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to a theory proposed by 18th century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas of Peru called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century. Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chil.

Other theories say Chile may derive its name from the indigenous Mapuche word chilli, which may mean "where the land ends," "the deepest point of the Earth," or "sea gulls;" or from the Quechua chin, "cold", or the Aymara tchili, meaning "snow". Another meaning attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of a bird call. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, and the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli."Ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such.

 

History

About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present day Chile. Example settlement sites from the very early human habitation are Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche successfully resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river.

In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the earth, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him, the Strait of Magellan. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered hundreds of thousands of Native Americans from various cultures in the area that modern Chile now occupies. These cultures supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on February 12, 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Conquest of the land took place only gradually, and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks at the hands of the local population. A massive Mapuche insurrection that began in 1553 resulted in Valdivia's death and the destruction of many of the colony's principal settlements. Subsequent major insurrections took place in 1598 and in 1655. Each time the Mapuche and other native groups revolted, the southern border of the colony was driven northward. The abolition of slavery by the Spanish crown in 1683 was done in recognition that enslaving the Mapuche intensified resistance rather than cowing them into submission. Despite the royal prohibitions relations remained strained from continual colonialist interference.

Cut off to the north by desert, to the south by the Mapuche (or Araucanians), to the east by the Andes Mountains, and to the west by the ocean, Chile became one of the most centralized, homogeneous colonies in Spanish America. Serving as a sort of frontier garrison, the colony found itself with the mission of forestalling encroachment by Araucanians and by Spain's European enemies, especially the British and the Dutch. In addition to the Araucanians, buccaneers and English adventurers menaced the colony, as was shown by Sir Francis Drake's 1578 raid on Valparaíso, the principal port. Because Chile hosted one of the largest standing armies in the Americas, it was one of the most militarized of the Spanish possessions, as well as a drain on the treasury of Peru. By the end of the colonial period, the population reached an estimated 500,000 (not including unsubjugated Indians); approximately 300,000 were mestizos and about 150,000 were Criollos (European or European descent).

The first general census was performed by the government of Agustín de Jáuregui between 1777 and 1778. The census indicated that the population was 259,646 inhabitants and was composed of 73.5% European descent, 7.9% mestizos, 8.6% Indians and 9.8% blacks. In 1784, Francisco Hurtado, Governor of the province of Chiloe, conducted a population census of Chiloe whereby the population was 26,703 inhabitants, of which 64.4% were whites and 33.5% natives.

Finally, in 1812, the Diocese of Concepción made a census of population, south of the Maule river, but not including the indigenous population (estimated at 8,000 people), nor the inhabitants of the province of Chiloé, which gave indicated a population of 210,567, of which 86.1% were Spanish and whites, 10% Indians and 3.7% of mestizos, blacks and mulattos.

The drive for independence from Spain was precipitated by usurpation of the Spanish throne by Napoleon's brother Joseph in 1808. A national junta in the name of Ferdinand—heir to the deposed king—was formed on September 18, 1810. The Government Junta of Chile proclaimed Chile an autonomous republic within the Spanish monarchy. A movement for total independence soon won a wide following. Spanish attempts to re-impose arbitrary rule during what was called the Reconquista led to a prolonged struggle.

Intermittent warfare continued until 1817, when an army with Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile's most renowned patriot, and led by José de San Martín, hero of the Argentine War of Independence, crossed the Andes into Chile and defeated the royalists. On February 12, 1818, Chile was proclaimed an independent republic under O'Higgins' leadership. The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, which was greatly influenced by family politics and the Roman Catholic Church. A strong presidency eventually emerged, but wealthy landowners remained powerful.

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by ruthlessly suppressing the Mapuche during the Occupation of Araucanía. In 1881, it signed a treaty with Argentina confirming Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan. As a result of the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia (1879–83), Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third, eliminating Bolivia's access to the Pacific, and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence.

The Chilean Civil War in 1891 brought about a redistribution of power between the President and Congress, and Chile established a parliamentary style democracy. However, the Civil War had also been a contest between those who favored the development of local industries and powerful Chilean banking interests, particularly the House of Edwards who had strong ties to foreign investors.

 

20th century

The Chilean economy partially degenerated into a system protecting the interests of a ruling oligarchy. By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, Arturo Alessandri Palma, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress. In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose.

A military coup led by General Luis Altamirano in 1924 set off a period of great political instability that lasted until 1932. The longest lasting of the ten governments between those years was that of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship, although not really comparable in harshness or corruption to the type of military dictatorship that has often bedeviled the rest of Latin America and certainly not comparable to the violent and repressive regime of Augusto Pinochet decades later.

By relinquishing power to a democratically elected successor, Ibáñez del Campo retained the respect of a large enough segment of the population to remain a viable politician for more than thirty years, in spite of the vague and shifting nature of his ideology. When constitutional rule was restored in 1932, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932–52), the state increased its role in the economy. In 1952, voters returned Ibáñez del Campo to office for another six years. Jorge Alessandri succeeded Ibáñez del Campo in 1958, bringing Chilean conservatism back into power democratically for another term.

The 1964 presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty", the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionization of agricultural workers. By 1967, however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive. At the end of his term, Frei had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals.

In the 1970 election, Senator Salvador Allende reached a partial majority in a plurality of votes in a three-way contest, followed by candidates Radomiro Tomic for the Christian Democrat Party and Jorge Alessandri for the Conservative Party. He was a physician and member of the Socialist Party of Chile, who headed the "Popular Unity" (UP or "Unidad Popular") coalition of the Socialist, Communist, Radical, and Social-Democratic Parties, along with dissident Christian Democrats, the Popular Unitary Action Movement (MAPU), and the Independent Popular Action. Despite pressure from the United States government, the Chilean Congress conducted a runoff vote between the leading candidates, Allende and former president Jorge Alessandri and keeping with tradition, chose Allende by a vote of 153 to 35. Frei refused to form an alliance with Alessandri to oppose Allende, on the grounds that the Christian Democrats were a workers party and could not make common cause with the right-wing.

An economic depression that began in 1967 peaked in 1970, exacerbated by capital flight, plummeting private investment, and withdrawal of bank deposits in response to Allende's socialist program. Production fell and unemployment rose. Allende adopted measures including price freezes, wage increases, and tax reforms, to increase consumer spending and redistribute income downward. Joint public-private public works projects helped reduce unemployment.page needed] Much of the banking sector was nationalized. Many enterprises within the copper, coal, iron, nitrate, and steel industries were expropriated, nationalized, or subjected to state intervention. Industrial output increased sharply and unemployment fell during the Allende administration's first year.

Allende's program included advancement of workers' interests, replacing the judicial system with "socialist legality", nationalization of banks and forcing others to bankruptcy, and strengthening "popular militias" known as MIR. Started under former President Frei, the Popular Unity platform also called for nationalization of Chile's major copper mines in the form of a constitutional amendment. The measure was passed unanimously by Congress. As a result, the Richard Nixon administration organized and inserted secret operatives in Chile, in order to quickly destabilize Allende’s government. In addition, American financial pressure restricted international economic credit to Chile. The economic problems were also exacerbated by Allende's public spending which was financed mostly by printing money and poor credit ratings given by commercial banks.

Simultaneously, opposition media, politicians, business guilds and other organizations, helped to accelerate a campaign of domestic political and economical destabilization, some of which was helped by the United States. By early 1973, inflation was out of control. The crippled economy was further battered by prolonged and sometimes simultaneous strikes by physicians, teachers, students, truck owners, copper workers, and the small business class. On 26 May 1973, Chile’s Supreme Court, which was opposed to Allende's government, unanimously denounced the Allende disruption of the legality of the nation. Although, illegal under the Chilean constitution, the court supported and strengthened Pinochet seizure of power.

Finally, a military coup overthrew Allende on September 11, 1973. As the armed forces bombarded the presidential palace of (Palacio de La Moneda), Allende reportedly had committed suicide. A military junta, led by General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, took over control of the country. The first years of the regime were marked by human rights violations. On October 1973, at least 72 people were murdered by the Caravan of Death. According to the Rettig Report and Valech Commission, at least 2,115 were killed, and at least 27,265 were tortured (including 88 children younger than 12 years old). A new Constitution was approved by a controversial plebiscite on September 11, 1980, and General Pinochet became president of the republic for an 8-year term.

In the late 1980s, the government gradually permitted greater freedom of assembly, speech, and association, to include trade union and political activity. The government launched market-oriented reforms, which have continued ever since. Chile moved toward a free market economy that saw an increase in domestic and foreign private investment, although the copper industry and other important mineral resources were not opened for competition. In a plebiscite on October 5, 1988, General Pinochet was denied a second 8-year term as president (56% against 44%). Chileans elected a new president and the majority of members of a two-chamber congress on December 14, 1989. Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin, the candidate of a coalition of 17 political parties called the Concertación, received an absolute majority of votes (55%). President Aylwin served from 1990 to 1994, in what was considered a transition period.

In December 1993, Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the son of previous president Eduardo Frei Montalva, led the Concertación coalition to victory with an absolute majority of votes (58%).

 

21st century

Frei Ruiz-Tagle was succeeded in 2000 by Socialist Ricardo Lagos, who won the presidency in an unprecedented runoff election against Joaquín Lavín of the rightist Alliance for Chile. In January 2006, Chileans elected their first female president, Michelle Bachelet Jeria, of the Socialist Party, defeating Sebastián Piñera, of the National Renewal party, extending the Concertación government for another four years. In January 2010, Chileans elected Sebastián Piñera, of the National Renewal party of the centre-right Coalition for Change, as the first rightist President of Chile during the Chilean presidential election of 2009-2010, defeating former President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle of the Concertación, for a four-year term succeeding Michelle Bachelet.

On February 27, 2010, Chile was struck by an 8.8 Mm earthquake, one of the largest ever recorded in the world. As many as 1,000 people died; hundreds of thousands of buildings were damaged. Initial damage estimates were in the range of 15–30 billion USD, around 10–15% of Chile real gross domestic product.

 

Geography

A long and narrow coastal Southern Cone country on the west side of the Andes Mountains, Chile stretches over 4,630 kilometres (2,880 mi) north to south, but only 430 kilometres (265 mi) at its widest point east to west. This encompasses a remarkable variety of landscapes. It contains 756,950 square kilometres (292,260 sq mi) of land area. It is situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire.

The northern Atacama Desert contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates. The relatively small Central Valley, which includes Santiago, dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources. This area also is the historical center from which Chile expanded in the late nineteenth century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests, grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border. Chile is the longest north-south country in the world, and also claims 1,250,000 km2 (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica as part of its territory. However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, of which Chile is signatory.

Chile controls Easter Island and Sala y Gómez Island, the easternmost islands of Polynesia, which it incorporated to its territory in 1888, and Robinson Crusoe Island, more than 600 kilometres (370 mi) from the mainland, in the Juan Fernández archipelago. Easter Island is today a province of Chile. Also controlled but only temporally inhabited (by some local fishermen) are the small islands of Sala y Gómez, San Ambrosio and San Felix. These islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific.

 

Other info

Oficial name:

Republica de Chile

 

Independence:

First National, Government Junta, September 18, 1810

- Declared February 12, 1818

- Recognized April 25, 1844

 

Area:

756.096 km2

 

Inhabitants:

17.560.000

 

Languages:

Aymara, Central [ayr] 899 in Chile (1994 Hans Gundermann K.). Ethnic population: 20,000 in Chile (1983 SIL). Mountains of extreme north, first region Tarapacá; Arica, Parinacota, Iquique. Classification: Aymaran

More information.

 

Chilean Sign Language [csg] Classification: Deaf sign language

More information.

 

Huilliche [huh] 2,000 (1982 SIL). South of the Mapuche, Tenth Region, from Valdivia to Chiloé. Alternate names: Veliche, Huiliche. Dialects: Tsesungún. Related to Mapudungun, but barely intelligible with it. Classification: Araucanian

More information.

 

Mapudungun [arn] 200,000 in Chile (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 300,000. Ethnic population: 928,000 (1992 census). Between the Itata and Tolten rivers. Also spoken in Argentina. Alternate names: Mapudungu, "Araucano", Mapuche. Dialects: Moluche (Ngoluche, Manzanero), Picunche, Pehuenche. Easy intelligibility among all dialects. Pehuenche and Moluche are very close. Classification: Araucanian

More information.

 

Qawasqar [alc] 20 (1996 Oscar Aguilera). Population includes 10 in Puerto Edin. Channel Region, western Patagonia, Isle of Wellington off south Chilean coast, 49 degrees south with center in Puerto Edin. Speakers of the extinct Aksanás dialect also lived in Puerto Edén. Alternate names: Kaweskar, Kawesqar, Alacalufe, Alacaluf, Halakwulup. Dialects: Aksanás (Aksana). Classification: Alacalufan Nearly extinct.

More information.

 

Quechua, Chilean [cqu] Ethnic population: 4,563 (2000 WCD). Northern second region. Dialects: May be intelligible with, or the same as, South Bolivian Quechua. Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C

More information.

 

Rapa Nui [rap] 3,392 in Chile (2000 WCD). Population includes 2,200 on Easter Island; 200 to 300 on Chile mainland, Tahiti, and USA. Ethnic population: 3,500. Easter Island, 3,800 km from Chile, 4,000 km from Tahiti. Also spoken in French Polynesia, USA. Alternate names: Easter Island, Pascuense. Dialects: Lexical similarity 64% with Hawaiian, Mangareva, Rarotonga, 63% with Marquesan; 62% with Tahitian, Paumotu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Rapanui

More information.

 

Spanish [spa] 13,800,000 in Chile (1995). Population includes 25% Spanish, 66% mestizo. Alternate names: Español, Castellano. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

More information.

 

Yámana [yag] 1 (2003). Ethnic population: 100 (2000 W. Adelaar). Patagonia, Isla Navarino, Puerto Williams, Ukika hamlet. Extinct in Argentina. Alternate names: Yaghan, Yagán, Tequenica, Háusi Kúta. Dialects: Tovar (1961) says it was closest to Qawasqar, and had some relationship to Ona. Earlier there were up to five dialects. Classification: Language Isolate Nearly extinct.

More information.

  

Extinct languages

Kakauhua [kbf] Extinct. Alternate names: Kaukaue, Cacahue. Classification: Alacalufan

More information.

 

Kunza [kuz] Extinct. A few speakers were located in 1949 and since by anthropologists. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Peine, Socaire (Salar de Atacama), and Caspana. Alternate names: Likanantaí, Lipe, Ulipe, Atacameño. Dialects: Greenberg places it in Macro-Chibchan. Classification: Unclassified

 

Capital city:

Santiago del Chile

 

Meaning of the country name :

Exact etymology unknown. Possibilities include that it comes from a native Mapudungun term meaning "the depths", a reference to the fact that the Andes mountain chain looms over the narrow coastal flatland. The Quechua or Mapuche Indian word "chili/chilli" or "where the land ends/where the land runs out/limit of the world" also provides a possible derivation. Another possible meaning originates with a native word tchili, meaning "snow".

 

Description Flag:

The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence.

 

Coat of arms:

The Coat of Arms of Chile dates from 1834 and was designed by the English artist Charles Wood Taylor. It is made up by a figurative background divided in two equal parts: the top one is blue and the bottom, red. A five pointed white star is in the centre of the shield. This background is supported in one side by a condor, the most significant bird of prey from the Andes, and in the other, by a huemul, the most singular and rare mammal of the Chilean territory. Both animals have in their heads the navy's golden crown, symbol of the heroic deeds of the Chilean Navy in the Pacific Ocean.

The shield is crowned by a three feathered crest; each feather bearing one colour: blue, white and red. This crest was a symbol of distinction that former Presidents of the Republic used to wear on their hats.

Underneath the shield and on the ellaborated pedestal, there is a white band with the motto: "Por la Razón o la Fuerza" ("By Right or Might").

 

Motto:

" Por la Razón o la Fuerza "

 

National Anthem: Himno Nacional de Chile

 

Spanish

 

Puro, Chile, es tu cielo azulado;

Puras brisas te cruzan también.

Y tu campo de flores bordado

Es la copia feliz del Edén.

Majestuosa es la blanca montaña

Que te dio por valuarte el Señor

Que te dio por valuarte el Señor,

Y ese mar que tranquilo te baña

Te promete futuro esplendor

Y ese mar que tranquilo te baña

Te promete futuro esplendor.

  

Coro

Dulce Patria, recibe los votos

Con que Chile en tus aras juró:

Que o la tumba serás de los libres

O el asilo contra la opresión

Que o la tumba serás de los libres

O el asilo contra la opresión

Que o la tumba serás de los libres

O el asilo contra la opresión

O el asilo contra la opresión

O el asilo contra la opresión.

 

English

 

Pure, Chile, is your blue sky;

Pure breezes flow across you as well.

And your flower-embroidered field

Is a happy copy of Eden .

Majestic is the snow-capped mountain

That was given as a bastion by the Lord

That was given as a bastion by the Lord,

And the sea that quietly washes your shores

Promises you future splendor

And the sea that quietly washes your shores

Promises you future splendor.

 

Chorus

Sweet fatherland, accept the vows

That were given by Chile at your altars:

Either you be the tomb of the free

Or the refuge against oppression

Either you be the tomb of the free

Or the refuge against oppression

Either you be the grave of the free

Or the refuge against oppression

Or the refuge against oppression

Or the refuge against oppression.

 

Internet Page: www.chile.com

 

Chile in diferent languages

 

eng | arg | ast | bre | ces | cor | cym | dan | fin | glg | hau | hsb | hun | ina | jnf | nor | oci | pol | por | roh | ron | sme | spa | swa | swe | szl: Chile

afr | fra | hat | ibo | jav | nld | nrm | pap | que: Chili

hrv | rup | slk | slv: Čile

deu | ltz | nds: Chile / Chile

ita | lld | srd: Cile

kin | lin | run: Shili

aze | tuk: Çili / Чили

bam | smo: Sili

cat | tet: Xile

kaa | uzb: Chili / Чили

lit | smg: Čilė

tur | zza: Şili

bos: Čile / Чиле

cos: Chilì

crh: Çile / Чиле

dsb: Chilska

epo: Ĉilio

est: Tšiili

eus: Txile

fao: Kili

frp: Ch•ili

fry: Sily

fur: Cîl

gla: An t-Sile

gle: An tSile / An tSile

glv: Yn Çhillee

ind: Cili / چيلي

isl: Chile; Síle

kmr: Çîlî / Ч’или / چیلی; Çîlîstan / Ч’илистан / چیلیستان

kur: Şîlî / شیلی

lat: Chilia; Chile; Cilia

lav: Čīle

mlg: Silia

mlt: Ċili

mol: Cili / Чили

msa: Chile / چيلي

rmy: Čile / चिले

scn: Cili

slo: Cxile / Чиле

som: Jili

sqi: Kili

tgl: Tsile

ton: Saile

vie: Chi-lê

vol: Tjilän

vor: Tsiili

wln: Tchili

wol: Ciili

alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mon | oss | rus | tyv | udm: Чили (Čili)

bak | tat: Чили / Çili

abq: Чили (Čiłi)

bel: Чылі / Čyli

kaz: Чили / Çïlï / چيلي

mkd: Чиле (Čile)

srp: Чиле / Čile

tgk: Чили / چیلی / Cili

ukr: Чилі (Čyli); Чілі (Čili)

ara: تشيلي (Tišīlī); شيلي (Šīlī)

fas: شیلی (Šīlī)

prs: چیلی (Čīlī)

pus: چيلي (Čīlī); چلي (Čilī)

uig: چىلى / Chili / Чили

urd: چلی (Čilī)

div: ޗިލީ (Čilī)

heb: צ׳ילה (Čîleh); צ׳ילי (Čîlî)

lad: ג'ילי / Chile

yid: טשילע (Tšile)

amh: ቺሌ (Čile); ቺሊ (Čili)

ell: Χιλή (Ĥilī́)

hye: Չիլի (Č̣ili)

kat: ჩილე (Č̣ile); ჩილი (Č̣ili)

hin: चिली (Čilī); चाइल (Čāil)

ben: চিলি (Čili)

pan: ਚਿਲੀ (Čilī)

kan: ಚಿಲಿ (Čili)

mal: ചിലി (Čili)

tam: சிலி (Čili)

tel: చిలీ (Čilī)

zho: 智利 (Zhìlì)

yue: 智利 (Jileih)

jpn: チリ (Chiri)

kor: 칠레 (Chillae)

mya: ခ္ယီလီ (Čili)

tha: ชิลี (Čʰilī)

lao: ຊີເລ (Sīlē)

khm: ឈីលី (Čʰīlī)

 

officially the Republic of Benin, is a country in West Africa. It borders Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north; its short coastline to the south leads to the Bight of Benin.

Its size is just over 110000 km2 with a population of almost 8,500,000. Its capital is the Yoruba founded city of Porto-Novo but the seat of government is the Fon city of Cotonou.

A democratic government between 1960 and 1972 was followed by a self-proclaimed "Marxist-Leninist" dictatorship between 1972 and 1991, which was highly repressive and led to economic collapse. Multiparty elections have taken place since 1991. About a third of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day. Main income sources are subsistence agriculture and cotton.

 

Name

During the colonial period and at independence, the country was known as Dahomey. It was renamed on November 30, 1975, to Benin after the body of water on which the country lies, the Bight of Benin, which had in turn been named after the Benin Empire. The country of Benin has no direct connection to Benin City in modern Nigeria, nor to the Benin bronzes.

 

The new name, Benin, was chosen for its neutrality. Dahomey was the name of the former Kingdom of Dahomey, which covered only the southern third of the present country and therefore did not represent the northwestern sector Atakora nor the kingdom of Borgu, which covered the northeastern third.

 

History

 

The Kingdom of Dahomey formed from a mixture of ethnic groups on the Abomey plain. Historians theorized that the insecurity caused by slave trading may have contributed to mass migrations of groups to modern day Abomey, including some Aja, a Gbe people who are believed to have founded the city. Those Aja living in Abomey mingled with the local Fon people, also a Gbe people, creating a new ethnic group known as "Dahomey".

 

The Gbe peoples are said to be descendents of a number of migrants from Wyo. Gangnihessou, (a member of an Aja dynasty that in the 16th century along with the Aja populace had come from Tado before settling and ruling separately in what is now Abomey, Allada, and Porto Novo), became the first ruler of the Dahomey Kingdom. Dahomey had a military culture aimed at securing and eventually expanding the borders of the small kingdom with its capital at modern day Abomey.

 

The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were often apprenticed to older soldiers, and taught the kingdom's military customs until they were old enough to join the navy. Dahomey was also famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi or "our mothers" in the Fongbe language, and known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of "black Sparta" from European observers and 19th century explorers like Sir Richard Burton.

 

Though the leaders of Dahomey appeared initially to resist the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for almost three hundred years (beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants), leading to the area being named "the Slave Coast". Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom's many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area. The number went from 20,000 per year at the beginning of the seventeenth century to 12000 at the beginning of the 1800s. The decline was partly due to the banning of the trans-Atlantic trade by Britain and other countries. This decline continued until 1885, when the last Portuguese slave ship departed from the coast of the present-day Benin Republic.

 

By the middle of the nineteenth century, Dahomey started to lose its status as the regional power. This enabled the French to take over the area in 1892. In 1899, the French included the land called Dahomey within the French West Africa colony. In 1958, France granted autonomy to the Republic of Dahomey, and full independence as of August 1, 1960. The president who led them to independence was Hubert Maga.

 

For the next twelve years, ethnic strife contributed to a period of turbulence. There were several coups and regime changes, with four figures dominating — Hubert Maga, Sourou Apithy, Justin Ahomadegbé and Emile Derlin Zinsou — the first three of them representing a different area and ethnicity of the country. These three agreed to form a presidential council after violence marred the 1970 elections.

On May 7, 1972, Maga turned over power to Ahomadegbe. On October 26, 1972, Lt. Col. Mathieu Kérékou overthrew the ruling triumvirate, becoming president, and stating that the country will not "burden itself by copying foreign ideology, and wants neither Capitalism, Communism, nor Socialism", then on November 30 announcing that the country was officially Marxist, under the control of the Military Council of the Revolution (CNR), which nationalized the petroleum industry and banks. On November 30, 1975, he renamed the country to People's Republic of Benin.

In 1979, the CNR was dissolved, and Kérékou arranged show elections where he was the only allowed candidate. Establishing relations with the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and Libya, he put nearly all businesses and economic activities under state control, causing foreign investment in Benin to dry up. Kérékou attempted to reorganize education, pushing his own aphorisms such as "Poverty is not a fatality", resulting in a mass exodus of teachers, along with a large number of other professionals. The regime financed itself by contracting to take nuclear waste from France.

In 1980, Kérékou converted to Islam and changed his first name to Ahmed, then changed his name back after claiming to be a born-again Christian.

In 1989, riots broke out after the regime did not have money to pay its army. The banking system collapsed. Eventually Kérékou renounced Marxism. A convention forced Kérékou to release political prisoners and arrange elections.

