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Mercantour National Park (French: Parc national du Mercantour) is one of the ten national parks of France. Since it was created in 1979, the Mercantour Park has proven popular, with 800,000 visitors every year enjoying the 600 km of marked footpaths and visiting its villages.

 

The protected area covers some 685 km², consisting of a central uninhabited zone comprising seven valleys - Roya, Bévéra, Vésubie, Tinée, Haut Var/Cians (in the Alpes-Maritimes) plus Verdon and Ubaye (in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) - and a peripheral zone comprising 28 villages. Many of them are perched villages,such as Belvédère at the entrance to the spectacular Gordolasque valley, concealing great architectural riches (numerous churches decorated with murals and altar pieces by primitive Niçois painters). More than 150 rural sites are located within the Park. Around Mont Bégo there are petroglyphs pecked out on schist and granite faces. They have been dated from the late Neolithic and Bronze Ages.

 

In the heart of this setting of vertiginous summits (including Mont Gélas (obscured by clouds here), the highest point in the Maritime Alps at 3,143 m), lies a gem listed as a Historical Monument, the famous Vallée des Merveilles (out of view to the upper right), the aptly named "valley of marvels". At the foot of Mont Bégo, climbers can admire some 37,000 petroglyphs dating back to the Bronze Age, representing weapons, cattle and human figures that are sometimes very mysterious. A less challenging destination is the Musée des Merveilles at Tende.

 

In addition to the holm oak, the Mediterranean olive tree, rhododendrons, firs, spruces, swiss pines and above all larches, the Mercantour is also endowed with more than 2,000 species of flowering plants, 200 of which are very rare: edelweiss and martagon lily are the best known, but there is also saxifrage with multiple flowers, houseleek, moss campion and gentian offering a multi-coloured palette in the spring. The Mercantour is the site of a large-scale All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring programme to identify all its living species, organised by the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy.

 

Walkers may easily glimpse a chamois, several thousand of which live in the park and may often hear the whistling of marmots. The ermine is rarer (and more furtive), as is the ibex and the mouflon, although with a little luck you may be able to observe them during the coolest parts of the day in the summer. There is a tremendous variety of wildlife in the Mercantour: Red Deer and Roe Deer in the undergrowth, hares and wild boars, partridges, Golden Eagles and Buzzards, numerous species of butterflies and even about 50 Italian Wolves (which migrated there at the beginning of the nineties). A Wolves Centre welcomes visitors in Saint-Martin-Vésubie.

 

The Maritime Alps are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps. They form the border between the French region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and the Italian regions of Piedmont and Liguria. They are the southernmost part of the Alps.

 

Administratively the range is divided between the Italian provinces of Cuneo and Imperia (eastern slopes) and the French department of Alpes-Maritimes (western slopes).

 

The Maritime Alps are drained by the rivers Roya, Var and Verdon and their tributaries on the French side; by the Stura di Demonte and other tributaries of the Tanaro and Po on the Italian side. There are many attractive perched villages, such as Belvédère at the entrance to the spectacular Gordolasque valley, some concealing unexpected architectural riches (for example in the south there are numerous churches decorated with murals and altar pieces by primitive Niçois painters).

  

Parc national du Mercantour est l'un des dix parcs nationaux de France. Depuis sa création en 1979, le Parc du Mercantour a prouvé populaire, avec 800 000 visiteurs chaque année profiter des 600 km de sentiers balisés et visiter ses villages.

 

La zone protégée couvre environ 685 km², composé d'une zone inhabitée central comprenant sept vallées de la Roya -, la Bévéra, Vésubie, Tinée, Haut Var / Cians (dans les Alpes-Maritimes), plus Verdon et l'Ubaye (dans les Alpes-de-Haute- Provence) - et une zone périphérique comprenant 28 villages. Beaucoup d'entre eux sont perchés les villages, comme Belvédère à l'entrée de la vallée de la Gordolasque spectaculaire, cachant de grandes richesses architecturales (nombreuses églises décorées de fresques et retables de peintres primitifs niçois). Plus de 150 sites ruraux sont situés dans le parc. Autour du Mont Bégo il ya pétroglyphes piquetées sur schiste et de granit visages. Ils ont été datés de la fin du Néolithique et l'Age de Bronze.

