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Taipei (/ˌtaɪˈpeɪ/), officially known as Taipei City, is the capital city and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC"). Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City. It is about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located on the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.[5] Formerly known as Taipeh-fu during Qing era and Taihoku under Japanese rule, Taipei became the capital of the Taiwan Province as part of the Republic of China in 1945 and recently has been the capital[a] of the ROC since 1949, when the Kuomintang lost the mainland to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.

 

The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,704,810 in 2015,[6] forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 7,047,559,[6][7] the 40th most-populous urban area in the world—roughly one-third of Taiwanese citizens live in the metro district. The name "Taipei" can refer either to the whole metropolitan area or the city proper.

 

Taipei is the political, economic, educational, and cultural center of Taiwan island, and one of the major hubs of Greater China. Considered to be a global city,[8] Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area.[9] Railways, high-speed rail, highways, airports, and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Lungshan Temple of Manka, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Taipei Guest House, Ximending, and several night markets dispersing over the city. Its natural features such as Maokong, Yangmingshan, and hot springs are also well known to international visitors.

 

As the capital city, "Taipei" is sometimes used as a synecdoche for the Republic of China. Due to the ongoing controversy over the political status of Taiwan, the name Chinese Taipei is designated for official use when Taiwanese governmental representatives or national teams participate in some international organizations or international sporting events (which may require UN statehood) in order to avoid extensive political controversy by using other names.

 

Contents

 

1 History

1.1 First settlements

1.2 Empire of Japan

1.3 Republic of China

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

2.2 Air quality

2.3 Cityscape

3 Demographics

4 Economy

5 Culture

5.1 Tourism

5.1.1 Commemorative sites and museums

5.1.2 Taipei 101

5.1.3 Performing arts

5.1.4 Shopping and recreation

5.1.5 Temples

5.2 Festivals and events

5.3 Taipei in films

6 Romanization

7 Government

7.1 Garbage recycling

7.2 Administrative divisions

7.3 City planning

8 Transportation

8.1 Metro

8.2 Rail

8.3 Bus

8.4 Airports

8.5 Ticketing

9 Education

9.1 Chinese language program for foreigners

10 Sports

10.1 Major sporting events

10.2 Youth baseball

11 Media

11.1 Television

11.2 Newspapers

12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12.2 Partner cities

12.3 Friendship cities

13 Gallery

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

17 External links

 

History

Main article: History of Taipei

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument and tourist attraction in Taipei.

 

Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was mainly inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines. The number of Han immigrants gradually increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area.[10] In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture.

 

The Qing dynasty of China made Taipeh the temporary capital of Fujian-Taiwan Province in 1886 when Taiwan was separated from Fujian Province.[11][12] Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894.

 

Japan acquired Taiwan in 1895 under the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. Taiwan became a colony of Imperial Japan with Taihoku (formerly Taipeh) as its capital, in which the city was administered under Taihoku Prefecture. Taiwan's Japanese rulers embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning that featured extensive railroad links. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period.[13]

 

Following the Japanese surrender of 1945, control of Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China (ROC) (see Retrocession Day). After losing mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) relocated the ROC government to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of the ROC in December 1949.[14][15] In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy. The city is today home to Taiwan's democratically elected national government.

First settlements

 

The region known as the Taipei Basin was home to Ketagalan tribes before the eighteenth century.[16] Han Chinese mainly from Fujian Province of Qing dynasty China began to settle in the Taipei Basin in 1709.[17][18]

 

In the late 19th century, the Taipei area, where the major Han Chinese settlements in northern Taiwan and one of the designated overseas trade ports, Tamsui, were located, gained economic importance due to the booming overseas trade, especially that of tea export. In 1875, the northern part of Taiwan was separated from Taiwan Prefecture and incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture as a new administrative entity of the Qing dynasty.[13] Having been established adjoining the flourishing townships of Bangka, Dalongdong, and Twatutia, the new prefectural capital was known as Chengnei (Chinese: 城內; pinyin: chéngnèi; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: siâⁿ-lāi), "the inner city", and government buildings were erected there. From 1875 (still Qing era) until the beginning of Japanese rule in 1895, Taipei was part of Tamsui County of Taipeh Prefecture and the prefectural capital.

 

In 1885, work commenced to create an independent Taiwan Province, and Taipei City was temporarily made the provincial capital. Taipei officially became the capital of Taiwan in 1894.[citation needed] All that remains from the Qing era is the north gate. The west gate and city walls were demolished by the Japanese while the south gate, little south gate, and east gate were extensively modified by the Kuomintang (KMT) and have lost much of their original character.[19]

Empire of Japan

The Taihoku Prefecture government building in the 1910s (now the Control Yuan)

 

As settlement for losing the First Sino-Japanese War, China ceded the island of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan in 1895 as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. After the Japanese take-over, Taipei, called Taihoku in Japanese, was retained as the capital and emerged as the political center of the Japanese Colonial Government.[13] During that time the city acquired the characteristics of an administrative center, including many new public buildings and housing for civil servants. Much of the architecture of Taipei dates from the period of Japanese rule, including the Presidential Building which was the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan.

 

During Japanese rule, Taihoku was incorporated in 1920 as part of Taihoku Prefecture. It included Bangka, Twatutia, and Jōnai (城內) among other small settlements. The eastern village of Matsuyama (松山庄, modern-day Songshan District, Taipei) was annexed into Taihoku City in 1938. Upon the Japanese defeat in the Pacific War and its consequent surrender in August 1945, the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) assumed control of Taiwan. Subsequently, a temporary Office of the Taiwan Province Administrative Governor was established in Taipei City.[20]

Republic of China

With President Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to a crowd during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

 

In 1947 the KMT government under Chiang Kai-shek declared island-wide martial law in Taiwan as a result of the February 28 Incident, which began with incidents in Taipei but led to an island-wide crackdown on the local population by forces loyal to Chiang. Two years later, on December 7, 1949, Chiang and the Kuomintang were forced to flee mainland China by the Communists near the end of the Chinese Civil War. The refugees declared Taipei to be the provisional capital of a continuing Republic of China, with the official capital at Nanjing (Nanking) even though that city was under Communist control.[14][15]

 

Taipei expanded greatly in the decades after 1949, and as approved on December 30, 1966 by the Executive Yuan, Taipei was declared a special centrally administered municipality on July 1, 1967 and given the administrative status of a province.[18] In the following year, Taipei City expanded again by annexing Shilin, Beitou, Neihu, Nangang, Jingmei, and Muzha. At that time, the city's total area increased fourfold through absorbing several outlying towns and villages and the population increased to 1.56 million people.[18]

 

The city's population, which had reached one million in the early 1960s, also expanded rapidly after 1967, exceeding two million by the mid-1970s. Although growth within the city itself gradually slowed thereafter[20] — its population had become relatively stable by the mid-1990s — Taipei remained one of the world's most densely populated urban areas, and the population continued to increase in the region surrounding the city, notably along the corridor between Taipei and Keelung.

 

In 1990 Taipei's 16 districts were consolidated into the current 12 districts.[21] Mass democracy rallies that year in the plaza around Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall led to an island-wide transition to multi-party democracy, where legislators are chosen via regularly scheduled popular elections, during the presidency of Lee Teng-Hui.

Geography

The city of Taipei, as seen from Maokong.

 

Taipei City is located in the Taipei Basin in northern Taiwan.[22] It is bordered by the Xindian River on the south and the Tamsui River on the west. The generally low-lying terrain of the central areas on the western side of the municipality slopes upward to the south and east and especially to the north,[5] where it reaches 1,120 metres (3,675 ft) at Qixing Mountain, the highest (inactive) volcano in Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park. The northern districts of Shilin and Beitou extend north of the Keelung River and are bordered by Yangmingshan National Park. The Taipei city limits cover an area of 271.7997 km2,[23] ranking sixteenth of twenty-five among all counties and cities in Taiwan.

 

Two peaks, Qixing Mountain and Mt. Datun, rise to the northeast of the city.[24] Qixing Mountain is located on the Tatun Volcano Group and the tallest mountain at the rim of the Taipei Basin, with its main peak at 1,120 metres (3,670 ft). Mt. Datun's main peak is 1,092 metres (3,583 ft). These former volcanoes make up the western section of Yangmingshan National Park, extending from Mt. Datun northward to Mt. Caigongkeng (菜公坑山). Located on a broad saddle between two mountains, the area also contains the marshy Datun Pond.

 

To the southeast of the city lie the Songshan Hills and the Qingshui Ravine, which form a barrier of lush woods.[24]

Climate

 

Taipei has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate[25][26][27] (Köppen: Cfa).[28] Summers are long-lasting, hot and humid, and accompanied by occasional heavy rainstorms and typhoons, while winters are short, generally warm and generally very foggy due to the northeasterly winds from the vast Siberian High being intensified by the pooling of this cooler air in the Taipei Basin. As in the rest of Northern Taiwan, daytime temperatures of Taipei can often peak above 26 degrees Celsius during a warm winter day, while they can dip below 26 degrees Celsius during a rainy summer's afternoon. Occasional cold fronts during the winter months can drop the daily temperature by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius, though temperatures rarely drop below 10 degrees Celsius.[29] Extreme temperatures ranged from −0.2 °C (31.6 °F) on February 13, 1901 to 39.3 °C (102.7 °F) on August 8, 2013, while snow has never been recorded in the city besides on mountains located within the city limit such as Mount Yangmingshan. Due to Taiwan's location in the Pacific Ocean, it is affected by the Pacific typhoon season, which occurs between June and October.

 

Air quality

 

When compared to other Asian cities, Taipei has "excellent" capabilities for managing air quality in the city.[31] Its rainy climate, location near the coast, and strong environmental regulations have prevented air pollution from becoming a substantial health issue, at least compared to cities in southeast Asia and industrial China. However, smog is extremely common and there is poor visibility throughout the city after rain-less days.

 

Motor vehicle engine exhaust, particularly from motor scooters, is a source of air pollution in Taipei. There are higher levels of fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mornings because of less air movement; sunlight reduces some pollution.[32] Occasionally, dust storms from Mainland China can temporarily bring extremely poor air quality to the city.[33]

Cityscape

Taipei viewed from Tiger Mountain, with Taipei 101 on the left.

Demographics

 

Taipei City is home to 2,704,810 people (2015), while the metropolitan area has a population of 7,047,559 people.[6] The population of the city has been decreasing in recent years while the population of the adjacent New Taipei has been increasing. The population loss, while rapid in its early years, has been stabilized by new lower density development and campaigns designed to increase birthrate in the city. The population has begun to rise since 2010.[6][34][35]

 

Due to Taipei's geography and location in the Taipei Basin as well as differing times of economic development of its districts, Taipei's population is not evenly distributed. The districts of Daan, Songshan, and Datong are the most densely populated. These districts, along with adjacent communities such as Yonghe and Zhonghe contain some of the most densely populated neighborhoods in the world.[34]

 

In 2008, the crude birth rate stood at 7.88% while the mortality rate stood at 5.94%. A decreasing and rapidly aging population is an important issue for the city.[34] By the end of 2009, one in ten people in Taipei was over 65 years of age.[36] Residents who had obtained a college education or higher accounted for 43.48% of the population, and the literacy rate stood at 99.18%.[34]

 

Like the rest of Taiwan, Taipei is composed of four major ethnic groups: Hoklos, Mainlanders, Hakkas, and aborigines.[34] Although Hoklos and Mainlanders form the majority of the population of the city, in recent decades many Hakkas have moved into the city. The aboriginal population in the city stands at 12,862 (<0.5%), concentrated mostly in the suburban districts. Foreigners (mainly from Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines) numbered 52,426 at the end of 2008.[34]

 

Economy

 

As the center of Taiwan's largest conurbation, Taipei has been at the center of rapid economic development in the country and has now become one of the global cities in the production of high technology and its components.[37] This is part of the so-called Taiwan Miracle which has seen dramatic growth in the city following foreign direct investment in the 1960s. Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding one of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves of over US$403 billion as of December 2012.[38]

 

Despite the Asian financial crisis, the economy continues to expand at about 5% per year, with virtually full employment and low inflation. As of 2013, the nominal GDP per capita in Taipei city is lower than that in Hong Kong by a narrow margin according to The Economist(Nominal GDP per capita in HK is US$38181 in 2013 from IMF).[39] Furthermore, according to Financial times, GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity(PPP) in Taipei in 2015 is 44173 USD, behind that in Singapore(US$48900 from IMF) and Hong Kong(US$56689 from IMF).[40]

 

Taipei and its environs have long been the foremost industrial area of Taiwan, consisting of industries of the secondary and tertiary sectors.[41] Most of the country's important factories producing textiles and apparel are located there; other industries include the manufacture of electronic products and components, electrical machinery and equipment, printed materials, precision equipment, and foods and beverages. Such companies include Shihlin Electric, CipherLab and Insyde Software. Shipbuilding, including yachts and other pleasure craft, is done in the port of Keelung northeast of the city.

 

Services, including those related to commerce, transportation, and banking, have become increasingly important. Tourism is a small but significant component of the local economy[42][43] with international visitors totaling almost 3 million in 2008.[44] Taipei has many top tourist attractions and contributes a significant amount to the US$6.8 billion tourism industry in Taiwan.[45] National brands such as ASUS,[46] Chunghwa Telecom,[47] Mandarin Airlines,[48] Tatung,[49] and Uni Air,[50][51] D-Link [52] are headquartered in Taipei City.

Culture

Tourism

See also: List of tourist attractions in Taipei

 

Tourism is a major part of Taipei's economy. In 2013, over 6.3 million overseas visitors visited Taipei, making the city the 15th most visited globally.[53] The influx of visitors contributed $10.8 billion USD to the city's economy in 2013, the 9th highest in the world and the most of any city in the Chinese-speaking world.[54]

Commemorative sites and museums

The National Palace Museum

 

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark and tourist attraction that was erected in memory of General Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China.[55] The structure stands at the east end of Memorial Hall Square, site of the National Concert Hall and National Theater and their adjacent parks as well as the memorial. The landmarks of Liberty Square stand within sight of Taiwan's Presidential Building in Taipei's Zhongzheng District.

The National Taiwan Museum

 

The National Taiwan Museum sits nearby in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park and has worn its present name since 1999. The museum is Taiwan's oldest, founded on October 24, 1908 by Taiwan's Japanese colonial government (1895-1945) as the Taiwan Governor's Museum. It was launched with a collection of 10,000 items to celebrate the opening of the island's North-South Railway.[56] In 1915 a new museum building opened its doors in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park. This structure and the adjacent governor's office (now Presidential Office Building), served as the two most recognizable public buildings in Taiwan during its period of Japanese rule.[56]

Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines

 

The National Palace Museum is a vast art gallery and museum built around a permanent collection centered on ancient Chinese artifacts. It should not be confused with the Palace Museum in Beijing (which it is named after); both institutions trace their origins to the same institution. The collections were divided in the 1940s as a result of the Chinese Civil War.[57][58] The National Palace Museum in Taipei now boasts a truly international collection while housing one of the world's largest collections of artifacts from ancient China.[58]

 

The Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines stands just 200 metres across the road from the National Palace Museum. The museum offers displays of art and historical items by Taiwanese aborigines along with a range of multimedia displays.

 

The Taipei Fine Arts Museum was established in 1983 as the first museum in Taiwan dedicated to modern art. The museum is housed in a building designed for the purpose that takes inspiration from Japanese designs. Most art in the collection is by Taiwanese artists since 1940. Over 3,000 art works are organized into 13 groups.

 

The National Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101 in Xinyi District is named in honor of a founding father of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen. The hall, completed on May 16, 1972, originally featured exhibits that depicted revolutionary events in China at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Today it functions as multi-purpose social, educational, concert and cultural center for Taiwan's citizens.[59]

Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei, aka "old city hall"

 

In 2001 a new museum opened as Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei. The museum is housed in a building that formerly housed Taipei City government offices.[60]

Night view of a fully lit Taipei 101

Taipei 101

 

Taipei 101 is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper that claimed the title of world's tallest building when it opened in 2004, a title it held for six years before relinquishing it to the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners and constructed by KTRT Joint Venture, Taipei 101 measures 509 m (1,670 ft) from ground to top, making it the first skyscraper in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height. Built to withstand typhoon winds and earthquake tremors, its design incorporates many engineering innovations and has won numerous international awards. Taipei 101 remains one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world and holds LEED's certification as the world's largest "green" building. Its shopping mall and its indoor and outdoor observatories draw visitors from all over the world. Taipei 101's New Year's Eve fireworks display is a regular feature of international broadcasts.

Performing arts

Taiwan's National Concert Hall at night

 

The National Theater and Concert Hall stand at Taipei's Liberty Square and host events by foreign and domestic performers. Other leading concert venues include Zhongshan Hall at Ximending and the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101.

 

A new venue, the Taipei Performing Arts Center, is under construction and slated to open in 2015.[61][62] The venue will stand near the Shilin Night Market[63] and will house three theaters for events with multi-week runs. The architectural design, by Rem Koolhaas and OMA, was determined in 2009 in an international competition.[64] The same design process is also in place for a new Taipei Center for Popular Music and Taipei City Museum.[65]

Shopping and recreation

Main article: Shopping in Taipei

 

Taipei is known for its many night markets, the most famous of which is the Shilin Night Market in the Shilin District. The surrounding streets by Shilin Night Market are extremely crowded during the evening, usually opening late afternoon and operating well past midnight. Most night markets feature individual stalls selling a mixture of food, clothing, and consumer goods.

The busy streets of Ximending at night

 

Ximending has been a famous area for shopping and entertainment since the 1930s. Historic structures include a concert hall, a historic cinema, and the Red House Theater. Modern structures house karaoke businesses, art film cinemas, wide-release movie cinemas, electronic stores, and a wide variety of restaurants and fashion clothing stores.[66] The pedestrian area is especially popular with teens and has been called the "Harajuku" of Taipei.[67]

Eastern district at night

 

The newly developed Xinyi District is popular with tourists and locals alike for its many entertainment and shopping venues, as well as being the home of Taipei 101, a prime tourist attraction. Malls in the area include the sprawling Shin Kong Mitsukoshi complex, Breeze Center, Bellavita, Taipei 101 mall, Eslite Bookstore's flagship store (which includes a boutique mall), The Living Mall, ATT shopping mall, and the Vieshow Cinemas (formerly known as Warner Village). The Xinyi district also serves as the center of Taipei's active nightlife, with several popular lounge bars and nightclubs concentrated in a relatively small area around the Neo19, ATT 4 FUN and Taipei 101 buildings. Lounge bars such as Barcode and nightclubs such as Spark and Myst are among the most-visited places here.

Eslite Bookstore in Xinyi District

 

The thriving shopping area around Taipei Main Station includes the Taipei Underground Market and the original Shin Kong Mitsukoshi department store at Shin Kong Life Tower. Other popular shopping destinations include the Zhongshan Metro Mall, Dihua Street, the Guang Hua Digital Plaza, and the Core Pacific City. The Miramar Entertainment Park is known for its large Ferris wheel and IMAX theater.

 

Taipei maintains an extensive system of parks, green spaces, and nature preserves. Parks and forestry areas of note in and around the city include Yangmingshan National Park, Taipei Zoo and Da-an Forest Park. Yangmingshan National Park (located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the central city) is famous for its cherry blossoms, hot springs, and sulfur deposits. It is the home of famous writer Lin Yutang, the summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek, residences of foreign diplomats, the Chinese Culture University, the meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China, and the Kuomintang Party Archives. The Taipei Zoo was founded in 1914 and covers an area of 165 hectares for animal sanctuary.

 

Bitan is known for boating and water sports. Tamsui is a popular sea-side resort town. Ocean beaches are accessible in several directions from Taipei.

Temples

Built in 1738, Longshan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the city.

Street corner shrine, Taipei 2013

 

Taipei is rich in beautiful, ornate temples housing Buddhist, Taoist, and Chinese folk religion deities. The Longshan Temple, built in 1738 and located in the Wanhua District, demonstrates an example of architecture with southern Chinese influences commonly seen on older buildings in Taiwan.

 

Xinsheng South Road is known as the "Road to Heaven" due to its high concentration of temples, shrines, churches, and mosques.[68][69] Other famous temples include Baoan Temple located in historic Dalongdong, a national historical site, and Xiahai City God Temple, located in the old Dadaocheng community, constructed with architecture similar to temples in southern Fujian.[70] The Taipei Confucius Temple traces its history back to 1879 during the Qing Dynasty and also incorporates southern Fujian-style architecture.[71]

 

Besides large temples, small outdoor shrines to local deities are very common and can be spotted on road sides, parks, and neighborhoods. Many homes and businesses may also set up small shrines of candles, figurines, and offerings. Some restaurants, for example, may set up a small shrine to the Kitchen god for success in a restaurant business.[72]

New Year's Eve fireworks at Taipei 101

Festivals and events

 

Many yearly festivals are held in Taipei. In recent years some festivals, such as the Double Ten Day fireworks and concerts, are increasingly hosted on a rotating basis by a number of cities around Taiwan.

 

When New Year's Eve arrives on the solar calendar, thousands of people converge on Taipei's Xinyi District for parades, outdoor concerts by popular artists, street shows, round-the clock nightlife. The high point is of course the countdown to midnight, when Taipei 101 assumes the role of the world's largest fireworks platform.

 

The Taipei Lantern Festival concludes the Lunar New Year holiday. The timing of the city's lantern exhibit coincides with the national festival in Pingxi, when thousands of fire lanterns are released into the sky.[73] The city's lantern exhibit rotates among different downtown locales from year to year, including Liberty Square, Taipei 101, and Zhongshan Hall in Ximending.

 

On Double Ten Day, patriotic celebrations are held in front of the Presidential Building. Other annual festivals include Ancestors Day (Tomb-Sweeping Day), the Dragon Boat Festival, the Ghost Festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival).[73]

 

Taipei regularly hosts its share of international events. The city recently hosted the 2009 Summer Deaflympics.[74] This event was followed by the Taipei International Flora Exposition, a garden festival hosted from November 2010 to April 2011. The Floral Expo was the first of its kind to take place in Taiwan and only the seventh hosted in Asia; the expo admitted 110,000 visitors on February 27, 2011.

Taipei in films

  

Romanization

  

The spelling "Taipei" derives from the Wade–Giles romanization T'ai-pei.[75] The name could be also romanized as Táiběi according to Hanyu Pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin.[76][77]

Government

 

Taipei City is a special municipality which is directly under the Executive Yuan (Central Government) of ROC. The mayor of Taipei City had been an appointed position since Taipei's conversion to a centrally administered municipality in 1967 until the first public election was held in 1994.[78] The position has a four-year term and is elected by direct popular vote. The first elected mayor was Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party. Ma Ying-jeou took office in 1998 for two terms, before handing it over to Hau Lung-pin who won the 2006 mayoral election on December 9, 2006.[79] Both Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-Jeou went on to become President of the Republic of China. The incumbent mayor, Ko Wen-je, was elected on November 29, 2014 and took office on December 25, 2014.[80]

 

Based on the outcomes of previous elections in the past decade, the vote of the overall constituency of Taipei City shows a slight inclination towards the pro-KMT camp (the Pan-Blue Coalition);[81] however, the pro-DPP camp (the Pan-Green Coalition) also has considerable support.[82]

 

Ketagalan Boulevard, where the Presidential Office Building and other government structures are situated, is often the site of mass gatherings such as inauguration and national holiday parades, receptions for visiting dignitaries, political demonstrations,[83][84] and public festivals.[85]

Garbage recycling

 

Taipei City is also famous for its effort in garbage recycling, which has become such a good international precedent that other countries have sent teams to study the recycling system. After the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) established a program in 1998 combining the efforts of communities, a financial resource named the Recycling Fund was made available to recycling companies and waste collectors. Manufacturers, vendors and importers of recyclable waste pay fees to the Fund, which uses the money to set firm prices for recyclables and subsidize local recycling efforts. Between 1998 and 2008, the recycling rate increased from 6 percent to 32 percent.[86] This improvement enabled the government of Taipei to demonstrate its recycling system to the world at the Shanghai World Expo 2010.

Administrative divisions

 

Taipei City is divided up into 12 administrative districts (區 qu).[87] Each district is further divided up into urban villages (里), which are further sub-divided up into neighborhoods (鄰).

Map District Population

(Jan. 2016) Area

(km2) Postal

code

 

Beitou 北投區 Běitóu Pei-t'ou Pak-tâu 257,922 56.8216 112

Da'an 大安區 Dà'ān Ta-an Tāi-an 312,909 11.3614 106

Datong 大同區 Dàtóng Ta-t'ung Tāi-tông 131,029 5.6815 103

Nangang 南港區 Nángǎng Nan-kang Lâm-káng 122,296 21.8424 115

Neihu 內湖區 Nèihú Nei-hu Lāi-ô͘ 287,726 31.5787 114

Shilin 士林區 Shìlín Shih-lin Sū-lîm 290,682 62.3682 111

Songshan 松山區 Sōngshān Sung-shan Siông-san 209,689 9.2878 105

Wanhua 萬華區 Wànhuá Wan-hua Báng-kah 194,314 8.8522 108

Wenshan 文山區 Wénshān Wen-shan Bûn-san 275,433 31.5090 116

Xinyi 信義區 Xìnyì Hsin-yi Sìn-gī 229,139 11.2077 110

Zhongshan 中山區 Zhōngshān Chung-shan Tiong-san 231,286 13.6821 104

Zhongzheng 中正區 Zhōngzhèng Chung-cheng Tiong-chèng 162,549 7.6071 100

 

City planning

 

The city is characterized by straight roads and public buildings of grand Western architectural styles.[88] The city is built on a square grid configuration, however these blocks are huge by international standards with 500 m (1,640.42 ft) sides. The area in between these blocks are infilled with lanes and alleys, which provide access to quieter residential or mixed-use development. Other than a citywide 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) speed limit, there is little uniform planning within this "hidden" area; therefore lanes (perpendicular to streets) and alleys (parallel with street, or conceptually, perpendicular to the lane) spill out from the main throughways. These minor roads are not always perpendicular and sometimes cut through the block diagonally.

 

Although development began in the western districts (still considered the cultural heart of the city) of the city due to trade, the eastern districts of the city have become the focus of recent development projects. Many of the western districts, already in decline, have become targets of new urban renewal initiatives.[88]

Transportation

Platform of Wende Station on the Taipei Metro system.

 

Public transport accounts for a substantial portion of different modes of transport in Taiwan, with Taipei residents having the highest utilization rate at 34.1%.[89] Private transport consists of motor scooters, private cars, and bicycles. Motor-scooters often weave between cars and occasionally through oncoming traffic. Respect for traffic laws, once scant, has improved with deployment of traffic cameras and increasing numbers of police roadblocks checking riders for alcohol consumption and other offenses.

 

Taipei Station serves as the comprehensive hub for the subway, bus, conventional rail, and high-speed rail.[41] A contactless smartcard, known as EasyCard, can be used for all modes of public transit as well as several retail outlets. It contains credits that are deducted each time a ride is taken.[90] The EasyCard is read via proximity sensory panels on buses and in MRT stations, and it does not need to be removed from one's wallet or purse.

Metro

Main article: Taipei Metro

 

Taipei's public transport system, the Taipei Metro (commonly referred to as the MRT), incorporates a metro and light rail system based on advanced VAL and Bombardier technology. There are currently five metro lines that are labelled in three ways: color, line number and depot station name. In addition to the rapid transit system itself, the Taipei Metro also includes several public facilities such as the Maokong Gondola, underground shopping malls, parks, and public squares. Modifications to existing railway lines to integrate them into the metro system are underway.

 

In 2017 a rapid transit line was opened to connect Taipei with Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taoyuan City. The new line is part of the new Taoyuan Metro system.

Taipei Railway Station front

Rail

Main articles: Taiwan High Speed Rail and Taiwan Railway Administration

 

Beginning in 1983, surface rail lines in the city were moved underground as part of the Taipei Railway Underground Project.[91] The Taiwan High Speed Rail system opened in 2007. The bullet trains connect Taipei with the west coast cities of New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi, and Tainan before terminating at Zuoying (Kaohsiung) at speeds that cut travel times by 60% or more from what they normally are on a bus or conventional train.[92] The Taiwan Railway Administration also runs passenger and freight services throughout the entire island.

Bus

 

An extensive city bus system serves metropolitan areas not covered by the metro, with exclusive bus lanes to facilitate transportation.[41] Riders of the city metro system are able to use the EasyCard for discounted fares on buses, and vice versa. Several major intercity bus terminals are located throughout the city, including the Taipei Bus Station and Taipei City Hall Bus Station.[93]

Taipei Songshan Airport

Airports

Main articles: Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taipei Songshan Airport

 

Most scheduled international flights are served by Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in nearby Taoyuan City. Songshan Airport at the heart of the city in the Songshan District serves domestic flights and scheduled flights to Tokyo International Airport (also known as Haneda Airport), Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, and about 15 destinations in the People's Republic of China. Songshan Airport is accessible by the Taipei Metro Neihu Line; Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport is accessible by the Taoyuan International Airport MRT system.

Ticketing

 

In 1994, with the rapid development of Taipei, a white paper for transport policies expressed the strong objective to "create a civilised transport system for the people of Taipei." In 1999, they chose Mitac consortium, which Thales-Transportation Systems is part of. Thales was then selected again in 2005 to deploy an upgrade of Taipei's public transport network with an end-to-end and fully contactless automatic fare collection solution that integrates 116 metro stations, 5,000 buses and 92 car parks.[citation needed]

Education

West Site of National Taiwan University Hospital

 

24 universities have campuses located in Taipei:

 

National Taiwan University (1928)

National Chengchi University (1927)

National Defense Medical Center (1902)

National Defense University (1906)

National Taipei University (1949)

National Taipei University of Business (1917)

National Taipei University of Education (1895)

National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science (1947)

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (1974)

National Taipei University of Technology (1912)

National Taiwan College of Performing Arts (1957)

National Taiwan Normal University (1946)

National Yang-Ming University (1975)

Taipei National University of the Arts (1982)

University of Taipei (2013)

  

Tamkang University (1950)

Soochow University (1900)

Chinese Culture University (1962)

Ming Chuan University (1957)

Shih Hsin University (1956)

Shih Chien University (1958)

Taipei Medical University (1960)

Tatung University (1956)

China University of Technology (1965)

 

National Taiwan University (NTU) was established in 1928 during the period of Japanese colonial rule. NTU has produced many political and social leaders in Taiwan. Both pan-blue and pan-green movements in Taiwan are rooted on the NTU campus. The university has six campuses in the greater Taipei region (including New Taipei) and two additional campuses in Nantou County. The university governs farms, forests, and hospitals for educational and research purposes. The main campus is in Taipei's Da-An district, where most department buildings and all the administrative buildings are located. The College of Law and the College of Medicine are located near the Presidential Building. The National Taiwan University Hospital is a leading international center of medical research.[94]

 

National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU or Shida) likewise traces its origins to the Japanese colonial period. Originally a teacher training institution, NTNU has developed into a comprehensive international university with demanding entrance requirements. The university boasts especially strong programs in the humanities and international education. Worldwide it is perhaps best known as home of the Mandarin Training Center, a program that offers Mandarin language training each year to over a thousand students from dozens of countries throughout the world. The main campus in Taipei's Da-An district, near MRT Guting Station, is known for its historic architecture and giving its name to the Shida Night Market, one of the most popular among the numerous night markets in Taipei.

Chinese language program for foreigners

 

Taiwan Mandarin Institute (TMI) (福爾摩莎)

International Chinese Language Program (ICLP) (國際華語研習所) of National Taiwan University

Mandarin Training Center (MTC) (國語教學中心) of National Taiwan Normal University

Taipei Language Institute (中華語文研習所)

 

Photo Copyright 2012, dynamo.photography.

All rights reserved, no use without license

 

++++++ from Wikipedia ++++++

 

Taipei (/ˌtaɪˈpeɪ/), officially known as Taipei City, is the capital city and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC"). Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City. It is about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located on the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.[5] Formerly known as Taipeh-fu during Qing era and Taihoku under Japanese rule, Taipei became the capital of the Taiwan Province as part of the Republic of China in 1945 and recently has been the capital[a] of the ROC since 1949, when the Kuomintang lost the mainland to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.

 

The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,704,810 in 2015,[6] forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 7,047,559,[6][7] the 40th most-populous urban area in the world—roughly one-third of Taiwanese citizens live in the metro district. The name "Taipei" can refer either to the whole metropolitan area or the city proper.

 

Taipei is the political, economic, educational, and cultural center of Taiwan island, and one of the major hubs of Greater China. Considered to be a global city,[8] Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area.[9] Railways, high-speed rail, highways, airports, and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Lungshan Temple of Manka, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Taipei Guest House, Ximending, and several night markets dispersing over the city. Its natural features such as Maokong, Yangmingshan, and hot springs are also well known to international visitors.

 

As the capital city, "Taipei" is sometimes used as a synecdoche for the Republic of China. Due to the ongoing controversy over the political status of Taiwan, the name Chinese Taipei is designated for official use when Taiwanese governmental representatives or national teams participate in some international organizations or international sporting events (which may require UN statehood) in order to avoid extensive political controversy by using other names.

 

Contents

 

1 History

1.1 First settlements

1.2 Empire of Japan

1.3 Republic of China

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

2.2 Air quality

2.3 Cityscape

3 Demographics

4 Economy

5 Culture

5.1 Tourism

5.1.1 Commemorative sites and museums

5.1.2 Taipei 101

5.1.3 Performing arts

5.1.4 Shopping and recreation

5.1.5 Temples

5.2 Festivals and events

5.3 Taipei in films

6 Romanization

7 Government

7.1 Garbage recycling

7.2 Administrative divisions

7.3 City planning

8 Transportation

8.1 Metro

8.2 Rail

8.3 Bus

8.4 Airports

8.5 Ticketing

9 Education

9.1 Chinese language program for foreigners

10 Sports

10.1 Major sporting events

10.2 Youth baseball

11 Media

11.1 Television

11.2 Newspapers

12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12.2 Partner cities

12.3 Friendship cities

13 Gallery

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

17 External links

 

History

Main article: History of Taipei

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument and tourist attraction in Taipei.

 

Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was mainly inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines. The number of Han immigrants gradually increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area.[10] In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture.

 

The Qing dynasty of China made Taipeh the temporary capital of Fujian-Taiwan Province in 1886 when Taiwan was separated from Fujian Province.[11][12] Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894.

 

Japan acquired Taiwan in 1895 under the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. Taiwan became a colony of Imperial Japan with Taihoku (formerly Taipeh) as its capital, in which the city was administered under Taihoku Prefecture. Taiwan's Japanese rulers embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning that featured extensive railroad links. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period.[13]

 

Following the Japanese surrender of 1945, control of Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China (ROC) (see Retrocession Day). After losing mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) relocated the ROC government to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of the ROC in December 1949.[14][15] In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy. The city is today home to Taiwan's democratically elected national government.

First settlements

 

The region known as the Taipei Basin was home to Ketagalan tribes before the eighteenth century.[16] Han Chinese mainly from Fujian Province of Qing dynasty China began to settle in the Taipei Basin in 1709.[17][18]

 

In the late 19th century, the Taipei area, where the major Han Chinese settlements in northern Taiwan and one of the designated overseas trade ports, Tamsui, were located, gained economic importance due to the booming overseas trade, especially that of tea export. In 1875, the northern part of Taiwan was separated from Taiwan Prefecture and incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture as a new administrative entity of the Qing dynasty.[13] Having been established adjoining the flourishing townships of Bangka, Dalongdong, and Twatutia, the new prefectural capital was known as Chengnei (Chinese: 城內; pinyin: chéngnèi; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: siâⁿ-lāi), "the inner city", and government buildings were erected there. From 1875 (still Qing era) until the beginning of Japanese rule in 1895, Taipei was part of Tamsui County of Taipeh Prefecture and the prefectural capital.

 

In 1885, work commenced to create an independent Taiwan Province, and Taipei City was temporarily made the provincial capital. Taipei officially became the capital of Taiwan in 1894.[citation needed] All that remains from the Qing era is the north gate. The west gate and city walls were demolished by the Japanese while the south gate, little south gate, and east gate were extensively modified by the Kuomintang (KMT) and have lost much of their original character.[19]

Empire of Japan

The Taihoku Prefecture government building in the 1910s (now the Control Yuan)

 

As settlement for losing the First Sino-Japanese War, China ceded the island of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan in 1895 as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. After the Japanese take-over, Taipei, called Taihoku in Japanese, was retained as the capital and emerged as the political center of the Japanese Colonial Government.[13] During that time the city acquired the characteristics of an administrative center, including many new public buildings and housing for civil servants. Much of the architecture of Taipei dates from the period of Japanese rule, including the Presidential Building which was the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan.

 

During Japanese rule, Taihoku was incorporated in 1920 as part of Taihoku Prefecture. It included Bangka, Twatutia, and Jōnai (城內) among other small settlements. The eastern village of Matsuyama (松山庄, modern-day Songshan District, Taipei) was annexed into Taihoku City in 1938. Upon the Japanese defeat in the Pacific War and its consequent surrender in August 1945, the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) assumed control of Taiwan. Subsequently, a temporary Office of the Taiwan Province Administrative Governor was established in Taipei City.[20]

Republic of China

With President Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to a crowd during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

 

In 1947 the KMT government under Chiang Kai-shek declared island-wide martial law in Taiwan as a result of the February 28 Incident, which began with incidents in Taipei but led to an island-wide crackdown on the local population by forces loyal to Chiang. Two years later, on December 7, 1949, Chiang and the Kuomintang were forced to flee mainland China by the Communists near the end of the Chinese Civil War. The refugees declared Taipei to be the provisional capital of a continuing Republic of China, with the official capital at Nanjing (Nanking) even though that city was under Communist control.[14][15]

 

Taipei expanded greatly in the decades after 1949, and as approved on December 30, 1966 by the Executive Yuan, Taipei was declared a special centrally administered municipality on July 1, 1967 and given the administrative status of a province.[18] In the following year, Taipei City expanded again by annexing Shilin, Beitou, Neihu, Nangang, Jingmei, and Muzha. At that time, the city's total area increased fourfold through absorbing several outlying towns and villages and the population increased to 1.56 million people.[18]

 

The city's population, which had reached one million in the early 1960s, also expanded rapidly after 1967, exceeding two million by the mid-1970s. Although growth within the city itself gradually slowed thereafter[20] — its population had become relatively stable by the mid-1990s — Taipei remained one of the world's most densely populated urban areas, and the population continued to increase in the region surrounding the city, notably along the corridor between Taipei and Keelung.

 

In 1990 Taipei's 16 districts were consolidated into the current 12 districts.[21] Mass democracy rallies that year in the plaza around Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall led to an island-wide transition to multi-party democracy, where legislators are chosen via regularly scheduled popular elections, during the presidency of Lee Teng-Hui.

Geography

The city of Taipei, as seen from Maokong.

 

Taipei City is located in the Taipei Basin in northern Taiwan.[22] It is bordered by the Xindian River on the south and the Tamsui River on the west. The generally low-lying terrain of the central areas on the western side of the municipality slopes upward to the south and east and especially to the north,[5] where it reaches 1,120 metres (3,675 ft) at Qixing Mountain, the highest (inactive) volcano in Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park. The northern districts of Shilin and Beitou extend north of the Keelung River and are bordered by Yangmingshan National Park. The Taipei city limits cover an area of 271.7997 km2,[23] ranking sixteenth of twenty-five among all counties and cities in Taiwan.

 

Two peaks, Qixing Mountain and Mt. Datun, rise to the northeast of the city.[24] Qixing Mountain is located on the Tatun Volcano Group and the tallest mountain at the rim of the Taipei Basin, with its main peak at 1,120 metres (3,670 ft). Mt. Datun's main peak is 1,092 metres (3,583 ft). These former volcanoes make up the western section of Yangmingshan National Park, extending from Mt. Datun northward to Mt. Caigongkeng (菜公坑山). Located on a broad saddle between two mountains, the area also contains the marshy Datun Pond.

 

To the southeast of the city lie the Songshan Hills and the Qingshui Ravine, which form a barrier of lush woods.[24]

Climate

 

Taipei has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate[25][26][27] (Köppen: Cfa).[28] Summers are long-lasting, hot and humid, and accompanied by occasional heavy rainstorms and typhoons, while winters are short, generally warm and generally very foggy due to the northeasterly winds from the vast Siberian High being intensified by the pooling of this cooler air in the Taipei Basin. As in the rest of Northern Taiwan, daytime temperatures of Taipei can often peak above 26 degrees Celsius during a warm winter day, while they can dip below 26 degrees Celsius during a rainy summer's afternoon. Occasional cold fronts during the winter months can drop the daily temperature by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius, though temperatures rarely drop below 10 degrees Celsius.[29] Extreme temperatures ranged from −0.2 °C (31.6 °F) on February 13, 1901 to 39.3 °C (102.7 °F) on August 8, 2013, while snow has never been recorded in the city besides on mountains located within the city limit such as Mount Yangmingshan. Due to Taiwan's location in the Pacific Ocean, it is affected by the Pacific typhoon season, which occurs between June and October.

 

Air quality

 

When compared to other Asian cities, Taipei has "excellent" capabilities for managing air quality in the city.[31] Its rainy climate, location near the coast, and strong environmental regulations have prevented air pollution from becoming a substantial health issue, at least compared to cities in southeast Asia and industrial China. However, smog is extremely common and there is poor visibility throughout the city after rain-less days.

 

Motor vehicle engine exhaust, particularly from motor scooters, is a source of air pollution in Taipei. There are higher levels of fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mornings because of less air movement; sunlight reduces some pollution.[32] Occasionally, dust storms from Mainland China can temporarily bring extremely poor air quality to the city.[33]

Cityscape

Taipei viewed from Tiger Mountain, with Taipei 101 on the left.