The name of the country was changed to the Republic of Benin on March 1, 1990, once the newly formed country's constitution was complete, after the abolition of Marxism-Leninism in the nation in 1989.

 

In 1991, Kérékou was defeated by Nicéphore Soglo, and became the first black African president to step down after an election. Kérékou returned to power after winning the 1996 vote. In 2001, a closely fought election resulted in Kérékou winning another term, after which his opponents claimed election irregularities.

Kérékou and former president Soglo did not run in the 2006 elections, as both were barred by the constitution's restrictions on age and total terms of candidates. Kérékou is widely praised[citation needed] for making no effort to change the constitution so that he could remain in office or run again, unlike many African leaders.

On March 5, 2006, an election was held that was considered free and fair. It resulted in a runoff between Yayi Boni and Adrien Houngbédji. The runoff election was held on March 19, and was won by Boni, who assumed office on April 6. The success of the fair multi-party elections in Benin won praise internationally. Benin is considered by a few to be a model democracy in Africa, but with such a short track record that only time will tell.

 

Geography

 

Benin, a narrow, north-south strip of land in west Africa, lies between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. Benin's latitude ranges from 6°30′N to 12°30′N and its longitude from 1°E to 3°40′E. Benin is bounded by Togo to the west, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north, Nigeria to the east, and the Bight of Benin to the south.

With an area of 112622 km2, Benin extends from the Niger River in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the south, a distance of 650 km (400 mi). Although the coastline measures 121 km (75 mi) the country measures about 325 km (200 mi) at its widest point.

It is one of the smaller countries in West Africa: eight times smaller than Nigeria, its neighbor to the east. It is, however, twice as large as Togo, its neighbor to the west. A relief map of Benin shows that it has little variation in elevation (average elevation 200 m).

 

The country can be divided into four areas from the south to the north. The low-lying, sandy, coastal plain (highest elevation 10 m) is, at most, 10 km wide. It is marshy and dotted with lakes and lagoons communicating with the ocean. Behind the coast lies the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic covered plateaus of southern Benin (altitude between 20 m and 200 m) are split by valleys running north to south along the Couffo, Zou, and Oueme Rivers.

Then an area of flat lands dotted with rocky hills whose altitude seldom reaches 400 m extends around Nikki and Save. Finally, a range of mountains extends along the northwest border and into Togo; this is the Atacora, with the highest point, Mont Sokbaro, at 658 m.

 

Benin has fields of lying fallow, mangroves, and remnants of large sacred forests. In the rest of the country, the savanna is covered with thorny scrubs and dotted with huge baobab trees. Some forests line the banks of rivers. In the north and the northwest of Benin the Reserve du W du Niger and Pendjari National Park attract tourists eager to see elephants, lions, antelopes, hippos, and monkeys.

 

Benin's climate is hot and humid. Annual rainfall in the coastal area averages 36 cm (14 in)—not particularly high for coastal West Africa. Benin has two rainy and two dry seasons per year. The principal rainy season is from April to late July, with a shorter less intense rainy period from late September to November. The main dry season is from December to April, with a short cooler dry season from late July to early September. Temperatures and humidity are high along the tropical coast. In Cotonou, the average maximum temperature is 31 °C (89 °F); the minimum is 24 °C (75 °F).

 

Variations in temperature increase when moving north through a savanna and plateau toward the Sahel. A dry wind from the Sahara called the Harmattan blows from December to March. Grass dries up, the vegetation turns reddish brown, and a veil of fine dust hangs over the country, causing the skies to be overcast. It also is the season when farmers burn brush in the fields.

 

Other Infos

 

Nome Oficial: Republique du Bénin

 

Independencia:

August 1, 1960

 

Superficie

112.622km2

 

Habitantes: 8.000.000

 

Capital: Porto-Novo

 

Idioma e Dialectos:

Aguna [aug] 3,470 (1992 census). Zou Province, Djidja Subprefecture, around village of Agouna. Alternate names: Awuna, Agunaco. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

 

Aja [ajg] 588,100 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 740,400. Southwestern Benin on the Mono River. Primarily in the Couffo Province (formerly northern half of Mono Province), subprefectures of Aplahoué, Djakotomè, Dogbo, Klouékanmè, Lalo, and Tovinklin; Mono Province (formerly southern part of Mono province) subprefectures of Athiémè, Comè, and Houéyogbé. There are Aja people living in villages mixed with other language groups in the Zou Province, Djidja and Agbangnizoun subprefectures. Aja speakers can be found in Cotonou and many of the towns throughout southern Benin. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Adja, Ajagbe, Hwè. Dialects: Dogbo, Hwe (Ehoue), Tado (Stado, Sado, Tadou), Sikpi, Tala. The Hwe, Sikpi, Tado, and Tala varieties are linguistically closer together with Dogbo being linguistically more distinct. Differences are minor. Lexical similarity 92% with Hwe-Sikpi, 89% with Hwe-Dogbo, Hwe-Tado, and Hwe-Tala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

 

Anii [blo] 33,600 in Benin (1992 census, village count). Population total all countries: 45,900. Both sides of the Togo-Benin border. In Benin, the southern part of the Aracora Province, Bassila Subprefecture. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Gisida, Basila, Bassila, Baseca, Winji-Winji, Ouinji-Ouinji. Dialects: Gikolodjya, Gilempla, Giseda, Akpe, Balanka. Close to Akpe of Togo. Lexical similarity 92% between Bassila and Kouloumi, 89% between Bassila and Bodi and 74% between Bassila and Balanka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele

 

Anufo [cko] 13,800 in Benin (2002 SIL). A few villages in the Atakora Province, Cobly and Boukombe subprefectures. Alternate names: Chokosi, Chakosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern

 

Baatonum [bba] 460,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 560,000. Central, north, Borgou Province. Also spoken in Nigeria. Alternate names: Baatonu, Baatombu, Baruba, Bargu, Burgu, Berba, Barba, Bogung, Bargawa, Barganchi, Bariba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba

 

Biali [beh] 64,500 in Benin (1991). Population total all countries: 66,000. Atakora Province, Materi Subprefecture. There is also a sizable population in the Ouessi Subprefecture in the Borgou Province. Also spoken in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Bieri, Bjeri, Bjerb, Berba. Dialects: Dassari, Gouande, Materi, Pingou, Tihoun, Tangeta, Porga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

 

Boko [bqc] 70,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 110,000. Borgu Province. Also spoken in Nigeria. Alternate names: Bokonya, Bokko, Boo, Busa-Boko. Dialects: Closely related languages: Busa-Bisã (Nigeria), Bokobaru (Nigeria), Shanga (Nigeria). Lexical similarity 90% with Busa-Bisã, Bokobaru, Shanga, 86% with Bokobaru, 52% with Kyenga, 51% with Bissa in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa

 

Dendi [ddn] 30,000 in Benin (1995 Jones). Population total all countries: 32,050. Atakora and Borgou provinces, along the Niger River, from the Medru River to the Nigeria border, and down to Kandi. Many at Djogou. Most towns in northern Benin. Also spoken in Nigeria. Alternate names: Dandawa. Dialects: Closely related language to Zarma and Songai. They form a dialect cluster. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern

 

Ditammari [tbz] 20,000 in Benin (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 47,500. Atakora Province, Boukombe and Natitingou subprefectures. Many now live along the Djougou-Parakou road. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Ditamari, Tamari, "Somba". Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

 

Ede Cabe [cbj] 69,000 (2002 SIL). Borgou Province, Tchaourou Subprefecture; Zou Province, Savè and Ouèssè subprefectures. Alternate names: Caabe, Cabe. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 76% with Yoruba (Porto-Novo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

 

Ede Ica [ica] 63,000 (2002 SIL). Zou Province, Bante subprefecture. Alternate names: Ica. Dialects: Ica, Ilodji (Ife). A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 83% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

 

Ede Idaca [idd] 100,000 (2002 SIL). Collines Province (northern half of former Zou Province), Dassa-Zoume and Glazoué subprefectures. Alternate names: Idaca, Idaaca, Idaasa, Idáìtsà. Dialects: One of 8 languages that make up the Ede language cluster (Yorboid) that spreads over southwestern Nigeria, southern and central Benin, and into southern and central Togo. The cluster also includes Ede Cabe, Ede Ica, Ife, Ede Ije, Ede Nago, Kura Ede Nago, Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago. The various people groups seek to maintain their individual identities yet recognize the wider 'Yoruba' community. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

 

Ede Ije [ijj] 50,000 (2000 SIL). Plateau Province (northern part of former Oueme Province), subprefectures of Pobe and Ketou. Zou Province, Ouihni Subprefecture. In general, the rural districts between the towns of Ketou and Pobe, extending westward to the Oueme River. There is also a group of Ije villages in the Zou Province, Zogbodome Subprefecture, south of the town of Zogbodome. Alternate names: Holi, Ije. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. 99% comprehension of Yoruba, narrative text. There is a very high comprehension of Yoruba due to the linguistic and cultural closeness. Lexical similarity 85% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo, 91% with Ede Nago. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

 

Ede Nago [nqg] 200,000 (2002 SIL). Southeastern Benin, Plateau Province (formerly northern half of Weme Province), Ketou, Pobe, Adja-Ouere, Ifangni, and Sakete subprefectures. Alternate names: Nago, Nagots, Nagot. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 87 to 91% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekir

 

Ede Nago, Kura [nqk] 25,000 (2002 SIL). Donga Province (formerly southern half of Atakora Province), Bassila Subprefecture. Aledjo Koura is main center. Alternate names: Nago. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 78% with Ife of Tchetti, 76% with Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago, 68% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo, 65% with Ede Nago. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

 

Ede Nago, Manigri-Kambolé [xkb] 30,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 70,000. Donga Province (formerly southern half of Atakora Province), Bassila Subprefecture south and west of town of Bassila, Bante Subprefecture south of Bassila along route RNIE3. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Manigri, Ana. Dialects: A member of the Ede language cluster. Lexical similarity 87% to 91% with Ede Nago, 77% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo, 78% with Ife of Tchetti. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

 

Fon [fon] 1,700,000 in Benin (2000 Hoddenbagh). Population total all countries: 1,735,500. Zou Province, Atlantic Province, southern part of the Abomey-Calavi and Ouidah subprefectures, Littoral Province (Cotonou). There are many Fon interspersed with other groups throughout southern Benin and in the towns of northern Benin. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Fo, Fongbe, Fonnu, Fogbe, Dahomeen, Djedji. Dialects: Agbome, Arohun, Gbekon, Kpase. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon

 

Foodo [fod] 24,500 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 25,500. Atakora Province, Ouake Subprefecture, Semere town. Also spoken in Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang

 

French [fra] 16,700 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

 

Fulfulde, Borgu [fue] 280,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 328,200. Atakora and Borgou provinces, villages, and encampments. Bakuure is spoken in the Borgou Region north of N'Dali. Korakuure is spoken in the central and south Borgou Region around Parakou. Djougoure is spoken in northern Benin in the Atacora Region, from Djougou north to the Burkina border, and may extend west into northern Togo. Tchabankeere is spoken in the Zou Region. Also spoken in Nigeria, Togo. Alternate names: Peulh, Peul, Fulbe-Borgu, Benin-Togo Fulfulde. Dialects: Bakuure, Korakuure, Djougoure (Juguure), Tchabankeere (Caabankeere). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central

 

Fulfulde, Gorgal [fuh] 30,000 in Benin. Northern most part of Borgou provinces, villages and encampments. Alternate names: Peulh, Peul, Fulfulde, Fulfulde Western Niger. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central

 

Gbe, Ayizo [ayb] 328,000 (2000 SIL). Mono and Atlantique provinces. Alternate names: Ayizo, Ayzo, Ayizo-Gbe. Dialects: Kadagbe (Kada-Gbe), Ayizo-Seto, Ayizo-Tori, Ayizo-Kobe. Close to Fon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

 

Gbe, Ci [cib] 25,000 (2002 SIL). Mono Province, Lalo Subprefecture. Alternate names: Ci, Cigbe, Tchi, Ayizo-Ci. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Ci is very close linguistically to Fon and is considered to be the same by Ci speakers. Lexical similarity 80% with Fon, 77% with Ayizo, 59% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

 

Gbe, Defi [gbh] 13,500 (2002 SIL). Southeastern corner of Benin, Oueme Province, Seme-Kpodji Subprefecture between the Oueme River to north, Cotonou-Porto-Novo railroad to west, Gulf of Guinea to south, and into Nigeria in the east. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Defi is close linguistically to Gun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aj

 

Gbe, Eastern Xwla [gbx] 80,000 (2002 SIL). Southeastern Benin along coast, Oueme Province, Seme-Kpodji Subprefecture. Alternate names: Phla, Xwla, Offra, Ophra, Houla, Kpla, Pla, Popo. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 90% with Gun, 82% with Fon, 68% with Gen, 68% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

 

Gbe, Gbesi [gbs] 65,000 (2002 SIL). In the Atlantic Province, several individual and mixed villages, Kpomasse, Alada, and Tori-Bossito subprefectures and in the Mono Province, Bopa Subprefecture along Lake Aheme. Dialects: Gbokpa. A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 91% with Kotafon, 85% with Fon, 73% with Aja, 70% with Gen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gb

 

Gbe, Kotafon [kqk] 100,000 (2002 SIL). Mono Province, the main area is the subprefectures of Lokassa and Athieme. There are some villages in the Bopa Subprefecture north and south of Bopa along Lake Aheme. There are also a few Kotafon communities in the Grand Popo Subprefecture, north of Grand-Popo. Alternate names: Ko, Kogbe. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 82% with Gbe Ayizo, 81% with Fon, 69% with Gen, 65% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

 

Gbe, Maxi [mxl] 66,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Population total all countries: 91,300. Collines Province (formerly northern half of Zou Province), Dassa-Zoume, Savalou, Bante, Glazoue, and Ouessi subprefectures. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Maxi, Maxi-Gbe, Mahi. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 80% with Fon, 68% with Ayizo, 51% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon

 

Gbe, Saxwe [sxw] 6,272 (2000 WCD). Mono Province. Alternate names: Saxwe, Saxwe-Gbe. Dialects: Saxwe, Daxe, Se. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

 

Gbe, Tofin [tfi] 90,000 (2002 SIL). Atlantique Province, So-Ava Subprefecture. Alternate names: Tofin, Tofingbe, Tofi. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 88% with Gun, 87% with Fon, 82% with Eastern Xwla, 75% with Ayizo, 66% with Gen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

 

Gbe, Waci [wci] 110,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Mono Province. Alternate names: Watyu, Waci, Ouatchi, Waci-Gbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

 

Gbe, Weme [wem] 60,000 (1991 L. Vanderaa). Weme and Atlantic provinces. Alternate names: Weme, Weme-Gbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

 

Gbe, Western Xwla [xwl] 50,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 71,000. Southern Benin along the western coast in the Mono Province, Grand-Popo Subprefecture, Atlantique Province, Ouidali Subprefecture, and Littoral Province (Cotonou). Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Phla, Xwla, Xwla-Gbe. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 86% with Gun, 84% with Fon, 73% with Gen, 68% with Aja, 90% with Xwela, 88% with Saxwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

 

Gbe, Xwela [xwe] 65,000 (2002 SIL). Mono Province, Come Subprefecture near Lake Aheme, southernmost part of Bopa Subprefecture; Atlantic Province, Kpomasse and Ouidah subprefectures. Alternate names: Phera, Xwela, Xwela-Gba, Houeda, Peda. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language cluster. Lexical similarity 90% with Western Xwla, 85% with Fon, 71% with Gen, 82% with Saxwe, 68% with Aja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe

 

Gen [gej] 158,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Mono and Atlantique provinces. Alternate names: Ge, Gen-Gbe, Mina-Gen, Mina, Guin, Gegbe, Popo. Dialects: Anexo, Agoi, Gen, Gliji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina

 

Gourmanchéma [gux] 62,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Northern Benin, Atakora Province, primarly Tanguieta and Kerou subprefectures. There are some individual villages in the Materi and Cobly subprefectures; Borgou Province, Banikoara and Karimama subprefectures. Alternate names: Gourmantche, Gurma, Goulmancema, Gulimancema, Migulimancema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma

 

Gun [guw] 243,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 501,804. Southeast Benin, Weme Province, Akpro-Misserete, Avrankou, Adjara, and Porto-Novo subprefectures. Also spoken in Nigeria. Alternate names: Alada, Alada-Gbe, Gun-Alada, Gun-Gbe, Goun, Egun, Gu, Gugbe, Seto-Gbe, Toli-Gbe. Dialects: Ajra, Alada, Seto, Toli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

 

Hausa [hau] Atacora and Borgou provinces mainly in larger towns and large market villages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1

 

Ifè [ife] 80,000 in Benin (1990 SIL). Collines Province (northern part of former Zou Province), Savalou Subprefecture, Tchetti is main center. Alternate names: Baate, Ana, Ana-Ife, Anago, Ede Ife. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

 

Kabiyé [kbp] 30,000 in Benin (1991 Vanderaa). Scattered villages in Donga Province (formerly southern half of Atakora Province), Ouake, Djougou, and Bassila subprefectures. Alternate names: Kabre, Kabye, Kabure, Cabrais, Cabrai. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

 

Kyenga [tye] 1,000 in Benin (1995 Ross Jones SIM). Alibori Province (formerly northern half of Borgou Province), Segbana Subprefecture, around the village of Tungan Bage. Alternate names: Cenka, Tyenga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa

 

Lama [las] 69,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Atakora Province, several villages, Boukombe Subprefecture, northwest of Boukombe and in the Donga Province (formerly southern half of Atakora Province), Djougou and Bassila subprefectures. Alternate names: Lamba, Losso. Dialects: Kande (Kante), Kadjala (Kadjalla). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

 

Lukpa [dop] 50,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 63,581. West Djougou and border areas, Atakora Province. Primarily around Kémérida. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Lokpa, Logba, Legba, Lugba, Dompago. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

 

Mbelime [mql] 24,500 (1991 Vanderaa). Atakora Province, Cobly Subprefecture and 5 villages in the Boukombe Subprefecture. Alternate names: Mbilme, "Niendi", "Niende". Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

 

Miyobe [soy] 7,000 in Benin (1991). Population total all countries: 8,700. Atakora Province. Also spoken in Togo. Alternate names: Soruba, Bijobe, Biyobe, Sorouba, Solla, Uyobe, Meyobe, Kayobe, Kuyobe, Sola, Solamba. Dialects: Lexical similarity 27% with Moba, 25% with Tamberma (Ditammari), 47% with Ngangam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma

 

Mokole [mkl] 65,500 (1991 L. Vanderaa). Borgou Province, Kandi and villages to the north and east. Alternate names: Mokollé, Mokwale, Monkole, Féri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

 

Nateni [ntm] 66,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Atakora Province. The Natemba are in Toukountouna District, Tayaba in Tanguiéta District, Kuntemba in Kobly, Matiri, and Tanguiéta districts, Okoma in Tanguiéta and Kouandé districts. Tayakou is the center of traditional beliefs and practices. Dialects: Nateni (Natemba, Natimba), Tayari (Tayaba), Kunteni (Kuntemba), Okoni (Okoma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma

 

Ngangam [gng] 20,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Alternate names: Dye, Gamgan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma

 

Notre [bly] 1,500 (2002 SIL). Atakora Province, Tanguiéta Subprefecture, northwest, north, and northeast of town of Tanguiéta including Yarka section on the northeast side. Alternate names: Bulba, Nootre, Burusa, Boulba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Nootre

 

Tchumbuli [bqa] 2,500 (2000 SIL). Departement des Collines, subprefectures of Save and Ouessi, three villages: Okounfo, Edaningbe, and Gbede. Alternate names: Basa, Tshummbuli, Chombulon, Tchombolo. Dialects: Cobecha, Tchumbuli. Lexical similarity 80% with Chumburung. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan

 

Tem [kdh] 50,000 in Benin (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Alternate names: Kotokoli, Cotocoli, Tim, Timu, Tembe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

 

Waama [wwa] 50,000 (2000 SIL). 20,000 monolinguals. Atakora Province, at least 20 villages. Natitingou is the cultural center. Several thousand in Cotonou, around Parakou, and in western Nigeria. Alternate names: Yoabu, Yoabou. Dialects: Waama, Tangamma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern

 

Yom [pil] 74,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Djougou area, Atakora Province. Alternate names: Pila, Pilapila, Kpilakpila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm

 

Yoruba [yor] 465,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Porto-Novo and throughout the country in the towns and major villages. Alternate names: Yooba, Yariba, Ede-Yoruba. Dialects: Egba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

 

Origem do nome do País :

Named after an old African Empire of Benin, on whose territory modern Benin does not actually lie.

Dahomey (former name): Named after the principal ethnic group of the country.

 

A Bandeira:

The national flag of Benin was originally adopted in 1959. It was changed upon the accession of the Marxist regime in 1975, but upon the removal of the regime, the old design was reintroduced on August 1, 1990. The colours are the traditional Pan-African colors: green symbolizes hope, yellow symbolizes wealth and red symbolizes courage.

 

Brasão:

The Coat of Arms of Benin was readopted in 1990 after being replaced in 1975.

At the top of the emblem is the national crest that consists of two horns with corn in the ear and filled with sand. These are reputed to stand for prosperity. Below the crest is a shield that contains the actual coat of arms of Benin.

The shield is broken into four quadrants. The top left quadrant contains a castle in the style of the Somba, representative of the history of Benin. In the top right quadrant, is the Star of Benin, the highest award of the nation. Below this is a ship, that stands for the arrival of Europeans in Benin. In the lower left quadrant is a palm tree.

The shield is supported by a pair of leopards, the national animal of Benin. Below the shield is the motto of Benin (Fellowship, Justice, Work) in French.

 

Palavra de ordem: "Fellowship, Justice, Labour"

 

Hino Nacional: L'Aube Nouvelle

 

Jadis à son appel, nos aïeux sans faiblesse

Ont su avec courage, ardeur, pleins d'allégresse

Livrer au prix du sang des combats éclatants.

Accourez vous aussi, bâtisseurs du présent,

Plus forts dans l'unité, chaqu'jour à la tâche,

Pour la postérité, construisez sans relâche.

 

CHORUS

Enfants du Bénin, debout!

La liberté d'un cri sonore

Chante aux premiers feux de l'aurore;

Enfants du Bénin, debout!

 

Quand partout souffle un vent de colère et de haine.

Béninois, sois fier, et d'une âme sereine,

Confiant dans l'avenir, regarde ton drapeau!

Dans le vert tu liras l'espor du renouveau,

De tes aïeux le rouge évoque le courage;

Des plus riches trésors le jaune est le présage.

 

CHORUS

 

Tes monts ensoleillés, tes palmiers, ta verdure,

Cher Bénin, partout font ta vive parure.

Ton sol offre à chacun la richesse des fruits.

Bénin, désormais que tes fils tous unis

D'un fraternel élan partagent l'espérance

De te voir à jamais heureux dans l'abondance.

 

CHORUS

  

English Translation

 

Formerly, at her call, our ancestors

Knew how to engage in mighty battles

With strength, courage, ardour, and full of joy, but at the price of blood.

Builders of present, you too, join forces

Each day for the task stronger in unity.

Build without ceasing for posterity.

 

CHORUS

Children of Benin, arise!

The resounding cry of freedom

Is heard at the first light of dawn,

Children of Benin, arise!

 

When all around there blows a wind of anger and hate:

Citizen of Benin be proud, and in a calm spirit

Trusting in the future, behold your flag!

In the green you read hope of spring;

The red signifies the courage of your ancestors;

The yellow fortells the greatest treasures.

 

CHORUS

 

Beloved Benin, your sunny mountains, palm trees, and green pastures

Show everywhere your brightness;

Your soil offers everyone the richest fruits.

Benin, from henceforth your sons are united

With one brotherly spirit sharing the hope of seeing you

Enjoy abundance and happiness forever.