 

Au cœur de ce cadre de sommets vertigineux (y compris Mont Gélas (obscurci par les nuages ici), le point le plus élevé dans les Alpes Maritimes à 3143 m), se trouve un joyau classé Monument Historique, la célèbre Vallée des Merveilles (hors de la vue en haut à droite), la «vallée des merveilles» porte bien son nom. Au pied du Mont Bégo, les grimpeurs peuvent admirer quelques 37 000 pétroglyphes datant de l'âge du bronze, représentant des armes, des bovins et des figures humaines qui sont parfois très mystérieuse. Une destination moins difficile est le musée des Merveilles de Tende à.

 

En plus le chêne vert, l'olivier méditerranéen, rhododendrons, sapins, épicéas, pins suisses et surtout les mélèzes, le Mercantour est également doté de plus de 2000 espèces de plantes à fleurs, dont 200 sont très rares: edelweiss et lys martagon sont les plus connus, mais il est aussi saxifrage à fleurs multiples, joubarbe, silène acaule et gentiane offrant une palette multicolore au printemps. Le Mercantour est le site d'une grande échelle par les taxons biodiversité programme d'inventaire et de surveillance pour identifier tous ses espèces vivantes, organisé par l'Institut européen de Taxonomie.

 

Les marcheurs peuvent facilement apercevoir un chamois, plusieurs milliers de qui vivent dans le parc et peut souvent entendre le sifflement des marmottes. L'hermine est plus rare (et plus furtif), tout comme le bouquetin et le mouflon, mais avec un peu de chance vous pourrez peut-être de les observer pendant les heures les plus fraîches de la journée en été. Il ya une grande variété de la faune dans le Mercantour: Red Deer et de chevreuils dans le sous-bois, les lièvres et les sangliers, perdrix, Golden Eagles et des buses, de nombreuses espèces de papillons et même environ 50 loups italiens (qui ont migré là au début de les années nonante). Un Centre des Loups accueille les visiteurs à Saint-Martin-Vésubie.

 

Les Alpes-Maritimes sont une chaîne de montagnes dans la partie sud-ouest des Alpes. Ils forment la frontière entre la région française de Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur et les régions italiennes du Piémont et de la Ligurie. Ils sont la partie la plus au sud des Alpes.

 

Administrativement la gamme est divisée entre les provinces italiennes de (pentes orientales) Cuneo et Imperia et du département français des Alpes-Maritimes (versant ouest).

 

Les Alpes Maritimes sont drainés par les rivières de la Roya, Var et du Verdon et leurs affluents du côté français; par la Stura di Demonte et autres affluents du Tanaro et le Pô sur le versant italien. Il ya beaucoup de villages perchés attrayantes, comme le Belvédère à l'entrée de la vallée de la Gordolasque spectaculaire, quelques richesses architecturales dissimulant inattendus (par exemple dans le sud, il ya de nombreuses églises décorées de fresques et retables de peintres primitifs niçois).

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritime_Alps

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantour_National_Park

Castilleja auriculata var. auriculata, near cut off road to the nearby town of Santa Inez del Monte from road from Ciudad Oaxaca to the summit region of the Sierra de Clavellinas, Oaxaca, Mexico, 22 Aug 2001.

 

First installment of my photos of this species endemic to highlands of central Mexico.

Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches, and a synopsis of the vegetable kingdom

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer02bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954, ed; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869- joint ed

Subjects: Gardening -- Dictionaries; Plants -- North America encyclopedias

Publisher: New York, Doubleday, Page & Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

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CANTUA CANTUA (from Cantu, Peruvian name). PoIemoiiiA- teat. Ten species of South American flowering slirubs with very variable foliage and showy, tubular fls. of va- rious colors. C. buxifotia is cult, out of doors in S.Calif., and is rei'omraended in Europe as a coolhouse shrub. Proljably no tenderer than Fuchsias. Prop, by cuttings. buxifblia, Lam. ( C. depindens, Pers.). Much branched shrub, about 4 ft. high ; branches more or less downy: ivs. very variable, generally obloug-obovate, acute, taper- ing at the base, entire or serrate, downy or glabrous : fls, 5-8, drooping vertically, in a kind of leafy, termi- nal corymb ; calyx pale, membranous, green-streaked, 5-toothed, a fourth shorter than the corolla tube; corolla long-funnel-shaped, the tube 2/^in. long, red, usually streaked ; limb of fringed, obcordate, crimson lobes : stamens included. Peru. B.M. 4582. F.S. 7:650. R.H. 1858, p. 294. —One of the choicest of European green- house plants. Very liable to red spider in our climate. O. bicolor, Lem. Distinguished from the above by tlie entire Ivs., which are shorter, about 1 in. long, and the solitary fls., with a short, yellow tube, the limb not fringed. The lis. droop, but not vertically. Peru. B.M. 4729. F.S. 4:343. Probably less de- sirable than the above.— O. pyrifblia, Pers. Lvs. generally broader and more toothed than in C. bicolor; fls. as many as 17, in an erect, terminal, compound corymb ; calyx red-tipped, nearly half as long as the yellow corolla tube : corolla about li^in. long, with a white limb : stamens long, exserted. Pent. B.M. 4386. F.S. 4:383. W. M. CAPE BULBS. T r e a t e d u n d e r BuUk. CAFE CHEST- NUT is Ciluden- drllm On pen sis. CAPE GOOSEBEERY is a I'hi/salis. CAPE JESSAMINE. See Gardenia. CAPE PONDWEED. See Aponmjeton. CAPER. See Capparis. For Caper-spurge,see Euphor- bia Lathyt^ts. CAPPARIS (Greek, caper). Capek-bush, or Capek Tkee. Cuppa ridileete. Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower buds of C. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out of old w.ills, rocks, and rubbish in IMcditrrriinean regions and ln(li:i. .\lsn rarely cult, as agi-eeuhousi- flowering shrub. The genus is large and polymorphic, and none of its relatives are familiar north. Prop, by cuttings in green- 1} houses, and by seeds south. spindsa, Linn. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high : lvs. roundish or ovate, deciduous : fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading before noon ; sepals 4 ; petals 4, oblong, clawed,wavy, white, IKin. long : stamens 40-50: filaments purple above, per- haps the chief beauty of the plant. B.M. 291.-What seems to be the long style with a short, un- opened stigma, is really the elon- gated peduncle or torus topped by CAPSlCinvi 241

 

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352. Capriola Dactylon. Nat. size, the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. W. M. CAPEIFOLIUM. See Lonieera. CAPRIOLA (the wild goat, which feeds upon this grass). G^-aminea'. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into finger-like branches. Spikeiets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes [i, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and wanner temperate regions of the world. Dd,ctylon, Kuntze (Cynodon Dactylon, Pers.). Ber- muda Gkass. Fig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping habit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-making, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a lawn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ ^ Kennedy. CAPSICUM (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). SolanAcew. Red Pepper. Cayennf Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-6 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- liptical, entire, acauiinate •• fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3 s corolla rotate, usually 5 lobed; stamens 5, rarely b or 7, with bluish anthers de liiscinglongitudinally;ovar^ originally 2-3-loculed : fr a juiceless berry or pod extremely variable in form and size, many-seeded, and with more or less pungenc\ about the seeds and pen carp. Fig. 353. The fruit be comes many-locialed and monstrous in cultivation. 353. Normal 2-loculed fruit of About 90 species have been Capsicum, in cross section, named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr, by Irish, 9th Ann. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper, A. Annual or biennial. &nnuum, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties in the United States readily find classifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear. c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoldes, Irish (C. conoldes. Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect: fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%m.: f r. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about 13^in. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicul&tum, Irish {C. fascicul&ttim, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, roiind or nearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by i^in. in diam., very acrid. This is the Red Cluster Pepper.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer01bail1