Demographics

 

Taipei City is home to 2,704,810 people (2015), while the metropolitan area has a population of 7,047,559 people.[6] The population of the city has been decreasing in recent years while the population of the adjacent New Taipei has been increasing. The population loss, while rapid in its early years, has been stabilized by new lower density development and campaigns designed to increase birthrate in the city. The population has begun to rise since 2010.[6][34][35]

 

Due to Taipei's geography and location in the Taipei Basin as well as differing times of economic development of its districts, Taipei's population is not evenly distributed. The districts of Daan, Songshan, and Datong are the most densely populated. These districts, along with adjacent communities such as Yonghe and Zhonghe contain some of the most densely populated neighborhoods in the world.[34]

 

In 2008, the crude birth rate stood at 7.88% while the mortality rate stood at 5.94%. A decreasing and rapidly aging population is an important issue for the city.[34] By the end of 2009, one in ten people in Taipei was over 65 years of age.[36] Residents who had obtained a college education or higher accounted for 43.48% of the population, and the literacy rate stood at 99.18%.[34]

 

Like the rest of Taiwan, Taipei is composed of four major ethnic groups: Hoklos, Mainlanders, Hakkas, and aborigines.[34] Although Hoklos and Mainlanders form the majority of the population of the city, in recent decades many Hakkas have moved into the city. The aboriginal population in the city stands at 12,862 (<0.5%), concentrated mostly in the suburban districts. Foreigners (mainly from Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines) numbered 52,426 at the end of 2008.[34]

 

Economy

 

As the center of Taiwan's largest conurbation, Taipei has been at the center of rapid economic development in the country and has now become one of the global cities in the production of high technology and its components.[37] This is part of the so-called Taiwan Miracle which has seen dramatic growth in the city following foreign direct investment in the 1960s. Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding one of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves of over US$403 billion as of December 2012.[38]

 

Despite the Asian financial crisis, the economy continues to expand at about 5% per year, with virtually full employment and low inflation. As of 2013, the nominal GDP per capita in Taipei city is lower than that in Hong Kong by a narrow margin according to The Economist(Nominal GDP per capita in HK is US$38181 in 2013 from IMF).[39] Furthermore, according to Financial times, GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity(PPP) in Taipei in 2015 is 44173 USD, behind that in Singapore(US$48900 from IMF) and Hong Kong(US$56689 from IMF).[40]

 

Taipei and its environs have long been the foremost industrial area of Taiwan, consisting of industries of the secondary and tertiary sectors.[41] Most of the country's important factories producing textiles and apparel are located there; other industries include the manufacture of electronic products and components, electrical machinery and equipment, printed materials, precision equipment, and foods and beverages. Such companies include Shihlin Electric, CipherLab and Insyde Software. Shipbuilding, including yachts and other pleasure craft, is done in the port of Keelung northeast of the city.

 

Services, including those related to commerce, transportation, and banking, have become increasingly important. Tourism is a small but significant component of the local economy[42][43] with international visitors totaling almost 3 million in 2008.[44] Taipei has many top tourist attractions and contributes a significant amount to the US$6.8 billion tourism industry in Taiwan.[45] National brands such as ASUS,[46] Chunghwa Telecom,[47] Mandarin Airlines,[48] Tatung,[49] and Uni Air,[50][51] D-Link [52] are headquartered in Taipei City.

Culture

Tourism

See also: List of tourist attractions in Taipei

 

Tourism is a major part of Taipei's economy. In 2013, over 6.3 million overseas visitors visited Taipei, making the city the 15th most visited globally.[53] The influx of visitors contributed $10.8 billion USD to the city's economy in 2013, the 9th highest in the world and the most of any city in the Chinese-speaking world.[54]

Commemorative sites and museums

The National Palace Museum

 

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark and tourist attraction that was erected in memory of General Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China.[55] The structure stands at the east end of Memorial Hall Square, site of the National Concert Hall and National Theater and their adjacent parks as well as the memorial. The landmarks of Liberty Square stand within sight of Taiwan's Presidential Building in Taipei's Zhongzheng District.

The National Taiwan Museum

 

The National Taiwan Museum sits nearby in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park and has worn its present name since 1999. The museum is Taiwan's oldest, founded on October 24, 1908 by Taiwan's Japanese colonial government (1895-1945) as the Taiwan Governor's Museum. It was launched with a collection of 10,000 items to celebrate the opening of the island's North-South Railway.[56] In 1915 a new museum building opened its doors in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park. This structure and the adjacent governor's office (now Presidential Office Building), served as the two most recognizable public buildings in Taiwan during its period of Japanese rule.[56]

Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines

 

The National Palace Museum is a vast art gallery and museum built around a permanent collection centered on ancient Chinese artifacts. It should not be confused with the Palace Museum in Beijing (which it is named after); both institutions trace their origins to the same institution. The collections were divided in the 1940s as a result of the Chinese Civil War.[57][58] The National Palace Museum in Taipei now boasts a truly international collection while housing one of the world's largest collections of artifacts from ancient China.[58]

 

The Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines stands just 200 metres across the road from the National Palace Museum. The museum offers displays of art and historical items by Taiwanese aborigines along with a range of multimedia displays.

 

The Taipei Fine Arts Museum was established in 1983 as the first museum in Taiwan dedicated to modern art. The museum is housed in a building designed for the purpose that takes inspiration from Japanese designs. Most art in the collection is by Taiwanese artists since 1940. Over 3,000 art works are organized into 13 groups.

 

The National Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101 in Xinyi District is named in honor of a founding father of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen. The hall, completed on May 16, 1972, originally featured exhibits that depicted revolutionary events in China at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Today it functions as multi-purpose social, educational, concert and cultural center for Taiwan's citizens.[59]

Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei, aka "old city hall"

 

In 2001 a new museum opened as Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei. The museum is housed in a building that formerly housed Taipei City government offices.[60]

Night view of a fully lit Taipei 101

Taipei 101

 

Taipei 101 is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper that claimed the title of world's tallest building when it opened in 2004, a title it held for six years before relinquishing it to the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners and constructed by KTRT Joint Venture, Taipei 101 measures 509 m (1,670 ft) from ground to top, making it the first skyscraper in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height. Built to withstand typhoon winds and earthquake tremors, its design incorporates many engineering innovations and has won numerous international awards. Taipei 101 remains one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world and holds LEED's certification as the world's largest "green" building. Its shopping mall and its indoor and outdoor observatories draw visitors from all over the world. Taipei 101's New Year's Eve fireworks display is a regular feature of international broadcasts.

Performing arts

Taiwan's National Concert Hall at night

 

The National Theater and Concert Hall stand at Taipei's Liberty Square and host events by foreign and domestic performers. Other leading concert venues include Zhongshan Hall at Ximending and the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101.

 

A new venue, the Taipei Performing Arts Center, is under construction and slated to open in 2015.[61][62] The venue will stand near the Shilin Night Market[63] and will house three theaters for events with multi-week runs. The architectural design, by Rem Koolhaas and OMA, was determined in 2009 in an international competition.[64] The same design process is also in place for a new Taipei Center for Popular Music and Taipei City Museum.[65]

Shopping and recreation

Main article: Shopping in Taipei

 

Taipei is known for its many night markets, the most famous of which is the Shilin Night Market in the Shilin District. The surrounding streets by Shilin Night Market are extremely crowded during the evening, usually opening late afternoon and operating well past midnight. Most night markets feature individual stalls selling a mixture of food, clothing, and consumer goods.

The busy streets of Ximending at night

 

Ximending has been a famous area for shopping and entertainment since the 1930s. Historic structures include a concert hall, a historic cinema, and the Red House Theater. Modern structures house karaoke businesses, art film cinemas, wide-release movie cinemas, electronic stores, and a wide variety of restaurants and fashion clothing stores.[66] The pedestrian area is especially popular with teens and has been called the "Harajuku" of Taipei.[67]

Eastern district at night

 

The newly developed Xinyi District is popular with tourists and locals alike for its many entertainment and shopping venues, as well as being the home of Taipei 101, a prime tourist attraction. Malls in the area include the sprawling Shin Kong Mitsukoshi complex, Breeze Center, Bellavita, Taipei 101 mall, Eslite Bookstore's flagship store (which includes a boutique mall), The Living Mall, ATT shopping mall, and the Vieshow Cinemas (formerly known as Warner Village). The Xinyi district also serves as the center of Taipei's active nightlife, with several popular lounge bars and nightclubs concentrated in a relatively small area around the Neo19, ATT 4 FUN and Taipei 101 buildings. Lounge bars such as Barcode and nightclubs such as Spark and Myst are among the most-visited places here.

Eslite Bookstore in Xinyi District

 

The thriving shopping area around Taipei Main Station includes the Taipei Underground Market and the original Shin Kong Mitsukoshi department store at Shin Kong Life Tower. Other popular shopping destinations include the Zhongshan Metro Mall, Dihua Street, the Guang Hua Digital Plaza, and the Core Pacific City. The Miramar Entertainment Park is known for its large Ferris wheel and IMAX theater.

 

Taipei maintains an extensive system of parks, green spaces, and nature preserves. Parks and forestry areas of note in and around the city include Yangmingshan National Park, Taipei Zoo and Da-an Forest Park. Yangmingshan National Park (located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the central city) is famous for its cherry blossoms, hot springs, and sulfur deposits. It is the home of famous writer Lin Yutang, the summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek, residences of foreign diplomats, the Chinese Culture University, the meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China, and the Kuomintang Party Archives. The Taipei Zoo was founded in 1914 and covers an area of 165 hectares for animal sanctuary.

 

Bitan is known for boating and water sports. Tamsui is a popular sea-side resort town. Ocean beaches are accessible in several directions from Taipei.

Temples

Built in 1738, Longshan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the city.

Street corner shrine, Taipei 2013

 

Taipei is rich in beautiful, ornate temples housing Buddhist, Taoist, and Chinese folk religion deities. The Longshan Temple, built in 1738 and located in the Wanhua District, demonstrates an example of architecture with southern Chinese influences commonly seen on older buildings in Taiwan.

 

Xinsheng South Road is known as the "Road to Heaven" due to its high concentration of temples, shrines, churches, and mosques.[68][69] Other famous temples include Baoan Temple located in historic Dalongdong, a national historical site, and Xiahai City God Temple, located in the old Dadaocheng community, constructed with architecture similar to temples in southern Fujian.[70] The Taipei Confucius Temple traces its history back to 1879 during the Qing Dynasty and also incorporates southern Fujian-style architecture.[71]

 

Besides large temples, small outdoor shrines to local deities are very common and can be spotted on road sides, parks, and neighborhoods. Many homes and businesses may also set up small shrines of candles, figurines, and offerings. Some restaurants, for example, may set up a small shrine to the Kitchen god for success in a restaurant business.[72]

New Year's Eve fireworks at Taipei 101

Festivals and events

 

Many yearly festivals are held in Taipei. In recent years some festivals, such as the Double Ten Day fireworks and concerts, are increasingly hosted on a rotating basis by a number of cities around Taiwan.

 

When New Year's Eve arrives on the solar calendar, thousands of people converge on Taipei's Xinyi District for parades, outdoor concerts by popular artists, street shows, round-the clock nightlife. The high point is of course the countdown to midnight, when Taipei 101 assumes the role of the world's largest fireworks platform.

 

The Taipei Lantern Festival concludes the Lunar New Year holiday. The timing of the city's lantern exhibit coincides with the national festival in Pingxi, when thousands of fire lanterns are released into the sky.[73] The city's lantern exhibit rotates among different downtown locales from year to year, including Liberty Square, Taipei 101, and Zhongshan Hall in Ximending.

 

On Double Ten Day, patriotic celebrations are held in front of the Presidential Building. Other annual festivals include Ancestors Day (Tomb-Sweeping Day), the Dragon Boat Festival, the Ghost Festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival).[73]

 

Taipei regularly hosts its share of international events. The city recently hosted the 2009 Summer Deaflympics.[74] This event was followed by the Taipei International Flora Exposition, a garden festival hosted from November 2010 to April 2011. The Floral Expo was the first of its kind to take place in Taiwan and only the seventh hosted in Asia; the expo admitted 110,000 visitors on February 27, 2011.

Taipei in films

  

Romanization

  

The spelling "Taipei" derives from the Wade–Giles romanization T'ai-pei.[75] The name could be also romanized as Táiběi according to Hanyu Pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin.[76][77]

Government

 

Taipei City is a special municipality which is directly under the Executive Yuan (Central Government) of ROC. The mayor of Taipei City had been an appointed position since Taipei's conversion to a centrally administered municipality in 1967 until the first public election was held in 1994.[78] The position has a four-year term and is elected by direct popular vote. The first elected mayor was Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party. Ma Ying-jeou took office in 1998 for two terms, before handing it over to Hau Lung-pin who won the 2006 mayoral election on December 9, 2006.[79] Both Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-Jeou went on to become President of the Republic of China. The incumbent mayor, Ko Wen-je, was elected on November 29, 2014 and took office on December 25, 2014.[80]

 

Based on the outcomes of previous elections in the past decade, the vote of the overall constituency of Taipei City shows a slight inclination towards the pro-KMT camp (the Pan-Blue Coalition);[81] however, the pro-DPP camp (the Pan-Green Coalition) also has considerable support.[82]

 

Ketagalan Boulevard, where the Presidential Office Building and other government structures are situated, is often the site of mass gatherings such as inauguration and national holiday parades, receptions for visiting dignitaries, political demonstrations,[83][84] and public festivals.[85]

Garbage recycling

 

Taipei City is also famous for its effort in garbage recycling, which has become such a good international precedent that other countries have sent teams to study the recycling system. After the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) established a program in 1998 combining the efforts of communities, a financial resource named the Recycling Fund was made available to recycling companies and waste collectors. Manufacturers, vendors and importers of recyclable waste pay fees to the Fund, which uses the money to set firm prices for recyclables and subsidize local recycling efforts. Between 1998 and 2008, the recycling rate increased from 6 percent to 32 percent.[86] This improvement enabled the government of Taipei to demonstrate its recycling system to the world at the Shanghai World Expo 2010.

Administrative divisions

 

Taipei City is divided up into 12 administrative districts (區 qu).[87] Each district is further divided up into urban villages (里), which are further sub-divided up into neighborhoods (鄰).

Map District Population

(Jan. 2016) Area

(km2) Postal

code

 

Beitou 北投區 Běitóu Pei-t'ou Pak-tâu 257,922 56.8216 112

Da'an 大安區 Dà'ān Ta-an Tāi-an 312,909 11.3614 106

Datong 大同區 Dàtóng Ta-t'ung Tāi-tông 131,029 5.6815 103

Nangang 南港區 Nángǎng Nan-kang Lâm-káng 122,296 21.8424 115

Neihu 內湖區 Nèihú Nei-hu Lāi-ô͘ 287,726 31.5787 114

Shilin 士林區 Shìlín Shih-lin Sū-lîm 290,682 62.3682 111

Songshan 松山區 Sōngshān Sung-shan Siông-san 209,689 9.2878 105

Wanhua 萬華區 Wànhuá Wan-hua Báng-kah 194,314 8.8522 108

Wenshan 文山區 Wénshān Wen-shan Bûn-san 275,433 31.5090 116

Xinyi 信義區 Xìnyì Hsin-yi Sìn-gī 229,139 11.2077 110

Zhongshan 中山區 Zhōngshān Chung-shan Tiong-san 231,286 13.6821 104

Zhongzheng 中正區 Zhōngzhèng Chung-cheng Tiong-chèng 162,549 7.6071 100

 

City planning

 

The city is characterized by straight roads and public buildings of grand Western architectural styles.[88] The city is built on a square grid configuration, however these blocks are huge by international standards with 500 m (1,640.42 ft) sides. The area in between these blocks are infilled with lanes and alleys, which provide access to quieter residential or mixed-use development. Other than a citywide 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) speed limit, there is little uniform planning within this "hidden" area; therefore lanes (perpendicular to streets) and alleys (parallel with street, or conceptually, perpendicular to the lane) spill out from the main throughways. These minor roads are not always perpendicular and sometimes cut through the block diagonally.

 

Although development began in the western districts (still considered the cultural heart of the city) of the city due to trade, the eastern districts of the city have become the focus of recent development projects. Many of the western districts, already in decline, have become targets of new urban renewal initiatives.[88]

Transportation

Platform of Wende Station on the Taipei Metro system.

 

Public transport accounts for a substantial portion of different modes of transport in Taiwan, with Taipei residents having the highest utilization rate at 34.1%.[89] Private transport consists of motor scooters, private cars, and bicycles. Motor-scooters often weave between cars and occasionally through oncoming traffic. Respect for traffic laws, once scant, has improved with deployment of traffic cameras and increasing numbers of police roadblocks checking riders for alcohol consumption and other offenses.

 

Taipei Station serves as the comprehensive hub for the subway, bus, conventional rail, and high-speed rail.[41] A contactless smartcard, known as EasyCard, can be used for all modes of public transit as well as several retail outlets. It contains credits that are deducted each time a ride is taken.[90] The EasyCard is read via proximity sensory panels on buses and in MRT stations, and it does not need to be removed from one's wallet or purse.

Metro

Main article: Taipei Metro

 

Taipei's public transport system, the Taipei Metro (commonly referred to as the MRT), incorporates a metro and light rail system based on advanced VAL and Bombardier technology. There are currently five metro lines that are labelled in three ways: color, line number and depot station name. In addition to the rapid transit system itself, the Taipei Metro also includes several public facilities such as the Maokong Gondola, underground shopping malls, parks, and public squares. Modifications to existing railway lines to integrate them into the metro system are underway.

 

In 2017 a rapid transit line was opened to connect Taipei with Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taoyuan City. The new line is part of the new Taoyuan Metro system.

Taipei Railway Station front

Rail

Main articles: Taiwan High Speed Rail and Taiwan Railway Administration

 

Beginning in 1983, surface rail lines in the city were moved underground as part of the Taipei Railway Underground Project.[91] The Taiwan High Speed Rail system opened in 2007. The bullet trains connect Taipei with the west coast cities of New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi, and Tainan before terminating at Zuoying (Kaohsiung) at speeds that cut travel times by 60% or more from what they normally are on a bus or conventional train.[92] The Taiwan Railway Administration also runs passenger and freight services throughout the entire island.

Bus

 

An extensive city bus system serves metropolitan areas not covered by the metro, with exclusive bus lanes to facilitate transportation.[41] Riders of the city metro system are able to use the EasyCard for discounted fares on buses, and vice versa. Several major intercity bus terminals are located throughout the city, including the Taipei Bus Station and Taipei City Hall Bus Station.[93]

Taipei Songshan Airport

Airports

Main articles: Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taipei Songshan Airport

 

Most scheduled international flights are served by Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in nearby Taoyuan City. Songshan Airport at the heart of the city in the Songshan District serves domestic flights and scheduled flights to Tokyo International Airport (also known as Haneda Airport), Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, and about 15 destinations in the People's Republic of China. Songshan Airport is accessible by the Taipei Metro Neihu Line; Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport is accessible by the Taoyuan International Airport MRT system.

Ticketing

 

In 1994, with the rapid development of Taipei, a white paper for transport policies expressed the strong objective to "create a civilised transport system for the people of Taipei." In 1999, they chose Mitac consortium, which Thales-Transportation Systems is part of. Thales was then selected again in 2005 to deploy an upgrade of Taipei's public transport network with an end-to-end and fully contactless automatic fare collection solution that integrates 116 metro stations, 5,000 buses and 92 car parks.[citation needed]

Education

West Site of National Taiwan University Hospital

 

24 universities have campuses located in Taipei:

 

National Taiwan University (1928)

National Chengchi University (1927)

National Defense Medical Center (1902)

National Defense University (1906)

National Taipei University (1949)

National Taipei University of Business (1917)

National Taipei University of Education (1895)

National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science (1947)

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (1974)

National Taipei University of Technology (1912)

National Taiwan College of Performing Arts (1957)

National Taiwan Normal University (1946)

National Yang-Ming University (1975)

Taipei National University of the Arts (1982)

University of Taipei (2013)

  

Tamkang University (1950)

Soochow University (1900)

Chinese Culture University (1962)

Ming Chuan University (1957)

Shih Hsin University (1956)

Shih Chien University (1958)

Taipei Medical University (1960)

Tatung University (1956)

China University of Technology (1965)

 

National Taiwan University (NTU) was established in 1928 during the period of Japanese colonial rule. NTU has produced many political and social leaders in Taiwan. Both pan-blue and pan-green movements in Taiwan are rooted on the NTU campus. The university has six campuses in the greater Taipei region (including New Taipei) and two additional campuses in Nantou County. The university governs farms, forests, and hospitals for educational and research purposes. The main campus is in Taipei's Da-An district, where most department buildings and all the administrative buildings are located. The College of Law and the College of Medicine are located near the Presidential Building. The National Taiwan University Hospital is a leading international center of medical research.[94]

 

National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU or Shida) likewise traces its origins to the Japanese colonial period. Originally a teacher training institution, NTNU has developed into a comprehensive international university with demanding entrance requirements. The university boasts especially strong programs in the humanities and international education. Worldwide it is perhaps best known as home of the Mandarin Training Center, a program that offers Mandarin language training each year to over a thousand students from dozens of countries throughout the world. The main campus in Taipei's Da-An district, near MRT Guting Station, is known for its historic architecture and giving its name to the Shida Night Market, one of the most popular among the numerous night markets in Taipei.

Chinese language program for foreigners

 

Taiwan Mandarin Institute (TMI) (福爾摩莎)

International Chinese Language Program (ICLP) (國際華語研習所) of National Taiwan University

Mandarin Training Center (MTC) (國語教學中心) of National Taiwan Normal University

Taipei Language Institute (中華語文研習所

 

林風眠作程十髮題引首《秋艷風景圖》立軸

Autumn Twilight in a Forest by LIN FENGMIAN inscribed by CHENG SHIFA

 

林風眠作程十髮題引首《秋艷風景圖》立軸

畫心題識簽名: 林風眠。

畫心一式鈐印: 林風瞑。

畫心大小尺寸: 高 H 66.5 x 寬 W 63.5 cm 約 3.87 平尺 4.69 才

畫心媒體形制: 水墨設色紙本中堂懸掛立軸

 

引首題識簽名: 秋艷。程十髮。

引首一式鈐印: 程十髮。

引首大小尺寸: 高 H 46 x 寬 W 63.5 cm 約 2.68 平尺 3.24 才

引首媒體形制: 水墨紙本中堂懸掛立軸

 

Autumn Twilight in a Forest by LIN FENGMIAN inscribed by CHENG SHIFA

 

Size: Painting H 66.5 x W 63.5 cm; Inscription H 46 x W 63.5 cm.

 

Ink and color on paper, mounted on one hanging scroll, signed LIN FENGMIAN, with one seal of the artist, inscribed AUTUMN TWILIGHT by CHENG SHIFA, with one seal of the inscriber.

  

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家 Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家

Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

 

共 155 名中國畫家占前 500 名畫家之 31 %

Total 155 Chinese artists / 500 artists = 31 %

 

假如你是西方油畫的收藏家,扣除 31 % 的中國畫家,再扣除 20 % 左右的中國瓷器、青銅器、珠寶玉器、漆器雜項類中國作家,2014年你只是在世界作者市場 49 % 以內經營藝術品而已;可能再過10年,你將成為只是在世界作者市場 30 % 以內經營。

 

If you are a collector of western oil paintings, deducting 31 % for Chinese artists of paintings and further deducting 20% for Chinese artists of ceramics、bronze、jades and jewelry、lacquer and miscellaneous works of art, in 2014 you are only operating works of art within 49% of the world artists market. Maybe after 10 years, you might become operating works of art within 30% of the world artists market.

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover ($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price ($)

 

Page 84 (14 Chinese artists) 第84頁14位中國畫家

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price($)

 

7 QI Baishi (1864-1957) 齊白石 206,245,348 719 7,861,850

9 ZHANG Daqian (1899-1983) 張大千 193,242,992 817 7,476,199

13 ZAO Wou-ki (1921-2013) 趙無極 115,686,349 575 7,161,650

16 FU Baoshi (1904-1965) 傅抱石 103,465,331 142 4,944,050

17 XU Beihong (1895-1953) 徐悲鴻 102,449,141 219 6,532,000

19 HUANG Zhou (1925-1997) 黃冑 96,461,998 625 5,506,020

20 HUANG Binhong (1865-1955) 黃賓虹 88,082,380 303 8,839,900

26 WU Changshuo (1844-1927) 吳昌碩 80,942,833 560 5,463,850

31 LU Yanshao (1909-1993) 陸儼少 66,350,196 443 1,925,760

32 LI Keran (1907-1989) 李可染 65,946,710 207 7,294,500

37 CHU Teh-Chun (1920-2014) 朱德群 60,897,598 241 3,800,000

38 WU Guanzhong (1919-2010) 吳冠中 60,623,435 153 2,967,000

42 LIN Fengmian (1900-1991) 林風眠 54,514,729 253 2,449,500

50 ZENG Fanzhi (1964)曾梵志 43,080,328 50 3,606,400

 

Page 85 (17 Chinese artists) 第85頁17位中國畫家

 

53 PU Ru (1896-1963) 溥儒(溥心畬) 41,246,692 1,042 838,500

55 XIE Zhiliu (1910-1997) 謝稚柳 39,960,699 355 2,367,850

58 WU Hufan (1894-1968) 吳湖帆 37,900,898 320 3,412,500

59 WANG Duo (1592-1652) 王鐸 37,871,423 70 3,013,650

62 PAN Tianshou (1897-1971) 潘天壽 34,790,957 88 3,600,840

67 ZHU Da (1626-1705) 朱耷(八大山人) 32,277,125 38 6,190,200

71 SAN Yu (1901-1966) 常玉 30,027,262 41 9,151,899

75 ZHU Xinjian (1953-2014) 朱新建 28,619,279 1,202 898,150

78 QIANLONG Emperor (1711-1799) 乾隆皇帝 27,079,477 48 16,483,200

81 CHENG Shifa (1921-2007) 程十髮 25,987,069 486 1,959,600

83 QI Gong (1912-2005) 啟功 25,693,155 437 815,500

85 QIAN Songyan (1899-1985) 錢松喦 25,582,974 254 1,053,650

89 FAN Zeng (1938) 范曾 23,416,615 237 2,941,200

93 YU Youren (1879-1964) 于右任 23,032,037 718 521,279

95 ZHOU Chunya (1955) 周春芽 21,226,785 65 1,134,700

96 WANG Hui (1632-1717) 王翬 21,050,636 58 4,569,600

98 ZHANG Xiaogang (1958) 張曉剛 20,783,341 44 10,698,699

 

Page 86 (18 Chinese artists) 第86頁18位中國畫家

 

103 LIU Wei (1965) 刘炜 19,134,174 43 2,935,800

105 WANG Xuetao (1903-1982) 王雪濤 18,896,219 348 827,220

109 HUANG Yongyu (1924) 黄永玉 18,286,630 241 902,430

110 DONG Shouping (1904-1997) 董寿平 18,251,261 309 842,920

112 HE Haixia (1908-1998) 何海霞 17,310,468 144 3,266,000

114 CHEN Yifei (1946-2005) 陳逸飛 16,910,797 29 2,964,699

119 GUAN Liang (1900-1986) 關良 16,014,062 239 2,197,800

120 REN Yi (1840-1896) 任頤(任伯年) 15,959,015 167 1,199,520

128 DONG Qichang (1555-1636) 董其昌 14,722,727 123 2,769,300

130 WEN Zhengming (1470-1559) 文徵明 14,576,419 79 1,633,000

131 YU Fei'an (1888-1959) 于非闇 14,505,161 109 972,600

135 ZHENG Banqiao (1693-1765) 鄭板橋 14,208,977 76 2,200,000

136 LIU Dawei (1945) 刘大为 14,023,225 121 1,621,000

138 LI Kuchan (1899-1983) 李苦禪 13,918,988 276 786,240

139 LIN Sanzhi (1898-1989) 林散之 13,856,855 350 907,760

141 LUO Zhongli (1948) 羅中立 13,483,611 53 6,159,800

148 HONG Yi (1880-1942) 弘一(李叔同) 12,755,950 85 1,306,400

149 LIU Xiaodong (1963) 劉小東 12,589,594 15 7,470,400

 

Page 87 (19 Chinese artists) 第87頁19位中國畫家

 

152 LAI Shaoqi (1915-2000) 赖少其 12,209,093 144 5,538,600

153 CHEN Peiqiu (1922/23) 陈佩秋 12,101,206 194 1,040,000

157 YI Bingshou (1754-1815) 伊秉绶 11,964,497 55 3,242,000

161 LIU Haisu (1896-1994) 劉海粟 11,536,281 138 1,877,950

166 YANG Yan (1958) 楊彥 11,191,811 57 10,784,400

167 TANG Yun (1910-1993) 唐雲 11,031,461 493 293,940

172 FANG Lijun (1963) 方力均 10,814,787 30 6,697,600

178 TANG Yin (1470-1523) 唐寅(唐伯虎) 10,514,886 33 4,956,250

180 GUAN Shanyue (1912-2000) 關山月 10,378,961 119 2,850,750

182 LIU Guosong (1932) 劉國松 10,204,764 83 1,804,599

184 CHEN Shaomei (1909-1954) 陳少梅 10,172,762 89 3,000,700

185 SHI Guoliang (1956) 史國良(釋慧禪) 10,111,795 116 1,588,580

186 HUANG Junbi (1898-1991) 黃君璧 10,051,378 313 319,410

188 FU Shan (1607-1684) 傅山 9,945,247 23 3,890,400

189 HE Jiaying (1957) 何家英 9,919,579 54 859,130

190 ZHOU Sicong (1939-1996) 周思聪 9,888,000 174 1,377,850

191 ZHU Ming (1938) 朱銘 9,699,670 94 1,224,549

196 JIN Nong (1687-1763) 金農 9,367,369 48 1,732,040

200 LIU Danzhai (1931-2011) 刘旦宅 9,177,422 134 1,339,060

 

Page 88 (15 Chinese artists) 第88頁15位中國畫家

 

201 LI Xiongcai (1910-2001) 黎雄才 9,162,598 191 788,160

208 YA Ming (1924-2002) 亚明 8,916,735 251 1,172,160

215 BAI Xueshi (1915-2011) 白雪石 8,571,042 164 456,119

217 LEE Man Fong (1913-1988) 李曼峰 8,494,019 61 3,735,200

218 HONG Ren (1610-1663) 弘仁 8,467,043 5 7,542,300

221 FENG Zikai (1898-1975) 豐子愷 8,411,283 175 437,670

223 SONG Wenzhi (1919-1999) 宋文治 8,326,290 244 469,151

224 XU Lei (1963) 徐累 8,312,432 26 2,606,400

225 WANG Yidong (1955) 王沂東 8,284,639 30 1,458,900

227 WANG Mingming (1952) 王明明 8,207,562 130 453,600

234 JIA Youfu (1942) 賈又福 7,873,366 79 1,864,150

236 WU Zuoren (1908-1997) 吳作人 7,832,988 148 636,090

237 FAN Yang (1955) 范揚 7,806,488 233 243,750

242 WANG Yuanqi (1642-1715) 王原祁 7,678,320 39 1,465,200

250 AI Xuan (1947) 艾轩 7,467,339 43 749,800

 

Page 89 (12 Chinese artists) 第89頁12位中國畫家

 

258 PAN Yuliang (1895-1977) 潘玉良 7,179,153 11 3,870,351

262 ZHAO Zhiqian (1829-1884) 趙之謙 7,060,825 66 1,160,099

265 TIAN Liming (1955) 田黎明 6,999,979 95 315,900

266 EMPEROR KANGXI (1654-1722) 康熙皇帝 6,937,669 14 3,258,000

268 SHI Lu (1919-1982) 石魯 6,852,847 49 1,021,230

271 TIAN Shiguang (1916-1999) 田世光 6,803,606 123 781,920

276 CHOU Ying (1493-1560) 仇英 6,632,784 50 1,823,360

279 DING Yanyong (1902-1978) 丁衍庸 6,584,807 181 592,939

291 GUO Moruo (1892-1978) 郭沫若 6,218,480 61 1,102,280

294 XU Bing (1955) 徐冰 6,130,422 30 1,167,120

297 SHEN Zhou (1427-1509) 沈周 6,066,002 28 1,798,500

299 SHEN Yinmo (1883-1971) 沈尹默 6,003,213 185 1,218,750

 

Page 90 (14 Chinese artists) 第90頁14位中國畫家

 

303 YUE Minjun (1962) 岳敏君 5,851,974 22 1,296,800

306 ZHAO Shao'Ang (1905-1998) 趙少昂 5,809,681 247 259,520

309 XUE Liang (1956) 薛亮 5,717,377 95 1,103,640

316 CHEONG Soo Pieng (1917-1983) 钟泗滨 5,566,836 55 631,609

323 ZHANG Ruitu (1570-1641) 張瑞圖 5,495,433 30 761,870

328 CHEN Hongshou (1598-1652) 陳洪绶 5,458,659 20 1,945,200

329 REN Zhong (1976) 任重 5,452,237 56 423,540

331 ZHU Qizhan (1892-1996) 朱屺瞻 5,417,335 209 260,000

332 ZHAO Puchu (1907-2000) 趙樸初 5,382,881 175 486,300

336 WANG Jian (1598-1677) 王鑒 5,309,438 23 3,811,700

339 YANG Shanshen (1913-2004) 楊善深 5,279,455 184 1,427,360

341 KANG Youwei (1858-1927) 康有為 5,199,080 113 324,200

343 GU Wenda (1955) 谷文達 5,179,178 42 1,119,180

345 LIU Ye (1964) 劉野 5,117,193 34 891,550

 

Page 91 (18 Chinese artists) 第91頁18位中國畫家

 

351 PU Guang (XIII -XIV) 溥光 4,944,050 1 4,944,050

352 HE Shaoji (1799-1873) 何绍基 4,912,933 136 747,500

355 LIU Jiyou (1918-1983) 劉繼卣 4,891,144 108 399,595

358 CHEN Dayu (1912-2001) 陳大羽 4,855,807 247 454,160

365 SHI Tao (1642-1707) 石濤 4,796,775 27 2,269,400

368 ZHU Meicun (1911-1993) 朱梅邨 4,776,671 117 570,150

369 JIA Aili (1979) 贾蔼力 4,758,253 8 1,262,240

370 XI Dejin (1923-1981) 席德進 4,740,558 89 227,080

373 SHEN Peng (1931) 沈鹏 4,670,229 160 701,330

374 AI Weiwei (1957) 艾未未 4,663,696 32 966,749

375 XU Lele (1955) 徐樂樂 4,628,253 155 210,730

383 YE Qianyu (1907-1995) 葉淺予 4,530,685 118 356,620

389 ZHU Yunming (1460-1526) 祝允明 4,462,454 14 1,629,000

393 LI Jin (1958) 李津 4,372,647 94 212,160

394 ZHAN Wang (1962) 展望 4,360,124 13 2,709,000

395 FANG Chuxiong (1950) 方楚雄 4,355,333 148 262,080

397 LU Yushun (1962) 盧禹舜 4,336,840 61 884,520

399 CHEN Wenxi (1906-1991) 陳文希 4,242,709 71 1,095,650

 

Page 92 (13 Chinese artists) 第92頁13位中國畫家

 

402 CHENG Conglin (1954) 程叢林 4,177,932 3 4,052,500

404 TAO Lengyue (1895-1985) 陶冷月 4,141,462 138 457,240

405 HE Duoling (1948) 何多苓 4,131,489 12 1,419,000

409 LONG Rui (1946) 龍瑞 4,047,039 66 956,980

416 LU Yifei (1908-1997) 陸抑非 3,995,369 121 791,293

425 ZHANG Shanzi (1882-1940) 張善孖 3,840,085 90 324,200

428 WANG Guangyi (1957) 王廣義 3,799,843 37 1,167,120

430 WEI Zixi (1915-2002) 魏紫熙 3,791,768 120 235,190

432 YUN Shouping (1633-1690) 惲壽平 3,784,559 78 541,800

437 PAN Gongkai (1947) 潘公凯 3,737,332 16 2,141,040

443 SHA Menghai (1900-1992) 沙孟海 3,702,566 132 293,940

446 HUANG Shen (1687-c.1773) 黃慎 3,685,764 49 425,100

450 LIN Yong (1942) 林墉 3,650,618 117 259,360

 

Page 93 (15 Chinese artists) 第93頁15位中國畫家

 

456 LIAO Chi-Chun (1902-1976) 廖繼春 3,625,280 9 1,252,033

461 LI Shan (1686-1760) 李鱓 3,569,789 38 652,800

462 LAN Ying (1585-c.1664) 蓝瑛 3,562,896 42 438,210

464 YANG Zhiguang (1930) 楊之光 3,525,002 119 195,840

468 ZHANG Enli (1965) 张恩利 3,497,596 12 708,949

471 YANG Feiyun (1954) 杨飞云 3,467,338 14 734,400

472 ZHOU Jingxin (1959) 周京新 3,445,045 113 519,040

475 JIANG Hanting (1904-1963) 江寒汀 3,408,711 125 300,625

476 WANG Ziwu (1936) 王子武 3,404,947 51 653,200

478 LE PHO (1907-2001) 黎譜 3,396,747 96 696,059

479 LIU Yi (1957) 刘溢 3,370,316 20 615,980

481 NI Yuanlu (1593-1644) 倪元璐 3,350,382 10 1,100,000

492 CHIU Ya Tsai (1949-2013) 邱亞才 3,288,319 53 180,459

498 WEN Jia (1501-1583) 文嘉 3,261,051 17 1,986,160

500 WU Dayu (1903-1988) 吴大羽 3,248,689 9 772,800

 

資料來源: 法國 Art price 2014 年全世界藝術市場報告書第 84-93 頁 2014 年全世界拍賣總收入結果前 500 名畫家.