 

CHORUS

 

Internet : www.gouv.bj

www.benintourisme.com

 

Benim em diferentes idiomas

 

eng | afr | bre | ces | cor | cym | dan | dsb | est | eus | fao | fin | fur | glv | hau | hrv | hsb | hun | ibo | ina | ita | jav | jnf | lim | lld | mlt | nld | nor | oci | pol | roh | ron | rup | slk | slv | sme | spa | swa | swe | tur | vor | wln | zza: Benin

aze | bos | crh | kaa | mol | slo | tuk | uzb: Benin / Бенин

arg | ast | cat | glg | isl | tet: Benín

deu | ltz | nds: Benin / Benin

fra | lin | nrm: Bénin

kin | run | wol: Bene

ind | msa: Benin / بينين

lav | mlg: Benina

scn | srd: Benìn

bam: Benɛn

cos: Beninu

epo: Benino

frp: Bènin

fry: Benyn

gla: Beinin

gle: Beinin / Beinin

hat: Benen

kmr: Bênîn / Бенин / بێنین

kur: Benîn / بەنین

lat: Beninum

lit: Beninas

por: Benim; Benin

que: Binin

rmy: Benin / बेनिन

smg: Benins

smo: Penini

som: Beniin

sqi: Benini

szl: Byńin

vie: Bê-nanh

vol: Beninän

yor: Ìbúní

abq | alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mkd | mon | oss | rus | tyv | udm: Бенин (Benin)

bak | srp | tat: Бенин / Benin

bel: Бенін / Bienin; Бэнін / Benin

kaz: Бенин / Benïn / بەنين

tgk: Бенин / بنین / Benin

ukr: Бенін (Benin)

ara: بينين (Bīnīn); بنين (Binīn / Banīn); بانين (Bānīn); بينان (Bīnān); البنين (al-Binīn); البينين (al-Bīnīn); البينان (al-Bīnān); بنن (Binin)

fas: بنین (Benīn)

prs: بینین (Bēnīn)

pus: بېنين (Benīn)

uig: بېنىن / Bénin / Бенин

urd: بنین (Banīn); بینین (Benīn); بینن (Benan)

div: ބެނިން (Benin)

heb: בנין (Benîn)

lad: בינין / Benin

yid: בענין (Benin)

amh: ቤኒን (Benin)

ell: Μπενίν (Mpenín)

hye: Բենին (Benin)

kat: ბენინი (Benini)

hin: बेनिन (Benin)

ben: বেনিন (Benin)

pan: ਬੇਨੀਨ (Benīn)

kan: ಬೆನಿನ್ (Benin)

mal: ബെനിന് (Benin)

tam: பெனின் (Peṉiṉ)

tel: బెనిన్ (Benin)

zho: 貝寧/贝宁 (Bèiníng)

jpn: ベナン (Benan)

kor: 베넹 (Beneng); 베냉 (Benaeng)

mya: ဘီနင္ (Bʰinĩ)

tha: เบนิน (Bēnin)

khm: បេណាំង (Beṇāṁṅ); ប៊ែនីន (Bænīn)

 

Au bout d'un certain temps voyant que la situation était bloquée les compagnies demandèrent que les navires s'amarrent à couple. Parfois 3 ou 4 navires, afin de réduire les équipages.

Bien entendu, il n'était plus question de faire des ronds dans l'eau pour entretenir la bonne marche de la propulsion.

-----------------------------------------

SINDH 1956-1976 (1979)

Sources:

Historique de la flotte des Messageries Maritimes du commandant Lanfant

Le grand Siècle des Messageries Maritimes du Dr Paul Bois Tome V

Encyclopédie des Messageries Maritimes de Philippe Ramona (site sur le web)

Le forum des anciens des Messageries. De nombreuses photographies, anecdotes et précisons sont régulièrement mises en ligne.

Monsieur Xavier Escallier qui a très amicalement mis à ma disposition sa collection de cartes postales des Messageries.

Les différents sites internet sur la marine marchande, qu'ils soient Britanniques, Espagnols, Français ou autres.

Différents ouvrages personnel sur l'histoire de la marine marchande française.

Indexe (1) : Données du commandant Lanfant dans ouvrage.

Indexe (2) : Données du Docteur Paul Bois dans son ouvrage.

Indexe (3) : Données de Mr Philippe Ramona sur son site web

--------------------------------------------

4ème de la série de 10 des cargos de 8300 tonnes de port en lourd de Type F commandés à partir de 1954

Construit par les chantiers et Ateliers de Provence de La Ciotat

1956 le 4 février: Lancement Commandant du navire durant la construction Pailhes. Marraine Mme Ludovic Tron.

1956 Livré le 21 juin: à Marseille

 

CARACTÉRISTIQUES :

Navire à Shelter deck, 3 ponts continus. La méthode de construction soudée a été largement employée.

Longueur: 148,99 mHT et 139,06 m PP

Largeur: 18.8 m

Jauge brute 7000 tjb 7051 tjb (2)

Jauge nette: (2) 3887 tn

Port en lourd 9000 tonnes, - 9090 t (2)

Déplacement: 13800 t

Capacité 15000 m3 dont 600m3 en 3 cuves pour le latex ou l'huile et 120 m3 en cales frigos.(NB avant chaque chargement (agrumes – pommes –poires ou viande congelée ou ''child'' selon les lignes) par ozonisation.

Cales: 5

Manutention: Cales desservies par 10 mâts de charge de5 tonnes, 4 de 10 t et 2 bigues de 30 et 60 tonnes.

Fermetures par panneaux Mac Gregor single pull.

Ventilation des cales: système cargocaire

 

PROPULSION :

1 moteur Burmeister et Wain 2 temps simple effet, 9 cylindres 974 VTF 160

Combustible: Fuel lourd à la mer en Route Libre. Manœuvres au Diesel oil.

Puissance: 8300 cv a 115 t/mn

Vitesse: 18 nds aux essais et 16 nds en service

1 hélice accouplement fixe.

1 cheminée.

ÉLECTRICITÉ:

3 Groupes électrogènes Allen Dujardin de 250 Kw et 220 v

1 Chaudière de récupération à la mer de 2000 k/h sous 4 bars

1 Chaudière de mouillage Menpenti au fuel de 1000 k/h sous 4 bars au port.

 

PERSONNEL :

État-major 10 Officiers

Équipage: 23 hommes, réduit à 17 hommes en 1970.(accord tripartites Armement - Syndicats - État)

Pas de conditionnement d'air à bord.

 

PASSAGERS :

Passagers 6 - supprimés en 1970 avec la réduction d'effectif.

 

LIGNE :

1956 le 16 Juillet: Départ de Marseille du voyage inaugural

1956 août Mis en service sur la ligne Hambourg- Philippines/Japon puis la ligne de Chine.

1962 Mis en service sur la ligne du Sud Est Asiatique

  

ÉVÉNEMENTS :

1956 Marseille Avarie de vireur du Moteur. Réparation provisoire. 2 j. de retard.

1956 KOBE Réparation définitive du vireur. 10 j. de retard.

1961 le 11 décembre: Appareillant d'Anvers par coup de vent, heurte la drague FABIOLA. Avaries peu importantes.

1962 le 16 janvier: Relâche à Messine pour débarquer le matelot Chi Haoui atteint d'une appendicite aiguë.

1963 le 10 février: En accostant à Sihanoukville occasionne des avaries importantes à l'appontement et à sa coque.

1964 le 3 janvier: Au large de Terneuzen par temps de brume, il aborde le pétrolier BORDER FUSILIER. Peu d'avaries.

1964 le 26 décembre: En prenant avec le pilote le chenal de l'Escaut-Oriental il s'échoue. Fais appel verbalement en hollandais à deux remorqueurs Hollandais qui le déséchoue. Contrat verbal d'assistance transformé en contrat de simple remorquage par Monsieur Roch Ménés inspecteur de la Compagnie.

1965 le 27 décembre: En déhalant à Anvers, heurte avec son étrave, celle du britannique ELYSIA. Légères avaries.

1966 le 2 décembre: En remontant le Donaï (rivière de Saïgon) il est mitraillé et canonné. De nombreux impacts, un obus de mortier non explosé dans le local mâtereau où sont entreposées les bouteilles de gaz Oxygène et acétylène. Carré des officiers (venant juste d'être évacué) vitres des sabords sont complètement pulvérisées. Un éclat de mortier dessertis le hublot du Second Capitaine et vient se planter sous le lit où celui-ci faisait la sieste. Il n'y aura heureusement que deux blessés légers.

1967. 5 juin: Commandant Touchard. En convoi vers la Méditerranée bloqué dans le canal lors de l'attaque Israélienne avec 12 autres navires.

1967 le 17 juin: Le consul de France se rend à bord 3 Officiers et 21 hommes sur 45 en tout seront rapatriés le 27 juin. Ensuite relève tous les 6 mois d'un noyau d'équipage, pour l'entretien du navire et appareiller pour faire un tour du Lac Amer et essayer les appareils.

1968 le 8 février: J'y embarquerai comme second mécanicien via Le Caire et Ismaïlia avec le chef mécanicien Prédal Adolphe ainsi que 3 ou 4 autres membres de l'équipage. (Plus de souvenir des noms) Escale à Rome, puis Rome Le Caire (nous étions les seuls passagers). Arrivée au Caire pour la nuit. Départ le lendemain pour Ismaïlia. En pleine zone de guerre.

 

RETRAIT et FIN:

1967 le 5 juin: Attaque Israélienne contre l'Égypte. Le convoi montant (vers la Méditerranée) est bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer du Canal de Suez. Commandant Touchard.

1970 Août: Abandon du navire et du fret.

1970 Août: Vendu par les assurances en Norvège comme épave pour la somme de 305.000 £.

1970 en août: Prend le nom de ESSAYONS reste bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer.

1975 Vendu à sa sortie du Canal à l'Arabie Saoudite il prend le nom de BADR.

1983 Disparaît des listes du Lloyd.

  

Officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its largely desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa".

Chad is divided into three major geographical regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. Chad's highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, and N'Djamena, (formerly Fort-Lamy), the capital, is the largest city. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. Arabic and French are the official languages. Islam and Christianity are the most widely practiced religions.

Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa.

In 1960 Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Recently, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad.

While many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d'état (see Battle of N'Djamena (2006) and Battle of N'Djamena (2008)).

The country is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; most Chadians live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers. Since 2003 crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry.

 

History

In the 7th millennium BC, ecological conditions in the northern half of Chadian territory favored human settlement, and the region experienced a strong population increase. Some of the most important African archaeological sites are found in Chad, mainly in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region; some date to earlier than 2,000 BC.

For more than 2000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary peoples. The region became a crossroads of civilizations. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artifacts and oral histories. The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. These states, at least tacitly Muslim, never extended their control to the southern grasslands except to raid for slaves.

French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. French rule in Chad was characterised by an absence of policies to unify the territory and sluggish modernisation. The French primarily viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton; France introduced large-scale cotton production in 1929. The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service. Only the south was governed effectively; French presence in the north and east was nominal. The educational system suffered from this neglect.

After World War II, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the French National Assembly and a Chadian assembly. The largest political party was the Chadian Progressive Party (PPT), based in the southern half of the colony. Chad was granted independence on August 11, 1960 with the PPT's leader, François Tombalbaye, as its first president.

Two years later, Tombalbaye banned opposition parties and established a one-party system. Tombalbaye's autocratic rule and insensitive mismanagement exacerbated interethnic tensions. In 1965 Muslims began a civil war. Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed in 1975, but the insurgency continued. In 1979 the rebel factions conquered the capital, and all central authority in the country collapsed. Armed factions, many from the north's rebellion, contended for power.

The disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country. Libya moved to fill the power vacuum and became involved in Chad's civil war. Libyia adventure ended in disaster in 1987; the French-supported president, Hissène Habré, evoked a united response from Chadians of a kind never seen before and forced the Libyan army off Chadian soil.

Habré consolidated his dictatorship through a power system that relied on corruption and violence; an estimated 40,000 people were killed under his rule. The president favoured his own Daza ethnic group and discriminated against his former allies, the Zaghawa. His general, Idriss Déby, overthrew him in 1990.

Déby attempted to reconcile the rebel groups and reintroduced multiparty politics. Chadians approved a new constitution by referendum, and in 1996, Déby easily won a competitive presidential election. He won a second term five years later. Oil exploitation began in Chad in 2003, bringing with it hopes that Chad would at last have some chances of peace and prosperity. Instead, internal dissent worsened, and a new civil war broke out. Déby unilaterally modified the constitution to remove the two-term limit on the presidency; this caused an uproar among the civil society and opposition parties. In 2006 Déby won a third mandate in elections that the opposition boycotted. Ethnic violence in eastern Chad has increased; the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has warned that a genocide like that in Darfur may yet occur in Chad.

In 2006 and in 2008 rebel forces have attempted to take the capital by force, but have on both circumstances failed.

 

Geography

At 1,284,000 square kilometres (496,000 sq mi), Chad is the world's 21st-largest country. It is slightly smaller than Peru and slightly larger than South Africa. Chad is in north central Africa, lying between 8° and 24° north and between 14° and 24° east. Chad is bounded to the north by Libya, to the east by Sudan, to the west by Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon, and to the south by the Central African Republic. The country's capital is 1,060 km (660 mi) from the nearest seaport Douala (Cameroon). Due to this distance from the sea and the country's largely desert climate, Chad is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa".

A heritage of the colonial era, Chad's borders do not coincide wholly with natural boundaries. The dominant physical structure is a wide basin bounded to the north, east and south by mountain ranges such as the Ennedi Plateau in the north-east. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the remains of an immense lake that occupied 330,000 km2 (130,000 sq mi) of the Chadian Basin 7,000 years ago.

Although in the 21st century it covers only 17,806 km2 (6,875 sq mi), and its surface area is subject to heavy seasonal fluctuations, the lake is Africa's second largest wetland. The Emi Koussi, a dormant volcano in the Tibesti Mountains that reaches 3,414 metres (11,201 ft) above sea level, is the highest point in Chad and the Sahara.

Each year a tropical weather system known as the intertropical front crosses Chad from south to north, bringing a wet season that lasts from May to October in the south, and from June to September in the Sahel. Variations in local rainfall create three major geographical zones. The Sahara lies in the country's northern third. Yearly precipitations there are under 50 millimetres (2.0 in) throughout this belt is scarce; only the occasional spontaneous palm grove survives, the only ones to do so south of the Tropic of Cancer. The Sahara gives way to a Sahelian belt in Chad's centre; precipitation there varies from 300 to 600 mm (11.8 to 23.6 in) per year. In the Sahel a steppe of thorny bushes (mostly acacias) gradually gives way to the south to East Sudanian savanna in Chad's Sudanese zone. Yearly rainfall in this belt is over 900 mm (35.4 in). The region's tall grasses and extensive marshes make it favourable for birds, reptiles, and large mammals. Chad's major rivers—the Chari, Logone and their tributaries—flow through the southern savannas from the southeast into Lake Chad.

 

Other infos

Oficial Name:

République du Tchad

جمهورية تشاد (Ǧumhūrīyâtu Tišād)

 

Independence:

August 11, 1960

 

Area:

1.284.000 km2

 

Capital: N’djamena

 

inabitants

10.317.000

 

Languages:

Amdang Arabic, Babalia Creole Arabic, Chadian Spoken Assangori Bagirmi Barein Bedjond Berakou Bernde Besme Bidiyo Birgit Bolgo Bon-Gula Boor Bua Buduma Buso Chadian Sign Language Dagba Daju-Dar Daju Dangaléat Day Dazaga Disa Fania Fongoro French Fulfulde-Adamawa Fulfulde-Bagirmi Fulfulde-Kano-Katsina-Bororro Fur Gabri Gadang Gidar Gor Goundo Gula Gula Iro Gulay Herdé Jaya Jonkor-Bourmataguil Kaba Kaba-Deme Kaba-Na Kabalai Kajakse Kanembu Kanuri-Central Karang Karanga Kendeje Kenga Kera Kibet Kim Kimré Koke Kujarge Kulfa Kuo Kwang Laal Lagwan Laka Lele Lutos Maba Mabire Majera Malgbe Mambai Mango Mararit Marba Marfa Masalit Masana Maslam Masmaje Massalat Mawa Mbara Mbay Mesme Migaama Miltu Mimi Mire Mogum Mpade Mser Mubi Mukulu Mundang Musey Naba Nancere Ndam Ngam Ngambay Ngete Niellim Noy Nzakambay Pana Pévé Runga Saba Sango Sar Sarua Sinyar Sokoro Somrai Surbakhal Tama Tamki Tedaga Tobanga Toram Tumak Tunia Tupuri Ubi Zaghawa Zan-Gula Zirenkel

 

Meaning of the country name:

Locally known in French as République du Tchad. Named for Lake Chad (or Tchad) in the country's southwest. The lake in turn got its name from the Bornu word tsade, "lake".

 

Description Flag:

The national flag of the Republic of Chad is a vertical tricolor consisting (left to right) of a blue, a yellow and a red field. The flag colors combine the colors of the flag of France with the traditional Pan-African colors.

Chad shares the same country flag as Romania, which has raised some minor complications. Former Romanian President Ion Iliescu has said his country will not give up its national flag despite the fact that it appears, to most observers at least, identical to that used by the central African state of Chad. His comments follow unconfirmed reports in the Romanian media that Chad has called on the UN to examine the issue.

The flags of the two countries converged as far back as 1989 when Romanian President Nicolae Ceauşescu, was overthrown and the incoming government dropped the communist-era insignia from the flag's center. While both flags have blue, yellow and red stripes, some experts say the blue colour in Chad's flag is darker than that used in Romania's version. But Mr Iliescu said there was no reason for Romanians to worry as Chad had only been an independent country since 1960.

"The tricolour belongs to us. We will not give up the tricolour," he said.

The Romanian Foreign Affairs Ministry said in a press release that Romania had carried out the registration procedure called for by the Paris convention for the protection of industrial property in 1997. The procedure is administered by a specialized UN agency, the World Intellectual Property Organisation, which registers state symbols, official signs and seals. The Foreign Ministry said it had no knowledge of any claim being lodged against the registration within the required 12-month deadline. It added that it had received no official notification from Chad regarding any move to raise the issue with the UN and said it was currently investigating the reports carried by the Romanian media.

 

Coat of arms:

The Coat of Arms of Chad was adopted in 1970. The center has a shield with wavy blue lines, with a sun rising over it. The shield is supported by a goat and a lion. Below the shield is a medal and a scroll with the national motto in French. The wavy lines on the shield are representative of Lake Chad, and the sun rising over it represents a new beginning. The goat on the left represents the northern part of the nation, while the southern part is represented by the lion. Dangling from the bottom of the shield is the medal for the National Order of Chad.

 

Motto:

"Unité, Travail, Progrès"

 

National Anthem: La Tchadienne

 

Peuple Tchadien, debout et à l'ouvrage!

Tu as conquis la terre et ton droit;

Ta liberté naîtra de ton courage.

Lève les yeux, l'avenir est à Toi.

O mon Pays, que Dieu te prenne en garde,

Que tes voisins admirent tes enfants.

Joyeux, pacifique, avance en chantant,

Fidèle à tes anciens qui te regardent.

 

English

 

People of Chad, arise and take up the task!

You have conquered the soil and won your rights;

Your freedom will be born of your courage.

Lift up your eyes, the future is yours.

Oh, my Country, may God protect you,

May your neighbours admire your children.

Joyful, peaceful, advance as you sing,

Faithful to your fathers who are watching you.

 

Internet Page: www.primature-tchad.org

 

chad in diferent languages

 

eng | arg | ast | cor | dan | glg | ibo | jav | oci | que | sco | sme | spa | srd: Chad

bre | fra | hat | ina | jnf | swe | wln: Tchad

ces | dsb | hrv | hsb | slk | slv | szl: Čad

ita | lld | ron | rup | scn: Ciad

afr | fry | nld: Tsjaad

aze | crh | tuk: Çad / Чад

bam | kin | run: Cadi

deu | ltz | nds: Tschad / Tſchad

cat | eus: Txad

est | vor: Tšaad

ind | msa: Chad / چاد

isl | nor: Tsjad

kaa | uzb: Chad / Чад

bos: Čad / Чад

cym: Tsiad

epo: Ĉado

fao: Kjad

fin: Tšad / Tshad

frp: Tch•ad

fur: Çat

gla: An t-Siad

gle: Sead / Sead

glv: Shad

hau: Cadi; Chadi; Tchad

haw: Kada

hun: Csád

kmr: Çad / Ч’ад / چاد

kon: Tasadi

kur: Çad / چاد

lat: Tzadia

lav: Čada

lin: Tshadi

lit: Čadas

mlg: Tsada

mlt: Ċad

mol: Ciad / Чад

nrm: Tchade

pol: Czad

por: Chade

rmy: Čad / चाद

roh: Tschad

sag: Sâde

slo: Cxadia / Чадиа

smg: Čads

som: Jaad

sqi: Çadi

swa: Chadi

tet: Xade

tgl: Tsad

tur: Çat; Çad

vie: Sát

vol: Tjadän

wol: Cadd

zza: Çad

abq | alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mkd | mon | oss | rus | tyv | udm | ukr: Чад (Čad)

bak | tat: Чад / Çad

bel | srp: Чад / Čad

kaz: Чад / Çad / چاد

tgk: Чад / چد / Cad

ara: تشاد (Tišād)

fas: چاد (Čād)

prs: چاد (Čād)

pus: چاډ (Čāḋ); چاد (Čād)

uig: چاد / Chad / Чад

urd: چاڈ (Čāḋ)

div: ޗާޑް (Čāḋ)

syr: ܬܫܕ (Tšad)

heb: צ׳ד (Čad); צ׳אד (Čâd)

lad: ג'אד / Chad

yid: טשאַד (Tšad)

amh: ቻድ (Čad)

ell: Τσαντ (Tsant)

hye: Չադ (Č̣ad)

kat: ჩადი (Č̣adi)

hin | mar: चाड (Čāḍ)

ben: চাড (Čāḍ); চাদ (Čād)

guj: ચાડ (Čāḍ)

pan: ਚਾਡ (Čāḍ)

kan: ಚಾಡ್ (Čāḍ)

mal: ഛാഡ് (Čʰāḍ); ചാഡ് (Čāḍ)

tam: சாட் (Čāṭ)

tel: ఛాద్ (Čʰād)

zho: 乍得 (Zhàdé)

jpn: チャド (Chado)

kor: 차드 (Chadeu)

mya: ခ္ယဒ္ (Čaʿ)

tha: ชาด (Čʰāt)

khm: ឆាដ (Čʰād); ឆែត (Čʰæt)

 

This drawing was originally inspired by a discussion between Lawrence Weschler, Errol Morris, Dr. Kanan Makiya, and W.J.T. Mitchell as part of the Chicago Humanities Festival. The subject was the iconography of war and how people live with and process the myriad tragic and frightening images that have become a part of our everyday experience. It occurred to me that these iconic images fail us, or more that we fail them, in that we continually allow new atrocities to bloom, that we author many or most of these great calamities ourselves, and that we allow history to repeat itself over and over, only with more technological savvy as each new conflict arises so that we are further removed from the killing than we were the last time. When i see photos of depravity, of war, of suffering, of humiliation and dehumanization, such as the photos from Abu Ghraib that so many of us have seen, i want to believe that the images are powerful and profound enough to shock us into action, into some kind of patient and benevolent revolution to actually make the world better, to accept and respect all the differences in cultures and histories and ideologies and live amicably if not peacefully. Clearly i’m either too optimistic or too naive, because we fight, maim, lie and kill in the name of empire, religion, oil, just as we always have and likely always will. And many of us believe what we are told about the righteousness of our crimes and the trueness of our aim with little or no question because it is simply what we are told by those we expect to be in the know.

 

So the drawing at its inception was a collage of iconic images of war and struggle, a superimposed collection of calamity. It was my hope that the volume of sadness and destruction in this drawing would serve as a reminder for myself, an alarm to help me wake from my own apathy and disillusionment in the face of the grinding and monstrous engine of modern government and the political machine that can apparently function on nothing but the blackest crude, a reminder that i need to let history inform every decision and choice that i make so i’m not simply stumbling and blind as i move through the world, that if i am going to be a part of any change, it should be positive change.

 

The drawing has changed, however, and is no longer based solely in the literal, in the photo realism of our recent past, but for me it has also begun to acquire a symbolism and metaphorical nature that feels relative to our future. This piece has taken on its own life, separate from me, and i don’t feel like i control it anymore, neither the direction of the imagery used nor the execution of each individual piece of imagery, but rather that i’m slowly opening and receiving what comes in. It feels akin to the process of pollination. Foreign bodies have entered and have had a profound effect, life-changing even, and in realizing that effect, those foreign bodies become familiar and essential.

 

i’ve rewritten these lines a dozen times and i’m never satisfied with what appears on the page. It could be that for me there is no satisfaction in talking about my own failures as a person living today, or maybe i don’t want to sermonize what i see as the collective failures of everyone. It’s also possible that instead of all this writing and talking, all i can really do is draw a picture and let you do with it what you will.

 

It was not my goal to make a drawing of ruin, but when i consider where we seem to be going and how desperately we seem to want to get there, i don’t know that i could avoid it. At least, not this time.

 

3-24-08

 

Since the 19th of March, when Chicago held its 5 year anniversary rally/march/protest for the invasion of Iraq, a great deal of information has come my way that is causing me a great deal of concern. And fear. And anger. And i don't know if anyone else out there who might intentionally or accidentally stumble upon these paragraphs knows more or less than i do, but my knowledge is only starting to expand regarding where we are as a country and as a society, and even in my peripheral knowledge of the kind of insidious and deep running corruption we're living with and in, i find myself in a state of shock because so few people are responding to this information...which is available, it's definitely out there...and i know so few people who have any sense of outrage at all, who feel that their rights are being taken from them and are not anything more than sarcastic about it. As if they simply expected it and are willing to accept it because, well, what can one person do?