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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ANGR^CUM ANISE 67 from nearthe base of the st.; fls. large, green and white, placed alternately back to back ; sepals and petals spreading, green ; labellum whitish, round, thiekish ; spur green. Valuable ; grows to enormous proportions. Madagascar. B.M. 4761. B.R. 1522. L. 236. Var. virens, Hort. (A. virens, Lindl.). Fls. smaller ; labellum tinged with green. B.M. 5170. Oakes Ames. ANGTTLOA (dedicated to Don Francisco de Angulo). Orchiddceie,tTilte Vdndecp. Pseudobulbs rathertall (when old), spinose at the summits with the remnants of leaf veins : leaf-blades 1-2 ft. long, prominently nerved, as in Acineta, Stanhopea and Lycaste : fls. large, sub- globular, on erect scapes : habit similar to Lycaste, which is a member of the same sub-tribe. The Anguloas grow under shade of trees in leaf-mold. Some growers find that they do well when placed under vines. They are coolhouse orchids, but require a moderate rise in temperature during the growing season. Oakes Ames. Anguloa is a very interesting genus of cool orchids that thrive well in an ordinary greenhouse temperature, in which a minimum of 50° can be maintained. They are natives of the Andes of Colombia and Peru. The popular name of "Boat Orchid" somewhat suggests their shape and general appearance, the lip, being delicately hinged at its base, allowing this organ to oscillate when shaken. A. Clowesii is the best known as well as the most decorative species, its color being clear yel- low. A. Buckerl is similar in structure, but the fls. are chocolate-brown, with a decided aromatic fragrance, resembling Anise. There is also a white variety of A. Clowesii, but it is very rare in cultivation, as are all of the white forms of well known orchids, this making them very valuable commercially. A.uniflora is also a pretty plant, with white flowers, spotted with pink. Pot culture is best, as they require similar treatment to Lycaste Skinneri. g^ O. Okpet. unifldra, Kuiz & Pavon. {A.virgin&lis,B.ojrt.). Pseu- dobulbs about6 in.high(sometimes considerably higher): leaf-blades lK-2 ft. long, lanceolate : fls. whitish, some- times spotted within, or the labellum streaked with rose. Colombia. G. C. 111. 19:423. A. F. 6: 607.-There is a white-fld. var. C16wesii, Lindl. Larger in every way than the above: fls. lemon-yellow, labellum tending toward white, mar- bled with orange. Colombia. Biiokeri, Lindl. Smaller than A. Clowesii: fls. yel- low, spotted with crimson. A variety has been figured with the crimson or red color predominant {var. sanguin- «a, A.F.6:607). Colombia. ehiimea, Nicholson. Simi- lar to ^. Cloivesiifhut sepals and petals pure white and lip spotted pink. New Gra- nada. Oakes Ames. ANHALdNIUM (name of no significance). Cactdcece. Top-shaped succulent des- ert plants, mostly buried in the ground, the flat aerial portion covered with angular tubercles bearing no spines. A genus of 4 or 5 species, strictly Mexican, except that a single species (A.JSngel- manni) crosses the Rio Grande into Texas. It is referred to MamiDaria by some. For A. WilUamsii and A. Lewinii, see under Mchinocactus, section Lopliophora. For culture, see Cactus. A. Upper surface of tubercle with a broad and deep wool- bearing longitudinal groove, which widens below. fingelmanni, Lem. {A. fissur&tum, Engelm.). Living Rock. The flat tubercle-covered top 2-5 in. across, taper- ing below into a thick root: tubercles imbricated and appressed, triangular in outline, K-1 in. long and about as wide at base, the upper surface variously fissured, even to the edges, presenting an irregular warty appear- ance : fls. central, about 1 in. long and broad, shading from whitish to rose. On limestone hills in the "Great Bend" region of the Rio Grande in Texas, and extending into Mexico. l.H. 16, p. 73, and fig. Kotchubeyi, Lem. (A. sulcatum, Salm-Dyck). This appears as a trade name, but the form is very uncertain, as no type seems to be in existence. According to the description, it is very much like the preceding species, except that the upper surface of the tubercle is not ir- regularly fissured, but is smooth, at least at the edges, except for the central furrow. B. Upper surface of tubercle not grooved. prism^ticmn, Lem. The flat top 3-8 in. across: tuber- cles imbricate, but squarrose-spreading, sharply triangu- lar-pyramidal and very acute, with a sharp, cartilaginous tip, which usually disappears with age and leaves the older tubercles blunt or refuse, %-l in. long and about as wide at base, the upper surface almost plane and smooth, except that it is more or less pulverulent, and often bears a small tomentose tuft just behind the claw- like tip: fls.rose color. Mts.ofMex. —Resembles an Aloe. John M. Coultek. ANIGOZANTHTJS (Greek, expanded-flotver). ffwmo- dordcem. Eight or 10 species of Australian greenhouse or half-hardy perennials, with greenish, yellow or purple fls. and sword-like Ivs., cult, in Europe, hut unknown to the Amer. trade. ANISACANTHUS (Gr:ee^,uneqital acanthus). Acan- thdcem. A genus of six species of Mexican and Ameri- can shrubs, with mostly lanceolate, entire, petioled Ivs., and loosely spicate or scattered red fls. an inch or more long ; corolla lobes 4 ; stamens 2, equaling or exceed- ing the corolla lobes. "Wrightii, Gray. Height, 2-A ft.: Ivs. 1-2 in. long, ob- long- or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate. S. and W. Tex.— Once sold by John Saul, Washington, DC.