 

Source: The Art Market in 2014 Page 84-93 Top 500 artists by auction revenue in 2014 by Art price

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

99 Fine Chinese Paintings and 12 Antiques in 2013

2013 年 99 幅中國書畫及 12 件古董精品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

 

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

Works of Art List 藝術作品名錄

  

Paintings 書畫作品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

  

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhang Daqian Happy Birthday to Chairman Chang Kaishek of the Government inscribed by Yu Youren 張大千作于右任題大觀高仕祝壽圖手卷

2. Zhang Daqian After the Rising and Warm Green Mountains by Huang Gongwang with Calligraphy 張大千作擬元代黃公望浮巒暖翠山水圖及書法立軸

3. Zhang Daqian Splashed Landscape Fuchun Mountain 張大千作富春山居潑彩山水圖

4. Zhang Daqian Mountain Emei May Be Crossed On Top 張大千作可以橫絕峨嵋巔潑彩山水圖

5. Zhang Daqian A Bird’s-eye View on Taiwan Cross-Island Road near Herhuan 張大千作台灣橫貫公路合歡山鳥瞰金碧潑彩山水圖

6. Zhang Daqian 18 Luohan Disciples Appointed to Witness to Buddhist Truth handscroll 張大千作十八羅漢圖手卷

7. Zhang Daqian The Dreamland of Mountain Qingcheng in Heavenly Place 張大千作夢入靑城天下幽人間仙境圖

8. Zhang Daqian The Heavenly Place in Mankind World 張大千作人家在仙堂潑彩山水圖

9. Zhang Daqian Sun is Rising and Darkness is Fallen allover the Mountain with Calligraphy 張大千作天開影墮潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

10. Zhang Daqian Painting the Elder Bintourlu after Technique of Song Dynasty 張大千作倣宋人畫賓頭盧尊者像

11. Zhang Daqian Listening to the Springs below the Mountains handscroll 張大千作山水生風聽泉入山麓金碧潑彩山水圖手卷

12. Zhang Daqian Waterfall in a Quiet Mountain Valley with Calligraphy 張大千作幽谷飛瀑潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

13. Zhang Daqian Recalling the Beautiful Scenery of Mountain Huang in China 張大千作遙思黃山故景潑彩山水圖

14. Zhang Daqian Splashed Colour Landscape of Beautiful Mountain Qingcheng 張大千作青城天下幽潑彩山水圖

15. Zhang Daqian Golden Outline Red Lotus and a Flying Bird 張大千作香清鈎金紅荷翔鳥圖

16. Zhang Daqian One Flower in One World White Lotus and attached calligraphy 張大千作一花一世界白荷花圖及書法立軸

17. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan Bamboos Parrot Hairpin in Tang’s Clothes 張大千作仿莫高窟初唐人衣飾鸚鵡簪髮飾新篁紈扇仕女圖

18. Zhang Daqian Beauty in Red Hair-kerchief Wooden Shoes White Robe Bamboos 張大千作脩竹紅髮巾木屐白袍裸肩日本美女圖

19. Zhang Daqian Han Changli Composed a Lyric Poem Derived from Chu Dynasty 張大千作韓昌黎作楚語圖

20. Zhang Daqian Scholars Appreciating Maples 張大千作高仕賞楓圖

21. Zhang Daqian Black Cloud Covering on Top of Mt. Emei among Blue Cloud 張大千作可以橫絕峨眉巔黑雲滿布山頂藍雲環繞山間奇景潑墨兼潑彩山水圖

22. Zhang Daqian Dwelling in the Mountain by the Lake Wuting 張大千作五亭湖上山居潑彩山水圖

23. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1979 張大千1979年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

24. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1965 張大千1965年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

25. Zhang Daqian Impressionistic Red Lotus 張大千作寫意紅荷圖

26. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Red Lotus and Double Mandarin Ducks 張大千作愛清氣鈎金紅荷花鴛鴦嘉耦潑彩圖

27. Zhang Daqian High Mountain and Deep Cloud 張大千作山高雲深山水圖

28. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Landscape 張大千作金碧山水圖

29. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan and Bamboos in Splashed Colors 張大千作潑彩竹葉紈扇仕女圖

30. Zhang Daqian Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作七言書法對聯

31. Zhang Daqian Six Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作六言書法對聯

32. Zhang Daqian Splashed Color Golden Outlined Red Lotus on Gold Sheet 張大千作金箋潑彩描金紅荷花圖

  

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

 

1. Qi Baishi Lotus Fish Frogs Shrimps and Crabs handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 齊白石作張大千題香清荷花魚蛙蝦蟹圖手卷

2. Qi Baishi The Ten Elder Men in the Legend of China 齊白石作十全老人神賢圖

3. Qi Baishi Lotus Double Mandarin Ducks and Love Shrimps 齊白石作荷花鴛鴦雙蝦佳偶圖

4. Qi Baishi Wealth and Powerful Honour are Both to Come 齊白石作富貴有期圖

5. Qi Baishi Lotus and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花群蝦圖

6. Qi Baishi A Lotus Pond and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花池塘群蝦圖

7. Qi Baishi A Spring Voice and Great Luck 齊白石作春聲大吉圖

8. Qi Baishi Eagle Perching on the Pine 齊白石作松鷹圖

9. Qi Baishi Prolonging Life Impressionistic Squirrel on Pine Red Peach Double Screens 齊白石作寫意松樹上松鼠與紅桃益壽圖對屏

  

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

 

1. Xu Beihong The Hard Water Drawing of the People Lived in Chongqing handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 徐悲鴻作張大千題巴人汲水圖手卷

2. Xu Beihong Jiufang Gao People in the Chinese Ancient Historical Poem 徐悲鴻作九方皋圖

3. Xu Beihong People in Chinese Ancient Historical Poem of Six Dynasties 徐悲鴻作六朝人詩意圖

4. Xu Beihong China the Wounded Lion Sat Watching American Flying Tiger 徐悲鴻作中國負傷之獅遙望美國飛虎飛將軍

5. Xu Beihong Lions and Snake 徐悲鴻作獅與蛇

6. Xu Beihong The Single Flying Eagle and the Lion 徐悲鴻作獨飛老鷹與獅子圖

7. Xu Beihong Lion and Eagle 徐悲鴻作獅子老鷹圖

8. Xu Beihong Prolonging Life Auspicious Cranes Ganoderma Lucidum Fungus 徐悲鴻作祥鶴靈芝延年益壽圖

 

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Guanzhong The People Live in Mali Village 吳冠中作馬里村頭人物風景圖

2. Wu Guanzhong The Dwellings by the River and Mountain in Southern China 吳冠中作江南民居風景圖

3. Wu Guanzhong The Lion Grove Garden (Lion Woods) 吳冠中作獅子林

4. Wu Guanzhong The Wu Gorge 吳冠中作巫峽魂

5. Wu Guanzhong Rocks by the Sea 吳冠中作海滨石

6. Wu Guanzhong The Single-Log Bridge 吳冠中作獨木橋

7. Wu Guanzhong Expressionistic Lotus 吳冠中作表現主義的荷花

 

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Fu Baoshi Hwan Shyua Showed Painting to Guests in East Jin Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Yu Youren 傅抱石作于右任題詩入畫中桓玄出畫圖手卷

2. Fu Baoshi The Nine Elders of the Poetry by Bai Juyi in Tang Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Xu Beihong 傅抱石作徐悲鴻題元氣淋漓九老圖手卷

3. Fu Baoshi Premier Xie An Brought Beauties to the East Shan Mountain handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 傅抱石作謝稚柳題春風綠揚東山攜妓圖手卷

 

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Li Keran The Landscape of River Li being Well-known Forever 李可染作漓江山水傳千古圖

 

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Lu Yanshao Spring and Rocks Landscape of Mountain Yandang 陸儼少作雁蕩泉石山水圖

 

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Zhou The Children and Father Sitting on the Back of Camels 黃冑作駱駝背上的小學生與父親

 

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Huang Binhong Landscape 黃賓虹作山水圖

2. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (1) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(1)

3. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (2) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(2)

 

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Wu Changshuo Annual Purely Floral and Fruity Tributes 吳昌碩作歲朝清供圖

 

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Lin Fengmian Five Naked Ladies 林風眠作五裸女圖

2. Lin Fengmian Two Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作二美與花瓶圖

3. Lin Fengmian Three Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作三美與花瓶圖

4. Lin Fengmian Court Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作宮女與花瓶圖

 

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 吳湖帆作謝稚柳題春風綠揚枝山居圖手卷

2. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains 吳湖帆作山居圖

3. Wu Hufan Landscape after Zhao Mengfu 吳湖帆作擬趙孟頫山水圖

4. Wu Hufan Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 吳湖帆作七言書法對聯

 

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Xie Zhiliu Landscape in Windy Spirit 謝稚柳作生風抖擻山水圖

 

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (鏡片 mounted)

2. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (立軸 hanging scroll)

 

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Pu Ru Green Mountain and White Cloud handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 溥儒作張大千題青山白雲山水圖手卷

 

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tang Yun Birds and Flowers 唐雲作花鳥圖

 

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhao Shao’Ang Flowers and Bird Double Screen 趙少昂作花鳥圖對屏

2. Zhao Shao’Ang Tall Willow Tree Morning Cicada Bamboos and Little Bird 趙少昂作高柳曉蟬竹葉小鳥圖

 

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. He Haixia Landscape 何海霞作山水圖

 

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Guan Shanyue Spring is coming to Southern Guangdong Landscape 關山月作春到南粵山水圖

 

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Zikai A Small Table Three Friends and Plum Blossoms 豐子愷作小桌三朋梅花圖

 

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Yan Bolong Colorful Birds Flowers and Plants Four Screens 顏伯龍作彩鳥與花草小樹圖四條屏

 

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo Two Beautiful Horses 愛新覺羅溥佐作雙駿馬圖

 

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Yihong Beautiful Flowers Attracting Bees 高逸鴻作群花爭艷招蜂圖

 

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tian Shiguang Flowers and Birds 田世光作花鳥圖

 

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Yuan Songnian Landscape 袁松年作山水圖

 

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Qifeng Flowers and Bamboos 高奇峰作花竹圖

 

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Zhifo Wild Geese under Willow Shadow 陳之佛作柳蔭雁鴨圖

 

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Banding Flowers and Birds 陳半丁 ( 陳年 ) 作花鳥圖

 

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Chaoran Landscape 馮超然作山水圖

 

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Zheng Banqiao Orchids Bamboos and Rocks 鄭板橋作蘭竹石圖

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

  

Antiques 古董

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Bronze Money-Shaking Fortune Tree Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝青銅搖錢樹

2. A Gilt-Bronze Guanyin Bodhisattva Figure Tang Dynasty China 中國唐朝銅鎏金觀音菩薩造像

 

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

 

1. A White Jade Pig-and-Bird-Winged Dragon Winged Mythical Beast Hongshan Culture China 中國紅山文化古白玉雕豬鳥翼形龍

2. A White Jade Persian Face Elephant Puzzle Han Dynasty China 中國漢朝古玉雕波斯人面大象紋益智拼圖

3. A Green Jade Sword Token of Imperial Authority by Emperor Shang Dynasty China 中國商朝古青玉雕玉劍令牌

4. A Jade Fish Wine-Cup Western Zhou Dynasty China 中國西周古玉雕魚形酒杯

5. A Red Jade Military Token Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝古紅玉雕軍事玉令牌

6. A White Jade Cavalrymen War Horses Halberds of Middle Sizes Militarism Worship Cong of the First Emperor of Qin 中國東周戰國至秦朝時期古白玉雕騎兵戰馬中戟紋秦始皇帝崇武玉琮

7. A Pale Celadon Greenish White Jade Linking Nipple Grain Phoenix Twisted Ropes Heaven Worship Bi of Nation Chu 中國東周戰國時期古青白玉淺浮雕勾連乳丁穀紋鳳紋扭繩紋楚國祭天玉璧

8. A Celadon Green Jade Twisted Ropes Triple Sitting Hornless Dragons Green-Dragon-Son-of-Heaven Pendant 中國西周時期古青玉雕扭繩紋三盤螭龍青龍天子珮

 

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Mutton Fat White Jade Linking Clouds Royal Dragon Pendant Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢古羊脂白玉透空圓雕勾連雲紋龍形珮

2. A Coincident Carved Khotan Russet Skin Mutton Fat White Jade Sitting Double-humped Camel Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢和闐黑棗皮古羊脂白玉巧雕坐姿雙峯駱駝

  

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网络世界里的免费博物馆

 

Free Website to See Paintings by Chinese Artists Listed in 2011 World Auction Revenue Top 30 and Rare Archaic Chinese Ancient Antiques

 

觀賞2011年列名世界拍賣總收入前30名中國畫家名畫作品及中國古代罕見的古董之免費網址

 

Welcome to identify your Chinese Paintings and Works of Art! Our help is free of charge!

歡迎辨識您的中國書畫及藝術品! 我們的協助是免費的!

 

Mr. Orion Hsu & Brothers (徐氏兄弟珍藏文物)

Private Museum preparatory office

中國書畫文物博物館籌備企劃辦公室

 

#1 orionandhsu@yahoo.com.tw

#2 orionandhsu@gmail.com

 

Photo Copyright 2012, dynamo.photography.

All rights reserved, no use without license

 

++++++ from Wikipedia ++++++

 

Taipei (/ˌtaɪˈpeɪ/), officially known as Taipei City, is the capital city and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC"). Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City. It is about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located on the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.[5] Formerly known as Taipeh-fu during Qing era and Taihoku under Japanese rule, Taipei became the capital of the Taiwan Province as part of the Republic of China in 1945 and recently has been the capital[a] of the ROC since 1949, when the Kuomintang lost the mainland to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.

 

The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,704,810 in 2015,[6] forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 7,047,559,[6][7] the 40th most-populous urban area in the world—roughly one-third of Taiwanese citizens live in the metro district. The name "Taipei" can refer either to the whole metropolitan area or the city proper.

 

Taipei is the political, economic, educational, and cultural center of Taiwan island, and one of the major hubs of Greater China. Considered to be a global city,[8] Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area.[9] Railways, high-speed rail, highways, airports, and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Lungshan Temple of Manka, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Taipei Guest House, Ximending, and several night markets dispersing over the city. Its natural features such as Maokong, Yangmingshan, and hot springs are also well known to international visitors.

 

As the capital city, "Taipei" is sometimes used as a synecdoche for the Republic of China. Due to the ongoing controversy over the political status of Taiwan, the name Chinese Taipei is designated for official use when Taiwanese governmental representatives or national teams participate in some international organizations or international sporting events (which may require UN statehood) in order to avoid extensive political controversy by using other names.

 

Contents

 

1 History

1.1 First settlements

1.2 Empire of Japan

1.3 Republic of China

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

2.2 Air quality

2.3 Cityscape

3 Demographics

4 Economy

5 Culture

5.1 Tourism

5.1.1 Commemorative sites and museums

5.1.2 Taipei 101

5.1.3 Performing arts

5.1.4 Shopping and recreation

5.1.5 Temples

5.2 Festivals and events

5.3 Taipei in films

6 Romanization

7 Government

7.1 Garbage recycling

7.2 Administrative divisions

7.3 City planning

8 Transportation

8.1 Metro

8.2 Rail

8.3 Bus

8.4 Airports

8.5 Ticketing

9 Education

9.1 Chinese language program for foreigners

10 Sports

10.1 Major sporting events

10.2 Youth baseball

11 Media

11.1 Television

11.2 Newspapers

12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12.2 Partner cities

12.3 Friendship cities

13 Gallery

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

17 External links

 

History

Main article: History of Taipei

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument and tourist attraction in Taipei.

 

Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was mainly inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines. The number of Han immigrants gradually increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area.[10] In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture.

 

The Qing dynasty of China made Taipeh the temporary capital of Fujian-Taiwan Province in 1886 when Taiwan was separated from Fujian Province.[11][12] Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894.

 

Japan acquired Taiwan in 1895 under the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. Taiwan became a colony of Imperial Japan with Taihoku (formerly Taipeh) as its capital, in which the city was administered under Taihoku Prefecture. Taiwan's Japanese rulers embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning that featured extensive railroad links. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period.[13]

 

Following the Japanese surrender of 1945, control of Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China (ROC) (see Retrocession Day). After losing mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) relocated the ROC government to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of the ROC in December 1949.[14][15] In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy. The city is today home to Taiwan's democratically elected national government.

First settlements

 

The region known as the Taipei Basin was home to Ketagalan tribes before the eighteenth century.[16] Han Chinese mainly from Fujian Province of Qing dynasty China began to settle in the Taipei Basin in 1709.[17][18]

 

In the late 19th century, the Taipei area, where the major Han Chinese settlements in northern Taiwan and one of the designated overseas trade ports, Tamsui, were located, gained economic importance due to the booming overseas trade, especially that of tea export. In 1875, the northern part of Taiwan was separated from Taiwan Prefecture and incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture as a new administrative entity of the Qing dynasty.[13] Having been established adjoining the flourishing townships of Bangka, Dalongdong, and Twatutia, the new prefectural capital was known as Chengnei (Chinese: 城內; pinyin: chéngnèi; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: siâⁿ-lāi), "the inner city", and government buildings were erected there. From 1875 (still Qing era) until the beginning of Japanese rule in 1895, Taipei was part of Tamsui County of Taipeh Prefecture and the prefectural capital.

 

In 1885, work commenced to create an independent Taiwan Province, and Taipei City was temporarily made the provincial capital. Taipei officially became the capital of Taiwan in 1894.[citation needed] All that remains from the Qing era is the north gate. The west gate and city walls were demolished by the Japanese while the south gate, little south gate, and east gate were extensively modified by the Kuomintang (KMT) and have lost much of their original character.[19]

Empire of Japan

The Taihoku Prefecture government building in the 1910s (now the Control Yuan)

 

As settlement for losing the First Sino-Japanese War, China ceded the island of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan in 1895 as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. After the Japanese take-over, Taipei, called Taihoku in Japanese, was retained as the capital and emerged as the political center of the Japanese Colonial Government.[13] During that time the city acquired the characteristics of an administrative center, including many new public buildings and housing for civil servants. Much of the architecture of Taipei dates from the period of Japanese rule, including the Presidential Building which was the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan.

 

During Japanese rule, Taihoku was incorporated in 1920 as part of Taihoku Prefecture. It included Bangka, Twatutia, and Jōnai (城內) among other small settlements. The eastern village of Matsuyama (松山庄, modern-day Songshan District, Taipei) was annexed into Taihoku City in 1938. Upon the Japanese defeat in the Pacific War and its consequent surrender in August 1945, the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) assumed control of Taiwan. Subsequently, a temporary Office of the Taiwan Province Administrative Governor was established in Taipei City.[20]

Republic of China

With President Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to a crowd during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

 

In 1947 the KMT government under Chiang Kai-shek declared island-wide martial law in Taiwan as a result of the February 28 Incident, which began with incidents in Taipei but led to an island-wide crackdown on the local population by forces loyal to Chiang. Two years later, on December 7, 1949, Chiang and the Kuomintang were forced to flee mainland China by the Communists near the end of the Chinese Civil War. The refugees declared Taipei to be the provisional capital of a continuing Republic of China, with the official capital at Nanjing (Nanking) even though that city was under Communist control.[14][15]

 

Taipei expanded greatly in the decades after 1949, and as approved on December 30, 1966 by the Executive Yuan, Taipei was declared a special centrally administered municipality on July 1, 1967 and given the administrative status of a province.[18] In the following year, Taipei City expanded again by annexing Shilin, Beitou, Neihu, Nangang, Jingmei, and Muzha. At that time, the city's total area increased fourfold through absorbing several outlying towns and villages and the population increased to 1.56 million people.[18]

 

The city's population, which had reached one million in the early 1960s, also expanded rapidly after 1967, exceeding two million by the mid-1970s. Although growth within the city itself gradually slowed thereafter[20] — its population had become relatively stable by the mid-1990s — Taipei remained one of the world's most densely populated urban areas, and the population continued to increase in the region surrounding the city, notably along the corridor between Taipei and Keelung.

 

In 1990 Taipei's 16 districts were consolidated into the current 12 districts.[21] Mass democracy rallies that year in the plaza around Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall led to an island-wide transition to multi-party democracy, where legislators are chosen via regularly scheduled popular elections, during the presidency of Lee Teng-Hui.

Geography

The city of Taipei, as seen from Maokong.

 

Taipei City is located in the Taipei Basin in northern Taiwan.[22] It is bordered by the Xindian River on the south and the Tamsui River on the west. The generally low-lying terrain of the central areas on the western side of the municipality slopes upward to the south and east and especially to the north,[5] where it reaches 1,120 metres (3,675 ft) at Qixing Mountain, the highest (inactive) volcano in Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park. The northern districts of Shilin and Beitou extend north of the Keelung River and are bordered by Yangmingshan National Park. The Taipei city limits cover an area of 271.7997 km2,[23] ranking sixteenth of twenty-five among all counties and cities in Taiwan.

 

Two peaks, Qixing Mountain and Mt. Datun, rise to the northeast of the city.[24] Qixing Mountain is located on the Tatun Volcano Group and the tallest mountain at the rim of the Taipei Basin, with its main peak at 1,120 metres (3,670 ft). Mt. Datun's main peak is 1,092 metres (3,583 ft). These former volcanoes make up the western section of Yangmingshan National Park, extending from Mt. Datun northward to Mt. Caigongkeng (菜公坑山). Located on a broad saddle between two mountains, the area also contains the marshy Datun Pond.

 

To the southeast of the city lie the Songshan Hills and the Qingshui Ravine, which form a barrier of lush woods.[24]

Climate

 

Taipei has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate[25][26][27] (Köppen: Cfa).[28] Summers are long-lasting, hot and humid, and accompanied by occasional heavy rainstorms and typhoons, while winters are short, generally warm and generally very foggy due to the northeasterly winds from the vast Siberian High being intensified by the pooling of this cooler air in the Taipei Basin. As in the rest of Northern Taiwan, daytime temperatures of Taipei can often peak above 26 degrees Celsius during a warm winter day, while they can dip below 26 degrees Celsius during a rainy summer's afternoon. Occasional cold fronts during the winter months can drop the daily temperature by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius, though temperatures rarely drop below 10 degrees Celsius.[29] Extreme temperatures ranged from −0.2 °C (31.6 °F) on February 13, 1901 to 39.3 °C (102.7 °F) on August 8, 2013, while snow has never been recorded in the city besides on mountains located within the city limit such as Mount Yangmingshan. Due to Taiwan's location in the Pacific Ocean, it is affected by the Pacific typhoon season, which occurs between June and October.

 

Air quality

 

When compared to other Asian cities, Taipei has "excellent" capabilities for managing air quality in the city.[31] Its rainy climate, location near the coast, and strong environmental regulations have prevented air pollution from becoming a substantial health issue, at least compared to cities in southeast Asia and industrial China. However, smog is extremely common and there is poor visibility throughout the city after rain-less days.

 

Motor vehicle engine exhaust, particularly from motor scooters, is a source of air pollution in Taipei. There are higher levels of fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mornings because of less air movement; sunlight reduces some pollution.[32] Occasionally, dust storms from Mainland China can temporarily bring extremely poor air quality to the city.[33]

Cityscape

Taipei viewed from Tiger Mountain, with Taipei 101 on the left.

Demographics

 

Taipei City is home to 2,704,810 people (2015), while the metropolitan area has a population of 7,047,559 people.[6] The population of the city has been decreasing in recent years while the population of the adjacent New Taipei has been increasing. The population loss, while rapid in its early years, has been stabilized by new lower density development and campaigns designed to increase birthrate in the city. The population has begun to rise since 2010.[6][34][35]

 

Due to Taipei's geography and location in the Taipei Basin as well as differing times of economic development of its districts, Taipei's population is not evenly distributed. The districts of Daan, Songshan, and Datong are the most densely populated. These districts, along with adjacent communities such as Yonghe and Zhonghe contain some of the most densely populated neighborhoods in the world.[34]

 

In 2008, the crude birth rate stood at 7.88% while the mortality rate stood at 5.94%. A decreasing and rapidly aging population is an important issue for the city.[34] By the end of 2009, one in ten people in Taipei was over 65 years of age.[36] Residents who had obtained a college education or higher accounted for 43.48% of the population, and the literacy rate stood at 99.18%.[34]

 

Like the rest of Taiwan, Taipei is composed of four major ethnic groups: Hoklos, Mainlanders, Hakkas, and aborigines.[34] Although Hoklos and Mainlanders form the majority of the population of the city, in recent decades many Hakkas have moved into the city. The aboriginal population in the city stands at 12,862 (<0.5%), concentrated mostly in the suburban districts. Foreigners (mainly from Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines) numbered 52,426 at the end of 2008.[34]

 

Economy

 

As the center of Taiwan's largest conurbation, Taipei has been at the center of rapid economic development in the country and has now become one of the global cities in the production of high technology and its components.[37] This is part of the so-called Taiwan Miracle which has seen dramatic growth in the city following foreign direct investment in the 1960s. Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding one of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves of over US$403 billion as of December 2012.[38]

 

Despite the Asian financial crisis, the economy continues to expand at about 5% per year, with virtually full employment and low inflation. As of 2013, the nominal GDP per capita in Taipei city is lower than that in Hong Kong by a narrow margin according to The Economist(Nominal GDP per capita in HK is US$38181 in 2013 from IMF).[39] Furthermore, according to Financial times, GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity(PPP) in Taipei in 2015 is 44173 USD, behind that in Singapore(US$48900 from IMF) and Hong Kong(US$56689 from IMF).[40]

 

Taipei and its environs have long been the foremost industrial area of Taiwan, consisting of industries of the secondary and tertiary sectors.[41] Most of the country's important factories producing textiles and apparel are located there; other industries include the manufacture of electronic products and components, electrical machinery and equipment, printed materials, precision equipment, and foods and beverages. Such companies include Shihlin Electric, CipherLab and Insyde Software. Shipbuilding, including yachts and other pleasure craft, is done in the port of Keelung northeast of the city.

 

Services, including those related to commerce, transportation, and banking, have become increasingly important. Tourism is a small but significant component of the local economy[42][43] with international visitors totaling almost 3 million in 2008.[44] Taipei has many top tourist attractions and contributes a significant amount to the US$6.8 billion tourism industry in Taiwan.[45] National brands such as ASUS,[46] Chunghwa Telecom,[47] Mandarin Airlines,[48] Tatung,[49] and Uni Air,[50][51] D-Link [52] are headquartered in Taipei City.

Culture

Tourism

See also: List of tourist attractions in Taipei

 

Tourism is a major part of Taipei's economy. In 2013, over 6.3 million overseas visitors visited Taipei, making the city the 15th most visited globally.[53] The influx of visitors contributed $10.8 billion USD to the city's economy in 2013, the 9th highest in the world and the most of any city in the Chinese-speaking world.[54]

Commemorative sites and museums

The National Palace Museum

 

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark and tourist attraction that was erected in memory of General Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China.[55] The structure stands at the east end of Memorial Hall Square, site of the National Concert Hall and National Theater and their adjacent parks as well as the memorial. The landmarks of Liberty Square stand within sight of Taiwan's Presidential Building in Taipei's Zhongzheng District.

The National Taiwan Museum

 

The National Taiwan Museum sits nearby in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park and has worn its present name since 1999. The museum is Taiwan's oldest, founded on October 24, 1908 by Taiwan's Japanese colonial government (1895-1945) as the Taiwan Governor's Museum. It was launched with a collection of 10,000 items to celebrate the opening of the island's North-South Railway.[56] In 1915 a new museum building opened its doors in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park. This structure and the adjacent governor's office (now Presidential Office Building), served as the two most recognizable public buildings in Taiwan during its period of Japanese rule.[56]

Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines

 

The National Palace Museum is a vast art gallery and museum built around a permanent collection centered on ancient Chinese artifacts. It should not be confused with the Palace Museum in Beijing (which it is named after); both institutions trace their origins to the same institution. The collections were divided in the 1940s as a result of the Chinese Civil War.[57][58] The National Palace Museum in Taipei now boasts a truly international collection while housing one of the world's largest collections of artifacts from ancient China.[58]

 

The Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines stands just 200 metres across the road from the National Palace Museum. The museum offers displays of art and historical items by Taiwanese aborigines along with a range of multimedia displays.

 

The Taipei Fine Arts Museum was established in 1983 as the first museum in Taiwan dedicated to modern art. The museum is housed in a building designed for the purpose that takes inspiration from Japanese designs. Most art in the collection is by Taiwanese artists since 1940. Over 3,000 art works are organized into 13 groups.

 

The National Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101 in Xinyi District is named in honor of a founding father of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen. The hall, completed on May 16, 1972, originally featured exhibits that depicted revolutionary events in China at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Today it functions as multi-purpose social, educational, concert and cultural center for Taiwan's citizens.[59]

Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei, aka "old city hall"

 

In 2001 a new museum opened as Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei. The museum is housed in a building that formerly housed Taipei City government offices.[60]

Night view of a fully lit Taipei 101

Taipei 101

 

Taipei 101 is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper that claimed the title of world's tallest building when it opened in 2004, a title it held for six years before relinquishing it to the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners and constructed by KTRT Joint Venture, Taipei 101 measures 509 m (1,670 ft) from ground to top, making it the first skyscraper in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height. Built to withstand typhoon winds and earthquake tremors, its design incorporates many engineering innovations and has won numerous international awards. Taipei 101 remains one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world and holds LEED's certification as the world's largest "green" building. Its shopping mall and its indoor and outdoor observatories draw visitors from all over the world. Taipei 101's New Year's Eve fireworks display is a regular feature of international broadcasts.

Performing arts

Taiwan's National Concert Hall at night

 

The National Theater and Concert Hall stand at Taipei's Liberty Square and host events by foreign and domestic performers. Other leading concert venues include Zhongshan Hall at Ximending and the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101.

 

A new venue, the Taipei Performing Arts Center, is under construction and slated to open in 2015.[61][62] The venue will stand near the Shilin Night Market[63] and will house three theaters for events with multi-week runs. The architectural design, by Rem Koolhaas and OMA, was determined in 2009 in an international competition.[64] The same design process is also in place for a new Taipei Center for Popular Music and Taipei City Museum.[65]

Shopping and recreation

Main article: Shopping in Taipei

 

Taipei is known for its many night markets, the most famous of which is the Shilin Night Market in the Shilin District. The surrounding streets by Shilin Night Market are extremely crowded during the evening, usually opening late afternoon and operating well past midnight. Most night markets feature individual stalls selling a mixture of food, clothing, and consumer goods.

The busy streets of Ximending at night

 

Ximending has been a famous area for shopping and entertainment since the 1930s. Historic structures include a concert hall, a historic cinema, and the Red House Theater. Modern structures house karaoke businesses, art film cinemas, wide-release movie cinemas, electronic stores, and a wide variety of restaurants and fashion clothing stores.[66] The pedestrian area is especially popular with teens and has been called the "Harajuku" of Taipei.[67]

Eastern district at night

 

The newly developed Xinyi District is popular with tourists and locals alike for its many entertainment and shopping venues, as well as being the home of Taipei 101, a prime tourist attraction. Malls in the area include the sprawling Shin Kong Mitsukoshi complex, Breeze Center, Bellavita, Taipei 101 mall, Eslite Bookstore's flagship store (which includes a boutique mall), The Living Mall, ATT shopping mall, and the Vieshow Cinemas (formerly known as Warner Village). The Xinyi district also serves as the center of Taipei's active nightlife, with several popular lounge bars and nightclubs concentrated in a relatively small area around the Neo19, ATT 4 FUN and Taipei 101 buildings. Lounge bars such as Barcode and nightclubs such as Spark and Myst are among the most-visited places here.

Eslite Bookstore in Xinyi District

 

The thriving shopping area around Taipei Main Station includes the Taipei Underground Market and the original Shin Kong Mitsukoshi department store at Shin Kong Life Tower. Other popular shopping destinations include the Zhongshan Metro Mall, Dihua Street, the Guang Hua Digital Plaza, and the Core Pacific City. The Miramar Entertainment Park is known for its large Ferris wheel and IMAX theater.

 

Taipei maintains an extensive system of parks, green spaces, and nature preserves. Parks and forestry areas of note in and around the city include Yangmingshan National Park, Taipei Zoo and Da-an Forest Park. Yangmingshan National Park (located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the central city) is famous for its cherry blossoms, hot springs, and sulfur deposits. It is the home of famous writer Lin Yutang, the summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek, residences of foreign diplomats, the Chinese Culture University, the meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China, and the Kuomintang Party Archives. The Taipei Zoo was founded in 1914 and covers an area of 165 hectares for animal sanctuary.

 

Bitan is known for boating and water sports. Tamsui is a popular sea-side resort town. Ocean beaches are accessible in several directions from Taipei.

Temples

Built in 1738, Longshan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the city.

Street corner shrine, Taipei 2013

 

Taipei is rich in beautiful, ornate temples housing Buddhist, Taoist, and Chinese folk religion deities. The Longshan Temple, built in 1738 and located in the Wanhua District, demonstrates an example of architecture with southern Chinese influences commonly seen on older buildings in Taiwan.

 

Xinsheng South Road is known as the "Road to Heaven" due to its high concentration of temples, shrines, churches, and mosques.[68][69] Other famous temples include Baoan Temple located in historic Dalongdong, a national historical site, and Xiahai City God Temple, located in the old Dadaocheng community, constructed with architecture similar to temples in southern Fujian.[70] The Taipei Confucius Temple traces its history back to 1879 during the Qing Dynasty and also incorporates southern Fujian-style architecture.[71]

 

Besides large temples, small outdoor shrines to local deities are very common and can be spotted on road sides, parks, and neighborhoods. Many homes and businesses may also set up small shrines of candles, figurines, and offerings. Some restaurants, for example, may set up a small shrine to the Kitchen god for success in a restaurant business.[72]

New Year's Eve fireworks at Taipei 101

Festivals and events

 

Many yearly festivals are held in Taipei. In recent years some festivals, such as the Double Ten Day fireworks and concerts, are increasingly hosted on a rotating basis by a number of cities around Taiwan.

 

When New Year's Eve arrives on the solar calendar, thousands of people converge on Taipei's Xinyi District for parades, outdoor concerts by popular artists, street shows, round-the clock nightlife. The high point is of course the countdown to midnight, when Taipei 101 assumes the role of the world's largest fireworks platform.

 

The Taipei Lantern Festival concludes the Lunar New Year holiday. The timing of the city's lantern exhibit coincides with the national festival in Pingxi, when thousands of fire lanterns are released into the sky.[73] The city's lantern exhibit rotates among different downtown locales from year to year, including Liberty Square, Taipei 101, and Zhongshan Hall in Ximending.

 

On Double Ten Day, patriotic celebrations are held in front of the Presidential Building. Other annual festivals include Ancestors Day (Tomb-Sweeping Day), the Dragon Boat Festival, the Ghost Festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival).[73]

 

Taipei regularly hosts its share of international events. The city recently hosted the 2009 Summer Deaflympics.[74] This event was followed by the Taipei International Flora Exposition, a garden festival hosted from November 2010 to April 2011. The Floral Expo was the first of its kind to take place in Taiwan and only the seventh hosted in Asia; the expo admitted 110,000 visitors on February 27, 2011.

Taipei in films

  

Romanization

  

The spelling "Taipei" derives from the Wade–Giles romanization T'ai-pei.[75] The name could be also romanized as Táiběi according to Hanyu Pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin.[76][77]

Government

 

Taipei City is a special municipality which is directly under the Executive Yuan (Central Government) of ROC. The mayor of Taipei City had been an appointed position since Taipei's conversion to a centrally administered municipality in 1967 until the first public election was held in 1994.[78] The position has a four-year term and is elected by direct popular vote. The first elected mayor was Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party. Ma Ying-jeou took office in 1998 for two terms, before handing it over to Hau Lung-pin who won the 2006 mayoral election on December 9, 2006.[79] Both Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-Jeou went on to become President of the Republic of China. The incumbent mayor, Ko Wen-je, was elected on November 29, 2014 and took office on December 25, 2014.[80]

 

Based on the outcomes of previous elections in the past decade, the vote of the overall constituency of Taipei City shows a slight inclination towards the pro-KMT camp (the Pan-Blue Coalition);[81] however, the pro-DPP camp (the Pan-Green Coalition) also has considerable support.[82]

 

Ketagalan Boulevard, where the Presidential Office Building and other government structures are situated, is often the site of mass gatherings such as inauguration and national holiday parades, receptions for visiting dignitaries, political demonstrations,[83][84] and public festivals.[85]

Garbage recycling

 

Taipei City is also famous for its effort in garbage recycling, which has become such a good international precedent that other countries have sent teams to study the recycling system. After the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) established a program in 1998 combining the efforts of communities, a financial resource named the Recycling Fund was made available to recycling companies and waste collectors. Manufacturers, vendors and importers of recyclable waste pay fees to the Fund, which uses the money to set firm prices for recyclables and subsidize local recycling efforts. Between 1998 and 2008, the recycling rate increased from 6 percent to 32 percent.[86] This improvement enabled the government of Taipei to demonstrate its recycling system to the world at the Shanghai World Expo 2010.

Administrative divisions

 

Taipei City is divided up into 12 administrative districts (區 qu).[87] Each district is further divided up into urban villages (里), which are further sub-divided up into neighborhoods (鄰).

Map District Population

(Jan. 2016) Area

(km2) Postal

code

 

Beitou 北投區 Běitóu Pei-t'ou Pak-tâu 257,922 56.8216 112

Da'an 大安區 Dà'ān Ta-an Tāi-an 312,909 11.3614 106

Datong 大同區 Dàtóng Ta-t'ung Tāi-tông 131,029 5.6815 103

Nangang 南港區 Nángǎng Nan-kang Lâm-káng 122,296 21.8424 115

Neihu 內湖區 Nèihú Nei-hu Lāi-ô͘ 287,726 31.5787 114

Shilin 士林區 Shìlín Shih-lin Sū-lîm 290,682 62.3682 111

Songshan 松山區 Sōngshān Sung-shan Siông-san 209,689 9.2878 105

Wanhua 萬華區 Wànhuá Wan-hua Báng-kah 194,314 8.8522 108

Wenshan 文山區 Wénshān Wen-shan Bûn-san 275,433 31.5090 116

Xinyi 信義區 Xìnyì Hsin-yi Sìn-gī 229,139 11.2077 110

Zhongshan 中山區 Zhōngshān Chung-shan Tiong-san 231,286 13.6821 104

Zhongzheng 中正區 Zhōngzhèng Chung-cheng Tiong-chèng 162,549 7.6071 100

 

City planning

 

The city is characterized by straight roads and public buildings of grand Western architectural styles.[88] The city is built on a square grid configuration, however these blocks are huge by international standards with 500 m (1,640.42 ft) sides. The area in between these blocks are infilled with lanes and alleys, which provide access to quieter residential or mixed-use development. Other than a citywide 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) speed limit, there is little uniform planning within this "hidden" area; therefore lanes (perpendicular to streets) and alleys (parallel with street, or conceptually, perpendicular to the lane) spill out from the main throughways. These minor roads are not always perpendicular and sometimes cut through the block diagonally.

 

Although development began in the western districts (still considered the cultural heart of the city) of the city due to trade, the eastern districts of the city have become the focus of recent development projects. Many of the western districts, already in decline, have become targets of new urban renewal initiatives.[88]

Transportation

Platform of Wende Station on the Taipei Metro system.

 

Public transport accounts for a substantial portion of different modes of transport in Taiwan, with Taipei residents having the highest utilization rate at 34.1%.[89] Private transport consists of motor scooters, private cars, and bicycles. Motor-scooters often weave between cars and occasionally through oncoming traffic. Respect for traffic laws, once scant, has improved with deployment of traffic cameras and increasing numbers of police roadblocks checking riders for alcohol consumption and other offenses.

 

Taipei Station serves as the comprehensive hub for the subway, bus, conventional rail, and high-speed rail.[41] A contactless smartcard, known as EasyCard, can be used for all modes of public transit as well as several retail outlets. It contains credits that are deducted each time a ride is taken.[90] The EasyCard is read via proximity sensory panels on buses and in MRT stations, and it does not need to be removed from one's wallet or purse.

Metro

Main article: Taipei Metro

 

Taipei's public transport system, the Taipei Metro (commonly referred to as the MRT), incorporates a metro and light rail system based on advanced VAL and Bombardier technology. There are currently five metro lines that are labelled in three ways: color, line number and depot station name. In addition to the rapid transit system itself, the Taipei Metro also includes several public facilities such as the Maokong Gondola, underground shopping malls, parks, and public squares. Modifications to existing railway lines to integrate them into the metro system are underway.

 

In 2017 a rapid transit line was opened to connect Taipei with Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taoyuan City. The new line is part of the new Taoyuan Metro system.

Taipei Railway Station front

Rail

Main articles: Taiwan High Speed Rail and Taiwan Railway Administration

 

Beginning in 1983, surface rail lines in the city were moved underground as part of the Taipei Railway Underground Project.[91] The Taiwan High Speed Rail system opened in 2007. The bullet trains connect Taipei with the west coast cities of New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi, and Tainan before terminating at Zuoying (Kaohsiung) at speeds that cut travel times by 60% or more from what they normally are on a bus or conventional train.[92] The Taiwan Railway Administration also runs passenger and freight services throughout the entire island.

Bus

 

An extensive city bus system serves metropolitan areas not covered by the metro, with exclusive bus lanes to facilitate transportation.[41] Riders of the city metro system are able to use the EasyCard for discounted fares on buses, and vice versa. Several major intercity bus terminals are located throughout the city, including the Taipei Bus Station and Taipei City Hall Bus Station.[93]

Taipei Songshan Airport

Airports

Main articles: Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taipei Songshan Airport

 

Most scheduled international flights are served by Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in nearby Taoyuan City. Songshan Airport at the heart of the city in the Songshan District serves domestic flights and scheduled flights to Tokyo International Airport (also known as Haneda Airport), Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, and about 15 destinations in the People's Republic of China. Songshan Airport is accessible by the Taipei Metro Neihu Line; Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport is accessible by the Taoyuan International Airport MRT system.

Ticketing

 

In 1994, with the rapid development of Taipei, a white paper for transport policies expressed the strong objective to "create a civilised transport system for the people of Taipei." In 1999, they chose Mitac consortium, which Thales-Transportation Systems is part of. Thales was then selected again in 2005 to deploy an upgrade of Taipei's public transport network with an end-to-end and fully contactless automatic fare collection solution that integrates 116 metro stations, 5,000 buses and 92 car parks.[citation needed]

Education

West Site of National Taiwan University Hospital

 

24 universities have campuses located in Taipei:

 

National Taiwan University (1928)

National Chengchi University (1927)

National Defense Medical Center (1902)

National Defense University (1906)

National Taipei University (1949)

National Taipei University of Business (1917)

National Taipei University of Education (1895)

National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science (1947)

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (1974)

National Taipei University of Technology (1912)

National Taiwan College of Performing Arts (1957)

National Taiwan Normal University (1946)

National Yang-Ming University (1975)

Taipei National University of the Arts (1982)

University of Taipei (2013)

  

Tamkang University (1950)

Soochow University (1900)

Chinese Culture University (1962)

Ming Chuan University (1957)

Shih Hsin University (1956)

Shih Chien University (1958)

Taipei Medical University (1960)

Tatung University (1956)

China University of Technology (1965)

 

National Taiwan University (NTU) was established in 1928 during the period of Japanese colonial rule. NTU has produced many political and social leaders in Taiwan. Both pan-blue and pan-green movements in Taiwan are rooted on the NTU campus. The university has six campuses in the greater Taipei region (including New Taipei) and two additional campuses in Nantou County. The university governs farms, forests, and hospitals for educational and research purposes. The main campus is in Taipei's Da-An district, where most department buildings and all the administrative buildings are located. The College of Law and the College of Medicine are located near the Presidential Building. The National Taiwan University Hospital is a leading international center of medical research.[94]

 

National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU or Shida) likewise traces its origins to the Japanese colonial period. Originally a teacher training institution, NTNU has developed into a comprehensive international university with demanding entrance requirements. The university boasts especially strong programs in the humanities and international education. Worldwide it is perhaps best known as home of the Mandarin Training Center, a program that offers Mandarin language training each year to over a thousand students from dozens of countries throughout the world. The main campus in Taipei's Da-An district, near MRT Guting Station, is known for its historic architecture and giving its name to the Shida Night Market, one of the most popular among the numerous night markets in Taipei.

Chinese language program for foreigners

 

Taiwan Mandarin Institute (TMI) (福爾摩莎)

International Chinese Language Program (ICLP) (國際華語研習所) of National Taiwan University

Mandarin Training Center (MTC) (國語教學中心) of National Taiwan Normal University

Taipei Language Institute (中華語文研習所

 

Photo Copyright 2012, dynamo.photography.

All rights reserved, no use without license

 

++++++ from Wikipedia ++++++

 

Taipei (/ˌtaɪˈpeɪ/), officially known as Taipei City, is the capital city and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC"). Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City. It is about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located on the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.[5] Formerly known as Taipeh-fu during Qing era and Taihoku under Japanese rule, Taipei became the capital of the Taiwan Province as part of the Republic of China in 1945 and recently has been the capital[a] of the ROC since 1949, when the Kuomintang lost the mainland to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.

 

The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,704,810 in 2015,[6] forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 7,047,559,[6][7] the 40th most-populous urban area in the world—roughly one-third of Taiwanese citizens live in the metro district. The name "Taipei" can refer either to the whole metropolitan area or the city proper.

 

Taipei is the political, economic, educational, and cultural center of Taiwan island, and one of the major hubs of Greater China. Considered to be a global city,[8] Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area.[9] Railways, high-speed rail, highways, airports, and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Lungshan Temple of Manka, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Taipei Guest House, Ximending, and several night markets dispersing over the city. Its natural features such as Maokong, Yangmingshan, and hot springs are also well known to international visitors.

 

As the capital city, "Taipei" is sometimes used as a synecdoche for the Republic of China. Due to the ongoing controversy over the political status of Taiwan, the name Chinese Taipei is designated for official use when Taiwanese governmental representatives or national teams participate in some international organizations or international sporting events (which may require UN statehood) in order to avoid extensive political controversy by using other names.

 

Contents

 

1 History

1.1 First settlements

1.2 Empire of Japan

1.3 Republic of China

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

2.2 Air quality

2.3 Cityscape

3 Demographics

4 Economy

5 Culture

5.1 Tourism

5.1.1 Commemorative sites and museums

5.1.2 Taipei 101

5.1.3 Performing arts

5.1.4 Shopping and recreation

5.1.5 Temples

5.2 Festivals and events

5.3 Taipei in films

6 Romanization

7 Government

7.1 Garbage recycling

7.2 Administrative divisions

7.3 City planning

8 Transportation

8.1 Metro

8.2 Rail

8.3 Bus

8.4 Airports

8.5 Ticketing

9 Education

9.1 Chinese language program for foreigners

10 Sports

10.1 Major sporting events

10.2 Youth baseball

11 Media

11.1 Television

11.2 Newspapers

12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12.2 Partner cities

12.3 Friendship cities

13 Gallery

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

17 External links

 

History

Main article: History of Taipei

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument and tourist attraction in Taipei.

 

Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was mainly inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines. The number of Han immigrants gradually increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area.[10] In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture.

 

The Qing dynasty of China made Taipeh the temporary capital of Fujian-Taiwan Province in 1886 when Taiwan was separated from Fujian Province.[11][12] Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894.