 

Habeas Corpus is gone. None of the current politicians are talking about that. This scares me. This essential right, now taken away, is one of the major dividing lines between a free society and a police state. And there's so much to say that i can't do it here. There is so so much to talk about. Habeas Corpus is just the literal tip of a vast and murky iceberg that i fear is about to sink our titanic self-image and our possibly vague and misguided ideas about what America is. And i don't want to sink.

 

8-5-08

 

Since i last made an entry here, not much has changed. The telecoms have been granted retroactive immunity, which in short means that our channels of communication can be monitored, and done so with no repercussions to those doing the monitoring. Which means we should probably fear that anything critical we have to say about the society we live in could be used against us, but not in a court of law. A closed society, a police state, requires no court of law. Barack Obama supported this retroactive immunity, which elicited a long thin sigh of disappointment from myself and many others. The young people canvassing the streets to raise money for his campaign didn’t have much to say about that, at least not here in Chicago. Some of them didn’t seem to know what i was talking about, to be honest. He may have had his reasons. There may have been other items tacked on to this particular legislation that he wanted to see get “through the system.” But could those reasons really outweigh our civil liberties, our small comfort in thinking we can speak freely? i still think Obama is the only candidate running for president. But i also think he has only used his offices to get to bigger and better offices. He hasn’t done much for Illinois since he’s been Senator because he immediately started running for president. i hope that once he wins that office he’ll be able to get something done, anything, as long as it’s in the opposite direction our current administration has been taking us. Clearly it is the most unsuccessful administration in the history of our young country. The most insensitive, the most rash and unthinking, the most ignorant and arrogant. i’m happy i was around to see it. Witnessing this kind of colossal failure offers an infinitely important challenge to mankind: The chance to fix things. Our fuck-ups have been on a global scale, and we need to make global amends. Coming out of this fog of war and corruption, we have an opportunity. It isn’t the first time we’ve had this opportunity, and if it’s the last then we won’t be here to consider it.

 

Also:

 

How about we stop being so silly? The New Yorker cover? It’s satire. We of all people should know what satire is. And it’s ironic that so many of us, including the Obama’s, were so offended by this illustration. We call ourselves the land of the free, yet our country was founded on genocide. Is that not irony? Are we not a satire of what we claim to be? Liberators? Come on. i know it's hard to have a sense of humor in these dark ages, but if we fail to see the absurdity in such situations and responses to those situations it will only add to the already frightening pile of things we've failed at.

 

More very soon, if you care...

 

9-22-08

 

And now, a word from my paramour, Cassandra:

----------------

This is a bit long, but the financial cluster-f#@$ we're in is complicated and it seems the Bush administration would just like Congress to sign off on the bailout, no questions asked, no strings attached. So, if you can't slog through this whole text, could you, would you, please, skip to the end, call your elected officials and tell them you're not okay with signing off on a trillion dollar bailout without knowing the details or that only assists the companies that got us into this mess? And then, feel free to whittle it down, but could you pass it on? In email and/or phone calls to the folks you know that haven't yet crossed the digital divide? Yes, you know them; some of your parents, neighbors, etc. They don't really care for the world wide web, but they still believe in democracy and hopefully, the telephone. It's an awful lot of money that we're being asked to pony up. Wait! We're not being asked! That's why you have to call your Senator!

 

We've been told that in order to avert a major financial catastrophe, the bailout is necessary and needs to happen immediately. And that may be true, but it seems like we're not being told enough. Will the executives that run these companies that are crashing and burning, still receive their multi-million dollar pay and bonus packages while employees lose jobs, health benefits and retirement funds? Will there be any relief (of course we won't bail out your average working stiff, I'm not THAT naive) for the person who's losing their house, their business, their pension? Where is the money coming from? Where exactly are we borrowing $700 billion to a trillion from? What is the plan after? What will prevent this from happening again in a couple of months? We're going to be on the hook for this money (on top of the crushing debt we're already under) for a long, long, long, long time. Or is this another preemptive strike with no exit strategy? This feels a bit familiar, no? A dangerous set of circumstances that requires swift and bold (shock and awe) tactics to keep us all safe? Calling for nearly unfettered powers, (this time to the Treasury secretary)? "Decisions by the Secretary pursuant to the authority of this Act are non-reviewable and committed to agency discretion, and may not be reviewed by any court of law or any administrative agency." Intense pressure on Congress to pass a rescue measure quickly?

 

online.wsj.com/article/SB122200573768460503.html

 

www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/20/...

 

krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/09/20/no-deal/

 

Even this guy doesn't like the idea:

www.outsidethebeltway.com/archives/trillion_dollar_bailou...

 

Does anyone remember the S&L crisis? Which cost American tax payers, some estimate, $1.4 trillion dollars? Sound familiar? Some highlights: During the senior George Bush administration, Jeb Bush defaulted on a $4.56 million dollar real estate loan, paid $500,000 back, the $4million balance was paid of by... um... you, the taxpayer. Neil Bush became director of Silverado Savings and Loan in 1985. Three years later the institution was belly up at a cost of $1.6 billion to... you again! The taxpayer bailed them out!

 

A more thorough account here:

www.city-data.com/forum/politics-other-controversies/4386...

 

A 1989 Time Magazine article here:

www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,957083,00.html

 

(Note that Bush Sr. asked Congress to act within 45 days to prevent financial meltdown. Bush Jr. wants this passed tomorrow, Monday Sept 22, 2008. So, please don't wait to phone your elected officials.)

 

Accountability? Not much. We paid their bad debt and they went on their merry way. No indictments, no jail time, not even garnishments or freezing of assets to re-coup the embezzled money. Jeb even got to keep the building he took out the loan to buy! Bush Sr. wasn't re-elected, but Jeb was later elected Governor of Florida! (Schwing Vote!) An office he held during the Florida Supreme Court ruling that stopped the recount of the 2000 election his brother, W, "won". (Holy Serendipity!) Hey! Here's another interesting side note: did you know that this time last year August 30, 2007 Lehman Bros hired Jeb as an advisor?! Me neither! It's funny how these things go mostly unreported. Wonder why Lehman didn't get in on the bailout deal? Sibling rivalry? If you think your head won't explode, you should go here for Jeb's breathtaking resume:

www.atlargely.com/2008/09/what-is-jeb-bus.html

 

So, this is just one (eerily familiar) example of how the Bush family and their friends have been fleecing us for generations and we, the voters, the taxpayers, the people that our government is supposed to be "of, by, and for" are letting them have their very greedy way with us. Over and over and over again. They do it, frankly, because they can. We keep letting them fleece us (or another word that begins with "F") and we shrug, or rant, sometimes we take to the streets, but not often. But we don't act. We feel overwhelmed and totally hopeless, so we turn on the television or fire up the internets or find some other, any other diversion not to think about how overwhelming and hopeless it feels. But I am imploring you to call your elected officials, the ones who you took the time to vote into office, the ones you elected to represent you, call them and ask that they do what you elected them to do: Represent you. It's redundant, I know, but I think we forget that they work for US. (Even the ones you didn't vote for, still work for you.) Make them work. Tell them what you think. It'll take minutes. Minutes out of your day to use your voice to not allow our government to spend our money without accountability. Again. And if nothing happens, if we don't manage to start a movement today, that's okay. Because we did move. We stood. We didn't just sit idly by while we got filched. Or another word that starts with "F"...

 

Find your State Representative: forms.house.gov/wyr/welcome.shtml

 

Find your Senator: www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.c...

 

Patriotically yours,

Cassandra

----------------

 

9-28-08

 

A New Delhi-based journalist who has worked with The Guardian and BBC invited me to contribute this image to a brief story about the assassination of Benazir Bhutto on a news-gathering website called NowPublic. Their motto is "Crowd Powered Media," which could be good or bad, depending on the crowd. To be honest, i think the crowd is ok, so i was happy to be invited. Here it is: www.nowpublic.com/world/un-investigate-bhutto-killing

 

It's small, but it's something. If one person wants to see it, i want them to see it. So thank you, Mr. Jha.

 

10-28-08

 

People! If you're still reading this far, please look at this:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=KdNgMKPV9xQ&eurl=http://gobnf...

 

We can't ignore it. We can't sit back and watch. We need to be active. Informed. Right now. We need to use our power and we need to remake our government, our country, our world.

 

11-04-08

 

Let us hope that this is the beginning of a new American era.

 

Marker on watercolor paper.

Late 2007 – Early 2008

30 x 22

  

Officially the Republic of Burundi, is a small landlocked country in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Its size is just under 28,000 km² with an estimated population of almost 8,700,000. Its capital is Bujumbura. Although the country is landlocked, much of the southwestern border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika.

The Twa, Tutsi, and Hutu peoples have occupied Burundi since the country's formation five centuries ago. Burundi was ruled as a kingdom by the Tutsi for over two hundred years. However, at the beginning of the twentieth century, Germany and Belgium occupied the region, and Burundi and Rwanda became a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi.

Political unrest occurred throughout the region because of social differences between the Tutsi and Hutu, provoking civil war in Burundi throughout the middle twentieth century. Presently, Burundi is governed as a presidential representative democratic republic. Sixty-two percent of Burundians are Roman Catholic, eight to ten percent are Muslims and the rest follow indigenous beliefs and other Christian denominations.

Burundi is one of the ten poorest countries in the world. It has the lowest per capita GDP of any nation in the world. Burundi has a low gross domestic product largely due to civil wars, corruption, poor access to education, and the effects of HIV/AIDS. Burundi is densely populated, with substantial emigration. Cobalt and copper are among Burundi's natural resources. Some of Burundi's main exports include coffee and sugar.

 

History

Kingdom of Burundi

The origins of Burundi are known from a mix of oral history and archaeology. There are two main founding legends for Burundi. Both suggest that the nation was founded by a man named Cambarantama. The legend most promoted today states that he was Rwandan. The other version, more common in pre-colonial Burundi, says that Cambarantama came from the southern state of Buha.

The first evidence of the Burundian state is from 16th century where it emerged on the eastern foothills. Over the following centuries it expanded, annexing smaller neighbours and competing with Rwanda. Its greatest growth occurred under Ntare Rugamba, who ruled the nation from about 1796 to 1850 and saw the kingdom double in size.

The Kingdom of Burundi was characterized by a hierarchical political authority and tributary economic exchange. The king, known as the mwami headed a princely aristocracy (ganwa) which owned most of the land and required a tribute, or tax, from local farmers and herders. In the mid-18th century, this Tutsi royalty consolidated authority over land, production, and distribution with the development of the ubugabire—a patron-client relationship in which the populace received royal protection in exchange for tribute and land tenure.

Although European explorers and missionaries made brief visits to the area as early as 1856, it was not until 1899 that Burundi became a part of German East Africa. Unlike the Rwandan monarchy, which decided to accept the German advances, the Burundian king Mwezi Gisabo opposed all European influence, refusing to wear European clothing and resisting the advance of European missionaries or administrators. The Germans used armed force and succeeded in doing great damage, but did not destroy the king’s power. Eventually they backed one of the king's sons-in-law Maconco in a revolt against Gisabo. Gisabo was eventually forced to concede and agreed to German suzerainty. The Germans then helped him suppress Maconco's revolt. The smaller kingdoms along the western shore of Lake Victoria were also attached to Burundi.

 

Colonial rule

Even after this the foreign presence was minimal and the kings continued to rule much as before. The Europeans did, however, bring devastating diseases affecting both people and animals. Affecting the entire region, Burundi was especially hard hit. A great famine hit in 1905, with others striking the entire Great Lakes region in 1914, 1923, and 1944. Between 1905 and 1914 half the population of the western plains region died .

In 1916 Belgian troops conquered the area during the First World War. In 1923, the League of Nations mandated to Belgium the territory of Ruanda-Urundi, encompassing modern-day Rwanda and Burundi, but stripping the western kingdoms and giving them to British administered Tanganyika. The Belgians administered the territory through indirect rule, building on the Tutsi-dominated aristocratic hierarchy.

Following World War II, Ruanda-Urundi became a United Nations Trust Territory under Belgian administrative authority. After 1948, Belgium permitted the emergence of competing political parties. Two political parties emerged: the Union for National Progress (UPRONA), a multi-ethnic party led by Tutsi Prince Louis Rwagasore and the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) supported by Belgium. In 1961, Prince Rwagasore was assassinated following an UPRONA victory in legislative elections.

 

Independence

Full independence was achieved on July 1, 1962. In the context of weak democratic institutions at independence, Tutsi King Mwambutsa IV established a constitutional monarchy comprising equal numbers of Hutus and Tutsis. The 1965 assassination of the Hutu prime minister set in motion a series of destabilizing Hutu revolts and subsequent governmental repression. These were in part in reaction to Rwanda's "Social Revolution" of 1959-1961, where Rwandan Tutsi were subject to mass murder by the new government of Hutu Grégoire Kayibanda. In Burundi the Tutsi became committed to ensuring they would not meet the same fate and much of the country's military and police forces became controlled by Tutsis. Unlike Rwanda, which allied itself with the United States in the Cold War, Burundi after independence became affiliated with China.

The monarchy refused to recognize gains by Hutu candidates in the legislative elections held in May 1965. In response, a group of Hutu carried out a failed coup attempt against the monarchy, which in turn prompted the killing of scores of Hutu politicians and intellectuals. In 1966, King Mwambutsa IV was deposed by his son, Prince Ntare V, who himself was deposed by his prime minister Capt. Michel Micombero in the same year. He abolished the monarchy and declared a republic. A de facto military regime emerged and civil unrest continued throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s.Micombero headed a clique of ruling Hima, the Tutsi subgroup located in southern Burundi. Similar to 1965, rumors of an impending Hutu coup in 1969 prompted the arrest and execution of scores of prominent political and military figures.

In June 1971, a group of Banyaruguru, the socially "higher up" subgroup of Tutsi located in the north of the country, were accused of conspiracy by the ruling Hima clique. On 14 January 1972, a military tribunal sentenced four Banyaruguru officers and five civilians to death, and seven to life imprisonment. To the Hima concerns about a Hutu uprising or Banyaruguru-led coup was added the return of Ntare V from exile, a potential rallying point for the Hutu majority.

 

2006 to Present

Reconstruction efforts in Burundi started to practically take effect after 2006. The UN shut down its peacekeeping mission and re-focused on helping with reconstruction. Toward achieving economic reconstruction, Rwanda, D.R.Congo and Burundi relaunched the regional economic bloc: The Great Lakes Countries Economic Community. In addition, Burundi, along with Rwanda, joined the East African Community in 2007.

However, the terms of the September 2006 Ceasefire between the government and the last remaining armed opposition group, the FLN (Forces for National Liberation, also called NLF or FROLINA), were not totally implemented, and senior FLN members subsequently left the truce monitoring team, claiming that their security was threatened. In September 2007, rival FLN factions clashed in the capital, killing 20 fighters and causing residents to begin fleeing. Rebel raids were reported in other parts of the country.The rebel factions disagreed with the government over disarmament and the release of political prisoners. In late 2007 and early 2008, FLN combatants attacked government-protected camps where former combatants now live, in search of peace. The homes of rural residents were also pillaged.

The 2007 report of Amnesty International mentions many areas where improvement is required. Civilians are victims of repeated acts of violence done by the FLN. The latter also recruits child soldiers. The rate of violence against women is high. Perpetrators regularly escape prosecution and punishment by the state. There is an urgent need for reform of the judicial system. Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity remain unpunished. The establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission and a Special Tribunal for investigation and prosecution has not yet been implemented. The freedom of expression is limited, journalists are frequently arrested for carrying out legitimate professional activities. A total of 38,087 Burundian refugees have been repatriated between January and November 2007.

In late March 2008, the FLN sought for the parliament to adopt a law guaranteeing them ‘provisional immunity’ from arrest. This would cover ordinary crimes, but not grave violations of international humanitarian law like war crimes or crimes against humanity . Even though the government has granted this in the past to people, the FLN is unable to obtain the provisional immunity.

On April 17, 2008, the FLN bombarded Bujumbura. The Burundian army fought back and the FLN suffered heavy losses. A new ceasefire was signed on May 26, 2008. In August 2008, President Nkurunziza met with the FLN leader Agathon Rwasa, with the mediation of Charles Nqakula, South Africa’s Minister for Safety and Security. This was the first direct meeting since June 2007. Both agree to meet twice a week to establish a commission to resolve any disputes that might arise during the peace negotiations.

Refugee camps are now closing down, and 450,000 refugees have returned. The economy of the country is shattered – Burundi has the lowest per capita gross income in the world. With the return of refugees, amongst others, property conflicts have started.

 

Geography

Burundi occupies an area equal to 27,830 square kilometres in size, of which 25,650 km² is land. The country has 974 kilometres of land border: 233 km of which is shared with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 290 km with Rwanda and 451 km with Tanzania. As a landlocked country, Burundi possesses no coastline, although it straddles the crest of the Nile-Congo River watershed

The terrain of Burundi is hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in the east. The southern and eastern plains have been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as part of the Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands ecoregion.

The lowest point in the country is at Lake Tanganyika, at 772 m, with the highest point being on Mount Heha, at 2,684 m. Natural hazards are posed in Burundi by flooding and landslides

 

Other infos

 

Oficial Name:

Republika y'u Burundi

République du Burundi

 

Independence:

July 1, 1962

 

Area:

27.830km2

 

Capital

Bujumbura

 

Inhabitants:

7.054.714

 

Languages:

French [fra] 2,200 in Burundi (2004). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

 

Rundi [run] 4,600,000 in Burundi (1986). Population total all countries: 4,850,903. Also spoken in Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda. Alternate names: Kirundi, Urundi. Dialects: Dialects of the Hutu and Tutsi are similar. Twa is distinct but all are inherently intelligible, and also intelligible with Kinyarwanda (Rwanda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60)

 

Swahili [swh] 6,356 in Burundi (2000 WCD). Widely spoken in the capital. Spoken as first language in Buyenzi, Quartier asiatique, Muslim neighborhoods, and Congolese neighborhoods (probably Congo Swahili). Spoken by Muslims in other cities like Gitega. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40)

 

Meaning of th country name:

From a local name meaning "land of the Kirundi-speakers."

 

Description Flag:

The national flag of Burundi was adopted on March 28, 1967. The green colour symbolizes hope, the white symbolises purity, and red the struggle for independence. The flag has a basic white saltire that divides the field into four areas, two green, and two red. In the centre is a circle that contains three stars which stand for the three major ethnic groups of Burundi: the Hutu, the Twa and the Tutsi. The three stars also stand for the three elements of the national motto: unity, work and progress.

 

Coat of arms:

The Coat of Arms of Burundi, adopted in 1966, consists of a shield surrounded by three spears. On the shield is the motto of the nation, as well as the head of a lion. Behind the shield there are three crossed traditional African spears. Under the shield the national motto of Burundi appears on a scroll: Unité, Travail, Progrès (French, "Unity, Work, Progress").

 

Motto:

"Ubumwe, Ibikorwa, Iterambere" " Unity,work and progress "

 

National Anthem: Burundi Bwacu

 

Kyrundi

 

Burundi bwacu, Burundi buhire,

Shinga icumu mu mashinga,

Gaba intahe y'ubugabo ku bugingo.

Warapfunywe ntiwapfuye,

Warahabishijwe ntiwahababuka,

Uhagurukana, uhagurukana, uhagurukana, ubugabo urikukira.

Komerwamashyi n'amakungu,

Habwa impundu nabawe,

Isamirane mu mashinga, isamirane mu mashinga,

 

Burundi bwacu, ragi ry'abasokuru,

Ramutswa intahe n'ibihugu,

Ufatanije ishyaka n'ubu hizi;

Vuza impundu wiganzuye uwakuganza uwakuganza.

 

Burundi bwacu, nkoramutima kuri twese,

Tugutuye amaboko, umitima n'ubuzima,

Imana yakuduhaye ikudutungire.

Horana umwami n'abagabo n'itekane.

Sagwa n'urweze, sagwa n'amahoro meza.

  

French

Cher Burundi, ô doux pays,

Prends place dans le concert des nations.

En tout bien, tout honneur, accédé à l'indépendance.

Mutilé et meutri, tu es demeuré maître de toi-même.

L'heure venue, t'es levé

Et fièrement tu t'es hissé au rang des peuples libres.

Reçois donc le compliment des nations,

Agrée l'hommage de tes enfants.

Qu'à travers l'univers retentisse ton nom.

 

Cher Burundi, héritage sacré de nos aïeux,

Reconnu digne de te gouverner

Au courage tu allies le sentiment de l'honneur.

Chante la gloire de ta liberté reconquise.

 

Cher Burundi, digne objet de notre plus tendre armour,

A ton noble service nous vouons nos bras, nos cœurs et nos vies.

Veuille Dieu, qui nous a fait don de toi, te conserver à notre vénération.

Sous l'egide de l'Unité,

Dans la paix, la joie et la prospérité.

  

English

Our Burundi, gentle country,

Take your place in the concert of nations,

Acceding to independence with honourable intentions.

Wounded and bruised, you have remained master of yourself.

 

When the hour came, you arose,

Lifting yourself proudly into the ranks of free peoples.

Receive, then, the congratulations of the nations

And the homage of your sons.

May your name ring out through the universe.

 

Our Burundi, sacred heritage from our forefathers,

Recognized as worthy of self-government,

With your courage you also have a sense of honour.

Sing the glory of liberty conquered again.

 

Our Burundi, worthy of our tenderest love,

We vow to your noble service our hands and hearts and lives.

May God, who gave you to us, keep you for us to venerate,

Under the shield of unity,

In peace, joy and prosperity.

 

Internet Page: www.burundi-gov.bi

 

Burundi in diferent languages

 

eng | afr | arg | ast | bam | bre | cat | ces | cor | cym | dan | dsb | est | eus | fao | fin | fra | frp | fur | glg | hrv | hsb | hun | ibo | ina | ita | jav | jnf | lav | lin | lld | mlt | nld | nor | oci | pol | por | que | roh | ron | rup | scn | slk | slv | sme | som | sot | spa | sqi | srd | swa | swe | tur | vor | zza: Burundi

aze | bos | crh | kaa | mol | tuk | uzb: Burundi / Бурунди

deu | ltz | nds: Burundi / Burundi

hat | wln: Bouroundi

ind | msa: Burundi / بوروندي

kin | run: Uburundi

lit | smg: Burundis

epo: Burundo

fry: Bûrûndy

gla: Burundaidh

gle: An Bhurúin / An Ḃurúin

glv: Burundee

isl: Búrúndí

kmr: Bûrûndî / Бурунди / بوورووندی

kur: Bûrûndî / بوورووندی

lat: Burundia

lim: Boeroendi

mlg: Borondia

nrm: Bouroundie

rmy: Burundi / बुरुन्दी

slo: Burundia / Бурундиа

smo: Paruneti

tet: Burundí

vie: Bu-run-đi

vol: Rundiyän

wol: Buruundi

abq | alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mkd | mon | oss | rus | tyv | udm: Бурунди (Burundi)

bak | srp | tat: Бурунди / Burundi

bel: Бурунды / Burundy; Бурундзі / Burundzi

kaz: Бурунди / Bwrwndï / بۋرۋندي

tgk: Бурунди / بوروندی / Burundi

ukr: Бурунді (Burundi)

ara: بوروندي (Būrūndī); بورندي (Būrundī); بروندي (Burūndī); البوروندي (al-Būrūndī); البورندي (al-Būrundī); البروندي (al-Burūndī)

fas: بوروندی (Būrūndī)

prs: بورندی (Būrondī)

pus: برونډي (Burūnḋī); بورندي (Būrundī); بوروندي (Būrūndī)

uig: بۇرۇندى / Burundi / Бурунди

urd: بورونڈی (Būrūnḋī); برونڈی (Burūnḋī)

div: ބުރުންޑީ (Burunḋī)

heb: בורונדי (Bûrûndî)

lad: בורונדי / Burundi

yid: בורונדי (Burundi)

amh: ቡሩንዲ (Burundi)

ell: Μπουρούντι (Mpoyroýnti)

hye: Բուրունդի (Bouroundi)

kat: ბურუნდი (Burundi)

hin: बुरुंडी (Buruṁḍī); बुरुन्डी (Burunḍī)

ben: বুরুন্ডি (Burunḍi)

pan: ਬੂਰੂਂਡੀ (Būrū̃ḍī)

kan: ಬುರುಂಡಿ (Buruṁḍi)

mal: ബുറുണ്ടി (Buṟuṇṭi); ബറുണ്ടി (Baṟuṇṭi)

tam: புருண்டி (Puruṇṭi)

tel: బురుండి (Buruṁḍi)

zho: 布隆迪 (Bùlōngdí)

jpn: ブルンジ (Burunji)

kor: 부룬디 (Burundi)

mya: ဘူရ္ဝန္ဒီ (Bʰuẏũdi)

tha: บุรุนดี (Burundī)

khm: ប៊ូរុនឌី (Būrundī)

 

Photo publiée dans le journal Ouest-France (à vérifier)

Arrivée des autorités militaires à bord du Sindh pour y installer un poste d'observation !!!!