 

Japan acquired Taiwan in 1895 under the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. Taiwan became a colony of Imperial Japan with Taihoku (formerly Taipeh) as its capital, in which the city was administered under Taihoku Prefecture. Taiwan's Japanese rulers embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning that featured extensive railroad links. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period.[13]

 

Following the Japanese surrender of 1945, control of Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China (ROC) (see Retrocession Day). After losing mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) relocated the ROC government to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of the ROC in December 1949.[14][15] In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy. The city is today home to Taiwan's democratically elected national government.

First settlements

 

The region known as the Taipei Basin was home to Ketagalan tribes before the eighteenth century.[16] Han Chinese mainly from Fujian Province of Qing dynasty China began to settle in the Taipei Basin in 1709.[17][18]

 

In the late 19th century, the Taipei area, where the major Han Chinese settlements in northern Taiwan and one of the designated overseas trade ports, Tamsui, were located, gained economic importance due to the booming overseas trade, especially that of tea export. In 1875, the northern part of Taiwan was separated from Taiwan Prefecture and incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture as a new administrative entity of the Qing dynasty.[13] Having been established adjoining the flourishing townships of Bangka, Dalongdong, and Twatutia, the new prefectural capital was known as Chengnei (Chinese: 城內; pinyin: chéngnèi; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: siâⁿ-lāi), "the inner city", and government buildings were erected there. From 1875 (still Qing era) until the beginning of Japanese rule in 1895, Taipei was part of Tamsui County of Taipeh Prefecture and the prefectural capital.

 

In 1885, work commenced to create an independent Taiwan Province, and Taipei City was temporarily made the provincial capital. Taipei officially became the capital of Taiwan in 1894.[citation needed] All that remains from the Qing era is the north gate. The west gate and city walls were demolished by the Japanese while the south gate, little south gate, and east gate were extensively modified by the Kuomintang (KMT) and have lost much of their original character.[19]

Empire of Japan

The Taihoku Prefecture government building in the 1910s (now the Control Yuan)

 

As settlement for losing the First Sino-Japanese War, China ceded the island of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan in 1895 as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. After the Japanese take-over, Taipei, called Taihoku in Japanese, was retained as the capital and emerged as the political center of the Japanese Colonial Government.[13] During that time the city acquired the characteristics of an administrative center, including many new public buildings and housing for civil servants. Much of the architecture of Taipei dates from the period of Japanese rule, including the Presidential Building which was the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan.

 

During Japanese rule, Taihoku was incorporated in 1920 as part of Taihoku Prefecture. It included Bangka, Twatutia, and Jōnai (城內) among other small settlements. The eastern village of Matsuyama (松山庄, modern-day Songshan District, Taipei) was annexed into Taihoku City in 1938. Upon the Japanese defeat in the Pacific War and its consequent surrender in August 1945, the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) assumed control of Taiwan. Subsequently, a temporary Office of the Taiwan Province Administrative Governor was established in Taipei City.[20]

Republic of China

With President Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to a crowd during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

 

In 1947 the KMT government under Chiang Kai-shek declared island-wide martial law in Taiwan as a result of the February 28 Incident, which began with incidents in Taipei but led to an island-wide crackdown on the local population by forces loyal to Chiang. Two years later, on December 7, 1949, Chiang and the Kuomintang were forced to flee mainland China by the Communists near the end of the Chinese Civil War. The refugees declared Taipei to be the provisional capital of a continuing Republic of China, with the official capital at Nanjing (Nanking) even though that city was under Communist control.[14][15]

 

Taipei expanded greatly in the decades after 1949, and as approved on December 30, 1966 by the Executive Yuan, Taipei was declared a special centrally administered municipality on July 1, 1967 and given the administrative status of a province.[18] In the following year, Taipei City expanded again by annexing Shilin, Beitou, Neihu, Nangang, Jingmei, and Muzha. At that time, the city's total area increased fourfold through absorbing several outlying towns and villages and the population increased to 1.56 million people.[18]

 

The city's population, which had reached one million in the early 1960s, also expanded rapidly after 1967, exceeding two million by the mid-1970s. Although growth within the city itself gradually slowed thereafter[20] — its population had become relatively stable by the mid-1990s — Taipei remained one of the world's most densely populated urban areas, and the population continued to increase in the region surrounding the city, notably along the corridor between Taipei and Keelung.

 

In 1990 Taipei's 16 districts were consolidated into the current 12 districts.[21] Mass democracy rallies that year in the plaza around Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall led to an island-wide transition to multi-party democracy, where legislators are chosen via regularly scheduled popular elections, during the presidency of Lee Teng-Hui.

Geography

The city of Taipei, as seen from Maokong.

 

Taipei City is located in the Taipei Basin in northern Taiwan.[22] It is bordered by the Xindian River on the south and the Tamsui River on the west. The generally low-lying terrain of the central areas on the western side of the municipality slopes upward to the south and east and especially to the north,[5] where it reaches 1,120 metres (3,675 ft) at Qixing Mountain, the highest (inactive) volcano in Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park. The northern districts of Shilin and Beitou extend north of the Keelung River and are bordered by Yangmingshan National Park. The Taipei city limits cover an area of 271.7997 km2,[23] ranking sixteenth of twenty-five among all counties and cities in Taiwan.

 

Two peaks, Qixing Mountain and Mt. Datun, rise to the northeast of the city.[24] Qixing Mountain is located on the Tatun Volcano Group and the tallest mountain at the rim of the Taipei Basin, with its main peak at 1,120 metres (3,670 ft). Mt. Datun's main peak is 1,092 metres (3,583 ft). These former volcanoes make up the western section of Yangmingshan National Park, extending from Mt. Datun northward to Mt. Caigongkeng (菜公坑山). Located on a broad saddle between two mountains, the area also contains the marshy Datun Pond.

 

To the southeast of the city lie the Songshan Hills and the Qingshui Ravine, which form a barrier of lush woods.[24]

Climate

 

Taipei has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate[25][26][27] (Köppen: Cfa).[28] Summers are long-lasting, hot and humid, and accompanied by occasional heavy rainstorms and typhoons, while winters are short, generally warm and generally very foggy due to the northeasterly winds from the vast Siberian High being intensified by the pooling of this cooler air in the Taipei Basin. As in the rest of Northern Taiwan, daytime temperatures of Taipei can often peak above 26 degrees Celsius during a warm winter day, while they can dip below 26 degrees Celsius during a rainy summer's afternoon. Occasional cold fronts during the winter months can drop the daily temperature by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius, though temperatures rarely drop below 10 degrees Celsius.[29] Extreme temperatures ranged from −0.2 °C (31.6 °F) on February 13, 1901 to 39.3 °C (102.7 °F) on August 8, 2013, while snow has never been recorded in the city besides on mountains located within the city limit such as Mount Yangmingshan. Due to Taiwan's location in the Pacific Ocean, it is affected by the Pacific typhoon season, which occurs between June and October.

 

Air quality

 

When compared to other Asian cities, Taipei has "excellent" capabilities for managing air quality in the city.[31] Its rainy climate, location near the coast, and strong environmental regulations have prevented air pollution from becoming a substantial health issue, at least compared to cities in southeast Asia and industrial China. However, smog is extremely common and there is poor visibility throughout the city after rain-less days.

 

Motor vehicle engine exhaust, particularly from motor scooters, is a source of air pollution in Taipei. There are higher levels of fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mornings because of less air movement; sunlight reduces some pollution.[32] Occasionally, dust storms from Mainland China can temporarily bring extremely poor air quality to the city.[33]

Cityscape

Taipei viewed from Tiger Mountain, with Taipei 101 on the left.

Demographics

 

Taipei City is home to 2,704,810 people (2015), while the metropolitan area has a population of 7,047,559 people.[6] The population of the city has been decreasing in recent years while the population of the adjacent New Taipei has been increasing. The population loss, while rapid in its early years, has been stabilized by new lower density development and campaigns designed to increase birthrate in the city. The population has begun to rise since 2010.[6][34][35]

 

Due to Taipei's geography and location in the Taipei Basin as well as differing times of economic development of its districts, Taipei's population is not evenly distributed. The districts of Daan, Songshan, and Datong are the most densely populated. These districts, along with adjacent communities such as Yonghe and Zhonghe contain some of the most densely populated neighborhoods in the world.[34]

 

In 2008, the crude birth rate stood at 7.88% while the mortality rate stood at 5.94%. A decreasing and rapidly aging population is an important issue for the city.[34] By the end of 2009, one in ten people in Taipei was over 65 years of age.[36] Residents who had obtained a college education or higher accounted for 43.48% of the population, and the literacy rate stood at 99.18%.[34]

 

Like the rest of Taiwan, Taipei is composed of four major ethnic groups: Hoklos, Mainlanders, Hakkas, and aborigines.[34] Although Hoklos and Mainlanders form the majority of the population of the city, in recent decades many Hakkas have moved into the city. The aboriginal population in the city stands at 12,862 (<0.5%), concentrated mostly in the suburban districts. Foreigners (mainly from Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines) numbered 52,426 at the end of 2008.[34]

 

Economy

 

As the center of Taiwan's largest conurbation, Taipei has been at the center of rapid economic development in the country and has now become one of the global cities in the production of high technology and its components.[37] This is part of the so-called Taiwan Miracle which has seen dramatic growth in the city following foreign direct investment in the 1960s. Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding one of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves of over US$403 billion as of December 2012.[38]

 

Despite the Asian financial crisis, the economy continues to expand at about 5% per year, with virtually full employment and low inflation. As of 2013, the nominal GDP per capita in Taipei city is lower than that in Hong Kong by a narrow margin according to The Economist(Nominal GDP per capita in HK is US$38181 in 2013 from IMF).[39] Furthermore, according to Financial times, GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity(PPP) in Taipei in 2015 is 44173 USD, behind that in Singapore(US$48900 from IMF) and Hong Kong(US$56689 from IMF).[40]

 

Taipei and its environs have long been the foremost industrial area of Taiwan, consisting of industries of the secondary and tertiary sectors.[41] Most of the country's important factories producing textiles and apparel are located there; other industries include the manufacture of electronic products and components, electrical machinery and equipment, printed materials, precision equipment, and foods and beverages. Such companies include Shihlin Electric, CipherLab and Insyde Software. Shipbuilding, including yachts and other pleasure craft, is done in the port of Keelung northeast of the city.

 

Services, including those related to commerce, transportation, and banking, have become increasingly important. Tourism is a small but significant component of the local economy[42][43] with international visitors totaling almost 3 million in 2008.[44] Taipei has many top tourist attractions and contributes a significant amount to the US$6.8 billion tourism industry in Taiwan.[45] National brands such as ASUS,[46] Chunghwa Telecom,[47] Mandarin Airlines,[48] Tatung,[49] and Uni Air,[50][51] D-Link [52] are headquartered in Taipei City.

Culture

Tourism

See also: List of tourist attractions in Taipei

 

Tourism is a major part of Taipei's economy. In 2013, over 6.3 million overseas visitors visited Taipei, making the city the 15th most visited globally.[53] The influx of visitors contributed $10.8 billion USD to the city's economy in 2013, the 9th highest in the world and the most of any city in the Chinese-speaking world.[54]

Commemorative sites and museums

The National Palace Museum

 

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark and tourist attraction that was erected in memory of General Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China.[55] The structure stands at the east end of Memorial Hall Square, site of the National Concert Hall and National Theater and their adjacent parks as well as the memorial. The landmarks of Liberty Square stand within sight of Taiwan's Presidential Building in Taipei's Zhongzheng District.

The National Taiwan Museum

 

The National Taiwan Museum sits nearby in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park and has worn its present name since 1999. The museum is Taiwan's oldest, founded on October 24, 1908 by Taiwan's Japanese colonial government (1895-1945) as the Taiwan Governor's Museum. It was launched with a collection of 10,000 items to celebrate the opening of the island's North-South Railway.[56] In 1915 a new museum building opened its doors in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park. This structure and the adjacent governor's office (now Presidential Office Building), served as the two most recognizable public buildings in Taiwan during its period of Japanese rule.[56]

Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines

 

The National Palace Museum is a vast art gallery and museum built around a permanent collection centered on ancient Chinese artifacts. It should not be confused with the Palace Museum in Beijing (which it is named after); both institutions trace their origins to the same institution. The collections were divided in the 1940s as a result of the Chinese Civil War.[57][58] The National Palace Museum in Taipei now boasts a truly international collection while housing one of the world's largest collections of artifacts from ancient China.[58]

 

The Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines stands just 200 metres across the road from the National Palace Museum. The museum offers displays of art and historical items by Taiwanese aborigines along with a range of multimedia displays.

 

The Taipei Fine Arts Museum was established in 1983 as the first museum in Taiwan dedicated to modern art. The museum is housed in a building designed for the purpose that takes inspiration from Japanese designs. Most art in the collection is by Taiwanese artists since 1940. Over 3,000 art works are organized into 13 groups.

 

The National Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101 in Xinyi District is named in honor of a founding father of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen. The hall, completed on May 16, 1972, originally featured exhibits that depicted revolutionary events in China at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Today it functions as multi-purpose social, educational, concert and cultural center for Taiwan's citizens.[59]

Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei, aka "old city hall"

 

In 2001 a new museum opened as Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei. The museum is housed in a building that formerly housed Taipei City government offices.[60]

Night view of a fully lit Taipei 101

Taipei 101

 

Taipei 101 is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper that claimed the title of world's tallest building when it opened in 2004, a title it held for six years before relinquishing it to the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners and constructed by KTRT Joint Venture, Taipei 101 measures 509 m (1,670 ft) from ground to top, making it the first skyscraper in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height. Built to withstand typhoon winds and earthquake tremors, its design incorporates many engineering innovations and has won numerous international awards. Taipei 101 remains one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world and holds LEED's certification as the world's largest "green" building. Its shopping mall and its indoor and outdoor observatories draw visitors from all over the world. Taipei 101's New Year's Eve fireworks display is a regular feature of international broadcasts.

Performing arts

Taiwan's National Concert Hall at night

 

The National Theater and Concert Hall stand at Taipei's Liberty Square and host events by foreign and domestic performers. Other leading concert venues include Zhongshan Hall at Ximending and the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101.

 

A new venue, the Taipei Performing Arts Center, is under construction and slated to open in 2015.[61][62] The venue will stand near the Shilin Night Market[63] and will house three theaters for events with multi-week runs. The architectural design, by Rem Koolhaas and OMA, was determined in 2009 in an international competition.[64] The same design process is also in place for a new Taipei Center for Popular Music and Taipei City Museum.[65]

Shopping and recreation

Main article: Shopping in Taipei

 

Taipei is known for its many night markets, the most famous of which is the Shilin Night Market in the Shilin District. The surrounding streets by Shilin Night Market are extremely crowded during the evening, usually opening late afternoon and operating well past midnight. Most night markets feature individual stalls selling a mixture of food, clothing, and consumer goods.

The busy streets of Ximending at night

 

Ximending has been a famous area for shopping and entertainment since the 1930s. Historic structures include a concert hall, a historic cinema, and the Red House Theater. Modern structures house karaoke businesses, art film cinemas, wide-release movie cinemas, electronic stores, and a wide variety of restaurants and fashion clothing stores.[66] The pedestrian area is especially popular with teens and has been called the "Harajuku" of Taipei.[67]

Eastern district at night

 

The newly developed Xinyi District is popular with tourists and locals alike for its many entertainment and shopping venues, as well as being the home of Taipei 101, a prime tourist attraction. Malls in the area include the sprawling Shin Kong Mitsukoshi complex, Breeze Center, Bellavita, Taipei 101 mall, Eslite Bookstore's flagship store (which includes a boutique mall), The Living Mall, ATT shopping mall, and the Vieshow Cinemas (formerly known as Warner Village). The Xinyi district also serves as the center of Taipei's active nightlife, with several popular lounge bars and nightclubs concentrated in a relatively small area around the Neo19, ATT 4 FUN and Taipei 101 buildings. Lounge bars such as Barcode and nightclubs such as Spark and Myst are among the most-visited places here.

Eslite Bookstore in Xinyi District

 

The thriving shopping area around Taipei Main Station includes the Taipei Underground Market and the original Shin Kong Mitsukoshi department store at Shin Kong Life Tower. Other popular shopping destinations include the Zhongshan Metro Mall, Dihua Street, the Guang Hua Digital Plaza, and the Core Pacific City. The Miramar Entertainment Park is known for its large Ferris wheel and IMAX theater.

 

Taipei maintains an extensive system of parks, green spaces, and nature preserves. Parks and forestry areas of note in and around the city include Yangmingshan National Park, Taipei Zoo and Da-an Forest Park. Yangmingshan National Park (located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the central city) is famous for its cherry blossoms, hot springs, and sulfur deposits. It is the home of famous writer Lin Yutang, the summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek, residences of foreign diplomats, the Chinese Culture University, the meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China, and the Kuomintang Party Archives. The Taipei Zoo was founded in 1914 and covers an area of 165 hectares for animal sanctuary.

 

Bitan is known for boating and water sports. Tamsui is a popular sea-side resort town. Ocean beaches are accessible in several directions from Taipei.

Temples

Built in 1738, Longshan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the city.

Street corner shrine, Taipei 2013

 

Taipei is rich in beautiful, ornate temples housing Buddhist, Taoist, and Chinese folk religion deities. The Longshan Temple, built in 1738 and located in the Wanhua District, demonstrates an example of architecture with southern Chinese influences commonly seen on older buildings in Taiwan.

 

Xinsheng South Road is known as the "Road to Heaven" due to its high concentration of temples, shrines, churches, and mosques.[68][69] Other famous temples include Baoan Temple located in historic Dalongdong, a national historical site, and Xiahai City God Temple, located in the old Dadaocheng community, constructed with architecture similar to temples in southern Fujian.[70] The Taipei Confucius Temple traces its history back to 1879 during the Qing Dynasty and also incorporates southern Fujian-style architecture.[71]

 

Besides large temples, small outdoor shrines to local deities are very common and can be spotted on road sides, parks, and neighborhoods. Many homes and businesses may also set up small shrines of candles, figurines, and offerings. Some restaurants, for example, may set up a small shrine to the Kitchen god for success in a restaurant business.[72]

New Year's Eve fireworks at Taipei 101

Festivals and events

 

Many yearly festivals are held in Taipei. In recent years some festivals, such as the Double Ten Day fireworks and concerts, are increasingly hosted on a rotating basis by a number of cities around Taiwan.

 

When New Year's Eve arrives on the solar calendar, thousands of people converge on Taipei's Xinyi District for parades, outdoor concerts by popular artists, street shows, round-the clock nightlife. The high point is of course the countdown to midnight, when Taipei 101 assumes the role of the world's largest fireworks platform.

 

The Taipei Lantern Festival concludes the Lunar New Year holiday. The timing of the city's lantern exhibit coincides with the national festival in Pingxi, when thousands of fire lanterns are released into the sky.[73] The city's lantern exhibit rotates among different downtown locales from year to year, including Liberty Square, Taipei 101, and Zhongshan Hall in Ximending.

 

On Double Ten Day, patriotic celebrations are held in front of the Presidential Building. Other annual festivals include Ancestors Day (Tomb-Sweeping Day), the Dragon Boat Festival, the Ghost Festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival).[73]

 

Taipei regularly hosts its share of international events. The city recently hosted the 2009 Summer Deaflympics.[74] This event was followed by the Taipei International Flora Exposition, a garden festival hosted from November 2010 to April 2011. The Floral Expo was the first of its kind to take place in Taiwan and only the seventh hosted in Asia; the expo admitted 110,000 visitors on February 27, 2011.

Taipei in films

  

Romanization

  

The spelling "Taipei" derives from the Wade–Giles romanization T'ai-pei.[75] The name could be also romanized as Táiběi according to Hanyu Pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin.[76][77]

Government

 

Taipei City is a special municipality which is directly under the Executive Yuan (Central Government) of ROC. The mayor of Taipei City had been an appointed position since Taipei's conversion to a centrally administered municipality in 1967 until the first public election was held in 1994.[78] The position has a four-year term and is elected by direct popular vote. The first elected mayor was Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party. Ma Ying-jeou took office in 1998 for two terms, before handing it over to Hau Lung-pin who won the 2006 mayoral election on December 9, 2006.[79] Both Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-Jeou went on to become President of the Republic of China. The incumbent mayor, Ko Wen-je, was elected on November 29, 2014 and took office on December 25, 2014.[80]

 

Based on the outcomes of previous elections in the past decade, the vote of the overall constituency of Taipei City shows a slight inclination towards the pro-KMT camp (the Pan-Blue Coalition);[81] however, the pro-DPP camp (the Pan-Green Coalition) also has considerable support.[82]

 

Ketagalan Boulevard, where the Presidential Office Building and other government structures are situated, is often the site of mass gatherings such as inauguration and national holiday parades, receptions for visiting dignitaries, political demonstrations,[83][84] and public festivals.[85]

Garbage recycling

 

Taipei City is also famous for its effort in garbage recycling, which has become such a good international precedent that other countries have sent teams to study the recycling system. After the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) established a program in 1998 combining the efforts of communities, a financial resource named the Recycling Fund was made available to recycling companies and waste collectors. Manufacturers, vendors and importers of recyclable waste pay fees to the Fund, which uses the money to set firm prices for recyclables and subsidize local recycling efforts. Between 1998 and 2008, the recycling rate increased from 6 percent to 32 percent.[86] This improvement enabled the government of Taipei to demonstrate its recycling system to the world at the Shanghai World Expo 2010.

Administrative divisions

 

Taipei City is divided up into 12 administrative districts (區 qu).[87] Each district is further divided up into urban villages (里), which are further sub-divided up into neighborhoods (鄰).

Map District Population

(Jan. 2016) Area

(km2) Postal

code

 

Beitou 北投區 Běitóu Pei-t'ou Pak-tâu 257,922 56.8216 112

Da'an 大安區 Dà'ān Ta-an Tāi-an 312,909 11.3614 106

Datong 大同區 Dàtóng Ta-t'ung Tāi-tông 131,029 5.6815 103

Nangang 南港區 Nángǎng Nan-kang Lâm-káng 122,296 21.8424 115

Neihu 內湖區 Nèihú Nei-hu Lāi-ô͘ 287,726 31.5787 114

Shilin 士林區 Shìlín Shih-lin Sū-lîm 290,682 62.3682 111

Songshan 松山區 Sōngshān Sung-shan Siông-san 209,689 9.2878 105

Wanhua 萬華區 Wànhuá Wan-hua Báng-kah 194,314 8.8522 108

Wenshan 文山區 Wénshān Wen-shan Bûn-san 275,433 31.5090 116

Xinyi 信義區 Xìnyì Hsin-yi Sìn-gī 229,139 11.2077 110

Zhongshan 中山區 Zhōngshān Chung-shan Tiong-san 231,286 13.6821 104

Zhongzheng 中正區 Zhōngzhèng Chung-cheng Tiong-chèng 162,549 7.6071 100

 

City planning

 

The city is characterized by straight roads and public buildings of grand Western architectural styles.[88] The city is built on a square grid configuration, however these blocks are huge by international standards with 500 m (1,640.42 ft) sides. The area in between these blocks are infilled with lanes and alleys, which provide access to quieter residential or mixed-use development. Other than a citywide 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) speed limit, there is little uniform planning within this "hidden" area; therefore lanes (perpendicular to streets) and alleys (parallel with street, or conceptually, perpendicular to the lane) spill out from the main throughways. These minor roads are not always perpendicular and sometimes cut through the block diagonally.

 

Although development began in the western districts (still considered the cultural heart of the city) of the city due to trade, the eastern districts of the city have become the focus of recent development projects. Many of the western districts, already in decline, have become targets of new urban renewal initiatives.[88]

Transportation

Platform of Wende Station on the Taipei Metro system.

 

Public transport accounts for a substantial portion of different modes of transport in Taiwan, with Taipei residents having the highest utilization rate at 34.1%.[89] Private transport consists of motor scooters, private cars, and bicycles. Motor-scooters often weave between cars and occasionally through oncoming traffic. Respect for traffic laws, once scant, has improved with deployment of traffic cameras and increasing numbers of police roadblocks checking riders for alcohol consumption and other offenses.

 

Taipei Station serves as the comprehensive hub for the subway, bus, conventional rail, and high-speed rail.[41] A contactless smartcard, known as EasyCard, can be used for all modes of public transit as well as several retail outlets. It contains credits that are deducted each time a ride is taken.[90] The EasyCard is read via proximity sensory panels on buses and in MRT stations, and it does not need to be removed from one's wallet or purse.

Metro

Main article: Taipei Metro

 

Taipei's public transport system, the Taipei Metro (commonly referred to as the MRT), incorporates a metro and light rail system based on advanced VAL and Bombardier technology. There are currently five metro lines that are labelled in three ways: color, line number and depot station name. In addition to the rapid transit system itself, the Taipei Metro also includes several public facilities such as the Maokong Gondola, underground shopping malls, parks, and public squares. Modifications to existing railway lines to integrate them into the metro system are underway.

 

In 2017 a rapid transit line was opened to connect Taipei with Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taoyuan City. The new line is part of the new Taoyuan Metro system.

Taipei Railway Station front

Rail

Main articles: Taiwan High Speed Rail and Taiwan Railway Administration

 

Beginning in 1983, surface rail lines in the city were moved underground as part of the Taipei Railway Underground Project.[91] The Taiwan High Speed Rail system opened in 2007. The bullet trains connect Taipei with the west coast cities of New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi, and Tainan before terminating at Zuoying (Kaohsiung) at speeds that cut travel times by 60% or more from what they normally are on a bus or conventional train.[92] The Taiwan Railway Administration also runs passenger and freight services throughout the entire island.

Bus

 

An extensive city bus system serves metropolitan areas not covered by the metro, with exclusive bus lanes to facilitate transportation.[41] Riders of the city metro system are able to use the EasyCard for discounted fares on buses, and vice versa. Several major intercity bus terminals are located throughout the city, including the Taipei Bus Station and Taipei City Hall Bus Station.[93]

Taipei Songshan Airport

Airports

Main articles: Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taipei Songshan Airport

 

Most scheduled international flights are served by Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in nearby Taoyuan City. Songshan Airport at the heart of the city in the Songshan District serves domestic flights and scheduled flights to Tokyo International Airport (also known as Haneda Airport), Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, and about 15 destinations in the People's Republic of China. Songshan Airport is accessible by the Taipei Metro Neihu Line; Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport is accessible by the Taoyuan International Airport MRT system.

Ticketing

 

In 1994, with the rapid development of Taipei, a white paper for transport policies expressed the strong objective to "create a civilised transport system for the people of Taipei." In 1999, they chose Mitac consortium, which Thales-Transportation Systems is part of. Thales was then selected again in 2005 to deploy an upgrade of Taipei's public transport network with an end-to-end and fully contactless automatic fare collection solution that integrates 116 metro stations, 5,000 buses and 92 car parks.[citation needed]

Education

West Site of National Taiwan University Hospital

 

24 universities have campuses located in Taipei:

 

National Taiwan University (1928)

National Chengchi University (1927)

National Defense Medical Center (1902)

National Defense University (1906)

National Taipei University (1949)

National Taipei University of Business (1917)

National Taipei University of Education (1895)

National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science (1947)

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (1974)

National Taipei University of Technology (1912)

National Taiwan College of Performing Arts (1957)

National Taiwan Normal University (1946)

National Yang-Ming University (1975)

Taipei National University of the Arts (1982)

University of Taipei (2013)

  

Tamkang University (1950)

Soochow University (1900)

Chinese Culture University (1962)

Ming Chuan University (1957)

Shih Hsin University (1956)

Shih Chien University (1958)

Taipei Medical University (1960)

Tatung University (1956)

China University of Technology (1965)

 

National Taiwan University (NTU) was established in 1928 during the period of Japanese colonial rule. NTU has produced many political and social leaders in Taiwan. Both pan-blue and pan-green movements in Taiwan are rooted on the NTU campus. The university has six campuses in the greater Taipei region (including New Taipei) and two additional campuses in Nantou County. The university governs farms, forests, and hospitals for educational and research purposes. The main campus is in Taipei's Da-An district, where most department buildings and all the administrative buildings are located. The College of Law and the College of Medicine are located near the Presidential Building. The National Taiwan University Hospital is a leading international center of medical research.[94]

 

National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU or Shida) likewise traces its origins to the Japanese colonial period. Originally a teacher training institution, NTNU has developed into a comprehensive international university with demanding entrance requirements. The university boasts especially strong programs in the humanities and international education. Worldwide it is perhaps best known as home of the Mandarin Training Center, a program that offers Mandarin language training each year to over a thousand students from dozens of countries throughout the world. The main campus in Taipei's Da-An district, near MRT Guting Station, is known for its historic architecture and giving its name to the Shida Night Market, one of the most popular among the numerous night markets in Taipei.

Chinese language program for foreigners

 

Taiwan Mandarin Institute (TMI) (福爾摩莎)

International Chinese Language Program (ICLP) (國際華語研習所) of National Taiwan University

Mandarin Training Center (MTC) (國語教學中心) of National Taiwan Normal University

Taipei Language Institute (中華語文研習所

++++++ from Wikipedia ++++++

 

Taipei (/ˌtaɪˈpeɪ/), officially known as Taipei City, is the capital city and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC"). Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City. It is about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located on the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.[5] Formerly known as Taipeh-fu during Qing era and Taihoku under Japanese rule, Taipei became the capital of the Taiwan Province as part of the Republic of China in 1945 and recently has been the capital[a] of the ROC since 1949, when the Kuomintang lost the mainland to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.

 

The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,704,810 in 2015,[6] forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 7,047,559,[6][7] the 40th most-populous urban area in the world—roughly one-third of Taiwanese citizens live in the metro district. The name "Taipei" can refer either to the whole metropolitan area or the city proper.

 

Taipei is the political, economic, educational, and cultural center of Taiwan island, and one of the major hubs of Greater China. Considered to be a global city,[8] Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area.[9] Railways, high-speed rail, highways, airports, and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Lungshan Temple of Manka, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Taipei Guest House, Ximending, and several night markets dispersing over the city. Its natural features such as Maokong, Yangmingshan, and hot springs are also well known to international visitors.

 

As the capital city, "Taipei" is sometimes used as a synecdoche for the Republic of China. Due to the ongoing controversy over the political status of Taiwan, the name Chinese Taipei is designated for official use when Taiwanese governmental representatives or national teams participate in some international organizations or international sporting events (which may require UN statehood) in order to avoid extensive political controversy by using other names.

 

Contents

 

1 History

1.1 First settlements

1.2 Empire of Japan

1.3 Republic of China

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

2.2 Air quality

2.3 Cityscape

3 Demographics

4 Economy

5 Culture

5.1 Tourism

5.1.1 Commemorative sites and museums

5.1.2 Taipei 101

5.1.3 Performing arts

5.1.4 Shopping and recreation

5.1.5 Temples

5.2 Festivals and events

5.3 Taipei in films

6 Romanization

7 Government

7.1 Garbage recycling

7.2 Administrative divisions

7.3 City planning

8 Transportation

8.1 Metro

8.2 Rail

8.3 Bus

8.4 Airports

8.5 Ticketing

9 Education

9.1 Chinese language program for foreigners

10 Sports

10.1 Major sporting events

10.2 Youth baseball

11 Media

11.1 Television

11.2 Newspapers

12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12.2 Partner cities

12.3 Friendship cities

13 Gallery

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

17 External links

 

History

Main article: History of Taipei

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument and tourist attraction in Taipei.

 

Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was mainly inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines. The number of Han immigrants gradually increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area.[10] In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture.

 

The Qing dynasty of China made Taipeh the temporary capital of Fujian-Taiwan Province in 1886 when Taiwan was separated from Fujian Province.[11][12] Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894.

 

Japan acquired Taiwan in 1895 under the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. Taiwan became a colony of Imperial Japan with Taihoku (formerly Taipeh) as its capital, in which the city was administered under Taihoku Prefecture. Taiwan's Japanese rulers embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning that featured extensive railroad links. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period.[13]

 

Following the Japanese surrender of 1945, control of Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China (ROC) (see Retrocession Day). After losing mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) relocated the ROC government to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of the ROC in December 1949.[14][15] In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy. The city is today home to Taiwan's democratically elected national government.

First settlements

 

The region known as the Taipei Basin was home to Ketagalan tribes before the eighteenth century.[16] Han Chinese mainly from Fujian Province of Qing dynasty China began to settle in the Taipei Basin in 1709.[17][18]

 

In the late 19th century, the Taipei area, where the major Han Chinese settlements in northern Taiwan and one of the designated overseas trade ports, Tamsui, were located, gained economic importance due to the booming overseas trade, especially that of tea export. In 1875, the northern part of Taiwan was separated from Taiwan Prefecture and incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture as a new administrative entity of the Qing dynasty.[13] Having been established adjoining the flourishing townships of Bangka, Dalongdong, and Twatutia, the new prefectural capital was known as Chengnei (Chinese: 城內; pinyin: chéngnèi; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: siâⁿ-lāi), "the inner city", and government buildings were erected there. From 1875 (still Qing era) until the beginning of Japanese rule in 1895, Taipei was part of Tamsui County of Taipeh Prefecture and the prefectural capital.

 

In 1885, work commenced to create an independent Taiwan Province, and Taipei City was temporarily made the provincial capital. Taipei officially became the capital of Taiwan in 1894.[citation needed] All that remains from the Qing era is the north gate. The west gate and city walls were demolished by the Japanese while the south gate, little south gate, and east gate were extensively modified by the Kuomintang (KMT) and have lost much of their original character.[19]

Empire of Japan

The Taihoku Prefecture government building in the 1910s (now the Control Yuan)

 

As settlement for losing the First Sino-Japanese War, China ceded the island of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan in 1895 as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. After the Japanese take-over, Taipei, called Taihoku in Japanese, was retained as the capital and emerged as the political center of the Japanese Colonial Government.[13] During that time the city acquired the characteristics of an administrative center, including many new public buildings and housing for civil servants. Much of the architecture of Taipei dates from the period of Japanese rule, including the Presidential Building which was the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan.

 

During Japanese rule, Taihoku was incorporated in 1920 as part of Taihoku Prefecture. It included Bangka, Twatutia, and Jōnai (城內) among other small settlements. The eastern village of Matsuyama (松山庄, modern-day Songshan District, Taipei) was annexed into Taihoku City in 1938. Upon the Japanese defeat in the Pacific War and its consequent surrender in August 1945, the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) assumed control of Taiwan. Subsequently, a temporary Office of the Taiwan Province Administrative Governor was established in Taipei City.[20]

Republic of China

With President Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to a crowd during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

 

In 1947 the KMT government under Chiang Kai-shek declared island-wide martial law in Taiwan as a result of the February 28 Incident, which began with incidents in Taipei but led to an island-wide crackdown on the local population by forces loyal to Chiang. Two years later, on December 7, 1949, Chiang and the Kuomintang were forced to flee mainland China by the Communists near the end of the Chinese Civil War. The refugees declared Taipei to be the provisional capital of a continuing Republic of China, with the official capital at Nanjing (Nanking) even though that city was under Communist control.[14][15]

 

Taipei expanded greatly in the decades after 1949, and as approved on December 30, 1966 by the Executive Yuan, Taipei was declared a special centrally administered municipality on July 1, 1967 and given the administrative status of a province.[18] In the following year, Taipei City expanded again by annexing Shilin, Beitou, Neihu, Nangang, Jingmei, and Muzha. At that time, the city's total area increased fourfold through absorbing several outlying towns and villages and the population increased to 1.56 million people.[18]

 

The city's population, which had reached one million in the early 1960s, also expanded rapidly after 1967, exceeding two million by the mid-1970s. Although growth within the city itself gradually slowed thereafter[20] — its population had become relatively stable by the mid-1990s — Taipei remained one of the world's most densely populated urban areas, and the population continued to increase in the region surrounding the city, notably along the corridor between Taipei and Keelung.

 

In 1990 Taipei's 16 districts were consolidated into the current 12 districts.[21] Mass democracy rallies that year in the plaza around Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall led to an island-wide transition to multi-party democracy, where legislators are chosen via regularly scheduled popular elections, during the presidency of Lee Teng-Hui.

Geography

The city of Taipei, as seen from Maokong.

 

Taipei City is located in the Taipei Basin in northern Taiwan.[22] It is bordered by the Xindian River on the south and the Tamsui River on the west. The generally low-lying terrain of the central areas on the western side of the municipality slopes upward to the south and east and especially to the north,[5] where it reaches 1,120 metres (3,675 ft) at Qixing Mountain, the highest (inactive) volcano in Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park. The northern districts of Shilin and Beitou extend north of the Keelung River and are bordered by Yangmingshan National Park. The Taipei city limits cover an area of 271.7997 km2,[23] ranking sixteenth of twenty-five among all counties and cities in Taiwan.

 

Two peaks, Qixing Mountain and Mt. Datun, rise to the northeast of the city.[24] Qixing Mountain is located on the Tatun Volcano Group and the tallest mountain at the rim of the Taipei Basin, with its main peak at 1,120 metres (3,670 ft). Mt. Datun's main peak is 1,092 metres (3,583 ft). These former volcanoes make up the western section of Yangmingshan National Park, extending from Mt. Datun northward to Mt. Caigongkeng (菜公坑山). Located on a broad saddle between two mountains, the area also contains the marshy Datun Pond.

 

To the southeast of the city lie the Songshan Hills and the Qingshui Ravine, which form a barrier of lush woods.[24]

Climate

 

Taipei has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate[25][26][27] (Köppen: Cfa).[28] Summers are long-lasting, hot and humid, and accompanied by occasional heavy rainstorms and typhoons, while winters are short, generally warm and generally very foggy due to the northeasterly winds from the vast Siberian High being intensified by the pooling of this cooler air in the Taipei Basin. As in the rest of Northern Taiwan, daytime temperatures of Taipei can often peak above 26 degrees Celsius during a warm winter day, while they can dip below 26 degrees Celsius during a rainy summer's afternoon. Occasional cold fronts during the winter months can drop the daily temperature by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius, though temperatures rarely drop below 10 degrees Celsius.[29] Extreme temperatures ranged from −0.2 °C (31.6 °F) on February 13, 1901 to 39.3 °C (102.7 °F) on August 8, 2013, while snow has never been recorded in the city besides on mountains located within the city limit such as Mount Yangmingshan. Due to Taiwan's location in the Pacific Ocean, it is affected by the Pacific typhoon season, which occurs between June and October.

 

Air quality

 

When compared to other Asian cities, Taipei has "excellent" capabilities for managing air quality in the city.[31] Its rainy climate, location near the coast, and strong environmental regulations have prevented air pollution from becoming a substantial health issue, at least compared to cities in southeast Asia and industrial China. However, smog is extremely common and there is poor visibility throughout the city after rain-less days.

 

Motor vehicle engine exhaust, particularly from motor scooters, is a source of air pollution in Taipei. There are higher levels of fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mornings because of less air movement; sunlight reduces some pollution.[32] Occasionally, dust storms from Mainland China can temporarily bring extremely poor air quality to the city.[33]

Cityscape

Taipei viewed from Tiger Mountain, with Taipei 101 on the left.

Demographics

 

Taipei City is home to 2,704,810 people (2015), while the metropolitan area has a population of 7,047,559 people.[6] The population of the city has been decreasing in recent years while the population of the adjacent New Taipei has been increasing. The population loss, while rapid in its early years, has been stabilized by new lower density development and campaigns designed to increase birthrate in the city. The population has begun to rise since 2010.[6][34][35]

 

Due to Taipei's geography and location in the Taipei Basin as well as differing times of economic development of its districts, Taipei's population is not evenly distributed. The districts of Daan, Songshan, and Datong are the most densely populated. These districts, along with adjacent communities such as Yonghe and Zhonghe contain some of the most densely populated neighborhoods in the world.[34]

 

In 2008, the crude birth rate stood at 7.88% while the mortality rate stood at 5.94%. A decreasing and rapidly aging population is an important issue for the city.[34] By the end of 2009, one in ten people in Taipei was over 65 years of age.[36] Residents who had obtained a college education or higher accounted for 43.48% of the population, and the literacy rate stood at 99.18%.[34]

 

Like the rest of Taiwan, Taipei is composed of four major ethnic groups: Hoklos, Mainlanders, Hakkas, and aborigines.[34] Although Hoklos and Mainlanders form the majority of the population of the city, in recent decades many Hakkas have moved into the city. The aboriginal population in the city stands at 12,862 (<0.5%), concentrated mostly in the suburban districts. Foreigners (mainly from Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines) numbered 52,426 at the end of 2008.[34]

 

Economy

 

As the center of Taiwan's largest conurbation, Taipei has been at the center of rapid economic development in the country and has now become one of the global cities in the production of high technology and its components.[37] This is part of the so-called Taiwan Miracle which has seen dramatic growth in the city following foreign direct investment in the 1960s. Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding one of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves of over US$403 billion as of December 2012.[38]

 

Despite the Asian financial crisis, the economy continues to expand at about 5% per year, with virtually full employment and low inflation. As of 2013, the nominal GDP per capita in Taipei city is lower than that in Hong Kong by a narrow margin according to The Economist(Nominal GDP per capita in HK is US$38181 in 2013 from IMF).[39] Furthermore, according to Financial times, GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity(PPP) in Taipei in 2015 is 44173 USD, behind that in Singapore(US$48900 from IMF) and Hong Kong(US$56689 from IMF).[40]

 

Taipei and its environs have long been the foremost industrial area of Taiwan, consisting of industries of the secondary and tertiary sectors.[41] Most of the country's important factories producing textiles and apparel are located there; other industries include the manufacture of electronic products and components, electrical machinery and equipment, printed materials, precision equipment, and foods and beverages. Such companies include Shihlin Electric, CipherLab and Insyde Software. Shipbuilding, including yachts and other pleasure craft, is done in the port of Keelung northeast of the city.

 

Services, including those related to commerce, transportation, and banking, have become increasingly important. Tourism is a small but significant component of the local economy[42][43] with international visitors totaling almost 3 million in 2008.[44] Taipei has many top tourist attractions and contributes a significant amount to the US$6.8 billion tourism industry in Taiwan.[45] National brands such as ASUS,[46] Chunghwa Telecom,[47] Mandarin Airlines,[48] Tatung,[49] and Uni Air,[50][51] D-Link [52] are headquartered in Taipei City.

Culture

Tourism

See also: List of tourist attractions in Taipei

 

Tourism is a major part of Taipei's economy. In 2013, over 6.3 million overseas visitors visited Taipei, making the city the 15th most visited globally.[53] The influx of visitors contributed $10.8 billion USD to the city's economy in 2013, the 9th highest in the world and the most of any city in the Chinese-speaking world.[54]

Commemorative sites and museums

The National Palace Museum

 

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark and tourist attraction that was erected in memory of General Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China.[55] The structure stands at the east end of Memorial Hall Square, site of the National Concert Hall and National Theater and their adjacent parks as well as the memorial. The landmarks of Liberty Square stand within sight of Taiwan's Presidential Building in Taipei's Zhongzheng District.

The National Taiwan Museum

 

The National Taiwan Museum sits nearby in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park and has worn its present name since 1999. The museum is Taiwan's oldest, founded on October 24, 1908 by Taiwan's Japanese colonial government (1895-1945) as the Taiwan Governor's Museum. It was launched with a collection of 10,000 items to celebrate the opening of the island's North-South Railway.[56] In 1915 a new museum building opened its doors in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park. This structure and the adjacent governor's office (now Presidential Office Building), served as the two most recognizable public buildings in Taiwan during its period of Japanese rule.[56]

Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines

 

The National Palace Museum is a vast art gallery and museum built around a permanent collection centered on ancient Chinese artifacts. It should not be confused with the Palace Museum in Beijing (which it is named after); both institutions trace their origins to the same institution. The collections were divided in the 1940s as a result of the Chinese Civil War.[57][58] The National Palace Museum in Taipei now boasts a truly international collection while housing one of the world's largest collections of artifacts from ancient China.[58]

 

The Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines stands just 200 metres across the road from the National Palace Museum. The museum offers displays of art and historical items by Taiwanese aborigines along with a range of multimedia displays.

 

The Taipei Fine Arts Museum was established in 1983 as the first museum in Taiwan dedicated to modern art. The museum is housed in a building designed for the purpose that takes inspiration from Japanese designs. Most art in the collection is by Taiwanese artists since 1940. Over 3,000 art works are organized into 13 groups.

 

The National Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101 in Xinyi District is named in honor of a founding father of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen. The hall, completed on May 16, 1972, originally featured exhibits that depicted revolutionary events in China at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Today it functions as multi-purpose social, educational, concert and cultural center for Taiwan's citizens.[59]

Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei, aka "old city hall"

 

In 2001 a new museum opened as Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei. The museum is housed in a building that formerly housed Taipei City government offices.[60]

Night view of a fully lit Taipei 101

Taipei 101

 

Taipei 101 is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper that claimed the title of world's tallest building when it opened in 2004, a title it held for six years before relinquishing it to the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners and constructed by KTRT Joint Venture, Taipei 101 measures 509 m (1,670 ft) from ground to top, making it the first skyscraper in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height. Built to withstand typhoon winds and earthquake tremors, its design incorporates many engineering innovations and has won numerous international awards. Taipei 101 remains one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world and holds LEED's certification as the world's largest "green" building. Its shopping mall and its indoor and outdoor observatories draw visitors from all over the world. Taipei 101's New Year's Eve fireworks display is a regular feature of international broadcasts.

Performing arts

Taiwan's National Concert Hall at night

 

The National Theater and Concert Hall stand at Taipei's Liberty Square and host events by foreign and domestic performers. Other leading concert venues include Zhongshan Hall at Ximending and the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101.

 

A new venue, the Taipei Performing Arts Center, is under construction and slated to open in 2015.[61][62] The venue will stand near the Shilin Night Market[63] and will house three theaters for events with multi-week runs. The architectural design, by Rem Koolhaas and OMA, was determined in 2009 in an international competition.[64] The same design process is also in place for a new Taipei Center for Popular Music and Taipei City Museum.[65]

Shopping and recreation

Main article: Shopping in Taipei

 

Taipei is known for its many night markets, the most famous of which is the Shilin Night Market in the Shilin District. The surrounding streets by Shilin Night Market are extremely crowded during the evening, usually opening late afternoon and operating well past midnight. Most night markets feature individual stalls selling a mixture of food, clothing, and consumer goods.

The busy streets of Ximending at night

 

Ximending has been a famous area for shopping and entertainment since the 1930s. Historic structures include a concert hall, a historic cinema, and the Red House Theater. Modern structures house karaoke businesses, art film cinemas, wide-release movie cinemas, electronic stores, and a wide variety of restaurants and fashion clothing stores.[66] The pedestrian area is especially popular with teens and has been called the "Harajuku" of Taipei.[67]

Eastern district at night

 

The newly developed Xinyi District is popular with tourists and locals alike for its many entertainment and shopping venues, as well as being the home of Taipei 101, a prime tourist attraction. Malls in the area include the sprawling Shin Kong Mitsukoshi complex, Breeze Center, Bellavita, Taipei 101 mall, Eslite Bookstore's flagship store (which includes a boutique mall), The Living Mall, ATT shopping mall, and the Vieshow Cinemas (formerly known as Warner Village). The Xinyi district also serves as the center of Taipei's active nightlife, with several popular lounge bars and nightclubs concentrated in a relatively small area around the Neo19, ATT 4 FUN and Taipei 101 buildings. Lounge bars such as Barcode and nightclubs such as Spark and Myst are among the most-visited places here.

Eslite Bookstore in Xinyi District

 

The thriving shopping area around Taipei Main Station includes the Taipei Underground Market and the original Shin Kong Mitsukoshi department store at Shin Kong Life Tower. Other popular shopping destinations include the Zhongshan Metro Mall, Dihua Street, the Guang Hua Digital Plaza, and the Core Pacific City. The Miramar Entertainment Park is known for its large Ferris wheel and IMAX theater.

 

Taipei maintains an extensive system of parks, green spaces, and nature preserves. Parks and forestry areas of note in and around the city include Yangmingshan National Park, Taipei Zoo and Da-an Forest Park. Yangmingshan National Park (located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the central city) is famous for its cherry blossoms, hot springs, and sulfur deposits. It is the home of famous writer Lin Yutang, the summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek, residences of foreign diplomats, the Chinese Culture University, the meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China, and the Kuomintang Party Archives. The Taipei Zoo was founded in 1914 and covers an area of 165 hectares for animal sanctuary.

 

Bitan is known for boating and water sports. Tamsui is a popular sea-side resort town. Ocean beaches are accessible in several directions from Taipei.

Temples

Built in 1738, Longshan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the city.

Street corner shrine, Taipei 2013

 

Taipei is rich in beautiful, ornate temples housing Buddhist, Taoist, and Chinese folk religion deities. The Longshan Temple, built in 1738 and located in the Wanhua District, demonstrates an example of architecture with southern Chinese influences commonly seen on older buildings in Taiwan.

 

Xinsheng South Road is known as the "Road to Heaven" due to its high concentration of temples, shrines, churches, and mosques.[68][69] Other famous temples include Baoan Temple located in historic Dalongdong, a national historical site, and Xiahai City God Temple, located in the old Dadaocheng community, constructed with architecture similar to temples in southern Fujian.[70] The Taipei Confucius Temple traces its history back to 1879 during the Qing Dynasty and also incorporates southern Fujian-style architecture.[71]

 

Besides large temples, small outdoor shrines to local deities are very common and can be spotted on road sides, parks, and neighborhoods. Many homes and businesses may also set up small shrines of candles, figurines, and offerings. Some restaurants, for example, may set up a small shrine to the Kitchen god for success in a restaurant business.[72]

New Year's Eve fireworks at Taipei 101

Festivals and events

 

Many yearly festivals are held in Taipei. In recent years some festivals, such as the Double Ten Day fireworks and concerts, are increasingly hosted on a rotating basis by a number of cities around Taiwan.

 

When New Year's Eve arrives on the solar calendar, thousands of people converge on Taipei's Xinyi District for parades, outdoor concerts by popular artists, street shows, round-the clock nightlife. The high point is of course the countdown to midnight, when Taipei 101 assumes the role of the world's largest fireworks platform.

 

The Taipei Lantern Festival concludes the Lunar New Year holiday. The timing of the city's lantern exhibit coincides with the national festival in Pingxi, when thousands of fire lanterns are released into the sky.[73] The city's lantern exhibit rotates among different downtown locales from year to year, including Liberty Square, Taipei 101, and Zhongshan Hall in Ximending.

 

On Double Ten Day, patriotic celebrations are held in front of the Presidential Building. Other annual festivals include Ancestors Day (Tomb-Sweeping Day), the Dragon Boat Festival, the Ghost Festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival).[73]

 

Taipei regularly hosts its share of international events. The city recently hosted the 2009 Summer Deaflympics.[74] This event was followed by the Taipei International Flora Exposition, a garden festival hosted from November 2010 to April 2011. The Floral Expo was the first of its kind to take place in Taiwan and only the seventh hosted in Asia; the expo admitted 110,000 visitors on February 27, 2011.

Taipei in films

  

Romanization

  

The spelling "Taipei" derives from the Wade–Giles romanization T'ai-pei.[75] The name could be also romanized as Táiběi according to Hanyu Pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin.[76][77]

Government

 

Taipei City is a special municipality which is directly under the Executive Yuan (Central Government) of ROC. The mayor of Taipei City had been an appointed position since Taipei's conversion to a centrally administered municipality in 1967 until the first public election was held in 1994.[78] The position has a four-year term and is elected by direct popular vote. The first elected mayor was Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party. Ma Ying-jeou took office in 1998 for two terms, before handing it over to Hau Lung-pin who won the 2006 mayoral election on December 9, 2006.[79] Both Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-Jeou went on to become President of the Republic of China. The incumbent mayor, Ko Wen-je, was elected on November 29, 2014 and took office on December 25, 2014.[80]

 

Based on the outcomes of previous elections in the past decade, the vote of the overall constituency of Taipei City shows a slight inclination towards the pro-KMT camp (the Pan-Blue Coalition);[81] however, the pro-DPP camp (the Pan-Green Coalition) also has considerable support.[82]

 

Ketagalan Boulevard, where the Presidential Office Building and other government structures are situated, is often the site of mass gatherings such as inauguration and national holiday parades, receptions for visiting dignitaries, political demonstrations,[83][84] and public festivals.[85]

Garbage recycling

 

Taipei City is also famous for its effort in garbage recycling, which has become such a good international precedent that other countries have sent teams to study the recycling system. After the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) established a program in 1998 combining the efforts of communities, a financial resource named the Recycling Fund was made available to recycling companies and waste collectors. Manufacturers, vendors and importers of recyclable waste pay fees to the Fund, which uses the money to set firm prices for recyclables and subsidize local recycling efforts. Between 1998 and 2008, the recycling rate increased from 6 percent to 32 percent.[86] This improvement enabled the government of Taipei to demonstrate its recycling system to the world at the Shanghai World Expo 2010.

Administrative divisions

 

Taipei City is divided up into 12 administrative districts (區 qu).[87] Each district is further divided up into urban villages (里), which are further sub-divided up into neighborhoods (鄰).

Map District Population

(Jan. 2016) Area

(km2) Postal

code

 

Beitou 北投區 Běitóu Pei-t'ou Pak-tâu 257,922 56.8216 112

Da'an 大安區 Dà'ān Ta-an Tāi-an 312,909 11.3614 106

Datong 大同區 Dàtóng Ta-t'ung Tāi-tông 131,029 5.6815 103

Nangang 南港區 Nángǎng Nan-kang Lâm-káng 122,296 21.8424 115

Neihu 內湖區 Nèihú Nei-hu Lāi-ô͘ 287,726 31.5787 114

Shilin 士林區 Shìlín Shih-lin Sū-lîm 290,682 62.3682 111

Songshan 松山區 Sōngshān Sung-shan Siông-san 209,689 9.2878 105

Wanhua 萬華區 Wànhuá Wan-hua Báng-kah 194,314 8.8522 108

Wenshan 文山區 Wénshān Wen-shan Bûn-san 275,433 31.5090 116

Xinyi 信義區 Xìnyì Hsin-yi Sìn-gī 229,139 11.2077 110

Zhongshan 中山區 Zhōngshān Chung-shan Tiong-san 231,286 13.6821 104

Zhongzheng 中正區 Zhōngzhèng Chung-cheng Tiong-chèng 162,549 7.6071 100

 

City planning

 

The city is characterized by straight roads and public buildings of grand Western architectural styles.[88] The city is built on a square grid configuration, however these blocks are huge by international standards with 500 m (1,640.42 ft) sides. The area in between these blocks are infilled with lanes and alleys, which provide access to quieter residential or mixed-use development. Other than a citywide 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) speed limit, there is little uniform planning within this "hidden" area; therefore lanes (perpendicular to streets) and alleys (parallel with street, or conceptually, perpendicular to the lane) spill out from the main throughways. These minor roads are not always perpendicular and sometimes cut through the block diagonally.

 

Although development began in the western districts (still considered the cultural heart of the city) of the city due to trade, the eastern districts of the city have become the focus of recent development projects. Many of the western districts, already in decline, have become targets of new urban renewal initiatives.[88]

Transportation

Platform of Wende Station on the Taipei Metro system.

 

Public transport accounts for a substantial portion of different modes of transport in Taiwan, with Taipei residents having the highest utilization rate at 34.1%.[89] Private transport consists of motor scooters, private cars, and bicycles. Motor-scooters often weave between cars and occasionally through oncoming traffic. Respect for traffic laws, once scant, has improved with deployment of traffic cameras and increasing numbers of police roadblocks checking riders for alcohol consumption and other offenses.

 

Taipei Station serves as the comprehensive hub for the subway, bus, conventional rail, and high-speed rail.[41] A contactless smartcard, known as EasyCard, can be used for all modes of public transit as well as several retail outlets. It contains credits that are deducted each time a ride is taken.[90] The EasyCard is read via proximity sensory panels on buses and in MRT stations, and it does not need to be removed from one's wallet or purse.

Metro

Main article: Taipei Metro

 

Taipei's public transport system, the Taipei Metro (commonly referred to as the MRT), incorporates a metro and light rail system based on advanced VAL and Bombardier technology. There are currently five metro lines that are labelled in three ways: color, line number and depot station name. In addition to the rapid transit system itself, the Taipei Metro also includes several public facilities such as the Maokong Gondola, underground shopping malls, parks, and public squares. Modifications to existing railway lines to integrate them into the metro system are underway.

 

In 2017 a rapid transit line was opened to connect Taipei with Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taoyuan City. The new line is part of the new Taoyuan Metro system.

Taipei Railway Station front

Rail

Main articles: Taiwan High Speed Rail and Taiwan Railway Administration

 

Beginning in 1983, surface rail lines in the city were moved underground as part of the Taipei Railway Underground Project.[91] The Taiwan High Speed Rail system opened in 2007. The bullet trains connect Taipei with the west coast cities of New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi, and Tainan before terminating at Zuoying (Kaohsiung) at speeds that cut travel times by 60% or more from what they normally are on a bus or conventional train.[92] The Taiwan Railway Administration also runs passenger and freight services throughout the entire island.

Bus

 

An extensive city bus system serves metropolitan areas not covered by the metro, with exclusive bus lanes to facilitate transportation.[41] Riders of the city metro system are able to use the EasyCard for discounted fares on buses, and vice versa. Several major intercity bus terminals are located throughout the city, including the Taipei Bus Station and Taipei City Hall Bus Station.[93]

Taipei Songshan Airport

Airports

Main articles: Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taipei Songshan Airport

 

Most scheduled international flights are served by Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in nearby Taoyuan City. Songshan Airport at the heart of the city in the Songshan District serves domestic flights and scheduled flights to Tokyo International Airport (also known as Haneda Airport), Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, and about 15 destinations in the People's Republic of China. Songshan Airport is accessible by the Taipei Metro Neihu Line; Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport is accessible by the Taoyuan International Airport MRT system.

Ticketing

 

In 1994, with the rapid development of Taipei, a white paper for transport policies expressed the strong objective to "create a civilised transport system for the people of Taipei." In 1999, they chose Mitac consortium, which Thales-Transportation Systems is part of. Thales was then selected again in 2005 to deploy an upgrade of Taipei's public transport network with an end-to-end and fully contactless automatic fare collection solution that integrates 116 metro stations, 5,000 buses and 92 car parks.[citation needed]

Education

West Site of National Taiwan University Hospital

 

24 universities have campuses located in Taipei:

 

National Taiwan University (1928)

National Chengchi University (1927)

National Defense Medical Center (1902)

National Defense University (1906)

National Taipei University (1949)

National Taipei University of Business (1917)

National Taipei University of Education (1895)

National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science (1947)

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (1974)

National Taipei University of Technology (1912)

National Taiwan College of Performing Arts (1957)

National Taiwan Normal University (1946)

National Yang-Ming University (1975)

Taipei National University of the Arts (1982)

University of Taipei (2013)

  

Tamkang University (1950)

Soochow University (1900)

Chinese Culture University (1962)

Ming Chuan University (1957)

Shih Hsin University (1956)

Shih Chien University (1958)

Taipei Medical University (1960)

Tatung University (1956)

China University of Technology (1965)

 

National Taiwan University (NTU) was established in 1928 during the period of Japanese colonial rule. NTU has produced many political and social leaders in Taiwan. Both pan-blue and pan-green movements in Taiwan are rooted on the NTU campus. The university has six campuses in the greater Taipei region (including New Taipei) and two additional campuses in Nantou County. The university governs farms, forests, and hospitals for educational and research purposes. The main campus is in Taipei's Da-An district, where most department buildings and all the administrative buildings are located. The College of Law and the College of Medicine are located near the Presidential Building. The National Taiwan University Hospital is a leading international center of medical research.[94]

 

National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU or Shida) likewise traces its origins to the Japanese colonial period. Originally a teacher training institution, NTNU has developed into a comprehensive international university with demanding entrance requirements. The university boasts especially strong programs in the humanities and international education. Worldwide it is perhaps best known as home of the Mandarin Training Center, a program that offers Mandarin language training each year to over a thousand students from dozens of countries throughout the world. The main campus in Taipei's Da-An district, near MRT Guting Station, is known for its historic architecture and giving its name to the Shida Night Market, one of the most popular among the numerous night markets in Taipei.

Chinese language program for foreigners

 

Taiwan Mandarin Institute (TMI) (福爾摩莎)

International Chinese Language Program (ICLP) (國際華語研習所) of National Taiwan University

Mandarin Training Center (MTC) (國語教學中心) of National Taiwan Normal University

Taipei Language Institute (中華語文研習所)

 

++++++ from Wikipedia ++++++

 

Taipei (/ˌtaɪˈpeɪ/), officially known as Taipei City, is the capital city and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC"). Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City. It is about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located on the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.[5] Formerly known as Taipeh-fu during Qing era and Taihoku under Japanese rule, Taipei became the capital of the Taiwan Province as part of the Republic of China in 1945 and recently has been the capital[a] of the ROC since 1949, when the Kuomintang lost the mainland to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.

 

The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,704,810 in 2015,[6] forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 7,047,559,[6][7] the 40th most-populous urban area in the world—roughly one-third of Taiwanese citizens live in the metro district. The name "Taipei" can refer either to the whole metropolitan area or the city proper.

 

Taipei is the political, economic, educational, and cultural center of Taiwan island, and one of the major hubs of Greater China. Considered to be a global city,[8] Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area.[9] Railways, high-speed rail, highways, airports, and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Lungshan Temple of Manka, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Taipei Guest House, Ximending, and several night markets dispersing over the city. Its natural features such as Maokong, Yangmingshan, and hot springs are also well known to international visitors.

 

As the capital city, "Taipei" is sometimes used as a synecdoche for the Republic of China. Due to the ongoing controversy over the political status of Taiwan, the name Chinese Taipei is designated for official use when Taiwanese governmental representatives or national teams participate in some international organizations or international sporting events (which may require UN statehood) in order to avoid extensive political controversy by using other names.

 

Contents

 

1 History

1.1 First settlements

1.2 Empire of Japan

1.3 Republic of China

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

2.2 Air quality

2.3 Cityscape

3 Demographics

4 Economy

5 Culture

5.1 Tourism

5.1.1 Commemorative sites and museums

5.1.2 Taipei 101

5.1.3 Performing arts

5.1.4 Shopping and recreation

5.1.5 Temples

5.2 Festivals and events

5.3 Taipei in films

6 Romanization

7 Government

7.1 Garbage recycling

7.2 Administrative divisions

7.3 City planning

8 Transportation

8.1 Metro

8.2 Rail

8.3 Bus

8.4 Airports

8.5 Ticketing

9 Education

9.1 Chinese language program for foreigners

10 Sports

10.1 Major sporting events

10.2 Youth baseball

11 Media

11.1 Television

11.2 Newspapers

12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12.2 Partner cities

12.3 Friendship cities

13 Gallery

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

17 External links

 

History

Main article: History of Taipei

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument and tourist attraction in Taipei.

 

Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was mainly inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines. The number of Han immigrants gradually increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area.[10] In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture.

 

The Qing dynasty of China made Taipeh the temporary capital of Fujian-Taiwan Province in 1886 when Taiwan was separated from Fujian Province.[11][12] Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894.

 

Japan acquired Taiwan in 1895 under the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. Taiwan became a colony of Imperial Japan with Taihoku (formerly Taipeh) as its capital, in which the city was administered under Taihoku Prefecture. Taiwan's Japanese rulers embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning that featured extensive railroad links. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period.[13]

 

Following the Japanese surrender of 1945, control of Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China (ROC) (see Retrocession Day). After losing mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) relocated the ROC government to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of the ROC in December 1949.[14][15] In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy. The city is today home to Taiwan's democratically elected national government.

First settlements

 

The region known as the Taipei Basin was home to Ketagalan tribes before the eighteenth century.[16] Han Chinese mainly from Fujian Province of Qing dynasty China began to settle in the Taipei Basin in 1709.[17][18]

 

In the late 19th century, the Taipei area, where the major Han Chinese settlements in northern Taiwan and one of the designated overseas trade ports, Tamsui, were located, gained economic importance due to the booming overseas trade, especially that of tea export. In 1875, the northern part of Taiwan was separated from Taiwan Prefecture and incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture as a new administrative entity of the Qing dynasty.[13] Having been established adjoining the flourishing townships of Bangka, Dalongdong, and Twatutia, the new prefectural capital was known as Chengnei (Chinese: 城內; pinyin: chéngnèi; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: siâⁿ-lāi), "the inner city", and government buildings were erected there. From 1875 (still Qing era) until the beginning of Japanese rule in 1895, Taipei was part of Tamsui County of Taipeh Prefecture and the prefectural capital.

 

In 1885, work commenced to create an independent Taiwan Province, and Taipei City was temporarily made the provincial capital. Taipei officially became the capital of Taiwan in 1894.[citation needed] All that remains from the Qing era is the north gate. The west gate and city walls were demolished by the Japanese while the south gate, little south gate, and east gate were extensively modified by the Kuomintang (KMT) and have lost much of their original character.[19]

Empire of Japan

The Taihoku Prefecture government building in the 1910s (now the Control Yuan)

 

As settlement for losing the First Sino-Japanese War, China ceded the island of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan in 1895 as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. After the Japanese take-over, Taipei, called Taihoku in Japanese, was retained as the capital and emerged as the political center of the Japanese Colonial Government.[13] During that time the city acquired the characteristics of an administrative center, including many new public buildings and housing for civil servants. Much of the architecture of Taipei dates from the period of Japanese rule, including the Presidential Building which was the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan.

 

During Japanese rule, Taihoku was incorporated in 1920 as part of Taihoku Prefecture. It included Bangka, Twatutia, and Jōnai (城內) among other small settlements. The eastern village of Matsuyama (松山庄, modern-day Songshan District, Taipei) was annexed into Taihoku City in 1938. Upon the Japanese defeat in the Pacific War and its consequent surrender in August 1945, the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) assumed control of Taiwan. Subsequently, a temporary Office of the Taiwan Province Administrative Governor was established in Taipei City.[20]

Republic of China

With President Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to a crowd during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

 

In 1947 the KMT government under Chiang Kai-shek declared island-wide martial law in Taiwan as a result of the February 28 Incident, which began with incidents in Taipei but led to an island-wide crackdown on the local population by forces loyal to Chiang. Two years later, on December 7, 1949, Chiang and the Kuomintang were forced to flee mainland China by the Communists near the end of the Chinese Civil War. The refugees declared Taipei to be the provisional capital of a continuing Republic of China, with the official capital at Nanjing (Nanking) even though that city was under Communist control.[14][15]

 

Taipei expanded greatly in the decades after 1949, and as approved on December 30, 1966 by the Executive Yuan, Taipei was declared a special centrally administered municipality on July 1, 1967 and given the administrative status of a province.[18] In the following year, Taipei City expanded again by annexing Shilin, Beitou, Neihu, Nangang, Jingmei, and Muzha. At that time, the city's total area increased fourfold through absorbing several outlying towns and villages and the population increased to 1.56 million people.[18]

 

The city's population, which had reached one million in the early 1960s, also expanded rapidly after 1967, exceeding two million by the mid-1970s. Although growth within the city itself gradually slowed thereafter[20] — its population had become relatively stable by the mid-1990s — Taipei remained one of the world's most densely populated urban areas, and the population continued to increase in the region surrounding the city, notably along the corridor between Taipei and Keelung.

 

In 1990 Taipei's 16 districts were consolidated into the current 12 districts.[21] Mass democracy rallies that year in the plaza around Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall led to an island-wide transition to multi-party democracy, where legislators are chosen via regularly scheduled popular elections, during the presidency of Lee Teng-Hui.

Geography

The city of Taipei, as seen from Maokong.

 

Taipei City is located in the Taipei Basin in northern Taiwan.[22] It is bordered by the Xindian River on the south and the Tamsui River on the west. The generally low-lying terrain of the central areas on the western side of the municipality slopes upward to the south and east and especially to the north,[5] where it reaches 1,120 metres (3,675 ft) at Qixing Mountain, the highest (inactive) volcano in Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park. The northern districts of Shilin and Beitou extend north of the Keelung River and are bordered by Yangmingshan National Park. The Taipei city limits cover an area of 271.7997 km2,[23] ranking sixteenth of twenty-five among all counties and cities in Taiwan.

 

Two peaks, Qixing Mountain and Mt. Datun, rise to the northeast of the city.[24] Qixing Mountain is located on the Tatun Volcano Group and the tallest mountain at the rim of the Taipei Basin, with its main peak at 1,120 metres (3,670 ft). Mt. Datun's main peak is 1,092 metres (3,583 ft). These former volcanoes make up the western section of Yangmingshan National Park, extending from Mt. Datun northward to Mt. Caigongkeng (菜公坑山). Located on a broad saddle between two mountains, the area also contains the marshy Datun Pond.

 

To the southeast of the city lie the Songshan Hills and the Qingshui Ravine, which form a barrier of lush woods.[24]

Climate

 

Taipei has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate[25][26][27] (Köppen: Cfa).[28] Summers are long-lasting, hot and humid, and accompanied by occasional heavy rainstorms and typhoons, while winters are short, generally warm and generally very foggy due to the northeasterly winds from the vast Siberian High being intensified by the pooling of this cooler air in the Taipei Basin. As in the rest of Northern Taiwan, daytime temperatures of Taipei can often peak above 26 degrees Celsius during a warm winter day, while they can dip below 26 degrees Celsius during a rainy summer's afternoon. Occasional cold fronts during the winter months can drop the daily temperature by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius, though temperatures rarely drop below 10 degrees Celsius.[29] Extreme temperatures ranged from −0.2 °C (31.6 °F) on February 13, 1901 to 39.3 °C (102.7 °F) on August 8, 2013, while snow has never been recorded in the city besides on mountains located within the city limit such as Mount Yangmingshan. Due to Taiwan's location in the Pacific Ocean, it is affected by the Pacific typhoon season, which occurs between June and October.

 

Air quality

 

When compared to other Asian cities, Taipei has "excellent" capabilities for managing air quality in the city.[31] Its rainy climate, location near the coast, and strong environmental regulations have prevented air pollution from becoming a substantial health issue, at least compared to cities in southeast Asia and industrial China. However, smog is extremely common and there is poor visibility throughout the city after rain-less days.

 

Motor vehicle engine exhaust, particularly from motor scooters, is a source of air pollution in Taipei. There are higher levels of fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mornings because of less air movement; sunlight reduces some pollution.[32] Occasionally, dust storms from Mainland China can temporarily bring extremely poor air quality to the city.[33]

Cityscape

Taipei viewed from Tiger Mountain, with Taipei 101 on the left.

Demographics

 

Taipei City is home to 2,704,810 people (2015), while the metropolitan area has a population of 7,047,559 people.[6] The population of the city has been decreasing in recent years while the population of the adjacent New Taipei has been increasing. The population loss, while rapid in its early years, has been stabilized by new lower density development and campaigns designed to increase birthrate in the city. The population has begun to rise since 2010.[6][34][35]

 

Due to Taipei's geography and location in the Taipei Basin as well as differing times of economic development of its districts, Taipei's population is not evenly distributed. The districts of Daan, Songshan, and Datong are the most densely populated. These districts, along with adjacent communities such as Yonghe and Zhonghe contain some of the most densely populated neighborhoods in the world.[34]

 

In 2008, the crude birth rate stood at 7.88% while the mortality rate stood at 5.94%. A decreasing and rapidly aging population is an important issue for the city.[34] By the end of 2009, one in ten people in Taipei was over 65 years of age.[36] Residents who had obtained a college education or higher accounted for 43.48% of the population, and the literacy rate stood at 99.18%.[34]

 

Like the rest of Taiwan, Taipei is composed of four major ethnic groups: Hoklos, Mainlanders, Hakkas, and aborigines.[34] Although Hoklos and Mainlanders form the majority of the population of the city, in recent decades many Hakkas have moved into the city. The aboriginal population in the city stands at 12,862 (<0.5%), concentrated mostly in the suburban districts. Foreigners (mainly from Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines) numbered 52,426 at the end of 2008.[34]

 

Economy

 

As the center of Taiwan's largest conurbation, Taipei has been at the center of rapid economic development in the country and has now become one of the global cities in the production of high technology and its components.[37] This is part of the so-called Taiwan Miracle which has seen dramatic growth in the city following foreign direct investment in the 1960s. Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding one of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves of over US$403 billion as of December 2012.[38]

 

Despite the Asian financial crisis, the economy continues to expand at about 5% per year, with virtually full employment and low inflation. As of 2013, the nominal GDP per capita in Taipei city is lower than that in Hong Kong by a narrow margin according to The Economist(Nominal GDP per capita in HK is US$38181 in 2013 from IMF).[39] Furthermore, according to Financial times, GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity(PPP) in Taipei in 2015 is 44173 USD, behind that in Singapore(US$48900 from IMF) and Hong Kong(US$56689 from IMF).[40]

 

Taipei and its environs have long been the foremost industrial area of Taiwan, consisting of industries of the secondary and tertiary sectors.[41] Most of the country's important factories producing textiles and apparel are located there; other industries include the manufacture of electronic products and components, electrical machinery and equipment, printed materials, precision equipment, and foods and beverages. Such companies include Shihlin Electric, CipherLab and Insyde Software. Shipbuilding, including yachts and other pleasure craft, is done in the port of Keelung northeast of the city.

 

Services, including those related to commerce, transportation, and banking, have become increasingly important. Tourism is a small but significant component of the local economy[42][43] with international visitors totaling almost 3 million in 2008.[44] Taipei has many top tourist attractions and contributes a significant amount to the US$6.8 billion tourism industry in Taiwan.[45] National brands such as ASUS,[46] Chunghwa Telecom,[47] Mandarin Airlines,[48] Tatung,[49] and Uni Air,[50][51] D-Link [52] are headquartered in Taipei City.

Culture

Tourism

See also: List of tourist attractions in Taipei

 

Tourism is a major part of Taipei's economy. In 2013, over 6.3 million overseas visitors visited Taipei, making the city the 15th most visited globally.[53] The influx of visitors contributed $10.8 billion USD to the city's economy in 2013, the 9th highest in the world and the most of any city in the Chinese-speaking world.[54]

Commemorative sites and museums

The National Palace Museum

 

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark and tourist attraction that was erected in memory of General Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China.[55] The structure stands at the east end of Memorial Hall Square, site of the National Concert Hall and National Theater and their adjacent parks as well as the memorial. The landmarks of Liberty Square stand within sight of Taiwan's Presidential Building in Taipei's Zhongzheng District.

The National Taiwan Museum

 

The National Taiwan Museum sits nearby in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park and has worn its present name since 1999. The museum is Taiwan's oldest, founded on October 24, 1908 by Taiwan's Japanese colonial government (1895-1945) as the Taiwan Governor's Museum. It was launched with a collection of 10,000 items to celebrate the opening of the island's North-South Railway.[56] In 1915 a new museum building opened its doors in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park. This structure and the adjacent governor's office (now Presidential Office Building), served as the two most recognizable public buildings in Taiwan during its period of Japanese rule.[56]

Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines

 

The National Palace Museum is a vast art gallery and museum built around a permanent collection centered on ancient Chinese artifacts. It should not be confused with the Palace Museum in Beijing (which it is named after); both institutions trace their origins to the same institution. The collections were divided in the 1940s as a result of the Chinese Civil War.[57][58] The National Palace Museum in Taipei now boasts a truly international collection while housing one of the world's largest collections of artifacts from ancient China.[58]

 

The Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines stands just 200 metres across the road from the National Palace Museum. The museum offers displays of art and historical items by Taiwanese aborigines along with a range of multimedia displays.

 

The Taipei Fine Arts Museum was established in 1983 as the first museum in Taiwan dedicated to modern art. The museum is housed in a building designed for the purpose that takes inspiration from Japanese designs. Most art in the collection is by Taiwanese artists since 1940. Over 3,000 art works are organized into 13 groups.

 

The National Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101 in Xinyi District is named in honor of a founding father of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen. The hall, completed on May 16, 1972, originally featured exhibits that depicted revolutionary events in China at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Today it functions as multi-purpose social, educational, concert and cultural center for Taiwan's citizens.[59]

Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei, aka "old city hall"

 

In 2001 a new museum opened as Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei. The museum is housed in a building that formerly housed Taipei City government offices.[60]

Night view of a fully lit Taipei 101

Taipei 101

 

Taipei 101 is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper that claimed the title of world's tallest building when it opened in 2004, a title it held for six years before relinquishing it to the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners and constructed by KTRT Joint Venture, Taipei 101 measures 509 m (1,670 ft) from ground to top, making it the first skyscraper in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height. Built to withstand typhoon winds and earthquake tremors, its design incorporates many engineering innovations and has won numerous international awards. Taipei 101 remains one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world and holds LEED's certification as the world's largest "green" building. Its shopping mall and its indoor and outdoor observatories draw visitors from all over the world. Taipei 101's New Year's Eve fireworks display is a regular feature of international broadcasts.

Performing arts

Taiwan's National Concert Hall at night

 

The National Theater and Concert Hall stand at Taipei's Liberty Square and host events by foreign and domestic performers. Other leading concert venues include Zhongshan Hall at Ximending and the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101.

 

A new venue, the Taipei Performing Arts Center, is under construction and slated to open in 2015.[61][62] The venue will stand near the Shilin Night Market[63] and will house three theaters for events with multi-week runs. The architectural design, by Rem Koolhaas and OMA, was determined in 2009 in an international competition.[64] The same design process is also in place for a new Taipei Center for Popular Music and Taipei City Museum.[65]

Shopping and recreation

Main article: Shopping in Taipei

 

Taipei is known for its many night markets, the most famous of which is the Shilin Night Market in the Shilin District. The surrounding streets by Shilin Night Market are extremely crowded during the evening, usually opening late afternoon and operating well past midnight. Most night markets feature individual stalls selling a mixture of food, clothing, and consumer goods.

The busy streets of Ximending at night

 

Ximending has been a famous area for shopping and entertainment since the 1930s. Historic structures include a concert hall, a historic cinema, and the Red House Theater. Modern structures house karaoke businesses, art film cinemas, wide-release movie cinemas, electronic stores, and a wide variety of restaurants and fashion clothing stores.[66] The pedestrian area is especially popular with teens and has been called the "Harajuku" of Taipei.[67]

Eastern district at night

 

The newly developed Xinyi District is popular with tourists and locals alike for its many entertainment and shopping venues, as well as being the home of Taipei 101, a prime tourist attraction. Malls in the area include the sprawling Shin Kong Mitsukoshi complex, Breeze Center, Bellavita, Taipei 101 mall, Eslite Bookstore's flagship store (which includes a boutique mall), The Living Mall, ATT shopping mall, and the Vieshow Cinemas (formerly known as Warner Village). The Xinyi district also serves as the center of Taipei's active nightlife, with several popular lounge bars and nightclubs concentrated in a relatively small area around the Neo19, ATT 4 FUN and Taipei 101 buildings. Lounge bars such as Barcode and nightclubs such as Spark and Myst are among the most-visited places here.

Eslite Bookstore in Xinyi District

 

The thriving shopping area around Taipei Main Station includes the Taipei Underground Market and the original Shin Kong Mitsukoshi department store at Shin Kong Life Tower. Other popular shopping destinations include the Zhongshan Metro Mall, Dihua Street, the Guang Hua Digital Plaza, and the Core Pacific City. The Miramar Entertainment Park is known for its large Ferris wheel and IMAX theater.

 

Taipei maintains an extensive system of parks, green spaces, and nature preserves. Parks and forestry areas of note in and around the city include Yangmingshan National Park, Taipei Zoo and Da-an Forest Park. Yangmingshan National Park (located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the central city) is famous for its cherry blossoms, hot springs, and sulfur deposits. It is the home of famous writer Lin Yutang, the summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek, residences of foreign diplomats, the Chinese Culture University, the meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China, and the Kuomintang Party Archives. The Taipei Zoo was founded in 1914 and covers an area of 165 hectares for animal sanctuary.

 

Bitan is known for boating and water sports. Tamsui is a popular sea-side resort town. Ocean beaches are accessible in several directions from Taipei.

Temples

Built in 1738, Longshan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the city.

Street corner shrine, Taipei 2013

 

Taipei is rich in beautiful, ornate temples housing Buddhist, Taoist, and Chinese folk religion deities. The Longshan Temple, built in 1738 and located in the Wanhua District, demonstrates an example of architecture with southern Chinese influences commonly seen on older buildings in Taiwan.

 

Xinsheng South Road is known as the "Road to Heaven" due to its high concentration of temples, shrines, churches, and mosques.[68][69] Other famous temples include Baoan Temple located in historic Dalongdong, a national historical site, and Xiahai City God Temple, located in the old Dadaocheng community, constructed with architecture similar to temples in southern Fujian.[70] The Taipei Confucius Temple traces its history back to 1879 during the Qing Dynasty and also incorporates southern Fujian-style architecture.[71]

 

Besides large temples, small outdoor shrines to local deities are very common and can be spotted on road sides, parks, and neighborhoods. Many homes and businesses may also set up small shrines of candles, figurines, and offerings. Some restaurants, for example, may set up a small shrine to the Kitchen god for success in a restaurant business.[72]

New Year's Eve fireworks at Taipei 101

Festivals and events

 

Many yearly festivals are held in Taipei. In recent years some festivals, such as the Double Ten Day fireworks and concerts, are increasingly hosted on a rotating basis by a number of cities around Taiwan.

 

When New Year's Eve arrives on the solar calendar, thousands of people converge on Taipei's Xinyi District for parades, outdoor concerts by popular artists, street shows, round-the clock nightlife. The high point is of course the countdown to midnight, when Taipei 101 assumes the role of the world's largest fireworks platform.

 

The Taipei Lantern Festival concludes the Lunar New Year holiday. The timing of the city's lantern exhibit coincides with the national festival in Pingxi, when thousands of fire lanterns are released into the sky.[73] The city's lantern exhibit rotates among different downtown locales from year to year, including Liberty Square, Taipei 101, and Zhongshan Hall in Ximending.

 

On Double Ten Day, patriotic celebrations are held in front of the Presidential Building. Other annual festivals include Ancestors Day (Tomb-Sweeping Day), the Dragon Boat Festival, the Ghost Festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival).[73]

 

Taipei regularly hosts its share of international events. The city recently hosted the 2009 Summer Deaflympics.[74] This event was followed by the Taipei International Flora Exposition, a garden festival hosted from November 2010 to April 2011. The Floral Expo was the first of its kind to take place in Taiwan and only the seventh hosted in Asia; the expo admitted 110,000 visitors on February 27, 2011.

Taipei in films

  

Romanization

  

The spelling "Taipei" derives from the Wade–Giles romanization T'ai-pei.[75] The name could be also romanized as Táiběi according to Hanyu Pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin.[76][77]

Government

 

Taipei City is a special municipality which is directly under the Executive Yuan (Central Government) of ROC. The mayor of Taipei City had been an appointed position since Taipei's conversion to a centrally administered municipality in 1967 until the first public election was held in 1994.[78] The position has a four-year term and is elected by direct popular vote. The first elected mayor was Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party. Ma Ying-jeou took office in 1998 for two terms, before handing it over to Hau Lung-pin who won the 2006 mayoral election on December 9, 2006.[79] Both Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-Jeou went on to become President of the Republic of China. The incumbent mayor, Ko Wen-je, was elected on November 29, 2014 and took office on December 25, 2014.[80]

 

Based on the outcomes of previous elections in the past decade, the vote of the overall constituency of Taipei City shows a slight inclination towards the pro-KMT camp (the Pan-Blue Coalition);[81] however, the pro-DPP camp (the Pan-Green Coalition) also has considerable support.[82]

 

Ketagalan Boulevard, where the Presidential Office Building and other government structures are situated, is often the site of mass gatherings such as inauguration and national holiday parades, receptions for visiting dignitaries, political demonstrations,[83][84] and public festivals.[85]

Garbage recycling

 

Taipei City is also famous for its effort in garbage recycling, which has become such a good international precedent that other countries have sent teams to study the recycling system. After the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) established a program in 1998 combining the efforts of communities, a financial resource named the Recycling Fund was made available to recycling companies and waste collectors. Manufacturers, vendors and importers of recyclable waste pay fees to the Fund, which uses the money to set firm prices for recyclables and subsidize local recycling efforts. Between 1998 and 2008, the recycling rate increased from 6 percent to 32 percent.[86] This improvement enabled the government of Taipei to demonstrate its recycling system to the world at the Shanghai World Expo 2010.