SINDH 1956-1976 (1979)

Sources:

Historique de la flotte des Messageries Maritimes du commandant Lanfant

Le grand Siècle des Messageries Maritimes du Dr Paul Bois Tome V

Encyclopédie des Messageries Maritimes de Philippe Ramona (site sur le web)

Le forum des anciens des Messageries. De nombreuses photographies, anecdotes et précisons sont régulièrement mises en ligne.

Monsieur Xavier Escallier qui a très amicalement mis à ma disposition sa collection de cartes postales des Messageries.

Les différents sites internet sur la marine marchande, qu'ils soient Britanniques, Espagnols, Français ou autres.

Différents ouvrages personnel sur l'histoire de la marine marchande française.

Indexe (1) : Données du commandant Lanfant dans ouvrage.

Indexe (2) : Données du Docteur Paul Bois dans son ouvrage.

Indexe (3) : Données de Mr Philippe Ramona sur son site web

--------------------------------------------

4ème de la série de 10 des cargos de 8300 tonnes de port en lourd de Type F commandés à partir de 1954

Construit par les chantiers et Ateliers de Provence de La Ciotat

1956 le 4 février: Lancement Commandant du navire durant la construction Pailhes. Marraine Mme Ludovic Tron.

1956 Livré le 21 juin: à Marseille

 

CARACTÉRISTIQUES :

Navire à Shelter deck, 3 ponts continus. La méthode de construction soudée a été largement employée.

Longueur: 148,99 mHT et 139,06 m PP

Largeur: 18.8 m

Jauge brute 7000 tjb 7051 tjb (2)

Jauge nette: (2) 3887 tn

Port en lourd 9000 tonnes, - 9090 t (2)

Déplacement: 13800 t

Capacité 15000 m3 dont 600m3 en 3 cuves pour le latex ou l'huile et 120 m3 en cales frigos.(NB avant chaque chargement (agrumes – pommes –poires ou viande congelée ou ''child'' selon les lignes) par ozonisation.

Cales: 5

Manutention: Cales desservies par 10 mâts de charge de5 tonnes, 4 de 10 t et 2 bigues de 30 et 60 tonnes.

Fermetures par panneaux Mac Gregor single pull.

Ventilation des cales: système cargocaire

 

PROPULSION :

1 moteur Burmeister et Wain 2 temps simple effet, 9 cylindres 974 VTF 160

Combustible: Fuel lourd à la mer en Route Libre. Manœuvres au Diesel oil.

Puissance: 8300 cv a 115 t/mn

Vitesse: 18 nds aux essais et 16 nds en service

1 hélice accouplement fixe.

1 cheminée.

ÉLECTRICITÉ:

3 Groupes électrogènes Allen Dujardin de 250 Kw et 220 v

1 Chaudière de récupération à la mer de 2000 k/h sous 4 bars

1 Chaudière de mouillage Menpenti au fuel de 1000 k/h sous 4 bars au port.

 

PERSONNEL :

État-major 10 Officiers

Équipage: 23 hommes, réduit à 17 hommes en 1970.(accord tripartites Armement - Syndicats - État)

Pas de conditionnement d'air à bord.

 

PASSAGERS :

Passagers 6 - supprimés en 1970 avec la réduction d'effectif.

 

LIGNE :

1956 le 16 Juillet: Départ de Marseille du voyage inaugural

1956 août Mis en service sur la ligne Hambourg- Philippines/Japon puis la ligne de Chine.

1962 Mis en service sur la ligne du Sud Est Asiatique

  

ÉVÉNEMENTS :

1956 Marseille Avarie de vireur du Moteur. Réparation provisoire. 2 j. de retard.

1956 KOBE Réparation définitive du vireur. 10 j. de retard.

1961 le 11 décembre: Appareillant d'Anvers par coup de vent, heurte la drague FABIOLA. Avaries peu importantes.

1962 le 16 janvier: Relâche à Messine pour débarquer le matelot Chi Haoui atteint d'une appendicite aiguë.

1963 le 10 février: En accostant à Sihanoukville occasionne des avaries importantes à l'appontement et à sa coque.

1964 le 3 janvier: Au large de Terneuzen par temps de brume, il aborde le pétrolier BORDER FUSILIER. Peu d'avaries.

1964 le 26 décembre: En prenant avec le pilote le chenal de l'Escaut-Oriental il s'échoue. Fais appel verbalement en hollandais à deux remorqueurs Hollandais qui le déséchoue. Contrat verbal d'assistance transformé en contrat de simple remorquage par Monsieur Roch Ménés inspecteur de la Compagnie.

1965 le 27 décembre: En déhalant à Anvers, heurte avec son étrave, celle du britannique ELYSIA. Légères avaries.

1966 le 2 décembre: En remontant le Donaï (rivière de Saïgon) il est mitraillé et canonné. De nombreux impacts, un obus de mortier non explosé dans le local mâtereau où sont entreposées les bouteilles de gaz Oxygène et acétylène. Carré des officiers (venant juste d'être évacué) vitres des sabords sont complètement pulvérisées. Un éclat de mortier dessertis le hublot du Second Capitaine et vient se planter sous le lit où celui-ci faisait la sieste. Il n'y aura heureusement que deux blessés légers.

1967. 5 juin: Commandant Touchard. En convoi vers la Méditerranée bloqué dans le canal lors de l'attaque Israélienne avec 12 autres navires.

1967 le 17 juin: Le consul de France se rend à bord 3 Officiers et 21 hommes sur 45 en tout seront rapatriés le 27 juin. Ensuite relève tous les 6 mois d'un noyau d'équipage, pour l'entretien du navire et appareiller pour faire un tour du Lac Amer et essayer les appareils.

1968 le 8 février: J'y embarquerai comme second mécanicien via Le Caire et Ismaïlia avec le chef mécanicien Prédal Adolphe ainsi que 3 ou 4 autres membres de l'équipage. (Plus de souvenir des noms) Escale à Rome, puis Rome Le Caire (nous étions les seuls passagers). Arrivée au Caire pour la nuit. Départ le lendemain pour Ismaïlia. En pleine zone de guerre.

 

RETRAIT et FIN:

1967 le 5 juin: Attaque Israélienne contre l'Égypte. Le convoi montant (vers la Méditerranée) est bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer du Canal de Suez. Commandant Touchard.

1970 Août: Abandon du navire et du fret.

1970 Août: Vendu par les assurances en Norvège comme épave pour la somme de 305.000 £.

1970 en août: Prend le nom de ESSAYONS reste bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer.

1975 Vendu à sa sortie du Canal à l'Arabie Saoudite il prend le nom de BADR.

1983 Disparaît des listes du Lloyd.

  

Is a constitutional republic in northwestern South America. Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the northwest by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Colombia also shares maritime borders with Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. With a population of nearly 45 million people, Colombia has the 29th largest population in the world and the second largest in South America, after Brazil. Colombia has the third largest Spanish-speaking population in the world after Mexico and Spain.

The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous nations including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization killing or taking as slaves almost 90% of that native population, and then creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada (comprising modern-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, the northwest region of Brazil and Panama) with its capital in Bogotá. Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903 under pressure to fulfill financial responsibilities towards the United States government to build the Panama Canal.

Colombia has a long tradition of constitutional government. The Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in 1848 and 1849 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas. However, tensions between the two have frequently erupted into violence, most notably in the Thousand Days War (1899–1902) and La Violencia, beginning in 1948. Since the 1960s, government forces, left-wing insurgents and right-wing paramilitaries have been engaged in the continent's longest-running armed conflict. Fuelled by the cocaine trade, this escalated dramatically in the 1980s. However, the insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and in the recent decade (2000s) the violence has decreased significantly. Many paramilitary groups have demobilized as part of a controversial peace process with the government, and the guerrillas have lost control in many areas where they once dominated. Meanwhile Colombia's homicide rate, for many years one of the highest in Latin America, has almost halved since 2002.

Colombia is a standing middle power with the fourth largest economy in Latin America and a major impact of poverty. It is very ethnically diverse, and the interaction between descendants of the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans brought as slaves and twentieth-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East has produced a rich cultural heritage. This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography. The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, Colombia is one of the world's 18 megadiverse countries (the most biodiverse per unit area).

 

Etymology

The word "Colombia" comes from Christopher Columbus (Spanish: Cristóbal Colón). It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those territories and colonies under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed out of the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela and Ecuador).

In 1830, when Venezuela and Ecuador broke away, the Cundinamarca region that remained became a new country — the Republic of New Granada. In 1858 New Granada officially changed its name to the Grenadine Confederation, then in 1863 the United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name — the Republic of Colombia — in 1886.

 

History

Pre-Colombian era

Approximately 10,000 BC, hunter-gatherer societies existed near present-day Bogotá (at "El Abra" and "Tequendama") which traded with one another and with cultures living in the Magdalena River Valley. Beginning in the first millennium BC, groups of Amerindians developed the political system of "cacicazgos" with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques. Within Colombia, the two cultures with the most complex cacicazgo systems were the Tayronas in the Caribbean Region, and the Muiscas in the highlands around Bogotá, both of which were of the Chibcha language family. The Muisca people are considered to have had one of the most developed political systems in South America, after the Incas.

 

Spanish discovery, conquest, and colonization

Spanish explorers made the first exploration of the Caribbean littoral in 1499 led by Rodrigo de Bastidas. Christopher Columbus navigated near the Caribbean in 1502. In 1508, Vasco Nuñez de Balboa started the conquest of the territory through the region of Urabá. In 1513, he was the first European to discover the Pacific Ocean which he called Mar del Sur (or "Sea of the South") and which in fact would bring the Spaniards to Peru and Chile.

The territory's main population was made up of hundreds of tribes of the Chibchan and Carib, currently known as the Caribbean people, whom the Spaniards conquered through warfare and alliances, while resulting disease such as smallpox, and the conquest and ethnic cleansing itself caused a demographic reduction among the indigenous. In the sixteenth century, Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa.

 

Independence from Spain

Since the beginning of the periods of Conquest and Colonization, there were several rebel movements under Spanish rule, most of them either being crushed or remaining too weak to change the overall situation. The last one which sought outright independence from Spain sprang up around 1810, following the independence of St. Domingue in 1804 (present-day Haiti), who provided a non-negligible degree of support to the eventual leaders of this rebellion: Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander.

In a movement initiated by Antonio Nariño, who opposed Spanish centralism and which led the opposition against the viceroyalty. After the independence of Cartagena in November 1811, two independent governments formed which fought a Civil War, a period known as La Patria Boba. The following year Nariño proclaimed the United Provinces of New Granada, headed by Camilo Torres Tenorio. Despite the successes of the rebellion, the emergence of two distinct ideological currents among the liberators (federalism and centralism) gave rise to an internal clash between these two, thus contributing to the reconquest of territory by the Spanish, allowing restoration of the viceroyalty under the command of Juan de Samano, whose regime punished those who participated in the uprisings. This stoked renewed rebellion, which, combined with a weakened Spain, made possible a successful rebellion led by Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was finally defeated in 1822 on the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 around the Viceroyalty of time.

The Congress of Cucuta in 1821 adopted a constitution, whose main goal was to create the Republic of Colombia, now referred to as La Gran Colombia, which also included present-day Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador. However, the new republic was very unstable and ended with the rupture of Venezuela in 1829, followed by Ecuador, in 1830.

The Venezuelan Simón Bolívar had become the first President of Colombia, and Francisco de Paula Santander was Vice President; when Simón Bolívar stepped down, Santander became the second President of Colombia. The rebellion finally succeeded in 1819 when the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Colombia organized as a union of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela (Panama was then an integral part of Colombia).

 

Post-independence and republicanism

Internal political and territorial divisions led to the secession of Venezuela and Quito (today's Ecuador) in 1830. The so-called "Department of Cundinamarca" adopted the name "Nueva Granada", which it kept until 1856 when it became the "Confederación Granadina" (Grenadine Confederation). After a two-year civil war in 1863, the "United States of Colombia" was created, lasting until 1886, when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia. Internal divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, occasionally igniting very bloody civil wars, the most significant being the Thousand Days civil war (1899–1902).

This, together with the United States of America's intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of the Department of Panama in 1903 and the establishment of it as a nation. The United States paid Colombia $25,000,000 in 1921, seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt's role in the creation of Panama, and Colombia recognized Panama under the terms of the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty. Colombia was engulfed in the Year-Long War with Peru over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas Department and its capital Leticia.

Soon after, Colombia achieved a relative degree of political stability, which was interrupted by a bloody conflict that took place between the late 1940s and the early 1950s, a period known as La Violencia ("The Violence"). Its cause was mainly mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which subsequently ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on April 9, 1948. This assassination caused riots in Bogotá and became known as El Bogotazo. The violence from these riots spread throughout the country and claimed the lives of at least 180,000 Colombians. From 1953 to 1964 the violence between the two political parties decreased first when Gustavo Rojas deposed the President of Colombia in a coup d'état and negotiated with the guerrillas, and then under the military junta of General Gabriel París Gordillo.

After Rojas' deposition the two political parties Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party agreed to the creation of a "National Front", whereby the Liberal and Conservative parties would govern jointly. The presidency would be determined by an alternating conservative and liberal president every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices. The National Front ended "La Violencia", and National Front administrations attempted to institute far-reaching social and economic reforms in cooperation with the Alliance for Progress. In the end, the contradictions between each successive Liberal and Conservative administration made the results decidedly mixed. Despite the progress in certain sectors, many social and political problems continued, and guerrilla groups were formally created such as the FARC, ELN and M-19 to fight the government and political apparatus. These guerrilla groups were dominated by Marxist doctrines.

Emerging in the late 1970s, powerful and violent drug cartels further developed during the 1980s and 1990s. The Medellín Cartel under Pablo Escobar and the Cali Cartel, in particular, exerted political, economic and social influence in Colombia during this period. These cartels also financed and influenced different illegal armed groups throughout the political spectrum. Some enemies of these allied with the guerrillas and created or influenced paramilitary groups.

The new Colombian Constitution of 1991 was ratified after being drafted by the Constituent Assembly of Colombia. The constitution included key provisions on political, ethnic, human and gender rights. The new constitution initially prohibited the extradition of Colombian nationals, causing accusations that drug cartels had lobbied for the provision; extradition was allowed again in 1996 when the provision was repealed. The cartels had previously promoted a violent campaign against extradition, leading to many terrorist attacks and mafia-style executions. They also tried to influence the government and political structure of Colombia through corruption, as in the case of the 8000 Process scandal.

In recent years, the country has continued to be plagued by the effects of the drug trade, guerrilla insurgencies like FARC, and paramilitary groups such as the AUC (later demobilized, though paramilitarism remains active), which along with other minor factions have engaged in a bloody internal armed conflict. President Andrés Pastrana and the FARC attempted to negotiate a solution to the conflict between 1999 and 2002. The government set up a "demilitarized" zone, but repeated tensions and crisis led the Pastrana administration to conclude that the negotiations were ineffectual. Pastrana also began to implement the Plan Colombia initiative, with the dual goal of ending the armed conflict and promoting a strong anti-narcotic strategy.

During the presidency of Álvaro Uribe, the government applied more military pressure on the FARC and other outlawed groups, under the stance that nearly half a century of negotiations with no results was a sign that "some entities just cannot be negotiated with." Mostly through military pressure and increased military hardware from the US most security indicators improved, showing a steep decrease in reported kidnappings (from 3,700 in the year 2000 to 172 in 2009 (Jan.-Oct.)) and a 54% decrease in homicides (from 28,837 in 2002 to 13,346 in 2009 (Jan.-Oct.)). Guerrillas have been reduced from 16,900 insurgents to 8,900 insurgents.

While some in the UN argue Colombia is violating human rights to achieve peace, most do not argue that increase military pressure has had considerable improvements that have favored economic growth and tourism. The 2006–2007 Colombian parapolitics scandal emerged from the revelations and judicial implications of past and present links between paramilitary groups, mainly the AUC, and some government officials and many politicians, most of them allied to the governing administration.

 

Geography

Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by Panama and the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, Colombia is dominated by the Andes mountains. Beyond the Colombian Massif (in the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño) these are divided into three branches known as cordilleras (from the Spanish for "rope"): the Cordillera Occidental, running adjacent to the Pacific coast and including the city of Cali; the Cordillera Central, running between the Cauca and Magdalena river valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín, Manizales , Pereira and Armenia, Quindío ; and the Cordillera Oriental, extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta. Peaks in the Cordillera Occidental exceed 13,000 ft (4,000 m), and in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 18,000 ft (5,500 m). At 8,500 ft (2,600 m), Bogotá is the highest city of its size in the world.

East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos, part of the Orinoco River basin, and, in the far south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest. Together these lowlands comprise over half Colombia's territory, but they contain less than 3% of the population. To the north the Caribbean coast, home to 20% of the population and the location of the major port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena, generally consists of low-lying plains, but it also contains the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, which includes the country's tallest peaks (Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar), and the Guajira Desert. By contrast the narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are covered in dense vegetation and sparsely populated. The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura.

Colombian territory also includes a number of Caribbean and Pacific islands.

 

Oficial name:

Republica de Colombia

 

Independence:

Declared July 20, 1810

- Recognised August 7, 1819

 

Area:

1.141.748 km2

 

Inhabitants:

46.000.000

 

Languages:

Achagua Andoque Arhuaco Awa-Cuaiquer Barasana Barí Bora Cabiyarí Cacua Camsá Carabayo Carapana Carijona Chimila Cocama-Cocamilla Cofán Cogui Colombian Sign Language Cubeo Cuiba Curripaco Desano Emberá-Northern Emberá-Baudó Emberá-Catío Emberá-Chamí Emberá-Tadó Epena Guahibo Guambiano Guanano Guayabero Huitoto-Minica Huitoto-Murui Hupdë Inga Inga-Jungle Islander Creole English Koreguaje Kuna-Border Macaguán Macuna Malayo Muinane Nhengatu Nukak-Makú Ocaina Páez Palenquero Piapoco Piaroa Piratapuyo Playero Providencia Sign Language Puinave Quichua-Napo-Lowland Romani- Vlax Sáliba Siona Siriano Spanish Tanimuca-Retuarã Tariano Tatuyo Ticuna Tinigua Totoro Tucano Tunebo-Angosturas Tunebo-Barro-Negro Tunebo-Central Tunebo-Western Tuyuca Waimaha Wayuu Woun-Meu Yarí Yucuna Yukpa Yurutí

 

Capital city:

Bogotá

 

Etymology country name:

The word "Colombia" comes from the name of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón in Spanish, Cristoforo Colombo in Italian). It was conceived by the revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the New World, especially to all American territories and colonies under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was then adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819 formed by the union of Venezuela, New Granada and Ecuador.

In 1830, when Venezuela and Ecuador separated, the Cundinamarca region that remained became a new country: the Republic of New Granada. In 1863 New Granada changed its name officially to United States of Colombia, and in 1886 adopted its present day name: Republic of Colombia.

 

Description flag:

Francisco de Miranda was the person who originally created the common Yellow, Blue and Red flag that Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela share, based on the idea from a flag that Christopher Colombus used in one of his voyages and also based on the theory exposed to him by Goethe, The Primary Colors.

In a letter written by Francisco de Miranda, referring to a conversation he had with Goethe, he explained the symbolic meaning of the flag's color stripes: "First he explained to me the way the iris transforms the light into the three primary colours... then he said why Yellow is the most warm, noble and closest to the bright light; why Blue is that mix of excitement and serenity, so far that it evokes the shadows; and why Red is the exaltation of Yellow and Blue, the syntesis, the vanishing of the bright light into the shadows".

In modern times, different interpretations have been taught to children at school: yellow symbolizes the rich resources of its grounds; blue symbolizes the two oceans that surround its coasts; red represents the blood of the heroes who died while fighting for Colombia's independence.

 

Coat of arms:

The Coat of Arms of Colombia contains a shield with numerous symbols. Perched on top of the shield is an Andean Condor holding an olive crown and the condor symbolizing freedom. The national motto, Libertad y Orden (Spanish for Liberty and Order), is on a scroll in between the bird and the shield in black font over golden background. He is depicted facing front with his wings extended and looking to the right.

The national flag is draped on each side of the shield. The shield is broken into three portions. In the lowermost portion is a depiction of ships, pointing to the maritime history of Colombia, namely to the Isthmus of Panama, which was part of Colombia until 1903. Nowadays represents the two oceans that border the country (Atlantic and Pacific). The sails mean the Colombian commerce with the rest of the world and the rising economy. In the middle section, over a field of platinum, the Phrygian cap is presented; this being a traditional symbol of liberty and freedom. The topmost section contains a pomegranate over a field of azure, as a symbol of the Viceroyalty of New Granada (early colonial name of Colombia back in XIX century), in the middle flanked by two cornucopias or horns of plenty: the one at the right with golden and silver coins and the one at the left with tropical fruits. This portion represents the agricultural and mineral wealth of Colombian soil.

The Coat of Arms of the Republic was adopted via Act 3 of May 9, 1834, with later non-essential modifications according to Ordinance 861 of 1924.

Some critics have argued that the Coat of Arms is outdated and anachronic, being the Andean Condor a very threatened species in the country, with barely 100 creatures soaring the landscape. It has also been discussed that the condor is still a vulture and feeds of carrion, making it an animal with a low profile that never hunts it's own food. In addition, the andean condor is also the national bird of Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. The pomegranate, being a mediterranean fruit is no currently cultived in Colombia and the phrigian cap is of turkish origin. The Isthmus of Panama, no longer belonging to Colombia, has also been suggested to be changed.

 

Motto:

"Libertad y Orden"

 

National Anthem: ¡Oh Gloria Inmarcesible!

 

CORO

¡Oh gloria inmarcesible!

¡Oh júbilo inmortal!

En surcos de dolores

el bien germina ya.

I

Cesó la horrible noche,

la libertad sublime

derrama las auroras

de su invencible luz.

La humanidad entera,

que entre cadenas gime,

comprende las palabras

del que murió en la cruz.

II

"¡Independencia!" grita

el mundo americano;

se baña en sangre de héroes

la tierra de Colón.

Pero este gran principio,

"El rey no es soberano"

resuena, y los que sufren

bendicen su pasión.

III

Del Orinoco el cauce

se colma de despojos,

de sangre y llanto un río

se mira allí correr.

En Bárbula no saben

las almas ni los ojos,

si admiración o espanto

sentir o padecer.

IV

A orillas del Caribe,

hambriento un pueblo lucha,

horrores prefiriendo

a pérfida salud.

¡Oh, sí!, de Cartagena

la abnegación es mucha,

y escombros de la muerte

desprecian su virtud.

V

De Boyacá en los campos,

el genio de la gloria,

con cada espiga un héroe

invicto coronó.

Soldados sin coraza

ganaron la victoria;

su varonil aliento

de escudo les sirvió.

VI

Bolívar cruza el Ande

que riegan dos océanos,

espadas cual centellas

fulguran en Junín.

Centauros indomables

descienden a los llanos,

y empieza a presentirse,

de la epopeya el fin.

VII

La tropa victoriosa

en Ayacucho truena,

que en cada triunfo crece

su formidable son.

En su expansivo empuje

la libertad se estrena,

del cielo americano

formando un pabellón.

VIII

La virgen sus cabellos

arranca en agonía

y de su amor viuda

los cuelga del ciprés.

Lamenta su esperanza

que cubre loza fría,

pero glorioso orgullo

circunda su alba tez.

IX

La patria así se forma,

termópilas brotando;

constelación de cíclopes

su noche iluminó.

La flor estremecida

mortal el viento hallando,

debajo los laureles

seguridad buscó.

X

Mas no es completa gloria

vencer en la batalla,

que el brazo que combate

lo anima la verdad.

La independencia sola

el gran clamor no acalla;

si el sol alumbra a todos,

justicia es libertad.

XI

Del hombre los derechos

Nariño predicando,

el alma de la lucha

profético enseñó.

Ricaurte en San Mateo,

en átomos volando,

"Deber antes que vida,"

con llamas escribió.

 

English

 

Chorus

O unfading glory!

O immortal joy!

In furrows of pain

goodness germinates now.

 

I

The horrible night has ended,

the sublime liberty

pours the dawns

of its invincible light.

The whole humanity,

crying in its chains,

understands the words

of the One who died on the Cross.

 

II

"Independence!" cries

the American world;

bathed in the blood of its heroes

the land of Columbus.

Still, one great principle,

"The king is not sovereign",

resounds, and those who suffer

bless its passion.

 

III

The Orinoco's bed

fills with the remains,

of blood and a river crying

is there seen.

In Bárbula they don't know

the souls nor the eyes,

if admiration or horror

feel or suffer.

 

IV

On the shores of the Caribbean,

famished the people fight,

horrors preferring

to treacherous health.

O, aye! for Cartagena

the abnegation is much,

and the remains of death

despises its virtue.

 

V

From Boyacá in the fields,

the genius of glory,

for every ear a hero

undefeated crowned.

Soldiers without breastplate

won victory;

their virile breath

as shield served.

 

VI

Bolivar crosses the Andes

that two oceans bathe,

swords as sparks

shine in Junín.

Untameable centaurs

descend to the plains,

and a prescience begins to be felt,

of the epic the end.

 

VII

The victorious troop

in Ayacucho thunders,

that in every triumph grows

its formidable sound.

In its expansive thrust

Liberty is worn for the first time,

from the american sky

a pavilion forming.

 

VIII

The virgin her hairs

pulls out in agony

and from her love widowed

hangs them on a cypress.

Regretting her hope

covered by a cold headstone,

but glorious pride

hallows her fair complexion.

 

IX

Thus the mother land is formed,

Thermopylaes are breaking forth;

constellation of cyclops

its night brightened.

The trembling flower

finding the wind mortal,

underneath the laurels

safety sought.

 

X

But it's not complete glory

to defeat in battle,

that the arm that fights

is encouraged by truth.

Independence alone

The great clamour doesn't silence;

if the sun illuminates everyone,

justice is liberty.

 

XI

From men the rights

Nariño preaching,

the soul of struggle

prophetically taught.

Ricaurte in San Mateo,

in atoms flying,

"Duty before life,"

with flames he wrote.

 

Internet Page: www.gobiernoenlinea.gov.co

www.colombia.com

www.turismocolombia.com

 

Colombia in diferent languages

 

eng | afr | arg | ast | dan | glg | ita | lim | lld | nld | nor | roh | scn | spa | swe: Colombia

bre | fao | fry | jav | pap | sme | swa | tpi: Kolombia

est | fin | hun | pol | slk | sqi | vor: Kolumbia

cos | cym | lat | ron | rup: Columbia

cor | kin | lin | run: Kolombi

fra | frp | fur | jnf: Colombie

hrv | lav | lit | slv: Kolumbija

deu | ltz | nds: Kolumbien / Kolumbien

cat | srd: Colòmbia

dsb | hsb: Kolumbiska

kaa | uzb: Kolumbiya / Колумбия

tur | zza: Kolombiya

aze: Kolumbiya / Колумбија

bam: Kɔlɔmbi

bos: Kolumbija / Колумбија

ces: Kolumbie

crh: Kolombiya / Коломбия

epo: Kolombio

eus: Kolonbia

gla: Coloimbia

gle: An Cholóim / An Ċolóim; An Cholóimbe / An Ċolóimbe

glv: Yn Cholombey

hat: Kolonbi

hau: Colombiya

ibo: Kọlọmbia

ina: Colombia; Columbia

ind: Kolombia / كولومبيا

isl: Kólumbía

kmr: Kolûmbî / Колумби / کۆلوومبی; Kolombî / Коломби / کۆلۆمبی

kur: Kolombiya / کۆلۆمبیا

mlg: Kôlômbia

mlt: Kolombja

mol: Columbia / Колумбия

msa: Colombia / كولومبيا

nrm: Coloumbie

oci: Colómbia

por: Colômbia

que: Kulumbya

rmy: Kolumbiya / कोलुम्बिया

slo: Kolombia / Коломбиа

smg: Kolumbėjė

smo: Kolomepia

szl: Kolůmbja

tet: Kolómbia

tgl: Kolombya; Kolombiya

ton: Kolomupia

tuk: Kolumbiýa / Колумбия

vie: Cô-lôm-bi-a

vol: Kolumbän

wln: Colombeye

wol: Koloombi

alt | bul | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | rus | tyv | udm: Колумбия (Kolumbija)

che | chv | oss: Колумби (Kolumbi)

abq: Колумбия (Kołumbija)

bak: Колумбия / Kolumbiya

bel: Калумбія / Kałumbija; Калюмбія / Kalumbija

chm: Колумбий (Kolumbij)

kaz: Колумбия / Kolwmbïya / كولۋمبيا

kbd: Колумбие (Kolumbie)

mkd: Колумбија (Kolumbija)

mon: Колумб (Kolumb)

srp: Колумбија / Kolumbija

tat: Колумбия / Kolumbiä

tgk: Колумбия / کالومبیه / Kolumbija

ukr: Колумбія (Kolumbija)

ara: كولومبيا (Kūlūmbiyā)

fas: کلمبیا / کولومبیا (Kolombiyā)

prs: کولمبیا (Kōlambiyā)

pus: کولمبيا (Kolambiyā)

uig: كولۇمبىيە / Kolumbiye / Колумбия

urd: کولمبیا (Kolambiyā)

div: ކޮލަންބިއާ (Kolanbi'ā)

heb: קולומביה (Qôlômbiyah)

lad: קולומביה / Kolombia

yid: קאָלאָמביע (Kolombye)

amh: ኮሎምብያ (Kolombya)

ell: Κολομβία (Kolomvía)

hye: Կոլումբիա (Koloumbia)

kat: კოლუმბია (Kolumbia)

hin: कोलंबिया (Kolaṁbiyā); कोलोम्बिया (Kolombiyā)

ben: কলম্বিয়া (Kôlômbiyā); কলোম্বিয়া (Kôlombiyā); কোলোম্বিয়া (Kolombiyā)

pan: ਕੋਲੰਬੀਆ (Kolaṁbīā)

kan: ಕೊಲಂಬಿಯ (Kolaṁbiya)

mal: കൊളംബിയ (Koḷaṁbiya)

tam: கொலம்பியா (Kolampiyā); கொலொம்பியா (Kolompiyā)

tel: కొలంబియా (Kolaṁbiyā)

zho: 哥倫比亞/哥伦比亚 (Gēlúnbǐyà)

jpn: コロンビア (Koronbia)

kor: 콜롬비아 (Kollombia)

bod: ཁོ་ལོམ་བི་ཡ་ (Kʰo.lom.bi.ya.)

mya: ကုိလံဘီယာ (Kolãbʰiya)

tha: โคลอมเบีย (Kʰōlɔ̄mbiya)

lao: ໂກລົມບີ (Kōlômbī)

khm: កូឡុំប៊ី (Kūḷuṁbī)

 

SINDH 1956-1976 (1979)

Sources:

Historique de la flotte des Messageries Maritimes du commandant Lanfant

Le grand Siècle des Messageries Maritimes du Dr Paul Bois Tome V

Encyclopédie des Messageries Maritimes de Philippe Ramona (site sur le web)

Le forum des anciens des Messageries. De nombreuses photographies, anecdotes et précisons sont régulièrement mises en ligne.

Monsieur Xavier Escallier qui a très amicalement mis à ma disposition sa collection de cartes postales des Messageries.

Les différents sites internet sur la marine marchande, qu'ils soient Britanniques, Espagnols, Français ou autres.

Différents ouvrages personnel sur l'histoire de la marine marchande française.

Indexe (1) : Données du commandant Lanfant dans ouvrage.

Indexe (2) : Données du Docteur Paul Bois dans son ouvrage.

Indexe (3) : Données de Mr Philippe Ramona sur son site web

--------------------------------------------

4ème de la série de 10 des cargos de 8300 tonnes de port en lourd de Type F commandés à partir de 1954

Construit par les chantiers et Ateliers de Provence de La Ciotat

1956 le 4 février: Lancement Commandant du navire durant la construction Pailhes. Marraine Mme Ludovic Tron.

1956 Livré le 21 juin: à Marseille

 

CARACTÉRISTIQUES :

Navire à Shelter deck, 3 ponts continus. La méthode de construction soudée a été largement employée.

Longueur: 148,99 mHT et 139,06 m PP

Largeur: 18.8 m

Jauge brute 7000 tjb 7051 tjb (2)

Jauge nette: (2) 3887 tn

Port en lourd 9000 tonnes, - 9090 t (2)

Déplacement: 13800 t

Capacité 15000 m3 dont 600m3 en 3 cuves pour le latex ou l'huile et 120 m3 en cales frigos.(NB avant chaque chargement (agrumes – pommes –poires ou viande congelée ou ''child'' selon les lignes) par ozonisation.

Cales: 5

Manutention: Cales desservies par 10 mâts de charge de5 tonnes, 4 de 10 t et 2 bigues de 30 et 60 tonnes.

Fermetures par panneaux Mac Gregor single pull.

Ventilation des cales: système cargocaire

 

PROPULSION :

1 moteur Burmeister et Wain 2 temps simple effet, 9 cylindres 974 VTF 160

Combustible: Fuel lourd à la mer en Route Libre. Manœuvres au Diesel oil.

Puissance: 8300 cv a 115 t/mn

Vitesse: 18 nds aux essais et 16 nds en service

1 hélice accouplement fixe.

1 cheminée.

ÉLECTRICITÉ:

3 Groupes électrogènes Allen Dujardin de 250 Kw et 220 v

1 Chaudière de récupération à la mer de 2000 k/h sous 4 bars

1 Chaudière de mouillage Menpenti au fuel de 1000 k/h sous 4 bars au port.

 

PERSONNEL :

État-major 10 Officiers

Équipage: 23 hommes, réduit à 17 hommes en 1970.(accord tripartites Armement - Syndicats - État)

Pas de conditionnement d'air à bord.

 

PASSAGERS :

Passagers 6 - supprimés en 1970 avec la réduction d'effectif.

 

LIGNE :

1956 le 16 Juillet: Départ de Marseille du voyage inaugural

1956 août Mis en service sur la ligne Hambourg- Philippines/Japon puis la ligne de Chine.

1962 Mis en service sur la ligne du Sud Est Asiatique

  

ÉVÉNEMENTS :

1956 Marseille Avarie de vireur du Moteur. Réparation provisoire. 2 j. de retard.

1956 KOBE Réparation définitive du vireur. 10 j. de retard.

1961 le 11 décembre: Appareillant d'Anvers par coup de vent, heurte la drague FABIOLA. Avaries peu importantes.

1962 le 16 janvier: Relâche à Messine pour débarquer le matelot Chi Haoui atteint d'une appendicite aiguë.

1963 le 10 février: En accostant à Sihanoukville occasionne des avaries importantes à l'appontement et à sa coque.

1964 le 3 janvier: Au large de Terneuzen par temps de brume, il aborde le pétrolier BORDER FUSILIER. Peu d'avaries.

1964 le 26 décembre: En prenant avec le pilote le chenal de l'Escaut-Oriental il s'échoue. Fais appel verbalement en hollandais à deux remorqueurs Hollandais qui le déséchoue. Contrat verbal d'assistance transformé en contrat de simple remorquage par Monsieur Roch Ménés inspecteur de la Compagnie.

1965 le 27 décembre: En déhalant à Anvers, heurte avec son étrave, celle du britannique ELYSIA. Légères avaries.

1966 le 2 décembre: En remontant le Donaï (rivière de Saïgon) il est mitraillé et canonné. De nombreux impacts, un obus de mortier non explosé dans le local mâtereau où sont entreposées les bouteilles de gaz Oxygène et acétylène. Carré des officiers (venant juste d'être évacué) vitres des sabords sont complètement pulvérisées. Un éclat de mortier dessertis le hublot du Second Capitaine et vient se planter sous le lit où celui-ci faisait la sieste. Il n'y aura heureusement que deux blessés légers.

1967. 5 juin: Commandant Touchard. En convoi vers la Méditerranée bloqué dans le canal lors de l'attaque Israélienne avec 12 autres navires.

1967 le 17 juin: Le consul de France se rend à bord 3 Officiers et 21 hommes sur 45 en tout seront rapatriés le 27 juin. Ensuite relève tous les 6 mois d'un noyau d'équipage, pour l'entretien du navire et appareiller pour faire un tour du Lac Amer et essayer les appareils.

1968 le 8 février: J'y embarquerai comme second mécanicien via Le Caire et Ismaïlia avec le chef mécanicien Prédal Adolphe ainsi que 3 ou 4 autres membres de l'équipage. (Plus de souvenir des noms) Escale à Rome, puis Rome Le Caire (nous étions les seuls passagers). Arrivée au Caire pour la nuit. Départ le lendemain pour Ismaïlia. En pleine zone de guerre.

 

RETRAIT et FIN:

1967 le 5 juin: Attaque Israélienne contre l'Égypte. Le convoi montant (vers la Méditerranée) est bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer du Canal de Suez. Commandant Touchard.

1970 Août: Abandon du navire et du fret.

1970 Août: Vendu par les assurances en Norvège comme épave pour la somme de 305.000 £.

1970 en août: Prend le nom de ESSAYONS reste bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer.

1975 Vendu à sa sortie du Canal à l'Arabie Saoudite il prend le nom de BADR.

1983 Disparaît des listes du Lloyd.

  

[Taken in Janakpur (Nepal) - 28Sep10]

 

28/09/2010

 

JANAKPUR BY DAWN

 

Arrivés à Janakpur à 5:00, après 23h45 de voyage.

Usés.

Poisseux.

Fatigués.

Le bus nous a laissés à l’extrémité opposée de la ville par rapport à l’hôtel que nous visions. A alors commencé une balade d’une heure dans des rues qui petit à petit s’éveillaient, jonchées de détritus et de bouses de vaches, défoncées, envahies de moustiques.

Des gens se lavaient au bord d’une sorte d’étang. A côté d’eux une femme y faisait sa vaisselle.

Finalement arrivés à la Kathmandu Guest House, pour ma part épuisé et trempé, l’endroit s’est avéré ne pas avoir de chambres libres. On nous a renvoyés vers un autre hôtel, plus luxueux, finalement tout aussi complet, où l’on nous a orientés vers un hôtel que nous avions noté lors de notre passage devant, trente minutes plus tôt, et qui s’est avéré fermé.

Nous nous sommes donc trainés vers un hôtel au hasard, à proximité, le Janaki Raj, avec une chambre à 1500 Roupies (13,50 Euros) la nuit, le grand luxe, avec climatisation. Là j’ai sauté sous la douche, installé ma moustiquaire et me suis couché, alors que Rémi repartait en vadrouille. Cet homme est inusable.

Dormi 3h, jusque 10:00.

Une anecdote tout de même. Alors que, douche prise, je discutais, en boxer, avec Rémi, lui-même en chemise et slip, quelqu’un frappa à la porte. Le temps d'enfiler un pantalon, Rémi alla ouvrir. Entra alors un employé de l’hôtel, une télécommande à la main, qui sans un mot alluma la clim, la régla sur 22°C, et reparti avec la télécommande.

 

JANAKPUR BY DAY

 

Après mon réveil, nous avons chacun fait une lessive et je me suis rendu compte que dans la précipitation du départ, j’avais oublié ma chouette chemise sable séchant dans la chambre à Bhurigan.

Rémi quant à lui s’est rendu compte qu’il avait perdu ou qu’on lui avait volé son enregistreur durant le trajet de la nuit. Il avait pour idée de retourner à la gare routière où devait repasser le bus de Htapa vers 15:00, histoire de vérifier, au cas où il pourrait récupérer sa machine.

Nous sommes d’abord allés changer quelques euros histoire de terminer la partie népalaise de notre périple, ce qui m’a permit d’être de nouveau trempé.

Puis nous sommes allés à la gare routière d’où nous devons également partir demain matin.

Rémi et sa boussole magique nous ont fait faire un détour par les bas-fonds de Janakpur qui a triplé, au moins, notre temps de marche, et donc de ma sudation.

Rémi ayant très peu d’espoir, je lui signifiais qu’il avait une chance sur un million de retrouver son enregistreur et que de ce fait, selon Terry Pratchett, cela arriverait inévitablement.

Nous avons acheté nos tickets pour Dharan, avons bu un coup, et sommes finalement allés dans un cybercafé.

Je suis resté 1h20 sur internet (pour 40 Rs, soit 0.45 Euros), entrecoupée de pannes de courant, et ai peut-être booké un certain nombre de nuits à Kolkata en couchsurfing.

Rémi n’est resté qu’une demi-heure, pour ensuite retourner à la gare routière. D’où il est revenu avec son enregistreur, qui avait été soigneusement mis de côté par Htapa !

De là, nous sommes partis en rickshaw pour une banlieue de Janakpur, le village de Kuwa, afin de visiter l’intéressant Women’s Development Centre, où des femmes font des tableaux, poteries, tissus, … représentant l’art Mithila.

En repartant, traversant Kuwa, j’ai été assailli par les enfants voulant tous être pris en photo. Les mères étaient heureuses et me demandaient de photographier leurs filles et fils. Les enfants se bousculaient et enchainaient les « Photo ! » et les « Chocolat ! ».

Très beau moment à rire avec eux, à leur montrer leurs visages en photo, qu’ils se précipitaient, immédiatement après avoir entendu le clic de l’appareil, pour voir. Le plus dur a été de s’extraire de la petite foule enthousiaste.

A part cela, la constatation récurrente est l’absence totale d’hygiène publique dans laquelle ces gens vivent, au milieu d’immondices et de canaux à l’eau croupie.

 

LE MAUVAIS CÔTÉ DE LA ROUTE, ET LE TEMPLE INTERDIT MAIS PAS VRAIMENT

 

Retour à pied à Janakpur, dégustant un bon samossa et une autre spécialité frite à base de pomme de terre, de haricots, et de curry.

Un trio de jeunes hommes d’une vingtaine d’années est ensuite venu nous trouver alors que nous marchions à droite de la route pour nous demander :

« - Why are you walking on the wrong side of the road? »

Effectivement, tous les piétons de ce côté-ci marchaient dans le sens inverse du notre.

La discussion s’est engagée, comme d’habitude, sur d’où nous venions, ce que nous avions vu au Népal, … Ils étaient tous trois étudiants, très concernés par la pollution de leur pays, et très curieux.

Quand ils ont appris que j’écris, ils ont voulu connaître les titres de mes livres, pour les lire et ont été déçus qu’ils ne soient qu’en français.

Alors que nous étions arrêtés pour nous dire au-revoir et que je leur donnais ma carte, un attroupement s’est immédiatement formé autour de nous, par pure curiosité.

Nous avons ensuite visité deux temples, dont le premier, le Janaki Mandir, immense, n’est pas autorisé aux étrangers, du moins l’intérieur. Demandant à un policier assis sur une chaise si nous pouvions entrer, il nous a fait asseoir à côté de lui, puis nous a répondu que non, puis nous a dit de le suivre et nous a amenés à l’intérieur.

Par deux fois là encore, des jeunes ont hésité puis se sont décidés à venir nous parler, créant des attroupements. La taille de Rémi fait toujours sensation.

Le diner aura été constitué d’un très bon plat de pâtes, épicé juste ce qu’il fallait, sous les yeux d’une vache sacrée. Le patron de l’endroit est venu s’asseoir près de notre table… et le sympathique interrogatoire a recommencé.

De retour à l’hôtel, nous nous sommes rendu compte que Rémi avait mélangé l’argent de notre caisse commune avec ses fonds propres changés dans l’après-midi. Il nous a fallu vingt bonnes minutes pour tout recalculer. Et je lui ai fait mettre les fonds communs à part, dans un ziploc, et non plus dans sa poche de chemise, qui me stresse toujours.

La ville semble beaucoup plus « indienne » que celles que nous avons traversé jusque là.

Il est 22:10. Le réveil sonne à 3:45, départ à 4:30 pour un bus à 5:15. C’est l’enfer.

 

See all the photos of this trip in this set : 20Sep-14Oct10 - Nepal & India [Trip]

See all the photos of Nepal in this set : Nepal [Country]

See all the random portraits in this set : Portraits [Random]

[Taken in Janakpur (Nepal) - 28Sep10]

 

28/09/2010

 

JANAKPUR BY DAWN

 

Arrivés à Janakpur à 5:00, après 23h45 de voyage.

Usés.

Poisseux.

Fatigués.

Le bus nous a laissés à l’extrémité opposée de la ville par rapport à l’hôtel que nous visions. A alors commencé une balade d’une heure dans des rues qui petit à petit s’éveillaient, jonchées de détritus et de bouses de vaches, défoncées, envahies de moustiques.

Des gens se lavaient au bord d’une sorte d’étang. A côté d’eux une femme y faisait sa vaisselle.

Finalement arrivés à la Kathmandu Guest House, pour ma part épuisé et trempé, l’endroit s’est avéré ne pas avoir de chambres libres. On nous a renvoyés vers un autre hôtel, plus luxueux, finalement tout aussi complet, où l’on nous a orientés vers un hôtel que nous avions noté lors de notre passage devant, trente minutes plus tôt, et qui s’est avéré fermé.

Nous nous sommes donc trainés vers un hôtel au hasard, à proximité, le Janaki Raj, avec une chambre à 1500 Roupies (13,50 Euros) la nuit, le grand luxe, avec climatisation. Là j’ai sauté sous la douche, installé ma moustiquaire et me suis couché, alors que Rémi repartait en vadrouille. Cet homme est inusable.

Dormi 3h, jusque 10:00.

Une anecdote tout de même. Alors que, douche prise, je discutais, en boxer, avec Rémi, lui-même en chemise et slip, quelqu’un frappa à la porte. Le temps d'enfiler un pantalon, Rémi alla ouvrir. Entra alors un employé de l’hôtel, une télécommande à la main, qui sans un mot alluma la clim, la régla sur 22°C, et reparti avec la télécommande.

 

JANAKPUR BY DAY

 

Après mon réveil, nous avons chacun fait une lessive et je me suis rendu compte que dans la précipitation du départ, j’avais oublié ma chouette chemise sable séchant dans la chambre à Bhurigan.

Rémi quant à lui s’est rendu compte qu’il avait perdu ou qu’on lui avait volé son enregistreur durant le trajet de la nuit. Il avait pour idée de retourner à la gare routière où devait repasser le bus de Htapa vers 15:00, histoire de vérifier, au cas où il pourrait récupérer sa machine.

Nous sommes d’abord allés changer quelques euros histoire de terminer la partie népalaise de notre périple, ce qui m’a permit d’être de nouveau trempé.

Puis nous sommes allés à la gare routière d’où nous devons également partir demain matin.

Rémi et sa boussole magique nous ont fait faire un détour par les bas-fonds de Janakpur qui a triplé, au moins, notre temps de marche, et donc de ma sudation.

Rémi ayant très peu d’espoir, je lui signifiais qu’il avait une chance sur un million de retrouver son enregistreur et que de ce fait, selon Terry Pratchett, cela arriverait inévitablement.

Nous avons acheté nos tickets pour Dharan, avons bu un coup, et sommes finalement allés dans un cybercafé.

Je suis resté 1h20 sur internet (pour 40 Rs, soit 0.45 Euros), entrecoupée de pannes de courant, et ai peut-être booké un certain nombre de nuits à Kolkata en couchsurfing.

Rémi n’est resté qu’une demi-heure, pour ensuite retourner à la gare routière. D’où il est revenu avec son enregistreur, qui avait été soigneusement mis de côté par Htapa !

De là, nous sommes partis en rickshaw pour une banlieue de Janakpur, le village de Kuwa, afin de visiter l’intéressant Women’s Development Centre, où des femmes font des tableaux, poteries, tissus, … représentant l’art Mithila.

En repartant, traversant Kuwa, j’ai été assailli par les enfants voulant tous être pris en photo. Les mères étaient heureuses et me demandaient de photographier leurs filles et fils. Les enfants se bousculaient et enchainaient les « Photo ! » et les « Chocolat ! ».

Très beau moment à rire avec eux, à leur montrer leurs visages en photo, qu’ils se précipitaient, immédiatement après avoir entendu le clic de l’appareil, pour voir. Le plus dur a été de s’extraire de la petite foule enthousiaste.

A part cela, la constatation récurrente est l’absence totale d’hygiène publique dans laquelle ces gens vivent, au milieu d’immondices et de canaux à l’eau croupie.

 

LE MAUVAIS CÔTÉ DE LA ROUTE, ET LE TEMPLE INTERDIT MAIS PAS VRAIMENT

 

Retour à pied à Janakpur, dégustant un bon samossa et une autre spécialité frite à base de pomme de terre, de haricots, et de curry.

Un trio de jeunes hommes d’une vingtaine d’années est ensuite venu nous trouver alors que nous marchions à droite de la route pour nous demander :

« - Why are you walking on the wrong side of the road? »

Effectivement, tous les piétons de ce côté-ci marchaient dans le sens inverse du notre.

La discussion s’est engagée, comme d’habitude, sur d’où nous venions, ce que nous avions vu au Népal, … Ils étaient tous trois étudiants, très concernés par la pollution de leur pays, et très curieux.

Quand ils ont appris que j’écris, ils ont voulu connaître les titres de mes livres, pour les lire et ont été déçus qu’ils ne soient qu’en français.

Alors que nous étions arrêtés pour nous dire au-revoir et que je leur donnais ma carte, un attroupement s’est immédiatement formé autour de nous, par pure curiosité.