Administrative divisions

 

Taipei City is divided up into 12 administrative districts (區 qu).[87] Each district is further divided up into urban villages (里), which are further sub-divided up into neighborhoods (鄰).

Map District Population

(Jan. 2016) Area

(km2) Postal

code

 

Beitou 北投區 Běitóu Pei-t'ou Pak-tâu 257,922 56.8216 112

Da'an 大安區 Dà'ān Ta-an Tāi-an 312,909 11.3614 106

Datong 大同區 Dàtóng Ta-t'ung Tāi-tông 131,029 5.6815 103

Nangang 南港區 Nángǎng Nan-kang Lâm-káng 122,296 21.8424 115

Neihu 內湖區 Nèihú Nei-hu Lāi-ô͘ 287,726 31.5787 114

Shilin 士林區 Shìlín Shih-lin Sū-lîm 290,682 62.3682 111

Songshan 松山區 Sōngshān Sung-shan Siông-san 209,689 9.2878 105

Wanhua 萬華區 Wànhuá Wan-hua Báng-kah 194,314 8.8522 108

Wenshan 文山區 Wénshān Wen-shan Bûn-san 275,433 31.5090 116

Xinyi 信義區 Xìnyì Hsin-yi Sìn-gī 229,139 11.2077 110

Zhongshan 中山區 Zhōngshān Chung-shan Tiong-san 231,286 13.6821 104

Zhongzheng 中正區 Zhōngzhèng Chung-cheng Tiong-chèng 162,549 7.6071 100

 

City planning

 

The city is characterized by straight roads and public buildings of grand Western architectural styles.[88] The city is built on a square grid configuration, however these blocks are huge by international standards with 500 m (1,640.42 ft) sides. The area in between these blocks are infilled with lanes and alleys, which provide access to quieter residential or mixed-use development. Other than a citywide 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) speed limit, there is little uniform planning within this "hidden" area; therefore lanes (perpendicular to streets) and alleys (parallel with street, or conceptually, perpendicular to the lane) spill out from the main throughways. These minor roads are not always perpendicular and sometimes cut through the block diagonally.

 

Although development began in the western districts (still considered the cultural heart of the city) of the city due to trade, the eastern districts of the city have become the focus of recent development projects. Many of the western districts, already in decline, have become targets of new urban renewal initiatives.[88]

Transportation

Platform of Wende Station on the Taipei Metro system.

 

Public transport accounts for a substantial portion of different modes of transport in Taiwan, with Taipei residents having the highest utilization rate at 34.1%.[89] Private transport consists of motor scooters, private cars, and bicycles. Motor-scooters often weave between cars and occasionally through oncoming traffic. Respect for traffic laws, once scant, has improved with deployment of traffic cameras and increasing numbers of police roadblocks checking riders for alcohol consumption and other offenses.

 

Taipei Station serves as the comprehensive hub for the subway, bus, conventional rail, and high-speed rail.[41] A contactless smartcard, known as EasyCard, can be used for all modes of public transit as well as several retail outlets. It contains credits that are deducted each time a ride is taken.[90] The EasyCard is read via proximity sensory panels on buses and in MRT stations, and it does not need to be removed from one's wallet or purse.

Metro

Main article: Taipei Metro

 

Taipei's public transport system, the Taipei Metro (commonly referred to as the MRT), incorporates a metro and light rail system based on advanced VAL and Bombardier technology. There are currently five metro lines that are labelled in three ways: color, line number and depot station name. In addition to the rapid transit system itself, the Taipei Metro also includes several public facilities such as the Maokong Gondola, underground shopping malls, parks, and public squares. Modifications to existing railway lines to integrate them into the metro system are underway.

 

In 2017 a rapid transit line was opened to connect Taipei with Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taoyuan City. The new line is part of the new Taoyuan Metro system.

Taipei Railway Station front

Rail

Main articles: Taiwan High Speed Rail and Taiwan Railway Administration

 

Beginning in 1983, surface rail lines in the city were moved underground as part of the Taipei Railway Underground Project.[91] The Taiwan High Speed Rail system opened in 2007. The bullet trains connect Taipei with the west coast cities of New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi, and Tainan before terminating at Zuoying (Kaohsiung) at speeds that cut travel times by 60% or more from what they normally are on a bus or conventional train.[92] The Taiwan Railway Administration also runs passenger and freight services throughout the entire island.

Bus

 

An extensive city bus system serves metropolitan areas not covered by the metro, with exclusive bus lanes to facilitate transportation.[41] Riders of the city metro system are able to use the EasyCard for discounted fares on buses, and vice versa. Several major intercity bus terminals are located throughout the city, including the Taipei Bus Station and Taipei City Hall Bus Station.[93]

Taipei Songshan Airport

Airports

Main articles: Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taipei Songshan Airport

 

Most scheduled international flights are served by Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in nearby Taoyuan City. Songshan Airport at the heart of the city in the Songshan District serves domestic flights and scheduled flights to Tokyo International Airport (also known as Haneda Airport), Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, and about 15 destinations in the People's Republic of China. Songshan Airport is accessible by the Taipei Metro Neihu Line; Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport is accessible by the Taoyuan International Airport MRT system.

Ticketing

 

In 1994, with the rapid development of Taipei, a white paper for transport policies expressed the strong objective to "create a civilised transport system for the people of Taipei." In 1999, they chose Mitac consortium, which Thales-Transportation Systems is part of. Thales was then selected again in 2005 to deploy an upgrade of Taipei's public transport network with an end-to-end and fully contactless automatic fare collection solution that integrates 116 metro stations, 5,000 buses and 92 car parks.[citation needed]

Education

West Site of National Taiwan University Hospital

 

24 universities have campuses located in Taipei:

 

National Taiwan University (1928)

National Chengchi University (1927)

National Defense Medical Center (1902)

National Defense University (1906)

National Taipei University (1949)

National Taipei University of Business (1917)

National Taipei University of Education (1895)

National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science (1947)

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (1974)

National Taipei University of Technology (1912)

National Taiwan College of Performing Arts (1957)

National Taiwan Normal University (1946)

National Yang-Ming University (1975)

Taipei National University of the Arts (1982)

University of Taipei (2013)

  

Tamkang University (1950)

Soochow University (1900)

Chinese Culture University (1962)

Ming Chuan University (1957)

Shih Hsin University (1956)

Shih Chien University (1958)

Taipei Medical University (1960)

Tatung University (1956)

China University of Technology (1965)

 

National Taiwan University (NTU) was established in 1928 during the period of Japanese colonial rule. NTU has produced many political and social leaders in Taiwan. Both pan-blue and pan-green movements in Taiwan are rooted on the NTU campus. The university has six campuses in the greater Taipei region (including New Taipei) and two additional campuses in Nantou County. The university governs farms, forests, and hospitals for educational and research purposes. The main campus is in Taipei's Da-An district, where most department buildings and all the administrative buildings are located. The College of Law and the College of Medicine are located near the Presidential Building. The National Taiwan University Hospital is a leading international center of medical research.[94]

 

National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU or Shida) likewise traces its origins to the Japanese colonial period. Originally a teacher training institution, NTNU has developed into a comprehensive international university with demanding entrance requirements. The university boasts especially strong programs in the humanities and international education. Worldwide it is perhaps best known as home of the Mandarin Training Center, a program that offers Mandarin language training each year to over a thousand students from dozens of countries throughout the world. The main campus in Taipei's Da-An district, near MRT Guting Station, is known for its historic architecture and giving its name to the Shida Night Market, one of the most popular among the numerous night markets in Taipei.

Chinese language program for foreigners

 

Taiwan Mandarin Institute (TMI) (福爾摩莎)

International Chinese Language Program (ICLP) (國際華語研習所) of National Taiwan University

Mandarin Training Center (MTC) (國語教學中心) of National Taiwan Normal University

Taipei Language Institute (中華語文研習所)

 

張大千1979年作愛清氣鈎金紅荷花鴛鴦嘉耦潑彩圖

Golden Outlined Red Lotus and Double Mandarin Ducks by Zhang Daqian dated 1979

 

H 118 x W 66.5 cm

Vertical ink and color on paper, mounted and scrolled, signed 81 YEARS OLD MAN YUAN, inscribed TO LOVE FRESH AIR, IN AUTUMN 1979 AT MOYEJINGSHE, with three seals of the artist.

 

題識簽名︰ 愛清氣、六十八年已秋摩耶精舍、八十一叟爰。

三式鈐印︰ 張爰私印、大千、摩耶精舍。

大小尺寸︰ 高 H 118 x 寬 W 66.5 cm 約 7.20 平尺 8.71 才

媒體形制︰ 直幅設色紙本中堂懸掛立軸

  

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家 Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家

Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

 

共 155 名中國畫家占前 500 名畫家之 31 %

Total 155 Chinese artists / 500 artists = 31 %

 

假如你是西方油畫的收藏家,扣除 31 % 的中國畫家,再扣除 20 % 左右的中國瓷器、青銅器、珠寶玉器、漆器雜項類中國作家,2014年你只是在世界作者市場 49 % 以內經營藝術品而已;可能再過10年,你將成為只是在世界作者市場 30 % 以內經營。

 

If you are a collector of western oil paintings, deducting 31 % for Chinese artists of paintings and further deducting 20% for Chinese artists of ceramics、bronze、jades and jewelry、lacquer and miscellaneous works of art, in 2014 you are only operating works of art within 49% of the world artists market. Maybe after 10 years, you might become operating works of art within 30% of the world artists market.

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover ($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price ($)

 

Page 84 (14 Chinese artists) 第84頁14位中國畫家

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price($)

 

7 QI Baishi (1864-1957) 齊白石 206,245,348 719 7,861,850

9 ZHANG Daqian (1899-1983) 張大千 193,242,992 817 7,476,199

13 ZAO Wou-ki (1921-2013) 趙無極 115,686,349 575 7,161,650

16 FU Baoshi (1904-1965) 傅抱石 103,465,331 142 4,944,050

17 XU Beihong (1895-1953) 徐悲鴻 102,449,141 219 6,532,000

19 HUANG Zhou (1925-1997) 黃冑 96,461,998 625 5,506,020

20 HUANG Binhong (1865-1955) 黃賓虹 88,082,380 303 8,839,900

26 WU Changshuo (1844-1927) 吳昌碩 80,942,833 560 5,463,850

31 LU Yanshao (1909-1993) 陸儼少 66,350,196 443 1,925,760

32 LI Keran (1907-1989) 李可染 65,946,710 207 7,294,500

37 CHU Teh-Chun (1920-2014) 朱德群 60,897,598 241 3,800,000

38 WU Guanzhong (1919-2010) 吳冠中 60,623,435 153 2,967,000

42 LIN Fengmian (1900-1991) 林風眠 54,514,729 253 2,449,500

50 ZENG Fanzhi (1964)曾梵志 43,080,328 50 3,606,400

 

Page 85 (17 Chinese artists) 第85頁17位中國畫家

 

53 PU Ru (1896-1963) 溥儒(溥心畬) 41,246,692 1,042 838,500

55 XIE Zhiliu (1910-1997) 謝稚柳 39,960,699 355 2,367,850

58 WU Hufan (1894-1968) 吳湖帆 37,900,898 320 3,412,500

59 WANG Duo (1592-1652) 王鐸 37,871,423 70 3,013,650

62 PAN Tianshou (1897-1971) 潘天壽 34,790,957 88 3,600,840

67 ZHU Da (1626-1705) 朱耷(八大山人) 32,277,125 38 6,190,200

71 SAN Yu (1901-1966) 常玉 30,027,262 41 9,151,899

75 ZHU Xinjian (1953-2014) 朱新建 28,619,279 1,202 898,150

78 QIANLONG Emperor (1711-1799) 乾隆皇帝 27,079,477 48 16,483,200

81 CHENG Shifa (1921-2007) 程十髮 25,987,069 486 1,959,600

83 QI Gong (1912-2005) 啟功 25,693,155 437 815,500

85 QIAN Songyan (1899-1985) 錢松喦 25,582,974 254 1,053,650

89 FAN Zeng (1938) 范曾 23,416,615 237 2,941,200

93 YU Youren (1879-1964) 于右任 23,032,037 718 521,279

95 ZHOU Chunya (1955) 周春芽 21,226,785 65 1,134,700

96 WANG Hui (1632-1717) 王翬 21,050,636 58 4,569,600

98 ZHANG Xiaogang (1958) 張曉剛 20,783,341 44 10,698,699

 

Page 86 (18 Chinese artists) 第86頁18位中國畫家

 

103 LIU Wei (1965) 刘炜 19,134,174 43 2,935,800

105 WANG Xuetao (1903-1982) 王雪濤 18,896,219 348 827,220

109 HUANG Yongyu (1924) 黄永玉 18,286,630 241 902,430

110 DONG Shouping (1904-1997) 董寿平 18,251,261 309 842,920

112 HE Haixia (1908-1998) 何海霞 17,310,468 144 3,266,000

114 CHEN Yifei (1946-2005) 陳逸飛 16,910,797 29 2,964,699

119 GUAN Liang (1900-1986) 關良 16,014,062 239 2,197,800

120 REN Yi (1840-1896) 任頤(任伯年) 15,959,015 167 1,199,520

128 DONG Qichang (1555-1636) 董其昌 14,722,727 123 2,769,300

130 WEN Zhengming (1470-1559) 文徵明 14,576,419 79 1,633,000

131 YU Fei'an (1888-1959) 于非闇 14,505,161 109 972,600

135 ZHENG Banqiao (1693-1765) 鄭板橋 14,208,977 76 2,200,000

136 LIU Dawei (1945) 刘大为 14,023,225 121 1,621,000

138 LI Kuchan (1899-1983) 李苦禪 13,918,988 276 786,240

139 LIN Sanzhi (1898-1989) 林散之 13,856,855 350 907,760

141 LUO Zhongli (1948) 羅中立 13,483,611 53 6,159,800

148 HONG Yi (1880-1942) 弘一(李叔同) 12,755,950 85 1,306,400

149 LIU Xiaodong (1963) 劉小東 12,589,594 15 7,470,400

 

Page 87 (19 Chinese artists) 第87頁19位中國畫家

 

152 LAI Shaoqi (1915-2000) 赖少其 12,209,093 144 5,538,600

153 CHEN Peiqiu (1922/23) 陈佩秋 12,101,206 194 1,040,000

157 YI Bingshou (1754-1815) 伊秉绶 11,964,497 55 3,242,000

161 LIU Haisu (1896-1994) 劉海粟 11,536,281 138 1,877,950

166 YANG Yan (1958) 楊彥 11,191,811 57 10,784,400

167 TANG Yun (1910-1993) 唐雲 11,031,461 493 293,940

172 FANG Lijun (1963) 方力均 10,814,787 30 6,697,600

178 TANG Yin (1470-1523) 唐寅(唐伯虎) 10,514,886 33 4,956,250

180 GUAN Shanyue (1912-2000) 關山月 10,378,961 119 2,850,750

182 LIU Guosong (1932) 劉國松 10,204,764 83 1,804,599

184 CHEN Shaomei (1909-1954) 陳少梅 10,172,762 89 3,000,700

185 SHI Guoliang (1956) 史國良(釋慧禪) 10,111,795 116 1,588,580

186 HUANG Junbi (1898-1991) 黃君璧 10,051,378 313 319,410

188 FU Shan (1607-1684) 傅山 9,945,247 23 3,890,400

189 HE Jiaying (1957) 何家英 9,919,579 54 859,130

190 ZHOU Sicong (1939-1996) 周思聪 9,888,000 174 1,377,850

191 ZHU Ming (1938) 朱銘 9,699,670 94 1,224,549

196 JIN Nong (1687-1763) 金農 9,367,369 48 1,732,040

200 LIU Danzhai (1931-2011) 刘旦宅 9,177,422 134 1,339,060

 

Page 88 (15 Chinese artists) 第88頁15位中國畫家

 

201 LI Xiongcai (1910-2001) 黎雄才 9,162,598 191 788,160

208 YA Ming (1924-2002) 亚明 8,916,735 251 1,172,160

215 BAI Xueshi (1915-2011) 白雪石 8,571,042 164 456,119

217 LEE Man Fong (1913-1988) 李曼峰 8,494,019 61 3,735,200

218 HONG Ren (1610-1663) 弘仁 8,467,043 5 7,542,300

221 FENG Zikai (1898-1975) 豐子愷 8,411,283 175 437,670

223 SONG Wenzhi (1919-1999) 宋文治 8,326,290 244 469,151

224 XU Lei (1963) 徐累 8,312,432 26 2,606,400

225 WANG Yidong (1955) 王沂東 8,284,639 30 1,458,900

227 WANG Mingming (1952) 王明明 8,207,562 130 453,600

234 JIA Youfu (1942) 賈又福 7,873,366 79 1,864,150

236 WU Zuoren (1908-1997) 吳作人 7,832,988 148 636,090

237 FAN Yang (1955) 范揚 7,806,488 233 243,750

242 WANG Yuanqi (1642-1715) 王原祁 7,678,320 39 1,465,200

250 AI Xuan (1947) 艾轩 7,467,339 43 749,800

 

Page 89 (12 Chinese artists) 第89頁12位中國畫家

 

258 PAN Yuliang (1895-1977) 潘玉良 7,179,153 11 3,870,351

262 ZHAO Zhiqian (1829-1884) 趙之謙 7,060,825 66 1,160,099

265 TIAN Liming (1955) 田黎明 6,999,979 95 315,900

266 EMPEROR KANGXI (1654-1722) 康熙皇帝 6,937,669 14 3,258,000

268 SHI Lu (1919-1982) 石魯 6,852,847 49 1,021,230

271 TIAN Shiguang (1916-1999) 田世光 6,803,606 123 781,920

276 CHOU Ying (1493-1560) 仇英 6,632,784 50 1,823,360

279 DING Yanyong (1902-1978) 丁衍庸 6,584,807 181 592,939

291 GUO Moruo (1892-1978) 郭沫若 6,218,480 61 1,102,280

294 XU Bing (1955) 徐冰 6,130,422 30 1,167,120

297 SHEN Zhou (1427-1509) 沈周 6,066,002 28 1,798,500

299 SHEN Yinmo (1883-1971) 沈尹默 6,003,213 185 1,218,750

 

Page 90 (14 Chinese artists) 第90頁14位中國畫家

 

303 YUE Minjun (1962) 岳敏君 5,851,974 22 1,296,800

306 ZHAO Shao'Ang (1905-1998) 趙少昂 5,809,681 247 259,520

309 XUE Liang (1956) 薛亮 5,717,377 95 1,103,640

316 CHEONG Soo Pieng (1917-1983) 钟泗滨 5,566,836 55 631,609

323 ZHANG Ruitu (1570-1641) 張瑞圖 5,495,433 30 761,870

328 CHEN Hongshou (1598-1652) 陳洪绶 5,458,659 20 1,945,200

329 REN Zhong (1976) 任重 5,452,237 56 423,540

331 ZHU Qizhan (1892-1996) 朱屺瞻 5,417,335 209 260,000

332 ZHAO Puchu (1907-2000) 趙樸初 5,382,881 175 486,300

336 WANG Jian (1598-1677) 王鑒 5,309,438 23 3,811,700

339 YANG Shanshen (1913-2004) 楊善深 5,279,455 184 1,427,360

341 KANG Youwei (1858-1927) 康有為 5,199,080 113 324,200

343 GU Wenda (1955) 谷文達 5,179,178 42 1,119,180

345 LIU Ye (1964) 劉野 5,117,193 34 891,550

 

Page 91 (18 Chinese artists) 第91頁18位中國畫家

 

351 PU Guang (XIII -XIV) 溥光 4,944,050 1 4,944,050

352 HE Shaoji (1799-1873) 何绍基 4,912,933 136 747,500

355 LIU Jiyou (1918-1983) 劉繼卣 4,891,144 108 399,595

358 CHEN Dayu (1912-2001) 陳大羽 4,855,807 247 454,160

365 SHI Tao (1642-1707) 石濤 4,796,775 27 2,269,400

368 ZHU Meicun (1911-1993) 朱梅邨 4,776,671 117 570,150

369 JIA Aili (1979) 贾蔼力 4,758,253 8 1,262,240

370 XI Dejin (1923-1981) 席德進 4,740,558 89 227,080

373 SHEN Peng (1931) 沈鹏 4,670,229 160 701,330

374 AI Weiwei (1957) 艾未未 4,663,696 32 966,749

375 XU Lele (1955) 徐樂樂 4,628,253 155 210,730

383 YE Qianyu (1907-1995) 葉淺予 4,530,685 118 356,620

389 ZHU Yunming (1460-1526) 祝允明 4,462,454 14 1,629,000

393 LI Jin (1958) 李津 4,372,647 94 212,160

394 ZHAN Wang (1962) 展望 4,360,124 13 2,709,000

395 FANG Chuxiong (1950) 方楚雄 4,355,333 148 262,080

397 LU Yushun (1962) 盧禹舜 4,336,840 61 884,520

399 CHEN Wenxi (1906-1991) 陳文希 4,242,709 71 1,095,650

 

Page 92 (13 Chinese artists) 第92頁13位中國畫家

 

402 CHENG Conglin (1954) 程叢林 4,177,932 3 4,052,500

404 TAO Lengyue (1895-1985) 陶冷月 4,141,462 138 457,240

405 HE Duoling (1948) 何多苓 4,131,489 12 1,419,000

409 LONG Rui (1946) 龍瑞 4,047,039 66 956,980

416 LU Yifei (1908-1997) 陸抑非 3,995,369 121 791,293

425 ZHANG Shanzi (1882-1940) 張善孖 3,840,085 90 324,200

428 WANG Guangyi (1957) 王廣義 3,799,843 37 1,167,120

430 WEI Zixi (1915-2002) 魏紫熙 3,791,768 120 235,190

432 YUN Shouping (1633-1690) 惲壽平 3,784,559 78 541,800

437 PAN Gongkai (1947) 潘公凯 3,737,332 16 2,141,040

443 SHA Menghai (1900-1992) 沙孟海 3,702,566 132 293,940

446 HUANG Shen (1687-c.1773) 黃慎 3,685,764 49 425,100

450 LIN Yong (1942) 林墉 3,650,618 117 259,360

 

Page 93 (15 Chinese artists) 第93頁15位中國畫家

 

456 LIAO Chi-Chun (1902-1976) 廖繼春 3,625,280 9 1,252,033

461 LI Shan (1686-1760) 李鱓 3,569,789 38 652,800

462 LAN Ying (1585-c.1664) 蓝瑛 3,562,896 42 438,210

464 YANG Zhiguang (1930) 楊之光 3,525,002 119 195,840

468 ZHANG Enli (1965) 张恩利 3,497,596 12 708,949

471 YANG Feiyun (1954) 杨飞云 3,467,338 14 734,400

472 ZHOU Jingxin (1959) 周京新 3,445,045 113 519,040

475 JIANG Hanting (1904-1963) 江寒汀 3,408,711 125 300,625

476 WANG Ziwu (1936) 王子武 3,404,947 51 653,200

478 LE PHO (1907-2001) 黎譜 3,396,747 96 696,059

479 LIU Yi (1957) 刘溢 3,370,316 20 615,980

481 NI Yuanlu (1593-1644) 倪元璐 3,350,382 10 1,100,000

492 CHIU Ya Tsai (1949-2013) 邱亞才 3,288,319 53 180,459

498 WEN Jia (1501-1583) 文嘉 3,261,051 17 1,986,160

500 WU Dayu (1903-1988) 吴大羽 3,248,689 9 772,800

 

資料來源: 法國 Art price 2014 年全世界藝術市場報告書第 84-93 頁 2014 年全世界拍賣總收入結果前 500 名畫家.

 

Source: The Art Market in 2014 Page 84-93 Top 500 artists by auction revenue in 2014 by Art price

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

99 Fine Chinese Paintings and 12 Antiques in 2013

2013 年 99 幅中國書畫及 12 件古董精品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

 

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

Works of Art List 藝術作品名錄

  

Paintings 書畫作品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

  

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhang Daqian Happy Birthday to Chairman Chang Kaishek of the Government inscribed by Yu Youren 張大千作于右任題大觀高仕祝壽圖手卷

2. Zhang Daqian After the Rising and Warm Green Mountains by Huang Gongwang with Calligraphy 張大千作擬元代黃公望浮巒暖翠山水圖及書法立軸

3. Zhang Daqian Splashed Landscape Fuchun Mountain 張大千作富春山居潑彩山水圖

4. Zhang Daqian Mountain Emei May Be Crossed On Top 張大千作可以橫絕峨嵋巔潑彩山水圖

5. Zhang Daqian A Bird’s-eye View on Taiwan Cross-Island Road near Herhuan 張大千作台灣橫貫公路合歡山鳥瞰金碧潑彩山水圖

6. Zhang Daqian 18 Luohan Disciples Appointed to Witness to Buddhist Truth handscroll 張大千作十八羅漢圖手卷

7. Zhang Daqian The Dreamland of Mountain Qingcheng in Heavenly Place 張大千作夢入靑城天下幽人間仙境圖

8. Zhang Daqian The Heavenly Place in Mankind World 張大千作人家在仙堂潑彩山水圖

9. Zhang Daqian Sun is Rising and Darkness is Fallen allover the Mountain with Calligraphy 張大千作天開影墮潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

10. Zhang Daqian Painting the Elder Bintourlu after Technique of Song Dynasty 張大千作倣宋人畫賓頭盧尊者像

11. Zhang Daqian Listening to the Springs below the Mountains handscroll 張大千作山水生風聽泉入山麓金碧潑彩山水圖手卷

12. Zhang Daqian Waterfall in a Quiet Mountain Valley with Calligraphy 張大千作幽谷飛瀑潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

13. Zhang Daqian Recalling the Beautiful Scenery of Mountain Huang in China 張大千作遙思黃山故景潑彩山水圖

14. Zhang Daqian Splashed Colour Landscape of Beautiful Mountain Qingcheng 張大千作青城天下幽潑彩山水圖

15. Zhang Daqian Golden Outline Red Lotus and a Flying Bird 張大千作香清鈎金紅荷翔鳥圖

16. Zhang Daqian One Flower in One World White Lotus and attached calligraphy 張大千作一花一世界白荷花圖及書法立軸

17. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan Bamboos Parrot Hairpin in Tang’s Clothes 張大千作仿莫高窟初唐人衣飾鸚鵡簪髮飾新篁紈扇仕女圖

18. Zhang Daqian Beauty in Red Hair-kerchief Wooden Shoes White Robe Bamboos 張大千作脩竹紅髮巾木屐白袍裸肩日本美女圖

19. Zhang Daqian Han Changli Composed a Lyric Poem Derived from Chu Dynasty 張大千作韓昌黎作楚語圖

20. Zhang Daqian Scholars Appreciating Maples 張大千作高仕賞楓圖

21. Zhang Daqian Black Cloud Covering on Top of Mt. Emei among Blue Cloud 張大千作可以橫絕峨眉巔黑雲滿布山頂藍雲環繞山間奇景潑墨兼潑彩山水圖

22. Zhang Daqian Dwelling in the Mountain by the Lake Wuting 張大千作五亭湖上山居潑彩山水圖

23. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1979 張大千1979年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

24. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1965 張大千1965年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

25. Zhang Daqian Impressionistic Red Lotus 張大千作寫意紅荷圖

26. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Red Lotus and Double Mandarin Ducks 張大千作愛清氣鈎金紅荷花鴛鴦嘉耦潑彩圖

27. Zhang Daqian High Mountain and Deep Cloud 張大千作山高雲深山水圖

28. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Landscape 張大千作金碧山水圖

29. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan and Bamboos in Splashed Colors 張大千作潑彩竹葉紈扇仕女圖

30. Zhang Daqian Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作七言書法對聯

31. Zhang Daqian Six Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作六言書法對聯

32. Zhang Daqian Splashed Color Golden Outlined Red Lotus on Gold Sheet 張大千作金箋潑彩描金紅荷花圖

  

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

 

1. Qi Baishi Lotus Fish Frogs Shrimps and Crabs handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 齊白石作張大千題香清荷花魚蛙蝦蟹圖手卷

2. Qi Baishi The Ten Elder Men in the Legend of China 齊白石作十全老人神賢圖

3. Qi Baishi Lotus Double Mandarin Ducks and Love Shrimps 齊白石作荷花鴛鴦雙蝦佳偶圖

4. Qi Baishi Wealth and Powerful Honour are Both to Come 齊白石作富貴有期圖

5. Qi Baishi Lotus and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花群蝦圖

6. Qi Baishi A Lotus Pond and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花池塘群蝦圖

7. Qi Baishi A Spring Voice and Great Luck 齊白石作春聲大吉圖

8. Qi Baishi Eagle Perching on the Pine 齊白石作松鷹圖

9. Qi Baishi Prolonging Life Impressionistic Squirrel on Pine Red Peach Double Screens 齊白石作寫意松樹上松鼠與紅桃益壽圖對屏

  

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

 

1. Xu Beihong The Hard Water Drawing of the People Lived in Chongqing handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 徐悲鴻作張大千題巴人汲水圖手卷

2. Xu Beihong Jiufang Gao People in the Chinese Ancient Historical Poem 徐悲鴻作九方皋圖

3. Xu Beihong People in Chinese Ancient Historical Poem of Six Dynasties 徐悲鴻作六朝人詩意圖

4. Xu Beihong China the Wounded Lion Sat Watching American Flying Tiger 徐悲鴻作中國負傷之獅遙望美國飛虎飛將軍

5. Xu Beihong Lions and Snake 徐悲鴻作獅與蛇

6. Xu Beihong The Single Flying Eagle and the Lion 徐悲鴻作獨飛老鷹與獅子圖

7. Xu Beihong Lion and Eagle 徐悲鴻作獅子老鷹圖

8. Xu Beihong Prolonging Life Auspicious Cranes Ganoderma Lucidum Fungus 徐悲鴻作祥鶴靈芝延年益壽圖

 

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Guanzhong The People Live in Mali Village 吳冠中作馬里村頭人物風景圖

2. Wu Guanzhong The Dwellings by the River and Mountain in Southern China 吳冠中作江南民居風景圖

3. Wu Guanzhong The Lion Grove Garden (Lion Woods) 吳冠中作獅子林

4. Wu Guanzhong The Wu Gorge 吳冠中作巫峽魂

5. Wu Guanzhong Rocks by the Sea 吳冠中作海滨石

6. Wu Guanzhong The Single-Log Bridge 吳冠中作獨木橋

7. Wu Guanzhong Expressionistic Lotus 吳冠中作表現主義的荷花

 

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Fu Baoshi Hwan Shyua Showed Painting to Guests in East Jin Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Yu Youren 傅抱石作于右任題詩入畫中桓玄出畫圖手卷

2. Fu Baoshi The Nine Elders of the Poetry by Bai Juyi in Tang Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Xu Beihong 傅抱石作徐悲鴻題元氣淋漓九老圖手卷

3. Fu Baoshi Premier Xie An Brought Beauties to the East Shan Mountain handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 傅抱石作謝稚柳題春風綠揚東山攜妓圖手卷

 

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Li Keran The Landscape of River Li being Well-known Forever 李可染作漓江山水傳千古圖

 

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Lu Yanshao Spring and Rocks Landscape of Mountain Yandang 陸儼少作雁蕩泉石山水圖

 

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Zhou The Children and Father Sitting on the Back of Camels 黃冑作駱駝背上的小學生與父親

 

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Huang Binhong Landscape 黃賓虹作山水圖

2. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (1) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(1)

3. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (2) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(2)

 

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Wu Changshuo Annual Purely Floral and Fruity Tributes 吳昌碩作歲朝清供圖

 

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Lin Fengmian Five Naked Ladies 林風眠作五裸女圖

2. Lin Fengmian Two Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作二美與花瓶圖

3. Lin Fengmian Three Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作三美與花瓶圖

4. Lin Fengmian Court Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作宮女與花瓶圖

 

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 吳湖帆作謝稚柳題春風綠揚枝山居圖手卷

2. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains 吳湖帆作山居圖

3. Wu Hufan Landscape after Zhao Mengfu 吳湖帆作擬趙孟頫山水圖

4. Wu Hufan Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 吳湖帆作七言書法對聯

 

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Xie Zhiliu Landscape in Windy Spirit 謝稚柳作生風抖擻山水圖

 

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (鏡片 mounted)

2. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (立軸 hanging scroll)

 

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Pu Ru Green Mountain and White Cloud handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 溥儒作張大千題青山白雲山水圖手卷

 

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tang Yun Birds and Flowers 唐雲作花鳥圖

 

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhao Shao’Ang Flowers and Bird Double Screen 趙少昂作花鳥圖對屏

2. Zhao Shao’Ang Tall Willow Tree Morning Cicada Bamboos and Little Bird 趙少昂作高柳曉蟬竹葉小鳥圖

 

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. He Haixia Landscape 何海霞作山水圖

 

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Guan Shanyue Spring is coming to Southern Guangdong Landscape 關山月作春到南粵山水圖

 

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Zikai A Small Table Three Friends and Plum Blossoms 豐子愷作小桌三朋梅花圖

 

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Yan Bolong Colorful Birds Flowers and Plants Four Screens 顏伯龍作彩鳥與花草小樹圖四條屏

 

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo Two Beautiful Horses 愛新覺羅溥佐作雙駿馬圖

 

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Yihong Beautiful Flowers Attracting Bees 高逸鴻作群花爭艷招蜂圖

 

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tian Shiguang Flowers and Birds 田世光作花鳥圖

 

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Yuan Songnian Landscape 袁松年作山水圖

 

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Qifeng Flowers and Bamboos 高奇峰作花竹圖

 

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Zhifo Wild Geese under Willow Shadow 陳之佛作柳蔭雁鴨圖

 

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Banding Flowers and Birds 陳半丁 ( 陳年 ) 作花鳥圖

 

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Chaoran Landscape 馮超然作山水圖

 

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Zheng Banqiao Orchids Bamboos and Rocks 鄭板橋作蘭竹石圖

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

  

Antiques 古董

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Bronze Money-Shaking Fortune Tree Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝青銅搖錢樹

2. A Gilt-Bronze Guanyin Bodhisattva Figure Tang Dynasty China 中國唐朝銅鎏金觀音菩薩造像

 

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

 

1. A White Jade Pig-and-Bird-Winged Dragon Winged Mythical Beast Hongshan Culture China 中國紅山文化古白玉雕豬鳥翼形龍

2. A White Jade Persian Face Elephant Puzzle Han Dynasty China 中國漢朝古玉雕波斯人面大象紋益智拼圖

3. A Green Jade Sword Token of Imperial Authority by Emperor Shang Dynasty China 中國商朝古青玉雕玉劍令牌

4. A Jade Fish Wine-Cup Western Zhou Dynasty China 中國西周古玉雕魚形酒杯

5. A Red Jade Military Token Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝古紅玉雕軍事玉令牌

6. A White Jade Cavalrymen War Horses Halberds of Middle Sizes Militarism Worship Cong of the First Emperor of Qin 中國東周戰國至秦朝時期古白玉雕騎兵戰馬中戟紋秦始皇帝崇武玉琮

7. A Pale Celadon Greenish White Jade Linking Nipple Grain Phoenix Twisted Ropes Heaven Worship Bi of Nation Chu 中國東周戰國時期古青白玉淺浮雕勾連乳丁穀紋鳳紋扭繩紋楚國祭天玉璧

8. A Celadon Green Jade Twisted Ropes Triple Sitting Hornless Dragons Green-Dragon-Son-of-Heaven Pendant 中國西周時期古青玉雕扭繩紋三盤螭龍青龍天子珮

 

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Mutton Fat White Jade Linking Clouds Royal Dragon Pendant Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢古羊脂白玉透空圓雕勾連雲紋龍形珮

2. A Coincident Carved Khotan Russet Skin Mutton Fat White Jade Sitting Double-humped Camel Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢和闐黑棗皮古羊脂白玉巧雕坐姿雙峯駱駝

  

Taiwan Web Museum

A Free Exhibition Museum in the Internet World

 

台灣網路藝術美術博物館

網路世界裡的免費博物館

 

台湾网络艺术美术博物馆

网络世界里的免费博物馆

 

Free Website to See Paintings by Chinese Artists Listed in 2011 World Auction Revenue Top 30 and Rare Archaic Chinese Ancient Antiques

 

觀賞2011年列名世界拍賣總收入前30名中國畫家名畫作品及中國古代罕見的古董之免費網址

 

Welcome to identify your Chinese Paintings and Works of Art! Our help is free of charge!

歡迎辨識您的中國書畫及藝術品! 我們的協助是免費的!

  

Taken at the Tampines N2 Getai.

 

See a small clip of the getai show here:

youtu.be/RYhEkQhmpfw

 

Many more photos from the Tampines N2 Getai coming up soon!

Golden Outlined Red Lotus and Double Mandarin Ducks, by Zhang Daqian dated 1979.

H 118 x W 66.5 cm

張大千1979年作 "愛清氣金碧紅荷花鴛鴦嘉耦潑彩圖" 直幅設色紙本中堂懸掛立軸

  

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家 Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家

Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

 

共 155 名中國畫家占前 500 名畫家之 31 %

Total 155 Chinese artists / 500 artists = 31 %

 

假如你是西方油畫的收藏家,扣除 31 % 的中國畫家,再扣除 20 % 左右的中國瓷器、青銅器、珠寶玉器、漆器雜項類中國作家,2014年你只是在世界作者市場 49 % 以內經營藝術品而已;可能再過10年,你將成為只是在世界作者市場 30 % 以內經營。

 

If you are a collector of western oil paintings, deducting 31 % for Chinese artists of paintings and further deducting 20% for Chinese artists of ceramics、bronze、jades and jewelry、lacquer and miscellaneous works of art, in 2014 you are only operating works of art within 49% of the world artists market. Maybe after 10 years, you might become operating works of art within 30% of the world artists market.