Nous avons ensuite visité deux temples, dont le premier, le Janaki Mandir, immense, n’est pas autorisé aux étrangers, du moins l’intérieur. Demandant à un policier assis sur une chaise si nous pouvions entrer, il nous a fait asseoir à côté de lui, puis nous a répondu que non, puis nous a dit de le suivre et nous a amenés à l’intérieur.

Par deux fois là encore, des jeunes ont hésité puis se sont décidés à venir nous parler, créant des attroupements. La taille de Rémi fait toujours sensation.

Le diner aura été constitué d’un très bon plat de pâtes, épicé juste ce qu’il fallait, sous les yeux d’une vache sacrée. Le patron de l’endroit est venu s’asseoir près de notre table… et le sympathique interrogatoire a recommencé.

De retour à l’hôtel, nous nous sommes rendu compte que Rémi avait mélangé l’argent de notre caisse commune avec ses fonds propres changés dans l’après-midi. Il nous a fallu vingt bonnes minutes pour tout recalculer. Et je lui ai fait mettre les fonds communs à part, dans un ziploc, et non plus dans sa poche de chemise, qui me stresse toujours.

La ville semble beaucoup plus « indienne » que celles que nous avons traversé jusque là.

Il est 22:10. Le réveil sonne à 3:45, départ à 4:30 pour un bus à 5:15. C’est l’enfer.

 

See all the photos of this trip in this set : 20Sep-14Oct10 - Nepal & India [Trip]

See all the photos of Nepal in this set : Nepal [Country]

See all the random portraits in this set : Portraits [Random]

My highest compliments to all concerned for excellent site."Sir, You have taken a right step to get those Swings removed from site of Harrapa" , Visitors thanked great scholar Dani when I visited his house in 2005. I had taken years to get it done by publishing many articles requesting peoples to create more facilities at cultural heritage sites. My kids and wife would had been cursing me for taking them to Harrapa quite often , My family was not craking Indus Scripts in 1989 because I had more than one computer as Manager Army Computer Club Okara but they had to crack Indus Scripts in 1995 becaue we had just one 486 computer for 3 kids and myself. What attraction kids and families had in ruins visiting 7th time.

“ What you think about round stone with stone round rod in the center and other on the top with hole in the center like grinding stone on top” , my expert visitor Egyptian asked on my 7th visit to Museum of Sasi & Punu two lovers near Twin port Karachi. Being from stone age cultural area , still using hand grinding in 1980 , acting as guide to my guest during last 6 tours , I thought it some sort of grinding though grinding stone are opposite to this , top has a wooen handle to move the stone , hole in the center has wooden piece a slot to where fulcrum from lower stone stone rest. Lower stone has a hole and tappered wooden piece is used for adjust ment of fuckrum. “ But how you would move this set for grinding , this is from tepmle used by issueless women “ , my expert visitor guided me on 7th visit.

My compliments to Thailand tourism , Ms Nani and the driver , she guided me in such an excellent fashon in 1995 that I still remember her. “ No guidence in the way , I would sit with driver , you have to be VIP not speaking a word “ , Nani gave the briefing on a cup of coffe before we started for visit of Royal Palace. She was such an excellent guide that she even gave out out cost of golden budda’s constume , golden bricks on the outer wall of golden temple. They had even kept book on Bhuddaism in my room. Bhudaism started from Taxila Pakistan but we have to make living model of previous prehistoric cultures of snake worshipers and other

 

Historical Perspective

1st success decryption of Indus Scripts confirmed through works of Dani, B B Lal , Mehdewan, Fair Server , Mark, Russian Professoers and many others in the century was approved by Dani in 2005. South Asia as most peaceful global trader and protector of global trading routes was known as ‘golden sparrow’.Everyone got job at his home and economy was stable. “ We must share our research work because there is no government support” Dani said . We have many secrets from Indus Script decryption that can make South Asia as most peaceful region for global trading. Global Peace Mega Project at. twitter.com/#!/nazeeraahmadch. We salute Anhazari for greatmove against anti corruption

Harappan civilization reached improbable heights and evolved amazing scripts .

Ancient inscriptions and pictorials starting from Mehrgarh Gedrosia 7000 BC till fall of civilization have always been an enigma. The glories of the ruined cities and their amazing un-deciphered script had many researchers imagining a gentle society of priests and scribes. Our decrypted secrets explain a culture that reached the heights of artistic achievement during 1900-1300 BC termed as Harappan civilization. New clues, unearthed from research on ruins and from our decrypted secrets point to new civilization of global trading termed as Matured Harappan

The settlement of Kot Diji culture mostly remained l hidden under the ruins of Mohenjodaro , Harappa and other big cities now known as Harappan Civilization 2600-1900 BC . Ethno-archaeological model is assuming much as it was when the first 50 hunting groups arrived in perhaps 8000 – 7000 BC connected with the arrival of Adam on earth. A dense forest , marshes and barren land where wild animals ruled was shared by manlike creatures . scarlet macaws, toucans, and vultures nest in towering tropical hardwoods. Scorpions , mountain , goats , fish , water buffalos lived together . These creatures and monkeys swing from branches and vines and howler monkeys bellow in the distance. It had been a land of jungle , marshes , mud, serpents and sweat, and tigers and horned tigers the lord of the jungle . The earliest arrivals of these creatures has been excavated in Samma Soan Valley of stone age where we find caves is probably had no choice—overcrowding elsewhere may have forced them into this forbidding environment. But once there, they mastered its challenges. Settling near rivers, lakes, and swamps, they learned to maximize the thin soil's productivity. They cleared the forest for maize, squash, and other crops by slashing and burning, much as today's Maya do, then re-enriched the land by alternating crops and letting fields lie fallow.

As populations grew, they adopted more intensive methods of cultivation—composting, terracing, irrigation. They filled in swamps to create fields and carried silt and muck from bottomlands to fertilize enclosed gardens. Artificial ponds yielded fish, and corrals held deer and other game flushed from the forest. The ancient Maya ultimately coaxed enough sustenance from the meager land for several million people, many times more than now live in the region.

Over the centuries, as the Maya learned to prosper in the rain forest, the settlements grew into city-states, and the culture became ever more refined. The Maya built elegant multiroom palaces with vaulted ceilings; their temples rose hundreds of feet toward the heavens. Ceramics, murals, and sculpture displayed their distinctive artistic style, intricate and colorful. Though they used neither the wheel nor metal tools, they developed a complete hieroglyphic writing system and grasped the concept of zero, adopting it for everyday calculations. They also had a 365-day year and were sophisticated enough to make leap-year-like corrections. They regularly observed the stars, predicted solar eclipses, and angled their ceremonial buildings so that they faced sunrise or sunset at particular times of year.

Mediating between the heavens and earth were the Maya kings—the kuhul ajaw, or holy lords, who derived their power from the gods. They functioned both as shamans, interpreting religion and ideology, and rulers who led their subjects in peace and war. Demarest and others have described the Maya centers as "theater states" in which the kuhul ajaw conducted elaborate public rituals to give metaphysical meaning to movements of the heavens, changes of the calendar, and the royal succession.

Behind the cloak of ritual, the Maya cities acted like states everywhere, making alliances, fighting wars, and trading for goods over territory that ultimately stretched from what is today southern Mexico through the Petén to the Caribbean coast of Honduras. Well-worn trails and stucco-paved causeways crisscrossed the forest, and canoes plied the rivers. But until Fire Is Born arrived, the Maya remained politically fragmented, the city-states charting their own courses in the jungle.

By 378 Waka was a prestigious center, boasting four main plazas, hundreds of buildings, temple mounds up to 300 feet (90 meters) tall, ceremonial palaces clad in painted stucco, and courtyards graced with carved limestone altars and monuments. A trading power, it occupied a strategic location on the San Pedro River, which flowed westward from the heart of the Petén. Its market was filled with Maya foodstuffs such as maize, beans, chilies, and avocados, along with chicle harvested from sapodilla trees to make glue, and latex from rubber trees to make balls for ceremonial games. Exotic goods found their way to Waka as well. Jade for sculpture and jewelry and quetzal feathers for costumes came from the mountains to the south, and obsidian for weapons and pyrite for mirrors from the Mexican plateau to the west, the domain of Teotihuacan.

A sprawling metropolis of 100,000 people or more—perhaps the largest city in the world at the time—Teotihuacan left no records that epigraphers have been able to decipher. But its motives in dispatching Fire Is Born to the Maya region seem clear. Waka sat on a promontory overlooking a tributary of the San Pedro with a protected harbor, excellent for berthing large canoes. "It was a perfect staging area" for military action, notes Southern Methodist University archaeologist David Freidel, co-director of excavations at Waka. Which may be precisely what Fire Is Born had in mind.

Waka appears to have been key to the envoy's mission: to bring the entire central Petén into Teotihuacan's orbit, through persuasion if possible, force if necessary. His principal target was Tikal, a kingdom 50 miles (80 kilometers) east of Waka. Tikal was the most influential city-state in the central Petén. Bring Tikal into the fold, and the other cities would follow.

Fire Is Born's soldiers were probably shock troops, designed principally to display his bona fides and demonstrate good faith. He needed reinforcements, and he had come to Waka to get them. In return, he could offer the goodwill of his patron, a mysterious ruler known from inscriptions as Spear-thrower Owl, probably a highland king, perhaps even the lord of Teotihuacan.

Waka's ruler, Sun-faced Jaguar, apparently welcomed Fire Is Born. Based on hints in texts from Waka and other sources, Freidel, project co-director Héctor Escobedo, and epigrapher Stanley Guenter suggest that the two rulers cemented their alliance by building a fire shrine to house the sacred flame of Teotihuacan.

Along with moral support, Fire Is Born probably secured troops. His expeditionary force likely carried the spear-throwers and javelins typical of Teotihuacan and wore backshields covered with glittery pyrite, perhaps meant to dazzle the enemy when the soldiers spun around to hurl their weapons. Now warriors from the Petén, equipped with stone axes and short stabbing spears, swelled their ranks. As armor, many wore cotton vests stuffed with rock salt. Eleven hundred years later, the Spanish conquistadores shed their own metal armor in the sweltering rain forest in favor of these Maya "flak jackets."

The military expedition most likely set out for Tikal in war canoes, heading east, up the San Pedro River. Reaching the headwaters, the soldiers disembarked and marched either along the river or on the canyon rim overlooking it.

Garrisons probably dotted the route. News of the advancing column must have reached Tikal, and somewhere along the stretch of riverbank and roadway, perhaps at a break in the cliffs about 16 miles (26 kilometers) from the city, Tikal's army tried to stop Fire Is Born's advance. Inscribed slabs, called stelae, later erected at Tikal suggest that the defenders were routed. Fire Is Born's forces continued their march on the city. By January 16, 378—barely a week after his arrival in Waka—the conqueror was in Tikal.

The date is noted on Tikal's now famous Stela 31, which yielded early clues to Fire Is Born's importance when David Stuart of the University of Texas at Austin deciphered it in 2000. The second passage on the stela records what happened after the city fell: Tikal's king, Great Jaguar Paw, died that very day, probably at the hands of the vanquishers.

Fire Is Born appears to have dropped whatever pretense he had assumed as a goodwill ambassador. His forces destroyed most of Tikal's existing monuments—stelae put in place by 14 earlier rulers of Tikal. A new era had begun, and later monuments celebrated the victors. Stela 31, erected long after the conquest, describes Fire Is Born as Ochkin Kaloomte, or Lord of the West, probably referring to his origins in Teotihuacan. Some Maya experts have also suggested another meaning: that Fire Is Born represented a faction that had fled to the west—to Teotihuacan—after a coup d'état by Great Jaguar Paw's father years earlier and had now returned to power.

It apparently took Fire Is Born some time to pacify Tikal and its environs. But a year after his arrival, Tikal's monuments record that he presided over the ascension of a new, foreign king. Inscriptions identify him as the son of Spear-thrower Owl, Fire Is Born's patron in Teotihuacan. According to Stela 31, the new king was less than 20 years old, so Fire Is Born probably became Tikal's regent. He was certainly the city's de facto overlord.

In the years that followed the conquest, Tikal itself went on the offensive, expanding its reach across the Maya region. Fire Is Born appears to have masterminded the campaign, or at least inspired it. References to him have been identified in cities as distant as Palenque, more than 150 miles (240 kilometers) to the northwest. But the most poignant testimony to his empire-building comes from Uaxactún, just 12 miles (19 kilometers) from Tikal. There a mural shows a Maya nobleman giving homage to a warrior in Teotihuacan regalia—perhaps one of Fire Is Born's troops. A stela depicting a similar warrior guards a tomb where archaeologists found the remains of two women, one pregnant, a child, and an infant. Freidel and others have concluded that these were the remains of Uaxactún's royal family, slain by Tikal's forces. The king, presumably, was taken to Tikal and sacrificed there.

Decades after the arrival of Fire Is Born and long after he must have died, the aggressive rulers of Tikal continued to invoke Fire Is Born and his patron state, Teotihuacan. In 426, Tikal took over Copán, 170 miles (274 kilometers) to the south in present-day Honduras, and crowned its own king, Kinich Yax Kuk Mo, who became the founder of a new dynasty. A posthumous portrait shows him wearing a costume typical of central Mexico—a reference to Teotihuacan—and like Fire Is Born, he bore the title Lord of the West.

Some Mayanists believe that Tikal was acting as a vassal state for Teotihuacan, expanding its dominion throughout the Maya lowlands, with Fire Is Born acting as a kind of military governor. Others see him less as a conqueror and more as a catalyst who spurred Tikal to expand its own power and influence.

His fate is a mystery. There is no known record of his death, and no evidence that he ever ruled a Maya kingdom. But his prestige lived on. The Waka stela recording his arrival there wasn't erected until a generation later, indicating that even a long-ago visit from the great Fire Is Born was a matter of civic pride.

For more than a millennium, the Maya had entrusted their religious and temporal well-being to their god-kings. These leaders displayed their might and majesty in lavish rituals and pageants, in opulent art and architecture, and in written records of their triumphs, inscribed on stone, murals, and ceramics.

The system prospered—indeed, its excesses created the artistic achievements and learning that defined the Maya as one of the ancient world's great cultures—as long as the land could satisfy people's basic needs. This was easy at first when cities were small and resources relatively plentiful, but over time, growing populations, an expanding nobility, and rivalry between the city-states strained the limits of the environment.

Today the Petén, geographically the largest province in Guatemala, has a population of 367,000, living in isolated towns scattered through a forested wilderness. In the eighth century, by some estimates, ten million people lived in the Maya lowlands. The landscape was an almost unbroken fabric of intensely cultivated farms, gardens, and villages, linked by a web of trails and paved causeways connecting monumental city-states.

Maya farmers were well schooled in sophisticated techniques designed to get maximum production from delicate tropical soils. But beginning in the ninth century, studies of lake-bed sediments show, a series of prolonged droughts struck the Maya world, hitting especially hard in cities like Tikal, which depended on rain both for drinking water and to reinvigorate the swampland bajos where farmers grew their crops. River ports like Cancuén might have escaped water shortages, but across much of the Maya region the lake-bed sediments also show ancient layers of eroded soil, testimony to deforestation and overuse of the land.

When bad times came, there was little the kuhul ajaw could do to help their people. Monoculture farming—growing one staple food crop that could be accumulated and stored for hard times or for trade—could not be sustained in the rain forest. Instead, each city-state produced small quantities of many different food items, such as maize, beans, squash, and cacao. There was enough, at least at first, to feed the kingdom, but little left over.

Meanwhile, Maya society was growing dangerously top heavy. Over time, elite polygamy and intermarriage among royal families swelled the ruling class. The lords demanded jade, shells, feathers from the exotic quetzal bird, fancy ceramics, and other expensive ceremonial accoutrements to affirm their status in the Maya cosmos. A king who could not meet the requirements of his relatives risked alienating them.

The traditional rivalry among states only made matters worse. The kuhul ajaw strove to outdo their neighbors, building bigger temples and more elegant palaces and staging more elaborate public pageants. All of this required more labor, which required larger populations and, perhaps, more wars to exact tribute in forced labor from fallen enemies. Overtaxed, the Maya political system began to falter.

This period marked the golden age of Classic Maya civilization. The kuhul ajaw were in full flower in these two great alliances, competing in art and monuments as well as in frequent but limited wars. Calakmul defeated Tikal in a major battle in 562 but destroyed neither the city nor its population. Eventually Tikal rebounded and defeated Calakmul, subsequently building many of its most spectacular monuments.

Simon Martin, with Nikolai Grube of the University of Bonn, compares the Tikal-Calakmul rivalry to the superpower struggle of the 20th century, when the U.S. and the Soviet Union competed to outdo each other in fields ranging from weaponry to space travel. With neither side ever able to gain the upper hand, the Cold War arguably brought stability, and so did the standoff in the Maya world. "There was a certain degree of destruction" because of the rivalry, says Guatemalan archaeologist Héctor Escobedo. "But there was also equilibrium."

It did not last. Martin suggests the balance may have been intrinsically unstable, like the competition among the city-states of ancient Greece, or the nervous grappling between North and South in the United States prior to the Civil War. Or perhaps an overstressed environment finally caught up with the proud Maya powers, bringing a new edge of desperation to their rivalry. Either way, the unraveling began at the small garrison state of Dos Pilas, near the Pasión River downstream of Cancuén.

In 630 Tikal, trying to reassert a presence along Pasión River trade routes increasingly dominated by Calakmul, expanded an existing outpost near two large springs—pilas, in Spanish. The site had little else to recommend it. Dos Pilas grew no crops and sold nothing. Scholars call it a "predator state" that depended on tribute from the surrounding countryside. War, for Dos Pilas, was not only a ritual to glorify kings and appease gods. War was what Dos Pilas did to survive.

The kingdom's history of violence and duplicity began when Tikal installed one of its princes, Balaj Chan Kawiil, as Dos Pilas's ruler in 635. The garrison slapped together a fancy-looking capital for the young prince, using carved facades to mask loose and unstable construction fill. But in 658 Calakmul overran Dos Pilas and drove Balaj Chan Kawiil into exile.

We know the next chapter thanks to a thunderstorm that toppled a tree at Dos Pilas six years ago, exposing a carved stairway hidden beneath its roots. Inscriptions on the stairway reveal that Balaj Chan Kawiil returned two years after his exile—but as a Calakmul surrogate. Dos Pilas's turncoat king helped Calakmul cement its control over the Pasión Valley during the next two decades. Then Calakmul delivered fateful news. Its rulers ordered Balaj Chan Kawiil to fight his brother in Tikal itself.

For a time, fleeing nobles could find refuge in Cancuén, a quiet port at the headwaters of the Pasión River. Even as downriver cities sank into chaos during the eighth century, Cancuén prospered by trading luxury items and providing sumptuous lodgings for elite visitors. The architect of this golden age was King Taj Chan Ahk, who came to power in 757 at the age of 15. Cancuén had a long history as a strategic trading post, but Taj Chan Ahk transformed the city into a stunning ceremonial center. Its heart was a 270,000-square-foot (25,000 square meters), three-story royal palace with vaulted ceilings and 11 courtyards, made of solid limestone and elegantly placed on a riverside promontory. It was a perfect stage for a Maya god-king, and Taj Chan Ahk was master of the role, even as it was dying out elsewhere.

There is no evidence that Taj Chan Ahk ever fought a war or even won a battle. Instead he managed to dominate the upper Pasión Valley for nearly 40 years by coaxing advantage through patronage and alliances. An altar monument at Cancuén dated 790 shows him in action, engaged in a ceremonial ball game with an unknown noble, perhaps to celebrate a treaty or a state visit.

Taj Chan Ahk died in 795 and was succeeded by his son Kan Maax, who sought to trump his father by expanding the palace. But pomp and ritual—the old trappings of kingship—could no longer hold the Maya universe together. Within five years the spreading chaos had reached the gates of the city. In one terrible day its glory winked out, another light extinguished in the world of the Classic Maya.

Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry

Independent Researcher from Pakistan

Author & Researcher: Decryption of Harappan Ciphers 1st successful solution in a century

President TPI Inc., President IT Genetics , Manager Asia Women Global Justice Group , Chairman Welfare Committee,

TPI has offered over 0.5 million free predicted solutions at all levels. Integrated solution based on Borderland Sciences, cryptanalysis, forecasting techniques Delphi, Scenarios and multi scenarios, war gaming and other spiritual techniques. We attach no claim with free predicted solutions. Error correction techniques and analysis may be carried out by users.

An analysis might be carried out if I can be of any use for establishing global peace by ending terrorism. I have been subjected to over 30 killing attacks, killing of over 10 members of my family and losses in millions. I have given details at petitions at Care-2, Peace pink, yahoo and other comments. Mega project research work aimed at establishing peace and security at global level by ending terrorism. I desire global board of directors sponsored by UNO to come forward for benefits of all.

I offer 1st decryption of Harappan Scripts in a century; the decrypted secrets not yet published have solution to many problems. The strategic location of Pakistan offer global trading of $ 7.5 billion per year to global community, oil and gas trading of over $ 15 trillions. I have been trained by over 250 foreign telecomm firms; I had lot of interaction with my friends from many countries as class fellows, R&D Engineer at Research Establishment, visit to Thailand, Ministry of Interior Saudi Arabia Border Guards, as operational engineer, as Zonal Manager of NGO and service in the army. I have given lot of material at Internet. My friends , colleagues , group members and others can carry out an analysis of mega project including integrated energy , renewable energy , befouls , safety and security of global trading, safe train link, herbal foods , new employments , new concepts in housing , overhauling of education systems , innovations and integration of new global technologies and many others.. We must establish an accountability system to stop official terrorists and corrupt gangs failing all the global projects.

Mega Project: Problems in offering Global Solutions

The establishment of global peace and stability by ending terrorism has been delayed due to 30 killing attacks on me, killing of 10 members of my family, loss in millions, terrorists attack on 3 sick and crippled women of 3 families, 11 of witnesses and me. Petitions have been registered. May I request global peace lovers to sign the petitions; they may not display their names.

Research Interests Nazeer ’s fundamental research is on discovering and understanding the problems and offering free solutions by forecasting/prediction through economic, social, organizational and technical interactions and techniques evolved through TPI Inc. Over 0.5 million free solutions have been offered at all level but aim of ending terrorism, corruption and prevention of fraud at any level has yet to achieve. Research Projects • Research in any field that can give protection to mankind from fraud, terrorism and human right protection. • Ethno-archaeological Model on Harappan Ciphers: Decryption of Harappan Cipher is over 30 years research project, the 1st successful cryptanalysis in the century • Axiomatic Education Strategy for 21st Century • Prevention of Fraud: Nazeer and his wife Hamida are heir to the lands & property of about 7 families hence an effort underground had been going on for killing of every member of this family. It is very interesting research work scanning the centuries how people slaughter others to become landlords by using fraud and terrorism. • Security and public policy was forced on Nazeer to accept almost all responsibilities in Home County being heir to 7 people. He suffered over 30 killing attacks, killing of 10 members of his family by the snakes brought up by them; the relatives of his step mother.

Contents

[hide]

•1 Education

o1.1 Experience

o1.2 Research Work

•2 Projects

o2.1 Publications:

 

[Edit] Education

B.Sc. Telecomm Engineering, B Sc Honors, Technical Graduate NUST-EME, LLB, PEC, MIE Pak, IEEEP, IEEE, IEEE Computer Society, IEEE- ISST

MBA , M. Phil. Electronics Engineering , MA , Cryptology NUST-MCS , Arabic AIOU , Ph D Total Technology approved researcher Bradford

•B.Sc. (Telecomm. Engineering), Member:PEC,IEEE &Computer Society IEEE USA MIE (Pak.)

•M.B.A. Preston Univ. 1995 , M.A.( Political Science), B.Sc. (Honors War Studies), L.L.B. , Arabic Diploma AIOU Islamabad

•Doctor of Philosophy in Total Technology at University of Bradford UK approved researcher in since 1995. M Phil at MUET was accepted for credit in Ph.D. Second part M.B.A completed from Preston University USA, Courses /research/ 15 years experience/foreign firm training from 250 firms as R&D engineer in cryptographic security completed. Member PEC , TSO graduate from NUST Campus ,Advance Cryptology Course , Refresher Cryptology Course from NUST

•M. Phil. (Electronics Engineering,) Cryptology (NUST), Technical Staff Course (NUST,, Ph.D. (Electrical/Electronics Engineering) approved researcher at Uni. of Bradford U.K. Masters of Science and M Phil at MUET Jamshoro Pakistan was got transferred for PhD

•M.B.A. from Preston University USA from Islamabad Campus getting 98 % in MIS, Organizational Communication and International Marketing subjects. (98 % marks in Information Theory in Advance Cryptology NUST Campus. M.A. (Political Science) from Sindh Uni.