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover ($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price ($)

 

Page 84 (14 Chinese artists) 第84頁14位中國畫家

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price($)

 

7 QI Baishi (1864-1957) 齊白石 206,245,348 719 7,861,850

9 ZHANG Daqian (1899-1983) 張大千 193,242,992 817 7,476,199

13 ZAO Wou-ki (1921-2013) 趙無極 115,686,349 575 7,161,650

16 FU Baoshi (1904-1965) 傅抱石 103,465,331 142 4,944,050

17 XU Beihong (1895-1953) 徐悲鴻 102,449,141 219 6,532,000

19 HUANG Zhou (1925-1997) 黃冑 96,461,998 625 5,506,020

20 HUANG Binhong (1865-1955) 黃賓虹 88,082,380 303 8,839,900

26 WU Changshuo (1844-1927) 吳昌碩 80,942,833 560 5,463,850

31 LU Yanshao (1909-1993) 陸儼少 66,350,196 443 1,925,760

32 LI Keran (1907-1989) 李可染 65,946,710 207 7,294,500

37 CHU Teh-Chun (1920-2014) 朱德群 60,897,598 241 3,800,000

38 WU Guanzhong (1919-2010) 吳冠中 60,623,435 153 2,967,000

42 LIN Fengmian (1900-1991) 林風眠 54,514,729 253 2,449,500

50 ZENG Fanzhi (1964)曾梵志 43,080,328 50 3,606,400

 

Page 85 (17 Chinese artists) 第85頁17位中國畫家

 

53 PU Ru (1896-1963) 溥儒(溥心畬) 41,246,692 1,042 838,500

55 XIE Zhiliu (1910-1997) 謝稚柳 39,960,699 355 2,367,850

58 WU Hufan (1894-1968) 吳湖帆 37,900,898 320 3,412,500

59 WANG Duo (1592-1652) 王鐸 37,871,423 70 3,013,650

62 PAN Tianshou (1897-1971) 潘天壽 34,790,957 88 3,600,840

67 ZHU Da (1626-1705) 朱耷(八大山人) 32,277,125 38 6,190,200

71 SAN Yu (1901-1966) 常玉 30,027,262 41 9,151,899

75 ZHU Xinjian (1953-2014) 朱新建 28,619,279 1,202 898,150

78 QIANLONG Emperor (1711-1799) 乾隆皇帝 27,079,477 48 16,483,200

81 CHENG Shifa (1921-2007) 程十髮 25,987,069 486 1,959,600

83 QI Gong (1912-2005) 啟功 25,693,155 437 815,500

85 QIAN Songyan (1899-1985) 錢松喦 25,582,974 254 1,053,650

89 FAN Zeng (1938) 范曾 23,416,615 237 2,941,200

93 YU Youren (1879-1964) 于右任 23,032,037 718 521,279

95 ZHOU Chunya (1955) 周春芽 21,226,785 65 1,134,700

96 WANG Hui (1632-1717) 王翬 21,050,636 58 4,569,600

98 ZHANG Xiaogang (1958) 張曉剛 20,783,341 44 10,698,699

 

Page 86 (18 Chinese artists) 第86頁18位中國畫家

 

103 LIU Wei (1965) 刘炜 19,134,174 43 2,935,800

105 WANG Xuetao (1903-1982) 王雪濤 18,896,219 348 827,220

109 HUANG Yongyu (1924) 黄永玉 18,286,630 241 902,430

110 DONG Shouping (1904-1997) 董寿平 18,251,261 309 842,920

112 HE Haixia (1908-1998) 何海霞 17,310,468 144 3,266,000

114 CHEN Yifei (1946-2005) 陳逸飛 16,910,797 29 2,964,699

119 GUAN Liang (1900-1986) 關良 16,014,062 239 2,197,800

120 REN Yi (1840-1896) 任頤(任伯年) 15,959,015 167 1,199,520

128 DONG Qichang (1555-1636) 董其昌 14,722,727 123 2,769,300

130 WEN Zhengming (1470-1559) 文徵明 14,576,419 79 1,633,000

131 YU Fei'an (1888-1959) 于非闇 14,505,161 109 972,600

135 ZHENG Banqiao (1693-1765) 鄭板橋 14,208,977 76 2,200,000

136 LIU Dawei (1945) 刘大为 14,023,225 121 1,621,000

138 LI Kuchan (1899-1983) 李苦禪 13,918,988 276 786,240

139 LIN Sanzhi (1898-1989) 林散之 13,856,855 350 907,760

141 LUO Zhongli (1948) 羅中立 13,483,611 53 6,159,800

148 HONG Yi (1880-1942) 弘一(李叔同) 12,755,950 85 1,306,400

149 LIU Xiaodong (1963) 劉小東 12,589,594 15 7,470,400

 

Page 87 (19 Chinese artists) 第87頁19位中國畫家

 

152 LAI Shaoqi (1915-2000) 赖少其 12,209,093 144 5,538,600

153 CHEN Peiqiu (1922/23) 陈佩秋 12,101,206 194 1,040,000

157 YI Bingshou (1754-1815) 伊秉绶 11,964,497 55 3,242,000

161 LIU Haisu (1896-1994) 劉海粟 11,536,281 138 1,877,950

166 YANG Yan (1958) 楊彥 11,191,811 57 10,784,400

167 TANG Yun (1910-1993) 唐雲 11,031,461 493 293,940

172 FANG Lijun (1963) 方力均 10,814,787 30 6,697,600

178 TANG Yin (1470-1523) 唐寅(唐伯虎) 10,514,886 33 4,956,250

180 GUAN Shanyue (1912-2000) 關山月 10,378,961 119 2,850,750

182 LIU Guosong (1932) 劉國松 10,204,764 83 1,804,599

184 CHEN Shaomei (1909-1954) 陳少梅 10,172,762 89 3,000,700

185 SHI Guoliang (1956) 史國良(釋慧禪) 10,111,795 116 1,588,580

186 HUANG Junbi (1898-1991) 黃君璧 10,051,378 313 319,410

188 FU Shan (1607-1684) 傅山 9,945,247 23 3,890,400

189 HE Jiaying (1957) 何家英 9,919,579 54 859,130

190 ZHOU Sicong (1939-1996) 周思聪 9,888,000 174 1,377,850

191 ZHU Ming (1938) 朱銘 9,699,670 94 1,224,549

196 JIN Nong (1687-1763) 金農 9,367,369 48 1,732,040

200 LIU Danzhai (1931-2011) 刘旦宅 9,177,422 134 1,339,060

 

Page 88 (15 Chinese artists) 第88頁15位中國畫家

 

201 LI Xiongcai (1910-2001) 黎雄才 9,162,598 191 788,160

208 YA Ming (1924-2002) 亚明 8,916,735 251 1,172,160

215 BAI Xueshi (1915-2011) 白雪石 8,571,042 164 456,119

217 LEE Man Fong (1913-1988) 李曼峰 8,494,019 61 3,735,200

218 HONG Ren (1610-1663) 弘仁 8,467,043 5 7,542,300

221 FENG Zikai (1898-1975) 豐子愷 8,411,283 175 437,670

223 SONG Wenzhi (1919-1999) 宋文治 8,326,290 244 469,151

224 XU Lei (1963) 徐累 8,312,432 26 2,606,400

225 WANG Yidong (1955) 王沂東 8,284,639 30 1,458,900

227 WANG Mingming (1952) 王明明 8,207,562 130 453,600

234 JIA Youfu (1942) 賈又福 7,873,366 79 1,864,150

236 WU Zuoren (1908-1997) 吳作人 7,832,988 148 636,090

237 FAN Yang (1955) 范揚 7,806,488 233 243,750

242 WANG Yuanqi (1642-1715) 王原祁 7,678,320 39 1,465,200

250 AI Xuan (1947) 艾轩 7,467,339 43 749,800

 

Page 89 (12 Chinese artists) 第89頁12位中國畫家

 

258 PAN Yuliang (1895-1977) 潘玉良 7,179,153 11 3,870,351

262 ZHAO Zhiqian (1829-1884) 趙之謙 7,060,825 66 1,160,099

265 TIAN Liming (1955) 田黎明 6,999,979 95 315,900

266 EMPEROR KANGXI (1654-1722) 康熙皇帝 6,937,669 14 3,258,000

268 SHI Lu (1919-1982) 石魯 6,852,847 49 1,021,230

271 TIAN Shiguang (1916-1999) 田世光 6,803,606 123 781,920

276 CHOU Ying (1493-1560) 仇英 6,632,784 50 1,823,360

279 DING Yanyong (1902-1978) 丁衍庸 6,584,807 181 592,939

291 GUO Moruo (1892-1978) 郭沫若 6,218,480 61 1,102,280

294 XU Bing (1955) 徐冰 6,130,422 30 1,167,120

297 SHEN Zhou (1427-1509) 沈周 6,066,002 28 1,798,500

299 SHEN Yinmo (1883-1971) 沈尹默 6,003,213 185 1,218,750

 

Page 90 (14 Chinese artists) 第90頁14位中國畫家

 

303 YUE Minjun (1962) 岳敏君 5,851,974 22 1,296,800

306 ZHAO Shao'Ang (1905-1998) 趙少昂 5,809,681 247 259,520

309 XUE Liang (1956) 薛亮 5,717,377 95 1,103,640

316 CHEONG Soo Pieng (1917-1983) 钟泗滨 5,566,836 55 631,609

323 ZHANG Ruitu (1570-1641) 張瑞圖 5,495,433 30 761,870

328 CHEN Hongshou (1598-1652) 陳洪绶 5,458,659 20 1,945,200

329 REN Zhong (1976) 任重 5,452,237 56 423,540

331 ZHU Qizhan (1892-1996) 朱屺瞻 5,417,335 209 260,000

332 ZHAO Puchu (1907-2000) 趙樸初 5,382,881 175 486,300

336 WANG Jian (1598-1677) 王鑒 5,309,438 23 3,811,700

339 YANG Shanshen (1913-2004) 楊善深 5,279,455 184 1,427,360

341 KANG Youwei (1858-1927) 康有為 5,199,080 113 324,200

343 GU Wenda (1955) 谷文達 5,179,178 42 1,119,180

345 LIU Ye (1964) 劉野 5,117,193 34 891,550

 

Page 91 (18 Chinese artists) 第91頁18位中國畫家

 

351 PU Guang (XIII -XIV) 溥光 4,944,050 1 4,944,050

352 HE Shaoji (1799-1873) 何绍基 4,912,933 136 747,500

355 LIU Jiyou (1918-1983) 劉繼卣 4,891,144 108 399,595

358 CHEN Dayu (1912-2001) 陳大羽 4,855,807 247 454,160

365 SHI Tao (1642-1707) 石濤 4,796,775 27 2,269,400

368 ZHU Meicun (1911-1993) 朱梅邨 4,776,671 117 570,150

369 JIA Aili (1979) 贾蔼力 4,758,253 8 1,262,240

370 XI Dejin (1923-1981) 席德進 4,740,558 89 227,080

373 SHEN Peng (1931) 沈鹏 4,670,229 160 701,330

374 AI Weiwei (1957) 艾未未 4,663,696 32 966,749

375 XU Lele (1955) 徐樂樂 4,628,253 155 210,730

383 YE Qianyu (1907-1995) 葉淺予 4,530,685 118 356,620

389 ZHU Yunming (1460-1526) 祝允明 4,462,454 14 1,629,000

393 LI Jin (1958) 李津 4,372,647 94 212,160

394 ZHAN Wang (1962) 展望 4,360,124 13 2,709,000

395 FANG Chuxiong (1950) 方楚雄 4,355,333 148 262,080

397 LU Yushun (1962) 盧禹舜 4,336,840 61 884,520

399 CHEN Wenxi (1906-1991) 陳文希 4,242,709 71 1,095,650

 

Page 92 (13 Chinese artists) 第92頁13位中國畫家

 

402 CHENG Conglin (1954) 程叢林 4,177,932 3 4,052,500

404 TAO Lengyue (1895-1985) 陶冷月 4,141,462 138 457,240

405 HE Duoling (1948) 何多苓 4,131,489 12 1,419,000

409 LONG Rui (1946) 龍瑞 4,047,039 66 956,980

416 LU Yifei (1908-1997) 陸抑非 3,995,369 121 791,293

425 ZHANG Shanzi (1882-1940) 張善孖 3,840,085 90 324,200

428 WANG Guangyi (1957) 王廣義 3,799,843 37 1,167,120

430 WEI Zixi (1915-2002) 魏紫熙 3,791,768 120 235,190

432 YUN Shouping (1633-1690) 惲壽平 3,784,559 78 541,800

437 PAN Gongkai (1947) 潘公凯 3,737,332 16 2,141,040

443 SHA Menghai (1900-1992) 沙孟海 3,702,566 132 293,940

446 HUANG Shen (1687-c.1773) 黃慎 3,685,764 49 425,100

450 LIN Yong (1942) 林墉 3,650,618 117 259,360

 

Page 93 (15 Chinese artists) 第93頁15位中國畫家

 

456 LIAO Chi-Chun (1902-1976) 廖繼春 3,625,280 9 1,252,033

461 LI Shan (1686-1760) 李鱓 3,569,789 38 652,800

462 LAN Ying (1585-c.1664) 蓝瑛 3,562,896 42 438,210

464 YANG Zhiguang (1930) 楊之光 3,525,002 119 195,840

468 ZHANG Enli (1965) 张恩利 3,497,596 12 708,949

471 YANG Feiyun (1954) 杨飞云 3,467,338 14 734,400

472 ZHOU Jingxin (1959) 周京新 3,445,045 113 519,040

475 JIANG Hanting (1904-1963) 江寒汀 3,408,711 125 300,625

476 WANG Ziwu (1936) 王子武 3,404,947 51 653,200

478 LE PHO (1907-2001) 黎譜 3,396,747 96 696,059

479 LIU Yi (1957) 刘溢 3,370,316 20 615,980

481 NI Yuanlu (1593-1644) 倪元璐 3,350,382 10 1,100,000

492 CHIU Ya Tsai (1949-2013) 邱亞才 3,288,319 53 180,459

498 WEN Jia (1501-1583) 文嘉 3,261,051 17 1,986,160

500 WU Dayu (1903-1988) 吴大羽 3,248,689 9 772,800

 

資料來源: 法國 Art price 2014 年全世界藝術市場報告書第 84-93 頁 2014 年全世界拍賣總收入結果前 500 名畫家.

 

Source: The Art Market in 2014 Page 84-93 Top 500 artists by auction revenue in 2014 by Art price

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

99 Fine Chinese Paintings and 12 Antiques in 2013

2013 年 99 幅中國書畫及 12 件古董精品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

 

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

Works of Art List 藝術作品名錄

  

Paintings 書畫作品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

  

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhang Daqian Happy Birthday to Chairman Chang Kaishek of the Government inscribed by Yu Youren 張大千作于右任題大觀高仕祝壽圖手卷

2. Zhang Daqian After the Rising and Warm Green Mountains by Huang Gongwang with Calligraphy 張大千作擬元代黃公望浮巒暖翠山水圖及書法立軸

3. Zhang Daqian Splashed Landscape Fuchun Mountain 張大千作富春山居潑彩山水圖

4. Zhang Daqian Mountain Emei May Be Crossed On Top 張大千作可以橫絕峨嵋巔潑彩山水圖

5. Zhang Daqian A Bird’s-eye View on Taiwan Cross-Island Road near Herhuan 張大千作台灣橫貫公路合歡山鳥瞰金碧潑彩山水圖

6. Zhang Daqian 18 Luohan Disciples Appointed to Witness to Buddhist Truth handscroll 張大千作十八羅漢圖手卷

7. Zhang Daqian The Dreamland of Mountain Qingcheng in Heavenly Place 張大千作夢入靑城天下幽人間仙境圖

8. Zhang Daqian The Heavenly Place in Mankind World 張大千作人家在仙堂潑彩山水圖

9. Zhang Daqian Sun is Rising and Darkness is Fallen allover the Mountain with Calligraphy 張大千作天開影墮潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

10. Zhang Daqian Painting the Elder Bintourlu after Technique of Song Dynasty 張大千作倣宋人畫賓頭盧尊者像

11. Zhang Daqian Listening to the Springs below the Mountains handscroll 張大千作山水生風聽泉入山麓金碧潑彩山水圖手卷

12. Zhang Daqian Waterfall in a Quiet Mountain Valley with Calligraphy 張大千作幽谷飛瀑潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

13. Zhang Daqian Recalling the Beautiful Scenery of Mountain Huang in China 張大千作遙思黃山故景潑彩山水圖

14. Zhang Daqian Splashed Colour Landscape of Beautiful Mountain Qingcheng 張大千作青城天下幽潑彩山水圖

15. Zhang Daqian Golden Outline Red Lotus and a Flying Bird 張大千作香清鈎金紅荷翔鳥圖

16. Zhang Daqian One Flower in One World White Lotus and attached calligraphy 張大千作一花一世界白荷花圖及書法立軸

17. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan Bamboos Parrot Hairpin in Tang’s Clothes 張大千作仿莫高窟初唐人衣飾鸚鵡簪髮飾新篁紈扇仕女圖

18. Zhang Daqian Beauty in Red Hair-kerchief Wooden Shoes White Robe Bamboos 張大千作脩竹紅髮巾木屐白袍裸肩日本美女圖

19. Zhang Daqian Han Changli Composed a Lyric Poem Derived from Chu Dynasty 張大千作韓昌黎作楚語圖

20. Zhang Daqian Scholars Appreciating Maples 張大千作高仕賞楓圖

21. Zhang Daqian Black Cloud Covering on Top of Mt. Emei among Blue Cloud 張大千作可以橫絕峨眉巔黑雲滿布山頂藍雲環繞山間奇景潑墨兼潑彩山水圖

22. Zhang Daqian Dwelling in the Mountain by the Lake Wuting 張大千作五亭湖上山居潑彩山水圖

23. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1979 張大千1979年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

24. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1965 張大千1965年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

25. Zhang Daqian Impressionistic Red Lotus 張大千作寫意紅荷圖

26. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Red Lotus and Double Mandarin Ducks 張大千作愛清氣鈎金紅荷花鴛鴦嘉耦潑彩圖

27. Zhang Daqian High Mountain and Deep Cloud 張大千作山高雲深山水圖

28. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Landscape 張大千作金碧山水圖

29. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan and Bamboos in Splashed Colors 張大千作潑彩竹葉紈扇仕女圖

30. Zhang Daqian Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作七言書法對聯

31. Zhang Daqian Six Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作六言書法對聯

32. Zhang Daqian Splashed Color Golden Outlined Red Lotus on Gold Sheet 張大千作金箋潑彩描金紅荷花圖

  

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

 

1. Qi Baishi Lotus Fish Frogs Shrimps and Crabs handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 齊白石作張大千題香清荷花魚蛙蝦蟹圖手卷

2. Qi Baishi The Ten Elder Men in the Legend of China 齊白石作十全老人神賢圖

3. Qi Baishi Lotus Double Mandarin Ducks and Love Shrimps 齊白石作荷花鴛鴦雙蝦佳偶圖

4. Qi Baishi Wealth and Powerful Honour are Both to Come 齊白石作富貴有期圖

5. Qi Baishi Lotus and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花群蝦圖

6. Qi Baishi A Lotus Pond and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花池塘群蝦圖

7. Qi Baishi A Spring Voice and Great Luck 齊白石作春聲大吉圖

8. Qi Baishi Eagle Perching on the Pine 齊白石作松鷹圖

9. Qi Baishi Prolonging Life Impressionistic Squirrel on Pine Red Peach Double Screens 齊白石作寫意松樹上松鼠與紅桃益壽圖對屏

  

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

 

1. Xu Beihong The Hard Water Drawing of the People Lived in Chongqing handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 徐悲鴻作張大千題巴人汲水圖手卷

2. Xu Beihong Jiufang Gao People in the Chinese Ancient Historical Poem 徐悲鴻作九方皋圖

3. Xu Beihong People in Chinese Ancient Historical Poem of Six Dynasties 徐悲鴻作六朝人詩意圖

4. Xu Beihong China the Wounded Lion Sat Watching American Flying Tiger 徐悲鴻作中國負傷之獅遙望美國飛虎飛將軍

5. Xu Beihong Lions and Snake 徐悲鴻作獅與蛇

6. Xu Beihong The Single Flying Eagle and the Lion 徐悲鴻作獨飛老鷹與獅子圖

7. Xu Beihong Lion and Eagle 徐悲鴻作獅子老鷹圖

8. Xu Beihong Prolonging Life Auspicious Cranes Ganoderma Lucidum Fungus 徐悲鴻作祥鶴靈芝延年益壽圖

 

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Guanzhong The People Live in Mali Village 吳冠中作馬里村頭人物風景圖

2. Wu Guanzhong The Dwellings by the River and Mountain in Southern China 吳冠中作江南民居風景圖

3. Wu Guanzhong The Lion Grove Garden (Lion Woods) 吳冠中作獅子林

4. Wu Guanzhong The Wu Gorge 吳冠中作巫峽魂

5. Wu Guanzhong Rocks by the Sea 吳冠中作海滨石

6. Wu Guanzhong The Single-Log Bridge 吳冠中作獨木橋

7. Wu Guanzhong Expressionistic Lotus 吳冠中作表現主義的荷花

 

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Fu Baoshi Hwan Shyua Showed Painting to Guests in East Jin Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Yu Youren 傅抱石作于右任題詩入畫中桓玄出畫圖手卷

2. Fu Baoshi The Nine Elders of the Poetry by Bai Juyi in Tang Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Xu Beihong 傅抱石作徐悲鴻題元氣淋漓九老圖手卷

3. Fu Baoshi Premier Xie An Brought Beauties to the East Shan Mountain handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 傅抱石作謝稚柳題春風綠揚東山攜妓圖手卷

 

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Li Keran The Landscape of River Li being Well-known Forever 李可染作漓江山水傳千古圖

 

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Lu Yanshao Spring and Rocks Landscape of Mountain Yandang 陸儼少作雁蕩泉石山水圖

 

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Zhou The Children and Father Sitting on the Back of Camels 黃冑作駱駝背上的小學生與父親

 

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Huang Binhong Landscape 黃賓虹作山水圖

2. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (1) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(1)

3. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (2) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(2)

 

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Wu Changshuo Annual Purely Floral and Fruity Tributes 吳昌碩作歲朝清供圖

 

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Lin Fengmian Five Naked Ladies 林風眠作五裸女圖

2. Lin Fengmian Two Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作二美與花瓶圖

3. Lin Fengmian Three Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作三美與花瓶圖

4. Lin Fengmian Court Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作宮女與花瓶圖

 

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 吳湖帆作謝稚柳題春風綠揚枝山居圖手卷

2. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains 吳湖帆作山居圖

3. Wu Hufan Landscape after Zhao Mengfu 吳湖帆作擬趙孟頫山水圖

4. Wu Hufan Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 吳湖帆作七言書法對聯

 

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Xie Zhiliu Landscape in Windy Spirit 謝稚柳作生風抖擻山水圖

 

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (鏡片 mounted)

2. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (立軸 hanging scroll)

 

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Pu Ru Green Mountain and White Cloud handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 溥儒作張大千題青山白雲山水圖手卷

 

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tang Yun Birds and Flowers 唐雲作花鳥圖

 

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhao Shao’Ang Flowers and Bird Double Screen 趙少昂作花鳥圖對屏

2. Zhao Shao’Ang Tall Willow Tree Morning Cicada Bamboos and Little Bird 趙少昂作高柳曉蟬竹葉小鳥圖

 

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. He Haixia Landscape 何海霞作山水圖

 

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Guan Shanyue Spring is coming to Southern Guangdong Landscape 關山月作春到南粵山水圖

 

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Zikai A Small Table Three Friends and Plum Blossoms 豐子愷作小桌三朋梅花圖

 

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Yan Bolong Colorful Birds Flowers and Plants Four Screens 顏伯龍作彩鳥與花草小樹圖四條屏

 

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo Two Beautiful Horses 愛新覺羅溥佐作雙駿馬圖

 

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Yihong Beautiful Flowers Attracting Bees 高逸鴻作群花爭艷招蜂圖

 

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tian Shiguang Flowers and Birds 田世光作花鳥圖

 

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Yuan Songnian Landscape 袁松年作山水圖

 

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Qifeng Flowers and Bamboos 高奇峰作花竹圖

 

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Zhifo Wild Geese under Willow Shadow 陳之佛作柳蔭雁鴨圖

 

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Banding Flowers and Birds 陳半丁 ( 陳年 ) 作花鳥圖

 

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Chaoran Landscape 馮超然作山水圖

 

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Zheng Banqiao Orchids Bamboos and Rocks 鄭板橋作蘭竹石圖

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

  

Antiques 古董

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Bronze Money-Shaking Fortune Tree Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝青銅搖錢樹

2. A Gilt-Bronze Guanyin Bodhisattva Figure Tang Dynasty China 中國唐朝銅鎏金觀音菩薩造像

 

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

 

1. A White Jade Pig-and-Bird-Winged Dragon Winged Mythical Beast Hongshan Culture China 中國紅山文化古白玉雕豬鳥翼形龍

2. A White Jade Persian Face Elephant Puzzle Han Dynasty China 中國漢朝古玉雕波斯人面大象紋益智拼圖

3. A Green Jade Sword Token of Imperial Authority by Emperor Shang Dynasty China 中國商朝古青玉雕玉劍令牌

4. A Jade Fish Wine-Cup Western Zhou Dynasty China 中國西周古玉雕魚形酒杯

5. A Red Jade Military Token Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝古紅玉雕軍事玉令牌

6. A White Jade Cavalrymen War Horses Halberds of Middle Sizes Militarism Worship Cong of the First Emperor of Qin 中國東周戰國至秦朝時期古白玉雕騎兵戰馬中戟紋秦始皇帝崇武玉琮

7. A Pale Celadon Greenish White Jade Linking Nipple Grain Phoenix Twisted Ropes Heaven Worship Bi of Nation Chu 中國東周戰國時期古青白玉淺浮雕勾連乳丁穀紋鳳紋扭繩紋楚國祭天玉璧

8. A Celadon Green Jade Twisted Ropes Triple Sitting Hornless Dragons Green-Dragon-Son-of-Heaven Pendant 中國西周時期古青玉雕扭繩紋三盤螭龍青龍天子珮

 

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Mutton Fat White Jade Linking Clouds Royal Dragon Pendant Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢古羊脂白玉透空圓雕勾連雲紋龍形珮

2. A Coincident Carved Khotan Russet Skin Mutton Fat White Jade Sitting Double-humped Camel Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢和闐黑棗皮古羊脂白玉巧雕坐姿雙峯駱駝

  

Taiwan Web Museum

A Free Exhibition Museum in the Internet World

 

台灣網路藝術美術博物館

網路世界裡的免費博物館

 

台湾网络艺术美术博物馆

网络世界里的免费博物馆

 

Free Website to See Paintings by Chinese Artists Listed in 2011 World Auction Revenue Top 30 and Rare Archaic Chinese Ancient Antiques

 

觀賞2011年列名世界拍賣總收入前30名中國畫家名畫作品及中國古代罕見的古董之免費網址

 

Welcome to identify your Chinese Paintings and Works of Art! Our help is free of charge!

歡迎辨識您的中國書畫及藝術品! 我們的協助是免費的!

  

A Bird’s-eye View on Taiwan Cross-Island Road near Herhuan

 

Splendid golden-outline landscape splashed painting by Zhang Daqian dated 1978. 張大千1978年作“台灣橫貫公路合歡山鳥瞰金碧潑彩山水圖”名畫 橫幅設色紙本鏡片 H92 x W170 cm

 

題識:六十七於摩耶精舍八十叟爰.

三鈐印:張爰私印,大千,大千毫髮.

 

Splendid golden-outline splashed ink and colour on paper, mounted, signed 80 YEARS OLD MAN YUAN,inscribed 1978 IN MOYEJINGSHE,with 3 seals of the artist.

 

This painting could be described as one of the most beautiful Chinese Landscape Splashed Paintings you have ever seen in the world!

 

Origin:

 

The family member of the Kuomintang party high ranking founding official (國民黨黨國元老家族舊藏品) who received from the artist directly!

 

Authenticity:

 

This fine and delicate landscape splashed painting can be done by Zhang Daqian only due to the difficult and essential requirements of at least 30 years of long-term splashed painting experience! Only Master Zhang Daqian met with this strict qualification!

 

此名畫為張大千大師開創於晚期的 "細潑細筆式金碧潑彩" 畫法, 雖然有些仍是以中國國畫之 "工筆、寫意、鉤勒、設色、水墨等技法形式" 為輔, 但卻已經 "惜筆如金". 畫紙上的絕大部分作畫內容, 都是以 "金碧潑彩" 畫法細潑細筆鉤勒以成之. 這種畫法之困難度極高, 因為畫家必須控制 "潑彩渲染度" 就如同手握 "細筆" 一般, 不論是色彩之調合度與筆意, 皆必須是 "意到即筆到(潑到)" 般恰到好處, 絲毫不容許有任何差錯, 連作畫用紙之渲染度亦必須拿捏精準, 完全無法 "既然粗略潑之, 即大概以成之.". 因為此種畫法相當耗時又耗工, 沒有數十年的 "潑墨" 及 "金碧潑彩" 畫功及足夠經驗, 他人根本就是無法臨摹仿潑之, 否則只是糟蹋浪費自己的畫紙與昂貴顏料而已. 因此成品並不多, 見世作品也不多, 因為張大千大師都是以此種畫作成品贈送予國民黨黨國元老們欣賞居多, 而被鎖入深宮.

  

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家 Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 500 名畫家中之前 155 名中國畫家

Top 155 Chinese artists among the Top 500 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

 

共 155 名中國畫家占前 500 名畫家之 31 %

Total 155 Chinese artists / 500 artists = 31 %

 

假如你是西方油畫的收藏家,扣除 31 % 的中國畫家,再扣除 20 % 左右的中國瓷器、青銅器、珠寶玉器、漆器雜項類中國作家,2014年你只是在世界作者市場 49 % 以內經營藝術品而已;可能再過10年,你將成為只是在世界作者市場 30 % 以內經營。

 

If you are a collector of western oil paintings, deducting 31 % for Chinese artists of paintings and further deducting 20% for Chinese artists of ceramics、bronze、jades and jewelry、lacquer and miscellaneous works of art, in 2014 you are only operating works of art within 49% of the world artists market. Maybe after 10 years, you might become operating works of art within 30% of the world artists market.

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover ($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price ($)

 

Page 84 (14 Chinese artists) 第84頁14位中國畫家

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price($)

 

7 QI Baishi (1864-1957) 齊白石 206,245,348 719 7,861,850

9 ZHANG Daqian (1899-1983) 張大千 193,242,992 817 7,476,199

13 ZAO Wou-ki (1921-2013) 趙無極 115,686,349 575 7,161,650

16 FU Baoshi (1904-1965) 傅抱石 103,465,331 142 4,944,050

17 XU Beihong (1895-1953) 徐悲鴻 102,449,141 219 6,532,000

19 HUANG Zhou (1925-1997) 黃冑 96,461,998 625 5,506,020

20 HUANG Binhong (1865-1955) 黃賓虹 88,082,380 303 8,839,900

26 WU Changshuo (1844-1927) 吳昌碩 80,942,833 560 5,463,850

31 LU Yanshao (1909-1993) 陸儼少 66,350,196 443 1,925,760

32 LI Keran (1907-1989) 李可染 65,946,710 207 7,294,500

37 CHU Teh-Chun (1920-2014) 朱德群 60,897,598 241 3,800,000

38 WU Guanzhong (1919-2010) 吳冠中 60,623,435 153 2,967,000

42 LIN Fengmian (1900-1991) 林風眠 54,514,729 253 2,449,500

50 ZENG Fanzhi (1964)曾梵志 43,080,328 50 3,606,400

 

Page 85 (17 Chinese artists) 第85頁17位中國畫家

 

53 PU Ru (1896-1963) 溥儒(溥心畬) 41,246,692 1,042 838,500

55 XIE Zhiliu (1910-1997) 謝稚柳 39,960,699 355 2,367,850

58 WU Hufan (1894-1968) 吳湖帆 37,900,898 320 3,412,500

59 WANG Duo (1592-1652) 王鐸 37,871,423 70 3,013,650

62 PAN Tianshou (1897-1971) 潘天壽 34,790,957 88 3,600,840

67 ZHU Da (1626-1705) 朱耷(八大山人) 32,277,125 38 6,190,200

71 SAN Yu (1901-1966) 常玉 30,027,262 41 9,151,899

75 ZHU Xinjian (1953-2014) 朱新建 28,619,279 1,202 898,150

78 QIANLONG Emperor (1711-1799) 乾隆皇帝 27,079,477 48 16,483,200

81 CHENG Shifa (1921-2007) 程十髮 25,987,069 486 1,959,600

83 QI Gong (1912-2005) 啟功 25,693,155 437 815,500

85 QIAN Songyan (1899-1985) 錢松喦 25,582,974 254 1,053,650

89 FAN Zeng (1938) 范曾 23,416,615 237 2,941,200

93 YU Youren (1879-1964) 于右任 23,032,037 718 521,279

95 ZHOU Chunya (1955) 周春芽 21,226,785 65 1,134,700

96 WANG Hui (1632-1717) 王翬 21,050,636 58 4,569,600

98 ZHANG Xiaogang (1958) 張曉剛 20,783,341 44 10,698,699

 

Page 86 (18 Chinese artists) 第86頁18位中國畫家

 

103 LIU Wei (1965) 刘炜 19,134,174 43 2,935,800

105 WANG Xuetao (1903-1982) 王雪濤 18,896,219 348 827,220

109 HUANG Yongyu (1924) 黄永玉 18,286,630 241 902,430

110 DONG Shouping (1904-1997) 董寿平 18,251,261 309 842,920

112 HE Haixia (1908-1998) 何海霞 17,310,468 144 3,266,000

114 CHEN Yifei (1946-2005) 陳逸飛 16,910,797 29 2,964,699

119 GUAN Liang (1900-1986) 關良 16,014,062 239 2,197,800

120 REN Yi (1840-1896) 任頤(任伯年) 15,959,015 167 1,199,520

128 DONG Qichang (1555-1636) 董其昌 14,722,727 123 2,769,300

130 WEN Zhengming (1470-1559) 文徵明 14,576,419 79 1,633,000

131 YU Fei'an (1888-1959) 于非闇 14,505,161 109 972,600

135 ZHENG Banqiao (1693-1765) 鄭板橋 14,208,977 76 2,200,000

136 LIU Dawei (1945) 刘大为 14,023,225 121 1,621,000

138 LI Kuchan (1899-1983) 李苦禪 13,918,988 276 786,240

139 LIN Sanzhi (1898-1989) 林散之 13,856,855 350 907,760

141 LUO Zhongli (1948) 羅中立 13,483,611 53 6,159,800

148 HONG Yi (1880-1942) 弘一(李叔同) 12,755,950 85 1,306,400

149 LIU Xiaodong (1963) 劉小東 12,589,594 15 7,470,400

 

Page 87 (19 Chinese artists) 第87頁19位中國畫家

 

152 LAI Shaoqi (1915-2000) 赖少其 12,209,093 144 5,538,600

153 CHEN Peiqiu (1922/23) 陈佩秋 12,101,206 194 1,040,000

157 YI Bingshou (1754-1815) 伊秉绶 11,964,497 55 3,242,000

161 LIU Haisu (1896-1994) 劉海粟 11,536,281 138 1,877,950

166 YANG Yan (1958) 楊彥 11,191,811 57 10,784,400

167 TANG Yun (1910-1993) 唐雲 11,031,461 493 293,940

172 FANG Lijun (1963) 方力均 10,814,787 30 6,697,600

178 TANG Yin (1470-1523) 唐寅(唐伯虎) 10,514,886 33 4,956,250

180 GUAN Shanyue (1912-2000) 關山月 10,378,961 119 2,850,750

182 LIU Guosong (1932) 劉國松 10,204,764 83 1,804,599

184 CHEN Shaomei (1909-1954) 陳少梅 10,172,762 89 3,000,700

185 SHI Guoliang (1956) 史國良(釋慧禪) 10,111,795 116 1,588,580

186 HUANG Junbi (1898-1991) 黃君璧 10,051,378 313 319,410

188 FU Shan (1607-1684) 傅山 9,945,247 23 3,890,400

189 HE Jiaying (1957) 何家英 9,919,579 54 859,130

190 ZHOU Sicong (1939-1996) 周思聪 9,888,000 174 1,377,850

191 ZHU Ming (1938) 朱銘 9,699,670 94 1,224,549

196 JIN Nong (1687-1763) 金農 9,367,369 48 1,732,040

200 LIU Danzhai (1931-2011) 刘旦宅 9,177,422 134 1,339,060

 

Page 88 (15 Chinese artists) 第88頁15位中國畫家

 

201 LI Xiongcai (1910-2001) 黎雄才 9,162,598 191 788,160

208 YA Ming (1924-2002) 亚明 8,916,735 251 1,172,160

215 BAI Xueshi (1915-2011) 白雪石 8,571,042 164 456,119

217 LEE Man Fong (1913-1988) 李曼峰 8,494,019 61 3,735,200

218 HONG Ren (1610-1663) 弘仁 8,467,043 5 7,542,300

221 FENG Zikai (1898-1975) 豐子愷 8,411,283 175 437,670

223 SONG Wenzhi (1919-1999) 宋文治 8,326,290 244 469,151

224 XU Lei (1963) 徐累 8,312,432 26 2,606,400

225 WANG Yidong (1955) 王沂東 8,284,639 30 1,458,900

227 WANG Mingming (1952) 王明明 8,207,562 130 453,600

234 JIA Youfu (1942) 賈又福 7,873,366 79 1,864,150

236 WU Zuoren (1908-1997) 吳作人 7,832,988 148 636,090

237 FAN Yang (1955) 范揚 7,806,488 233 243,750

242 WANG Yuanqi (1642-1715) 王原祁 7,678,320 39 1,465,200

250 AI Xuan (1947) 艾轩 7,467,339 43 749,800

 

Page 89 (12 Chinese artists) 第89頁12位中國畫家

 

258 PAN Yuliang (1895-1977) 潘玉良 7,179,153 11 3,870,351

262 ZHAO Zhiqian (1829-1884) 趙之謙 7,060,825 66 1,160,099

265 TIAN Liming (1955) 田黎明 6,999,979 95 315,900

266 EMPEROR KANGXI (1654-1722) 康熙皇帝 6,937,669 14 3,258,000

268 SHI Lu (1919-1982) 石魯 6,852,847 49 1,021,230

271 TIAN Shiguang (1916-1999) 田世光 6,803,606 123 781,920

276 CHOU Ying (1493-1560) 仇英 6,632,784 50 1,823,360

279 DING Yanyong (1902-1978) 丁衍庸 6,584,807 181 592,939

291 GUO Moruo (1892-1978) 郭沫若 6,218,480 61 1,102,280

294 XU Bing (1955) 徐冰 6,130,422 30 1,167,120

297 SHEN Zhou (1427-1509) 沈周 6,066,002 28 1,798,500

299 SHEN Yinmo (1883-1971) 沈尹默 6,003,213 185 1,218,750

 

Page 90 (14 Chinese artists) 第90頁14位中國畫家

 

303 YUE Minjun (1962) 岳敏君 5,851,974 22 1,296,800

306 ZHAO Shao'Ang (1905-1998) 趙少昂 5,809,681 247 259,520

309 XUE Liang (1956) 薛亮 5,717,377 95 1,103,640

316 CHEONG Soo Pieng (1917-1983) 钟泗滨 5,566,836 55 631,609

323 ZHANG Ruitu (1570-1641) 張瑞圖 5,495,433 30 761,870

328 CHEN Hongshou (1598-1652) 陳洪绶 5,458,659 20 1,945,200

329 REN Zhong (1976) 任重 5,452,237 56 423,540

331 ZHU Qizhan (1892-1996) 朱屺瞻 5,417,335 209 260,000

332 ZHAO Puchu (1907-2000) 趙樸初 5,382,881 175 486,300

336 WANG Jian (1598-1677) 王鑒 5,309,438 23 3,811,700

339 YANG Shanshen (1913-2004) 楊善深 5,279,455 184 1,427,360

341 KANG Youwei (1858-1927) 康有為 5,199,080 113 324,200

343 GU Wenda (1955) 谷文達 5,179,178 42 1,119,180

345 LIU Ye (1964) 劉野 5,117,193 34 891,550

 

Page 91 (18 Chinese artists) 第91頁18位中國畫家

 

351 PU Guang (XIII -XIV) 溥光 4,944,050 1 4,944,050

352 HE Shaoji (1799-1873) 何绍基 4,912,933 136 747,500

355 LIU Jiyou (1918-1983) 劉繼卣 4,891,144 108 399,595

358 CHEN Dayu (1912-2001) 陳大羽 4,855,807 247 454,160

365 SHI Tao (1642-1707) 石濤 4,796,775 27 2,269,400

368 ZHU Meicun (1911-1993) 朱梅邨 4,776,671 117 570,150

369 JIA Aili (1979) 贾蔼力 4,758,253 8 1,262,240

370 XI Dejin (1923-1981) 席德進 4,740,558 89 227,080

373 SHEN Peng (1931) 沈鹏 4,670,229 160 701,330

374 AI Weiwei (1957) 艾未未 4,663,696 32 966,749

375 XU Lele (1955) 徐樂樂 4,628,253 155 210,730

383 YE Qianyu (1907-1995) 葉淺予 4,530,685 118 356,620

389 ZHU Yunming (1460-1526) 祝允明 4,462,454 14 1,629,000

393 LI Jin (1958) 李津 4,372,647 94 212,160

394 ZHAN Wang (1962) 展望 4,360,124 13 2,709,000

395 FANG Chuxiong (1950) 方楚雄 4,355,333 148 262,080

397 LU Yushun (1962) 盧禹舜 4,336,840 61 884,520

399 CHEN Wenxi (1906-1991) 陳文希 4,242,709 71 1,095,650

 

Page 92 (13 Chinese artists) 第92頁13位中國畫家

 

402 CHENG Conglin (1954) 程叢林 4,177,932 3 4,052,500

404 TAO Lengyue (1895-1985) 陶冷月 4,141,462 138 457,240

405 HE Duoling (1948) 何多苓 4,131,489 12 1,419,000

409 LONG Rui (1946) 龍瑞 4,047,039 66 956,980

416 LU Yifei (1908-1997) 陸抑非 3,995,369 121 791,293

425 ZHANG Shanzi (1882-1940) 張善孖 3,840,085 90 324,200

428 WANG Guangyi (1957) 王廣義 3,799,843 37 1,167,120

430 WEI Zixi (1915-2002) 魏紫熙 3,791,768 120 235,190

432 YUN Shouping (1633-1690) 惲壽平 3,784,559 78 541,800

437 PAN Gongkai (1947) 潘公凯 3,737,332 16 2,141,040

443 SHA Menghai (1900-1992) 沙孟海 3,702,566 132 293,940

446 HUANG Shen (1687-c.1773) 黃慎 3,685,764 49 425,100

450 LIN Yong (1942) 林墉 3,650,618 117 259,360

 

Page 93 (15 Chinese artists) 第93頁15位中國畫家

 

456 LIAO Chi-Chun (1902-1976) 廖繼春 3,625,280 9 1,252,033

461 LI Shan (1686-1760) 李鱓 3,569,789 38 652,800

462 LAN Ying (1585-c.1664) 蓝瑛 3,562,896 42 438,210

464 YANG Zhiguang (1930) 楊之光 3,525,002 119 195,840

468 ZHANG Enli (1965) 张恩利 3,497,596 12 708,949

471 YANG Feiyun (1954) 杨飞云 3,467,338 14 734,400

472 ZHOU Jingxin (1959) 周京新 3,445,045 113 519,040

475 JIANG Hanting (1904-1963) 江寒汀 3,408,711 125 300,625

476 WANG Ziwu (1936) 王子武 3,404,947 51 653,200

478 LE PHO (1907-2001) 黎譜 3,396,747 96 696,059

479 LIU Yi (1957) 刘溢 3,370,316 20 615,980

481 NI Yuanlu (1593-1644) 倪元璐 3,350,382 10 1,100,000

492 CHIU Ya Tsai (1949-2013) 邱亞才 3,288,319 53 180,459

498 WEN Jia (1501-1583) 文嘉 3,261,051 17 1,986,160

500 WU Dayu (1903-1988) 吴大羽 3,248,689 9 772,800

 

資料來源: 法國 Art price 2014 年全世界藝術市場報告書第 84-93 頁 2014 年全世界拍賣總收入結果前 500 名畫家.