[edit] Experience

•1996-1997 Telecommunication Engineers at Ministry of Interior Saudi Arabia Border Guards

•1978- 1994 Telecommunication Engineer in Sindh and Baluchistan Provinces , Technical Staff Course , Research & Development Engineer at Signals Research Establishment . Telecommunication Engineer and Communication officer in Army 1972-1994

•Teaching: Teaching Assistant and teaching staff for science and technology subjects at Higher Secondary School, Signal Training Center, Computer Clubs, Divisional Battle School NUST Campus MCS, National Institute of Computer Sciences

•Administration: Zonal Manager Hamdard Laboratories Rawalpindi Zone (1998-1999). 24 years experience in Pakistan Army

•Training: Training by foreign Telecom firms from USA, UK, Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Norway, Sweden and many other countries as R&D Engineer.

Computers: Student Member IEEE USA (1994-95), Manager Army Computer Clubs at Okara and Hyderabad, Teaching Staff National Institute of Computer Sciences Rawalpindi (1995)

•Engineering: Student Member IEEE USA (1994-1997), Telecommunication Member Pakistan Engineering Council, Member Institute of Electrical Engineers Pakistan

[edit] Research Work

Decryption of Indus Valley Scripts has been my research work since last 30 years .This is 1st successful decryption in a century. Dani had confirmed the decryption in 2005 though 1st script was decrypted in 1995 when Secure MIS high security high compression book draft was approved by Artech House USA and Dorrance Publishers USA approved the draft for publication both books not yet published. Rolex Award also approved the research for an award.

B.B. Lal , Russian Professors , and US Scholars Farmer , Sprout , Fair Service, Mark , Durani , F.A. Khan, Mughal and many conclusions of the decryption supported by many other scholars through their written work.

•In 2004, Steve Farmer published, The Collapse of the Indus-Script Thesis: The Myth of a Literate Harappan Civilization, arguing that the Indus valley figures are merely a non-structured symbol system and do not represent a full language.

•In ancient cryptography used by Egyptians or code & ciphers used by lovers, diarists and underworld people, you don't require full language. As a kid, he had just a chance by compulsion to evolve coded language and a writing system to be read by kid girls who could just read Arabic without understanding it.

•All most all the population counted as the people of Indus Valley counted. He was 1st student to qualify Matric (O level) in 1968 and taught new science syllabus to his class as volunteer teacher because his science teacher declined to teach the syllabus unless he had undergone a course.

•He had over 50 of teacher’s 1st &2nd World War soldiers and there were few who had been living in the jungle. His county of 7 treasures in oldest Stone Age culture got electricity in 1990.They used ancient agricultural tools and animal transport like camels, horses, donkeys, bulls and buffalos were used.

[edit] Projects

•Large number of Design and modification projects in Telecommunication Engineering and Cryptology

•Research in any field that can give protection to mankind from fraud, terrorism and human right protection.

•Ethno-archaeological Model on Harappan Ciphers : Decryption of Harappan Cipher is over 30 years research project the 1st successful cryptanalysis in the century

•Axiomatic Education Strategy for 21st Century

•Prevention of Fraud: 50 years Research Work

•Security and public policy was forced on Nazeer to accept almost all responsibilities in Home County being heir to 7 people.

•Codes and Ciphers: Evolution of Coded Language based on Harappan Scripts

•Codes and Ciphers: Evolution of Written Script based on Harappan Scripts

•Design & Development of Maintenance Free Exchange for Desert Working

•Design & Development of Secrecy Electronics Communication System

•Cryptology : Design of High Security High Compression System

•Design & Development of Exchange for Nuclear Warfare

•Design & Development of Battery Charging and Lighting System on Wind Energy

•Design & Development of Energy Saying System

•Decryption of Moenjodaro Scripts

•Decryption of Matured Harappan Scripts

•Herbal Medicine : Medicated Foods and Treatment of Cancer

•Herbal Medicine : New Treatment for Asthma

•Evolution of Recycling Technologies for Low Cost Housing

•Evolution of Integrated Technologies for Energy Crisis

[edit] Publications:

1.Decryption of Moenjodaro Scripts approved in 1995 based on the Thesis: Integration of TCP/IP Protocol Suites with Cryptographic Security approved Ph. D. Electrical & Electronics Engg.) In Total Technology thesis at University of Bradford U.K. Not yet published.

2.Nazeer Ahmad , Secure MIS book draft sent to Artic House Norwood

3.Nazeer Ahmad, Secure MIS in Business Communication, Research Paper in MIS.

4.Nazeer Ahmad ,Protection of Radio Tele-printing Circuits, The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1987,pp 25-29

5.Nazeer A. Chaudhry ,Protection of Speech and Data Communication Circuits , The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1988,pp 52-56

6.Nazeer Ahmad ,Neo-Communication Security Environments, The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1990,pp 25-29

7.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry ,Communication Systems , MS Thesis MUET Jamshoro 1990-1992,

8.N. A. Chaudhry , Protection of Electronics & Electrical Equipment, The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , volume 22 , 22-29 December 1994

9.N. A. Chaudhry , Tele-computers and Security Beyond Year 2000, The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , January 1995

10.N. A. Chaudhry , Tele-computers and Security Beyond Year 2000, The Qasid Magazine ,Military College of Signals , NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1994

11.N. A. Chaudhry , Tactical Nuclear Operations : Indian Option for 21st Century, Pakistan Defense Review, Volume 6, 1994, pp 80-92

12.N. A. Chaudhry , Integrated National Defense , Pakistan Army Green Book, 1991, pp343-346

13.N. A. Chaudhry , Safety Equipment for Nuclear Operations , T.S.O. Research Paper , E.M.E. College NUST Campus Rawalpindi, 1985

14.Nazeer Ahmad. Chaudhry , Pre- Evolution History Corps of Signals 1847-1947, SRC Publishers Hyderabad, 1992

15.Nazeer Ahmad. Chaudhry, Design and Development of Secrecy Electronics Communication System, M. Phil. ( Electronics Engg. ) thesis at MUET Jamshoro, 1993-1995

16.Nazeer Ahmad. Chaudhry , Electronics Warfare Doctrine Under Hostile Environments , Pakistan Army Green Book, 1991, pp 287-290

17.Nazeer A. , Cryptographic and Computer Security , The Hilal Magazine ,19 January 1995

18.N. A. Chaudhry ,Evolution of Codes and Ciphers , The Hilal Magazine ,8 February 1995

19.N. A. Chaudhry , Cryptographic Security Systems , The Hilal Magazine , 15 December 1994

20.N. A. Chaudhry , Protection of Electronics & Electrical Equipment, The Hilal Magazine , ISPR Publication , volume 22 , 22-29 December 1994

21.N. A. Chaudhry , Axiomatic Educational Strategy for 21st Century , Research Paper presented at IEEEP Lahore ,1995 and published in local press

22.Nazeer Ahmad , Quality Education , Pakistan Observer Daily, 18 November 1998

23.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Education System & National Development , The Jung Daily, 6 February 1995

24.Nazeer Ahmad, Legal Settlement of Kashmir Problem , Pakistan Army Journal , U.N. and Kashmir Issue , Pakistan Observer Daily, 15 November 1994

25.Nazeer Chaudhry , Islamic Requirements of Justice System, , Daily Markaz, 22 February1998

26.Nazeer Chaudhry , Islamic System of Saudi Arabia , Daily Markaz, 8 September 1998 Islamabad

27.Nazeer Ahmad , Face Reading : Integration of Forecasting and Prediction Technologies for Solution of Problems , Bazem –i- Alm –o-Fun Islamabad 2000

28.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to National Problems , Daily Markaz, 21 September,1998

29.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to National Problems , Daily Markaz, 3 April,1999,

30.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to National Problems , Daily Markaz, April,1999

31.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to National Problems , Daily Markaz, 11 April,1999, Islamabad

32.Nazeer Ahmad , Solution to Public Problems , The Exclusive Weekly, Islamabad, 26 September 1996

33.Nazeer Chaudhry, Budget and Unemployment , Asas Daily , 20 June 1999

34.Nazeer Ahmad , Time to Shake Hands With India , The Exclusive Weekly, Islamabad, 16 July 1991

35.Nazeer Ahmad , Face Reading : Integration of Forecasting and Prediction Technologies for Solution of Problems , Defense Digest Monthly, October 1992, pp 53-87

36.Nazeer Ahmad , We can’t Progress Without Science Education, Pakistan Observer Daily, 2 November 1994

37.Nazeer Chaudhry, South Asian Economy and Kashmir , Al Akhbar Daily, 16 October 1999

38.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Peace, Security &Development, Daily Markaz, 17 Agust,1998, Islamabad

39.N. A. Chaudhry , Modern Technology Impacts of Defense , Pakistan Army Journal , 1994, pp62-74

40.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development , The Parwaz Monthly Islamabad, June 1999

41.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development in Pakistan , Friday News Weekly, 6 July 1999

42.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development , The Parwaz Monthly Islamabad, September 1999

43.N.A. Chaudhry , Tourism Development , The Parwaz Monthly Islamabad, June 1999

44.Nazeer Ahmad , 21st Century Challenges for Our Engineers, Pakistan Observer , 11 December 1994

45.Nazeer Ahmad , New Trends in Energy Generation, Pakistan Observer Daily, 2 November 1994

46.Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry, Eastern Science of Medicine, Pakistan Observer Daily, 18 March 1995

47.N.A. Chaudhry, Kala Bagh Dam , Niwa –i- Waqat Daily, 14 July 1998

48.Nazeer Chaudhry, Pakistan –US Relations, Markaz Daily 22 July 1998, Islamabad

49.Nazeer Chaudhry, Pakistan –US Relations, Markaz Daily 28 July 1998, 1974.

50.Nazeer Chaudhry, Expected Attack on Atomic Instillations Pakistan , Osaf Daily 5June 1998,

51.Nazeer Chaudhry, Regional Cooperation and Pakistani Forces, Markaz Daily 30 June 1999,

52.Nazeer Chaudhry, Circulation of Money Al Akhbar Daily 17 February 2003, Islamabad

53.Nazeer Chaudhry, Solution of Unemployment Problem , Daily Subha, , 17 April 2004

54.Nazeer Chaudhry, Inflation, Unemployment and Terrorism, Daily Subha, , 9 August 2004,

55.Nazeer Chaudhry, Social and Economic Welfare of Society , Daily Ehsas , 6 April 1999,

56.Nazeer A. Chaudhry, Strategic Dimension of Pakistan, Submitted to Pakistan Defense Review, 2005

57.Nazeer A. Chaudhry, Solution to Kashmir Problem, Submitted to Pakistan Defense Review ,1995

58.Nazeer Chaudhry, How to End Terrorism, Daily Markaz , 8 November 1998 , Islamabad

59.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry , Neo Scenario for Armed Forces of Pakistan , Pakistan Army Journal ( Urdu) , Winter 2009 , pp 25-42

60.ibid, PAJ, The J curve , Rise and Fall of Nations by Ian Beemer , Book Review , pp107-108

61.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry , Science & Technology : New Challenges for Defense , Pakistan Army Journal ( Urdu) , Summer 2009 , pp 15-25

62.ibid, PAJ , Curveball: Spies, Lies and the Con Man Who caused a War by Bob Dorgan , Book Review , pp- 85-87

63.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry , Nuclear Strategy for Future , Pakistan Army Journal ( Urdu) , Winter 2008 , pp 45-55

64.ibid, PAJ, the Failure of American Foreign Policy and Next Great Crisis in Middle East by Ali M. An sari , Book Review , pp104-106

65.Nazeer Ahmad Chaudhry , Defense Strategy for Future , Pakistan Army Journal ( Urdu) , Summer 2008 , pp 42-51

66.ibid, PAJ , Winning the Right War by Phillips H Gordon, Book Review , pp 85-87

 

[Taken in Janakpur (Nepal) - 28Sep10]

 

28/09/2010

 

JANAKPUR BY DAWN

 

Arrivés à Janakpur à 5:00, après 23h45 de voyage.

Usés.

Poisseux.

Fatigués.

Le bus nous a laissés à l’extrémité opposée de la ville par rapport à l’hôtel que nous visions. A alors commencé une balade d’une heure dans des rues qui petit à petit s’éveillaient, jonchées de détritus et de bouses de vaches, défoncées, envahies de moustiques.

Des gens se lavaient au bord d’une sorte d’étang. A côté d’eux une femme y faisait sa vaisselle.

Finalement arrivés à la Kathmandu Guest House, pour ma part épuisé et trempé, l’endroit s’est avéré ne pas avoir de chambres libres. On nous a renvoyés vers un autre hôtel, plus luxueux, finalement tout aussi complet, où l’on nous a orientés vers un hôtel que nous avions noté lors de notre passage devant, trente minutes plus tôt, et qui s’est avéré fermé.

Nous nous sommes donc trainés vers un hôtel au hasard, à proximité, le Janaki Raj, avec une chambre à 1500 Roupies (13,50 Euros) la nuit, le grand luxe, avec climatisation. Là j’ai sauté sous la douche, installé ma moustiquaire et me suis couché, alors que Rémi repartait en vadrouille. Cet homme est inusable.

Dormi 3h, jusque 10:00.

Une anecdote tout de même. Alors que, douche prise, je discutais, en boxer, avec Rémi, lui-même en chemise et slip, quelqu’un frappa à la porte. Le temps d'enfiler un pantalon, Rémi alla ouvrir. Entra alors un employé de l’hôtel, une télécommande à la main, qui sans un mot alluma la clim, la régla sur 22°C, et reparti avec la télécommande.

 

JANAKPUR BY DAY

 

Après mon réveil, nous avons chacun fait une lessive et je me suis rendu compte que dans la précipitation du départ, j’avais oublié ma chouette chemise sable séchant dans la chambre à Bhurigan.

Rémi quant à lui s’est rendu compte qu’il avait perdu ou qu’on lui avait volé son enregistreur durant le trajet de la nuit. Il avait pour idée de retourner à la gare routière où devait repasser le bus de Htapa vers 15:00, histoire de vérifier, au cas où il pourrait récupérer sa machine.

Nous sommes d’abord allés changer quelques euros histoire de terminer la partie népalaise de notre périple, ce qui m’a permit d’être de nouveau trempé.

Puis nous sommes allés à la gare routière d’où nous devons également partir demain matin.

Rémi et sa boussole magique nous ont fait faire un détour par les bas-fonds de Janakpur qui a triplé, au moins, notre temps de marche, et donc de ma sudation.

Rémi ayant très peu d’espoir, je lui signifiais qu’il avait une chance sur un million de retrouver son enregistreur et que de ce fait, selon Terry Pratchett, cela arriverait inévitablement.

Nous avons acheté nos tickets pour Dharan, avons bu un coup, et sommes finalement allés dans un cybercafé.

Je suis resté 1h20 sur internet (pour 40 Rs, soit 0.45 Euros), entrecoupée de pannes de courant, et ai peut-être booké un certain nombre de nuits à Kolkata en couchsurfing.

Rémi n’est resté qu’une demi-heure, pour ensuite retourner à la gare routière. D’où il est revenu avec son enregistreur, qui avait été soigneusement mis de côté par Htapa !

De là, nous sommes partis en rickshaw pour une banlieue de Janakpur, le village de Kuwa, afin de visiter l’intéressant Women’s Development Centre, où des femmes font des tableaux, poteries, tissus, … représentant l’art Mithila.

En repartant, traversant Kuwa, j’ai été assailli par les enfants voulant tous être pris en photo. Les mères étaient heureuses et me demandaient de photographier leurs filles et fils. Les enfants se bousculaient et enchainaient les « Photo ! » et les « Chocolat ! ».

Très beau moment à rire avec eux, à leur montrer leurs visages en photo, qu’ils se précipitaient, immédiatement après avoir entendu le clic de l’appareil, pour voir. Le plus dur a été de s’extraire de la petite foule enthousiaste.

A part cela, la constatation récurrente est l’absence totale d’hygiène publique dans laquelle ces gens vivent, au milieu d’immondices et de canaux à l’eau croupie.

 

LE MAUVAIS CÔTÉ DE LA ROUTE, ET LE TEMPLE INTERDIT MAIS PAS VRAIMENT

 

Retour à pied à Janakpur, dégustant un bon samossa et une autre spécialité frite à base de pomme de terre, de haricots, et de curry.

Un trio de jeunes hommes d’une vingtaine d’années est ensuite venu nous trouver alors que nous marchions à droite de la route pour nous demander :

« - Why are you walking on the wrong side of the road? »

Effectivement, tous les piétons de ce côté-ci marchaient dans le sens inverse du notre.

La discussion s’est engagée, comme d’habitude, sur d’où nous venions, ce que nous avions vu au Népal, … Ils étaient tous trois étudiants, très concernés par la pollution de leur pays, et très curieux.

Quand ils ont appris que j’écris, ils ont voulu connaître les titres de mes livres, pour les lire et ont été déçus qu’ils ne soient qu’en français.

Alors que nous étions arrêtés pour nous dire au-revoir et que je leur donnais ma carte, un attroupement s’est immédiatement formé autour de nous, par pure curiosité.

Nous avons ensuite visité deux temples, dont le premier, le Janaki Mandir, immense, n’est pas autorisé aux étrangers, du moins l’intérieur. Demandant à un policier assis sur une chaise si nous pouvions entrer, il nous a fait asseoir à côté de lui, puis nous a répondu que non, puis nous a dit de le suivre et nous a amenés à l’intérieur.

Par deux fois là encore, des jeunes ont hésité puis se sont décidés à venir nous parler, créant des attroupements. La taille de Rémi fait toujours sensation.

Le diner aura été constitué d’un très bon plat de pâtes, épicé juste ce qu’il fallait, sous les yeux d’une vache sacrée. Le patron de l’endroit est venu s’asseoir près de notre table… et le sympathique interrogatoire a recommencé.

De retour à l’hôtel, nous nous sommes rendu compte que Rémi avait mélangé l’argent de notre caisse commune avec ses fonds propres changés dans l’après-midi. Il nous a fallu vingt bonnes minutes pour tout recalculer. Et je lui ai fait mettre les fonds communs à part, dans un ziploc, et non plus dans sa poche de chemise, qui me stresse toujours.

La ville semble beaucoup plus « indienne » que celles que nous avons traversé jusque là.

Il est 22:10. Le réveil sonne à 3:45, départ à 4:30 pour un bus à 5:15. C’est l’enfer.

 

See all the photos of this trip in this set : 20Sep-14Oct10 - Nepal & India [Trip]

See all the photos of Nepal in this set : Nepal [Country]

See all the random portraits in this set : Portraits [Random]

L'ex SINDH renommé ESSAYONS à couple dans le Grand Lac Amer

-------------------------------------------------

SINDH 1956-1976 (1979)

Sources:

Historique de la flotte des Messageries Maritimes du commandant Lanfant

Le grand Siècle des Messageries Maritimes du Dr Paul Bois Tome V

Encyclopédie des Messageries Maritimes de Philippe Ramona (site sur le web)

Le forum des anciens des Messageries. De nombreuses photographies, anecdotes et précisons sont régulièrement mises en ligne.

Monsieur Xavier Escallier qui a très amicalement mis à ma disposition sa collection de cartes postales des Messageries.

Les différents sites internet sur la marine marchande, qu'ils soient Britanniques, Espagnols, Français ou autres.

Différents ouvrages personnel sur l'histoire de la marine marchande française.

Indexe (1) : Données du commandant Lanfant dans ouvrage.

Indexe (2) : Données du Docteur Paul Bois dans son ouvrage.

Indexe (3) : Données de Mr Philippe Ramona sur son site web

--------------------------------------------

4ème de la série de 10 des cargos de 8300 tonnes de port en lourd de Type F commandés à partir de 1954

Construit par les chantiers et Ateliers de Provence de La Ciotat

1956 le 4 février: Lancement Commandant du navire durant la construction Pailhes. Marraine Mme Ludovic Tron.

1956 Livré le 21 juin: à Marseille

 

CARACTÉRISTIQUES :

Navire à Shelter deck, 3 ponts continus. La méthode de construction soudée a été largement employée.

Longueur: 148,99 mHT et 139,06 m PP

Largeur: 18.8 m

Jauge brute 7000 tjb 7051 tjb (2)

Jauge nette: (2) 3887 tn

Port en lourd 9000 tonnes, - 9090 t (2)

Déplacement: 13800 t

Capacité 15000 m3 dont 600m3 en 3 cuves pour le latex ou l'huile et 120 m3 en cales frigos.(NB avant chaque chargement (agrumes – pommes –poires ou viande congelée ou ''child'' selon les lignes) par ozonisation.

Cales: 5

Manutention: Cales desservies par 10 mâts de charge de5 tonnes, 4 de 10 t et 2 bigues de 30 et 60 tonnes.

Fermetures par panneaux Mac Gregor single pull.

Ventilation des cales: système cargocaire

 

PROPULSION :

1 moteur Burmeister et Wain 2 temps simple effet, 9 cylindres 974 VTF 160

Combustible: Fuel lourd à la mer en Route Libre. Manœuvres au Diesel oil.

Puissance: 8300 cv a 115 t/mn

Vitesse: 18 nds aux essais et 16 nds en service

1 hélice accouplement fixe.

1 cheminée.

ÉLECTRICITÉ:

3 Groupes électrogènes Allen Dujardin de 250 Kw et 220 v

1 Chaudière de récupération à la mer de 2000 k/h sous 4 bars

1 Chaudière de mouillage Menpenti au fuel de 1000 k/h sous 4 bars au port.

 

PERSONNEL :

État-major 10 Officiers

Équipage: 23 hommes, réduit à 17 hommes en 1970.(accord tripartites Armement - Syndicats - État)

Pas de conditionnement d'air à bord.

 

PASSAGERS :

Passagers 6 - supprimés en 1970 avec la réduction d'effectif.

 

LIGNE :

1956 le 16 Juillet: Départ de Marseille du voyage inaugural

1956 août Mis en service sur la ligne Hambourg- Philippines/Japon puis la ligne de Chine.

1962 Mis en service sur la ligne du Sud Est Asiatique

  

ÉVÉNEMENTS :

1956 Marseille Avarie de vireur du Moteur. Réparation provisoire. 2 j. de retard.

1956 KOBE Réparation définitive du vireur. 10 j. de retard.

1961 le 11 décembre: Appareillant d'Anvers par coup de vent, heurte la drague FABIOLA. Avaries peu importantes.

1962 le 16 janvier: Relâche à Messine pour débarquer le matelot Chi Haoui atteint d'une appendicite aiguë.

1963 le 10 février: En accostant à Sihanoukville occasionne des avaries importantes à l'appontement et à sa coque.

1964 le 3 janvier: Au large de Terneuzen par temps de brume, il aborde le pétrolier BORDER FUSILIER. Peu d'avaries.

1964 le 26 décembre: En prenant avec le pilote le chenal de l'Escaut-Oriental il s'échoue. Fais appel verbalement en hollandais à deux remorqueurs Hollandais qui le déséchoue. Contrat verbal d'assistance transformé en contrat de simple remorquage par Monsieur Roch Ménés inspecteur de la Compagnie.

1965 le 27 décembre: En déhalant à Anvers, heurte avec son étrave, celle du britannique ELYSIA. Légères avaries.

1966 le 2 décembre: En remontant le Donaï (rivière de Saïgon) il est mitraillé et canonné. De nombreux impacts, un obus de mortier non explosé dans le local mâtereau où sont entreposées les bouteilles de gaz Oxygène et acétylène. Carré des officiers (venant juste d'être évacué) vitres des sabords sont complètement pulvérisées. Un éclat de mortier dessertis le hublot du Second Capitaine et vient se planter sous le lit où celui-ci faisait la sieste. Il n'y aura heureusement que deux blessés légers.

1967. 5 juin: Commandant Touchard. En convoi vers la Méditerranée bloqué dans le canal lors de l'attaque Israélienne avec 12 autres navires.

1967 le 17 juin: Le consul de France se rend à bord 3 Officiers et 21 hommes sur 45 en tout seront rapatriés le 27 juin. Ensuite relève tous les 6 mois d'un noyau d'équipage, pour l'entretien du navire et appareiller pour faire un tour du Lac Amer et essayer les appareils.

1968 le 8 février: J'y embarquerai comme second mécanicien via Le Caire et Ismaïlia avec le chef mécanicien Prédal Adolphe ainsi que 3 ou 4 autres membres de l'équipage. (Plus de souvenir des noms) Escale à Rome, puis Rome Le Caire (nous étions les seuls passagers). Arrivée au Caire pour la nuit. Départ le lendemain pour Ismaïlia. En pleine zone de guerre.

 

RETRAIT et FIN:

1967 le 5 juin: Attaque Israélienne contre l'Égypte. Le convoi montant (vers la Méditerranée) est bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer du Canal de Suez. Commandant Touchard.

1970 Août: Abandon du navire et du fret.

1970 Août: Vendu par les assurances en Norvège comme épave pour la somme de 305.000 £.

1970 en août: Prend le nom de ESSAYONS reste bloqué dans le Grand Lac Amer.

1975 Vendu à sa sortie du Canal à l'Arabie Saoudite il prend le nom de BADR.

1983 Disparaît des listes du Lloyd.