 

Source: The Art Market in 2014 Page 84-93 Top 500 artists by auction revenue in 2014 by Art price

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

99 Fine Chinese Paintings and 12 Antiques in 2013

2013 年 99 幅中國書畫及 12 件古董精品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

 

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

  

99 Paintings 書畫 12 Antiques 古董

  

Works of Art List 藝術作品名錄

  

Paintings 書畫作品

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

  

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhang Daqian Happy Birthday to Chairman Chang Kaishek of the Government inscribed by Yu Youren 張大千作于右任題大觀高仕祝壽圖手卷

2. Zhang Daqian After the Rising and Warm Green Mountains by Huang Gongwang with Calligraphy 張大千作擬元代黃公望浮巒暖翠山水圖及書法立軸

3. Zhang Daqian Splashed Landscape Fuchun Mountain 張大千作富春山居潑彩山水圖

4. Zhang Daqian Mountain Emei May Be Crossed On Top 張大千作可以橫絕峨嵋巔潑彩山水圖

5. Zhang Daqian A Bird’s-eye View on Taiwan Cross-Island Road near Herhuan 張大千作台灣橫貫公路合歡山鳥瞰金碧潑彩山水圖

6. Zhang Daqian 18 Luohan Disciples Appointed to Witness to Buddhist Truth handscroll 張大千作十八羅漢圖手卷

7. Zhang Daqian The Dreamland of Mountain Qingcheng in Heavenly Place 張大千作夢入靑城天下幽人間仙境圖

8. Zhang Daqian The Heavenly Place in Mankind World 張大千作人家在仙堂潑彩山水圖

9. Zhang Daqian Sun is Rising and Darkness is Fallen allover the Mountain with Calligraphy 張大千作天開影墮潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

10. Zhang Daqian Painting the Elder Bintourlu after Technique of Song Dynasty 張大千作倣宋人畫賓頭盧尊者像

11. Zhang Daqian Listening to the Springs below the Mountains handscroll 張大千作山水生風聽泉入山麓金碧潑彩山水圖手卷

12. Zhang Daqian Waterfall in a Quiet Mountain Valley with Calligraphy 張大千作幽谷飛瀑潑彩山水圖及書法對聯

13. Zhang Daqian Recalling the Beautiful Scenery of Mountain Huang in China 張大千作遙思黃山故景潑彩山水圖

14. Zhang Daqian Splashed Colour Landscape of Beautiful Mountain Qingcheng 張大千作青城天下幽潑彩山水圖

15. Zhang Daqian Golden Outline Red Lotus and a Flying Bird 張大千作香清鈎金紅荷翔鳥圖

16. Zhang Daqian One Flower in One World White Lotus and attached calligraphy 張大千作一花一世界白荷花圖及書法立軸

17. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan Bamboos Parrot Hairpin in Tang’s Clothes 張大千作仿莫高窟初唐人衣飾鸚鵡簪髮飾新篁紈扇仕女圖

18. Zhang Daqian Beauty in Red Hair-kerchief Wooden Shoes White Robe Bamboos 張大千作脩竹紅髮巾木屐白袍裸肩日本美女圖

19. Zhang Daqian Han Changli Composed a Lyric Poem Derived from Chu Dynasty 張大千作韓昌黎作楚語圖

20. Zhang Daqian Scholars Appreciating Maples 張大千作高仕賞楓圖

21. Zhang Daqian Black Cloud Covering on Top of Mt. Emei among Blue Cloud 張大千作可以橫絕峨眉巔黑雲滿布山頂藍雲環繞山間奇景潑墨兼潑彩山水圖

22. Zhang Daqian Dwelling in the Mountain by the Lake Wuting 張大千作五亭湖上山居潑彩山水圖

23. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1979 張大千1979年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

24. Zhang Daqian Spring Cloud and Morning Mist dated 1965 張大千1965年作春雲曉靄潑彩山水圖

25. Zhang Daqian Impressionistic Red Lotus 張大千作寫意紅荷圖

26. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Red Lotus and Double Mandarin Ducks 張大千作愛清氣鈎金紅荷花鴛鴦嘉耦潑彩圖

27. Zhang Daqian High Mountain and Deep Cloud 張大千作山高雲深山水圖

28. Zhang Daqian Golden Outlined Landscape 張大千作金碧山水圖

29. Zhang Daqian Lady with a Fan and Bamboos in Splashed Colors 張大千作潑彩竹葉紈扇仕女圖

30. Zhang Daqian Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作七言書法對聯

31. Zhang Daqian Six Character Calligraphy Couplet 張大千作六言書法對聯

32. Zhang Daqian Splashed Color Golden Outlined Red Lotus on Gold Sheet 張大千作金箋潑彩描金紅荷花圖

  

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

 

1. Qi Baishi Lotus Fish Frogs Shrimps and Crabs handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 齊白石作張大千題香清荷花魚蛙蝦蟹圖手卷

2. Qi Baishi The Ten Elder Men in the Legend of China 齊白石作十全老人神賢圖

3. Qi Baishi Lotus Double Mandarin Ducks and Love Shrimps 齊白石作荷花鴛鴦雙蝦佳偶圖

4. Qi Baishi Wealth and Powerful Honour are Both to Come 齊白石作富貴有期圖

5. Qi Baishi Lotus and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花群蝦圖

6. Qi Baishi A Lotus Pond and Shrimps 齊白石作荷花池塘群蝦圖

7. Qi Baishi A Spring Voice and Great Luck 齊白石作春聲大吉圖

8. Qi Baishi Eagle Perching on the Pine 齊白石作松鷹圖

9. Qi Baishi Prolonging Life Impressionistic Squirrel on Pine Red Peach Double Screens 齊白石作寫意松樹上松鼠與紅桃益壽圖對屏

  

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

 

1. Xu Beihong The Hard Water Drawing of the People Lived in Chongqing handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 徐悲鴻作張大千題巴人汲水圖手卷

2. Xu Beihong Jiufang Gao People in the Chinese Ancient Historical Poem 徐悲鴻作九方皋圖

3. Xu Beihong People in Chinese Ancient Historical Poem of Six Dynasties 徐悲鴻作六朝人詩意圖

4. Xu Beihong China the Wounded Lion Sat Watching American Flying Tiger 徐悲鴻作中國負傷之獅遙望美國飛虎飛將軍

5. Xu Beihong Lions and Snake 徐悲鴻作獅與蛇

6. Xu Beihong The Single Flying Eagle and the Lion 徐悲鴻作獨飛老鷹與獅子圖

7. Xu Beihong Lion and Eagle 徐悲鴻作獅子老鷹圖

8. Xu Beihong Prolonging Life Auspicious Cranes Ganoderma Lucidum Fungus 徐悲鴻作祥鶴靈芝延年益壽圖

 

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Guanzhong The People Live in Mali Village 吳冠中作馬里村頭人物風景圖

2. Wu Guanzhong The Dwellings by the River and Mountain in Southern China 吳冠中作江南民居風景圖

3. Wu Guanzhong The Lion Grove Garden (Lion Woods) 吳冠中作獅子林

4. Wu Guanzhong The Wu Gorge 吳冠中作巫峽魂

5. Wu Guanzhong Rocks by the Sea 吳冠中作海滨石

6. Wu Guanzhong The Single-Log Bridge 吳冠中作獨木橋

7. Wu Guanzhong Expressionistic Lotus 吳冠中作表現主義的荷花

 

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Fu Baoshi Hwan Shyua Showed Painting to Guests in East Jin Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Yu Youren 傅抱石作于右任題詩入畫中桓玄出畫圖手卷

2. Fu Baoshi The Nine Elders of the Poetry by Bai Juyi in Tang Dynasty handscroll inscribed by Xu Beihong 傅抱石作徐悲鴻題元氣淋漓九老圖手卷

3. Fu Baoshi Premier Xie An Brought Beauties to the East Shan Mountain handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 傅抱石作謝稚柳題春風綠揚東山攜妓圖手卷

 

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Li Keran The Landscape of River Li being Well-known Forever 李可染作漓江山水傳千古圖

 

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Lu Yanshao Spring and Rocks Landscape of Mountain Yandang 陸儼少作雁蕩泉石山水圖

 

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Zhou The Children and Father Sitting on the Back of Camels 黃冑作駱駝背上的小學生與父親

 

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Huang Binhong Landscape 黃賓虹作山水圖

2. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (1) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(1)

3. Huang Binhong Landscape Hanging Scroll (2) 黃賓虹作山水圖立軸(2)

 

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Wu Changshuo Annual Purely Floral and Fruity Tributes 吳昌碩作歲朝清供圖

 

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Lin Fengmian Five Naked Ladies 林風眠作五裸女圖

2. Lin Fengmian Two Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作二美與花瓶圖

3. Lin Fengmian Three Beautiful Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作三美與花瓶圖

4. Lin Fengmian Court Ladies and the Vase 林風眠作宮女與花瓶圖

 

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains handscroll inscribed by Xie Zhiliu 吳湖帆作謝稚柳題春風綠揚枝山居圖手卷

2. Wu Hufan Dwelling in the Mountains 吳湖帆作山居圖

3. Wu Hufan Landscape after Zhao Mengfu 吳湖帆作擬趙孟頫山水圖

4. Wu Hufan Seven Character Calligraphy Couplet 吳湖帆作七言書法對聯

 

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Xie Zhiliu Landscape in Windy Spirit 謝稚柳作生風抖擻山水圖

 

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

 

1. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (鏡片 mounted)

2. Huang Junbi High Mountains and Flowing Waters Landscape 黃君璧作高山流水山水圖 (立軸 hanging scroll)

 

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Pu Ru Green Mountain and White Cloud handscroll inscribed by Zhang Daqian 溥儒作張大千題青山白雲山水圖手卷

 

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tang Yun Birds and Flowers 唐雲作花鳥圖

 

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

 

1. Zhao Shao’Ang Flowers and Bird Double Screen 趙少昂作花鳥圖對屏

2. Zhao Shao’Ang Tall Willow Tree Morning Cicada Bamboos and Little Bird 趙少昂作高柳曉蟬竹葉小鳥圖

 

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. He Haixia Landscape 何海霞作山水圖

 

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Guan Shanyue Spring is coming to Southern Guangdong Landscape 關山月作春到南粵山水圖

 

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Zikai A Small Table Three Friends and Plum Blossoms 豐子愷作小桌三朋梅花圖

 

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

 

1. Yan Bolong Colorful Birds Flowers and Plants Four Screens 顏伯龍作彩鳥與花草小樹圖四條屏

 

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo Two Beautiful Horses 愛新覺羅溥佐作雙駿馬圖

 

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Yihong Beautiful Flowers Attracting Bees 高逸鴻作群花爭艷招蜂圖

 

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Tian Shiguang Flowers and Birds 田世光作花鳥圖

 

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Yuan Songnian Landscape 袁松年作山水圖

 

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Gao Qifeng Flowers and Bamboos 高奇峰作花竹圖

 

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Zhifo Wild Geese under Willow Shadow 陳之佛作柳蔭雁鴨圖

 

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Chen Banding Flowers and Birds 陳半丁 ( 陳年 ) 作花鳥圖

 

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Feng Chaoran Landscape 馮超然作山水圖

 

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

 

1. Zheng Banqiao Orchids Bamboos and Rocks 鄭板橋作蘭竹石圖

  

Works of Art 藝術品:

  

Antiques 古董

 

(1) 古董 Antiques (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Bronze Money-Shaking Fortune Tree Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝青銅搖錢樹

2. A Gilt-Bronze Guanyin Bodhisattva Figure Tang Dynasty China 中國唐朝銅鎏金觀音菩薩造像

 

(2) 玉 Jades (8 件/pcs)

 

1. A White Jade Pig-and-Bird-Winged Dragon Winged Mythical Beast Hongshan Culture China 中國紅山文化古白玉雕豬鳥翼形龍

2. A White Jade Persian Face Elephant Puzzle Han Dynasty China 中國漢朝古玉雕波斯人面大象紋益智拼圖

3. A Green Jade Sword Token of Imperial Authority by Emperor Shang Dynasty China 中國商朝古青玉雕玉劍令牌

4. A Jade Fish Wine-Cup Western Zhou Dynasty China 中國西周古玉雕魚形酒杯

5. A Red Jade Military Token Qing Dynasty China 中國清朝古紅玉雕軍事玉令牌

6. A White Jade Cavalrymen War Horses Halberds of Middle Sizes Militarism Worship Cong of the First Emperor of Qin 中國東周戰國至秦朝時期古白玉雕騎兵戰馬中戟紋秦始皇帝崇武玉琮

7. A Pale Celadon Greenish White Jade Linking Nipple Grain Phoenix Twisted Ropes Heaven Worship Bi of Nation Chu 中國東周戰國時期古青白玉淺浮雕勾連乳丁穀紋鳳紋扭繩紋楚國祭天玉璧

8. A Celadon Green Jade Twisted Ropes Triple Sitting Hornless Dragons Green-Dragon-Son-of-Heaven Pendant 中國西周時期古青玉雕扭繩紋三盤螭龍青龍天子珮

 

(3) 羊脂白玉 Mutton Fat White Jades (2 件/pcs)

 

1. A Mutton Fat White Jade Linking Clouds Royal Dragon Pendant Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢古羊脂白玉透空圓雕勾連雲紋龍形珮

2. A Coincident Carved Khotan Russet Skin Mutton Fat White Jade Sitting Double-humped Camel Western Han Dynasty China 中國西漢和闐黑棗皮古羊脂白玉巧雕坐姿雙峯駱駝

  

Taiwan Web Museum

A Free Exhibition Museum in the Internet World

 

台灣網路藝術美術博物館

網路世界裡的免費博物館

 

台湾网络艺术美术博物馆

网络世界里的免费博物馆

 

Free Website to See Paintings by Chinese Artists Listed in 2011 World Auction Revenue Top 30 and Rare Archaic Chinese Ancient Antiques

 

觀賞2011年列名世界拍賣總收入前30名中國畫家名畫作品及中國古代罕見的古董之免費網址

 

Welcome to identify your Chinese Paintings and Works of Art! Our help is free of charge!

歡迎辨識您的中國書畫及藝術品! 我們的協助是免費的!

  

++++++ from Wikipedia ++++++

 

Taipei (/ˌtaɪˈpeɪ/), officially known as Taipei City, is the capital city and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC"). Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City. It is about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located on the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.[5] Formerly known as Taipeh-fu during Qing era and Taihoku under Japanese rule, Taipei became the capital of the Taiwan Province as part of the Republic of China in 1945 and recently has been the capital[a] of the ROC since 1949, when the Kuomintang lost the mainland to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.

 

The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,704,810 in 2015,[6] forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelung with a population of 7,047,559,[6][7] the 40th most-populous urban area in the world—roughly one-third of Taiwanese citizens live in the metro district. The name "Taipei" can refer either to the whole metropolitan area or the city proper.

 

Taipei is the political, economic, educational, and cultural center of Taiwan island, and one of the major hubs of Greater China. Considered to be a global city,[8] Taipei is part of a major high-tech industrial area.[9] Railways, high-speed rail, highways, airports, and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan and Taiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famous architectural or cultural landmarks which include Taipei 101, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing Tian Kong, Lungshan Temple of Manka, National Palace Museum, Presidential Office Building, Taipei Guest House, Ximending, and several night markets dispersing over the city. Its natural features such as Maokong, Yangmingshan, and hot springs are also well known to international visitors.

 

As the capital city, "Taipei" is sometimes used as a synecdoche for the Republic of China. Due to the ongoing controversy over the political status of Taiwan, the name Chinese Taipei is designated for official use when Taiwanese governmental representatives or national teams participate in some international organizations or international sporting events (which may require UN statehood) in order to avoid extensive political controversy by using other names.

 

Contents

 

1 History

1.1 First settlements

1.2 Empire of Japan

1.3 Republic of China

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

2.2 Air quality

2.3 Cityscape

3 Demographics

4 Economy

5 Culture

5.1 Tourism

5.1.1 Commemorative sites and museums

5.1.2 Taipei 101

5.1.3 Performing arts

5.1.4 Shopping and recreation

5.1.5 Temples

5.2 Festivals and events

5.3 Taipei in films

6 Romanization

7 Government

7.1 Garbage recycling

7.2 Administrative divisions

7.3 City planning

8 Transportation

8.1 Metro

8.2 Rail

8.3 Bus

8.4 Airports

8.5 Ticketing

9 Education

9.1 Chinese language program for foreigners

10 Sports

10.1 Major sporting events

10.2 Youth baseball

11 Media

11.1 Television

11.2 Newspapers

12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12.2 Partner cities

12.3 Friendship cities

13 Gallery

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

17 External links

 

History

Main article: History of Taipei

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument and tourist attraction in Taipei.

 

Prior to the significant influx of Han Chinese immigrants, the region of Taipei Basin was mainly inhabited by the Ketagalan plains aborigines. The number of Han immigrants gradually increased in the early 18th century under Qing Dynasty rule after the government began permitting development in the area.[10] In 1875, the northern part of the island was incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture.

 

The Qing dynasty of China made Taipeh the temporary capital of Fujian-Taiwan Province in 1886 when Taiwan was separated from Fujian Province.[11][12] Taipeh was formally made the provincial capital in 1894.

 

Japan acquired Taiwan in 1895 under the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. Taiwan became a colony of Imperial Japan with Taihoku (formerly Taipeh) as its capital, in which the city was administered under Taihoku Prefecture. Taiwan's Japanese rulers embarked on an extensive program of advanced urban planning that featured extensive railroad links. A number of Taipei landmarks and cultural institutions date from this period.[13]

 

Following the Japanese surrender of 1945, control of Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China (ROC) (see Retrocession Day). After losing mainland China to the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) relocated the ROC government to Taiwan and declared Taipei the provisional capital of the ROC in December 1949.[14][15] In 1990 Taipei provided the backdrop for the Wild Lily student rallies that moved Taiwanese society from one-party rule to multi-party democracy. The city is today home to Taiwan's democratically elected national government.

First settlements

 

The region known as the Taipei Basin was home to Ketagalan tribes before the eighteenth century.[16] Han Chinese mainly from Fujian Province of Qing dynasty China began to settle in the Taipei Basin in 1709.[17][18]

 

In the late 19th century, the Taipei area, where the major Han Chinese settlements in northern Taiwan and one of the designated overseas trade ports, Tamsui, were located, gained economic importance due to the booming overseas trade, especially that of tea export. In 1875, the northern part of Taiwan was separated from Taiwan Prefecture and incorporated into the new Taipeh Prefecture as a new administrative entity of the Qing dynasty.[13] Having been established adjoining the flourishing townships of Bangka, Dalongdong, and Twatutia, the new prefectural capital was known as Chengnei (Chinese: 城內; pinyin: chéngnèi; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: siâⁿ-lāi), "the inner city", and government buildings were erected there. From 1875 (still Qing era) until the beginning of Japanese rule in 1895, Taipei was part of Tamsui County of Taipeh Prefecture and the prefectural capital.

 

In 1885, work commenced to create an independent Taiwan Province, and Taipei City was temporarily made the provincial capital. Taipei officially became the capital of Taiwan in 1894.[citation needed] All that remains from the Qing era is the north gate. The west gate and city walls were demolished by the Japanese while the south gate, little south gate, and east gate were extensively modified by the Kuomintang (KMT) and have lost much of their original character.[19]

Empire of Japan

The Taihoku Prefecture government building in the 1910s (now the Control Yuan)

 

As settlement for losing the First Sino-Japanese War, China ceded the island of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan in 1895 as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. After the Japanese take-over, Taipei, called Taihoku in Japanese, was retained as the capital and emerged as the political center of the Japanese Colonial Government.[13] During that time the city acquired the characteristics of an administrative center, including many new public buildings and housing for civil servants. Much of the architecture of Taipei dates from the period of Japanese rule, including the Presidential Building which was the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan.

 

During Japanese rule, Taihoku was incorporated in 1920 as part of Taihoku Prefecture. It included Bangka, Twatutia, and Jōnai (城內) among other small settlements. The eastern village of Matsuyama (松山庄, modern-day Songshan District, Taipei) was annexed into Taihoku City in 1938. Upon the Japanese defeat in the Pacific War and its consequent surrender in August 1945, the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) assumed control of Taiwan. Subsequently, a temporary Office of the Taiwan Province Administrative Governor was established in Taipei City.[20]

Republic of China

With President Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to a crowd during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

 

In 1947 the KMT government under Chiang Kai-shek declared island-wide martial law in Taiwan as a result of the February 28 Incident, which began with incidents in Taipei but led to an island-wide crackdown on the local population by forces loyal to Chiang. Two years later, on December 7, 1949, Chiang and the Kuomintang were forced to flee mainland China by the Communists near the end of the Chinese Civil War. The refugees declared Taipei to be the provisional capital of a continuing Republic of China, with the official capital at Nanjing (Nanking) even though that city was under Communist control.[14][15]

 

Taipei expanded greatly in the decades after 1949, and as approved on December 30, 1966 by the Executive Yuan, Taipei was declared a special centrally administered municipality on July 1, 1967 and given the administrative status of a province.[18] In the following year, Taipei City expanded again by annexing Shilin, Beitou, Neihu, Nangang, Jingmei, and Muzha. At that time, the city's total area increased fourfold through absorbing several outlying towns and villages and the population increased to 1.56 million people.[18]

 

The city's population, which had reached one million in the early 1960s, also expanded rapidly after 1967, exceeding two million by the mid-1970s. Although growth within the city itself gradually slowed thereafter[20] — its population had become relatively stable by the mid-1990s — Taipei remained one of the world's most densely populated urban areas, and the population continued to increase in the region surrounding the city, notably along the corridor between Taipei and Keelung.

 

In 1990 Taipei's 16 districts were consolidated into the current 12 districts.[21] Mass democracy rallies that year in the plaza around Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall led to an island-wide transition to multi-party democracy, where legislators are chosen via regularly scheduled popular elections, during the presidency of Lee Teng-Hui.

Geography

The city of Taipei, as seen from Maokong.

 

Taipei City is located in the Taipei Basin in northern Taiwan.[22] It is bordered by the Xindian River on the south and the Tamsui River on the west. The generally low-lying terrain of the central areas on the western side of the municipality slopes upward to the south and east and especially to the north,[5] where it reaches 1,120 metres (3,675 ft) at Qixing Mountain, the highest (inactive) volcano in Taiwan in Yangmingshan National Park. The northern districts of Shilin and Beitou extend north of the Keelung River and are bordered by Yangmingshan National Park. The Taipei city limits cover an area of 271.7997 km2,[23] ranking sixteenth of twenty-five among all counties and cities in Taiwan.

 

Two peaks, Qixing Mountain and Mt. Datun, rise to the northeast of the city.[24] Qixing Mountain is located on the Tatun Volcano Group and the tallest mountain at the rim of the Taipei Basin, with its main peak at 1,120 metres (3,670 ft). Mt. Datun's main peak is 1,092 metres (3,583 ft). These former volcanoes make up the western section of Yangmingshan National Park, extending from Mt. Datun northward to Mt. Caigongkeng (菜公坑山). Located on a broad saddle between two mountains, the area also contains the marshy Datun Pond.

 

To the southeast of the city lie the Songshan Hills and the Qingshui Ravine, which form a barrier of lush woods.[24]

Climate

 

Taipei has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate[25][26][27] (Köppen: Cfa).[28] Summers are long-lasting, hot and humid, and accompanied by occasional heavy rainstorms and typhoons, while winters are short, generally warm and generally very foggy due to the northeasterly winds from the vast Siberian High being intensified by the pooling of this cooler air in the Taipei Basin. As in the rest of Northern Taiwan, daytime temperatures of Taipei can often peak above 26 degrees Celsius during a warm winter day, while they can dip below 26 degrees Celsius during a rainy summer's afternoon. Occasional cold fronts during the winter months can drop the daily temperature by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius, though temperatures rarely drop below 10 degrees Celsius.[29] Extreme temperatures ranged from −0.2 °C (31.6 °F) on February 13, 1901 to 39.3 °C (102.7 °F) on August 8, 2013, while snow has never been recorded in the city besides on mountains located within the city limit such as Mount Yangmingshan. Due to Taiwan's location in the Pacific Ocean, it is affected by the Pacific typhoon season, which occurs between June and October.

 

Air quality

 

When compared to other Asian cities, Taipei has "excellent" capabilities for managing air quality in the city.[31] Its rainy climate, location near the coast, and strong environmental regulations have prevented air pollution from becoming a substantial health issue, at least compared to cities in southeast Asia and industrial China. However, smog is extremely common and there is poor visibility throughout the city after rain-less days.

 

Motor vehicle engine exhaust, particularly from motor scooters, is a source of air pollution in Taipei. There are higher levels of fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mornings because of less air movement; sunlight reduces some pollution.[32] Occasionally, dust storms from Mainland China can temporarily bring extremely poor air quality to the city.[33]

Cityscape

Taipei viewed from Tiger Mountain, with Taipei 101 on the left.

Demographics

 

Taipei City is home to 2,704,810 people (2015), while the metropolitan area has a population of 7,047,559 people.[6] The population of the city has been decreasing in recent years while the population of the adjacent New Taipei has been increasing. The population loss, while rapid in its early years, has been stabilized by new lower density development and campaigns designed to increase birthrate in the city. The population has begun to rise since 2010.[6][34][35]

 

Due to Taipei's geography and location in the Taipei Basin as well as differing times of economic development of its districts, Taipei's population is not evenly distributed. The districts of Daan, Songshan, and Datong are the most densely populated. These districts, along with adjacent communities such as Yonghe and Zhonghe contain some of the most densely populated neighborhoods in the world.[34]

 

In 2008, the crude birth rate stood at 7.88% while the mortality rate stood at 5.94%. A decreasing and rapidly aging population is an important issue for the city.[34] By the end of 2009, one in ten people in Taipei was over 65 years of age.[36] Residents who had obtained a college education or higher accounted for 43.48% of the population, and the literacy rate stood at 99.18%.[34]

 

Like the rest of Taiwan, Taipei is composed of four major ethnic groups: Hoklos, Mainlanders, Hakkas, and aborigines.[34] Although Hoklos and Mainlanders form the majority of the population of the city, in recent decades many Hakkas have moved into the city. The aboriginal population in the city stands at 12,862 (<0.5%), concentrated mostly in the suburban districts. Foreigners (mainly from Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines) numbered 52,426 at the end of 2008.[34]

 

Economy

 

As the center of Taiwan's largest conurbation, Taipei has been at the center of rapid economic development in the country and has now become one of the global cities in the production of high technology and its components.[37] This is part of the so-called Taiwan Miracle which has seen dramatic growth in the city following foreign direct investment in the 1960s. Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding one of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves of over US$403 billion as of December 2012.[38]

 

Despite the Asian financial crisis, the economy continues to expand at about 5% per year, with virtually full employment and low inflation. As of 2013, the nominal GDP per capita in Taipei city is lower than that in Hong Kong by a narrow margin according to The Economist(Nominal GDP per capita in HK is US$38181 in 2013 from IMF).[39] Furthermore, according to Financial times, GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity(PPP) in Taipei in 2015 is 44173 USD, behind that in Singapore(US$48900 from IMF) and Hong Kong(US$56689 from IMF).[40]

 

Taipei and its environs have long been the foremost industrial area of Taiwan, consisting of industries of the secondary and tertiary sectors.[41] Most of the country's important factories producing textiles and apparel are located there; other industries include the manufacture of electronic products and components, electrical machinery and equipment, printed materials, precision equipment, and foods and beverages. Such companies include Shihlin Electric, CipherLab and Insyde Software. Shipbuilding, including yachts and other pleasure craft, is done in the port of Keelung northeast of the city.

 

Services, including those related to commerce, transportation, and banking, have become increasingly important. Tourism is a small but significant component of the local economy[42][43] with international visitors totaling almost 3 million in 2008.[44] Taipei has many top tourist attractions and contributes a significant amount to the US$6.8 billion tourism industry in Taiwan.[45] National brands such as ASUS,[46] Chunghwa Telecom,[47] Mandarin Airlines,[48] Tatung,[49] and Uni Air,[50][51] D-Link [52] are headquartered in Taipei City.

Culture

Tourism

See also: List of tourist attractions in Taipei

 

Tourism is a major part of Taipei's economy. In 2013, over 6.3 million overseas visitors visited Taipei, making the city the 15th most visited globally.[53] The influx of visitors contributed $10.8 billion USD to the city's economy in 2013, the 9th highest in the world and the most of any city in the Chinese-speaking world.[54]

Commemorative sites and museums

The National Palace Museum

 

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark and tourist attraction that was erected in memory of General Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China.[55] The structure stands at the east end of Memorial Hall Square, site of the National Concert Hall and National Theater and their adjacent parks as well as the memorial. The landmarks of Liberty Square stand within sight of Taiwan's Presidential Building in Taipei's Zhongzheng District.

The National Taiwan Museum

 

The National Taiwan Museum sits nearby in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park and has worn its present name since 1999. The museum is Taiwan's oldest, founded on October 24, 1908 by Taiwan's Japanese colonial government (1895-1945) as the Taiwan Governor's Museum. It was launched with a collection of 10,000 items to celebrate the opening of the island's North-South Railway.[56] In 1915 a new museum building opened its doors in what is now 228 Peace Memorial Park. This structure and the adjacent governor's office (now Presidential Office Building), served as the two most recognizable public buildings in Taiwan during its period of Japanese rule.[56]

Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines

 

The National Palace Museum is a vast art gallery and museum built around a permanent collection centered on ancient Chinese artifacts. It should not be confused with the Palace Museum in Beijing (which it is named after); both institutions trace their origins to the same institution. The collections were divided in the 1940s as a result of the Chinese Civil War.[57][58] The National Palace Museum in Taipei now boasts a truly international collection while housing one of the world's largest collections of artifacts from ancient China.[58]

 

The Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines stands just 200 metres across the road from the National Palace Museum. The museum offers displays of art and historical items by Taiwanese aborigines along with a range of multimedia displays.

 

The Taipei Fine Arts Museum was established in 1983 as the first museum in Taiwan dedicated to modern art. The museum is housed in a building designed for the purpose that takes inspiration from Japanese designs. Most art in the collection is by Taiwanese artists since 1940. Over 3,000 art works are organized into 13 groups.

 

The National Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101 in Xinyi District is named in honor of a founding father of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen. The hall, completed on May 16, 1972, originally featured exhibits that depicted revolutionary events in China at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Today it functions as multi-purpose social, educational, concert and cultural center for Taiwan's citizens.[59]

Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei, aka "old city hall"

 

In 2001 a new museum opened as Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei. The museum is housed in a building that formerly housed Taipei City government offices.[60]

Night view of a fully lit Taipei 101

Taipei 101

 

Taipei 101 is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper that claimed the title of world's tallest building when it opened in 2004, a title it held for six years before relinquishing it to the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners and constructed by KTRT Joint Venture, Taipei 101 measures 509 m (1,670 ft) from ground to top, making it the first skyscraper in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height. Built to withstand typhoon winds and earthquake tremors, its design incorporates many engineering innovations and has won numerous international awards. Taipei 101 remains one of the tallest skyscrapers in the world and holds LEED's certification as the world's largest "green" building. Its shopping mall and its indoor and outdoor observatories draw visitors from all over the world. Taipei 101's New Year's Eve fireworks display is a regular feature of international broadcasts.

Performing arts

Taiwan's National Concert Hall at night

 

The National Theater and Concert Hall stand at Taipei's Liberty Square and host events by foreign and domestic performers. Other leading concert venues include Zhongshan Hall at Ximending and the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall near Taipei 101.

 

A new venue, the Taipei Performing Arts Center, is under construction and slated to open in 2015.[61][62] The venue will stand near the Shilin Night Market[63] and will house three theaters for events with multi-week runs. The architectural design, by Rem Koolhaas and OMA, was determined in 2009 in an international competition.[64] The same design process is also in place for a new Taipei Center for Popular Music and Taipei City Museum.[65]

Shopping and recreation

Main article: Shopping in Taipei

 

Taipei is known for its many night markets, the most famous of which is the Shilin Night Market in the Shilin District. The surrounding streets by Shilin Night Market are extremely crowded during the evening, usually opening late afternoon and operating well past midnight. Most night markets feature individual stalls selling a mixture of food, clothing, and consumer goods.

The busy streets of Ximending at night

 

Ximending has been a famous area for shopping and entertainment since the 1930s. Historic structures include a concert hall, a historic cinema, and the Red House Theater. Modern structures house karaoke businesses, art film cinemas, wide-release movie cinemas, electronic stores, and a wide variety of restaurants and fashion clothing stores.[66] The pedestrian area is especially popular with teens and has been called the "Harajuku" of Taipei.[67]

Eastern district at night

 

The newly developed Xinyi District is popular with tourists and locals alike for its many entertainment and shopping venues, as well as being the home of Taipei 101, a prime tourist attraction. Malls in the area include the sprawling Shin Kong Mitsukoshi complex, Breeze Center, Bellavita, Taipei 101 mall, Eslite Bookstore's flagship store (which includes a boutique mall), The Living Mall, ATT shopping mall, and the Vieshow Cinemas (formerly known as Warner Village). The Xinyi district also serves as the center of Taipei's active nightlife, with several popular lounge bars and nightclubs concentrated in a relatively small area around the Neo19, ATT 4 FUN and Taipei 101 buildings. Lounge bars such as Barcode and nightclubs such as Spark and Myst are among the most-visited places here.

Eslite Bookstore in Xinyi District

 

The thriving shopping area around Taipei Main Station includes the Taipei Underground Market and the original Shin Kong Mitsukoshi department store at Shin Kong Life Tower. Other popular shopping destinations include the Zhongshan Metro Mall, Dihua Street, the Guang Hua Digital Plaza, and the Core Pacific City. The Miramar Entertainment Park is known for its large Ferris wheel and IMAX theater.

 

Taipei maintains an extensive system of parks, green spaces, and nature preserves. Parks and forestry areas of note in and around the city include Yangmingshan National Park, Taipei Zoo and Da-an Forest Park. Yangmingshan National Park (located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the central city) is famous for its cherry blossoms, hot springs, and sulfur deposits. It is the home of famous writer Lin Yutang, the summer residence of Chiang Kai-shek, residences of foreign diplomats, the Chinese Culture University, the meeting place of the now defunct National Assembly of the Republic of China, and the Kuomintang Party Archives. The Taipei Zoo was founded in 1914 and covers an area of 165 hectares for animal sanctuary.

 

Bitan is known for boating and water sports. Tamsui is a popular sea-side resort town. Ocean beaches are accessible in several directions from Taipei.

Temples

Built in 1738, Longshan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the city.

Street corner shrine, Taipei 2013

 

Taipei is rich in beautiful, ornate temples housing Buddhist, Taoist, and Chinese folk religion deities. The Longshan Temple, built in 1738 and located in the Wanhua District, demonstrates an example of architecture with southern Chinese influences commonly seen on older buildings in Taiwan.

 

Xinsheng South Road is known as the "Road to Heaven" due to its high concentration of temples, shrines, churches, and mosques.[68][69] Other famous temples include Baoan Temple located in historic Dalongdong, a national historical site, and Xiahai City God Temple, located in the old Dadaocheng community, constructed with architecture similar to temples in southern Fujian.[70] The Taipei Confucius Temple traces its history back to 1879 during the Qing Dynasty and also incorporates southern Fujian-style architecture.[71]

 

Besides large temples, small outdoor shrines to local deities are very common and can be spotted on road sides, parks, and neighborhoods. Many homes and businesses may also set up small shrines of candles, figurines, and offerings. Some restaurants, for example, may set up a small shrine to the Kitchen god for success in a restaurant business.[72]

New Year's Eve fireworks at Taipei 101

Festivals and events

 

Many yearly festivals are held in Taipei. In recent years some festivals, such as the Double Ten Day fireworks and concerts, are increasingly hosted on a rotating basis by a number of cities around Taiwan.

 

When New Year's Eve arrives on the solar calendar, thousands of people converge on Taipei's Xinyi District for parades, outdoor concerts by popular artists, street shows, round-the clock nightlife. The high point is of course the countdown to midnight, when Taipei 101 assumes the role of the world's largest fireworks platform.

 

The Taipei Lantern Festival concludes the Lunar New Year holiday. The timing of the city's lantern exhibit coincides with the national festival in Pingxi, when thousands of fire lanterns are released into the sky.[73] The city's lantern exhibit rotates among different downtown locales from year to year, including Liberty Square, Taipei 101, and Zhongshan Hall in Ximending.

 

On Double Ten Day, patriotic celebrations are held in front of the Presidential Building. Other annual festivals include Ancestors Day (Tomb-Sweeping Day), the Dragon Boat Festival, the Ghost Festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival).[73]

 

Taipei regularly hosts its share of international events. The city recently hosted the 2009 Summer Deaflympics.[74] This event was followed by the Taipei International Flora Exposition, a garden festival hosted from November 2010 to April 2011. The Floral Expo was the first of its kind to take place in Taiwan and only the seventh hosted in Asia; the expo admitted 110,000 visitors on February 27, 2011.

Taipei in films

  

Romanization

  

The spelling "Taipei" derives from the Wade–Giles romanization T'ai-pei.[75] The name could be also romanized as Táiběi according to Hanyu Pinyin and Tongyong Pinyin.[76][77]

Government

 

Taipei City is a special municipality which is directly under the Executive Yuan (Central Government) of ROC. The mayor of Taipei City had been an appointed position since Taipei's conversion to a centrally administered municipality in 1967 until the first public election was held in 1994.[78] The position has a four-year term and is elected by direct popular vote. The first elected mayor was Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party. Ma Ying-jeou took office in 1998 for two terms, before handing it over to Hau Lung-pin who won the 2006 mayoral election on December 9, 2006.[79] Both Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-Jeou went on to become President of the Republic of China. The incumbent mayor, Ko Wen-je, was elected on November 29, 2014 and took office on December 25, 2014.[80]

 

Based on the outcomes of previous elections in the past decade, the vote of the overall constituency of Taipei City shows a slight inclination towards the pro-KMT camp (the Pan-Blue Coalition);[81] however, the pro-DPP camp (the Pan-Green Coalition) also has considerable support.[82]

 

Ketagalan Boulevard, where the Presidential Office Building and other government structures are situated, is often the site of mass gatherings such as inauguration and national holiday parades, receptions for visiting dignitaries, political demonstrations,[83][84] and public festivals.[85]

Garbage recycling

 

Taipei City is also famous for its effort in garbage recycling, which has become such a good international precedent that other countries have sent teams to study the recycling system. After the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) established a program in 1998 combining the efforts of communities, a financial resource named the Recycling Fund was made available to recycling companies and waste collectors. Manufacturers, vendors and importers of recyclable waste pay fees to the Fund, which uses the money to set firm prices for recyclables and subsidize local recycling efforts. Between 1998 and 2008, the recycling rate increased from 6 percent to 32 percent.[86] This improvement enabled the government of Taipei to demonstrate its recycling system to the world at the Shanghai World Expo 2010.

Administrative divisions

 

Taipei City is divided up into 12 administrative districts (區 qu).[87] Each district is further divided up into urban villages (里), which are further sub-divided up into neighborhoods (鄰).

Map District Population

(Jan. 2016) Area

(km2) Postal

code

 

Beitou 北投區 Běitóu Pei-t'ou Pak-tâu 257,922 56.8216 112

Da'an 大安區 Dà'ān Ta-an Tāi-an 312,909 11.3614 106

Datong 大同區 Dàtóng Ta-t'ung Tāi-tông 131,029 5.6815 103

Nangang 南港區 Nángǎng Nan-kang Lâm-káng 122,296 21.8424 115

Neihu 內湖區 Nèihú Nei-hu Lāi-ô͘ 287,726 31.5787 114

Shilin 士林區 Shìlín Shih-lin Sū-lîm 290,682 62.3682 111

Songshan 松山區 Sōngshān Sung-shan Siông-san 209,689 9.2878 105

Wanhua 萬華區 Wànhuá Wan-hua Báng-kah 194,314 8.8522 108

Wenshan 文山區 Wénshān Wen-shan Bûn-san 275,433 31.5090 116

Xinyi 信義區 Xìnyì Hsin-yi Sìn-gī 229,139 11.2077 110

Zhongshan 中山區 Zhōngshān Chung-shan Tiong-san 231,286 13.6821 104

Zhongzheng 中正區 Zhōngzhèng Chung-cheng Tiong-chèng 162,549 7.6071 100

 

City planning

 

The city is characterized by straight roads and public buildings of grand Western architectural styles.[88] The city is built on a square grid configuration, however these blocks are huge by international standards with 500 m (1,640.42 ft) sides. The area in between these blocks are infilled with lanes and alleys, which provide access to quieter residential or mixed-use development. Other than a citywide 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) speed limit, there is little uniform planning within this "hidden" area; therefore lanes (perpendicular to streets) and alleys (parallel with street, or conceptually, perpendicular to the lane) spill out from the main throughways. These minor roads are not always perpendicular and sometimes cut through the block diagonally.

 

Although development began in the western districts (still considered the cultural heart of the city) of the city due to trade, the eastern districts of the city have become the focus of recent development projects. Many of the western districts, already in decline, have become targets of new urban renewal initiatives.[88]

Transportation

Platform of Wende Station on the Taipei Metro system.

 

Public transport accounts for a substantial portion of different modes of transport in Taiwan, with Taipei residents having the highest utilization rate at 34.1%.[89] Private transport consists of motor scooters, private cars, and bicycles. Motor-scooters often weave between cars and occasionally through oncoming traffic. Respect for traffic laws, once scant, has improved with deployment of traffic cameras and increasing numbers of police roadblocks checking riders for alcohol consumption and other offenses.

 

Taipei Station serves as the comprehensive hub for the subway, bus, conventional rail, and high-speed rail.[41] A contactless smartcard, known as EasyCard, can be used for all modes of public transit as well as several retail outlets. It contains credits that are deducted each time a ride is taken.[90] The EasyCard is read via proximity sensory panels on buses and in MRT stations, and it does not need to be removed from one's wallet or purse.

Metro

Main article: Taipei Metro

 

Taipei's public transport system, the Taipei Metro (commonly referred to as the MRT), incorporates a metro and light rail system based on advanced VAL and Bombardier technology. There are currently five metro lines that are labelled in three ways: color, line number and depot station name. In addition to the rapid transit system itself, the Taipei Metro also includes several public facilities such as the Maokong Gondola, underground shopping malls, parks, and public squares. Modifications to existing railway lines to integrate them into the metro system are underway.

 

In 2017 a rapid transit line was opened to connect Taipei with Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taoyuan City. The new line is part of the new Taoyuan Metro system.

Taipei Railway Station front

Rail

Main articles: Taiwan High Speed Rail and Taiwan Railway Administration

 

Beginning in 1983, surface rail lines in the city were moved underground as part of the Taipei Railway Underground Project.[91] The Taiwan High Speed Rail system opened in 2007. The bullet trains connect Taipei with the west coast cities of New Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi, and Tainan before terminating at Zuoying (Kaohsiung) at speeds that cut travel times by 60% or more from what they normally are on a bus or conventional train.[92] The Taiwan Railway Administration also runs passenger and freight services throughout the entire island.

Bus

 

An extensive city bus system serves metropolitan areas not covered by the metro, with exclusive bus lanes to facilitate transportation.[41] Riders of the city metro system are able to use the EasyCard for discounted fares on buses, and vice versa. Several major intercity bus terminals are located throughout the city, including the Taipei Bus Station and Taipei City Hall Bus Station.[93]

Taipei Songshan Airport

Airports

Main articles: Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and Taipei Songshan Airport

 

Most scheduled international flights are served by Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in nearby Taoyuan City. Songshan Airport at the heart of the city in the Songshan District serves domestic flights and scheduled flights to Tokyo International Airport (also known as Haneda Airport), Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, and about 15 destinations in the People's Republic of China. Songshan Airport is accessible by the Taipei Metro Neihu Line; Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport is accessible by the Taoyuan International Airport MRT system.

Ticketing

 

In 1994, with the rapid development of Taipei, a white paper for transport policies expressed the strong objective to "create a civilised transport system for the people of Taipei." In 1999, they chose Mitac consortium, which Thales-Transportation Systems is part of. Thales was then selected again in 2005 to deploy an upgrade of Taipei's public transport network with an end-to-end and fully contactless automatic fare collection solution that integrates 116 metro stations, 5,000 buses and 92 car parks.[citation needed]

Education

West Site of National Taiwan University Hospital

 

24 universities have campuses located in Taipei:

 

National Taiwan University (1928)

National Chengchi University (1927)

National Defense Medical Center (1902)

National Defense University (1906)

National Taipei University (1949)

National Taipei University of Business (1917)

National Taipei University of Education (1895)

National Taipei University of Nursing and He