 

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Informal disposition of annuals,— a mass against a background. (See Annuals, p. AlTISE. Umbelliferee. An aromatic eondimental and medicinal herb (Pimpinilla Anisum, Linn.) of the Ori- ent. It is an annual, and is easily grown from seeds in any warm and mellow soil. The seeds are commonly sown where the plants are to stand. The seeds are used in medicine and in cookery, and for flavoring liquors. They yield a highly perfumed essential oil. They are mostly grown in Mediterranean countries. The leaves are also used as seasoning and garnishing. The plant reaches a height of 2 ft., bears twice-pinnate Ivs. and small yel- lowish white fls. in large, loose umbels. The seeds are oblong and curved, ribbed ou the conves side, grayish,

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer01bail1

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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CENTAUREA CEPHALANTHUS 275

 

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408. Centaurea Ameri cana (X M). 11. monta,na, Linn. Mountain Bluet. Perennial : sts. low, stoloniterous, unbranched, 12-16 or rarely 20 in. high : Ivs. deeurrent, the young ones silvei-y white, oval-lance-shaped : involucre of 4 or 5 rows of scales, black-ciliate along the margins; fls. blue, the marginal ones 1 in. long, disc-fls. very short, becoming purple. Europe. B. M. 77. Var. dlba, Hort. Pis. white. Var. rdsea, Hort. Fls. rose-colored. Var. citrina, DC. (var. sulphiirea, Hort.). Disc-fls. brown, rays yellow. Ar- menia. B.M. 1175. CO. stems erect, simple or branched: 12. dealb^ta, Willd. Perennial : sts. sub-erect, 8-24 in. high : Ivs. white-villous beneath, glabrous above, the lower ones 1-1% ft. long, pet- ioled, pinnate, the obovate lobes coarsely cut-toothed or auricled at the base; stem-lvs. sessile, pinnate, with oblong-lance lobes : fl.-head solitary, just above the uppermost leaf ; fls. red, those of the disc rosy or white : outer scales of the involucre with lanceolate tips, the middle rounded, deeply fringed, ciliate. Asia Minor, Persia. 13. atropurptirea, Waldst. & Kit. (C calociphala, Willd.). Peren- nial : sts. erect, branched, about 2-3 ft. high, the branches white- woolly at the summit: Ivs. bipin- nate, lobes linear-lanceolate, acumi- . nate ; lowest Ivs. petioled, upper- most pinnatifid: fl.-heads without bracts ; invol. scales with fringed ciliate white lanceolate tips, the innermost ones rounded, scarious-raargined : iJs. black-purple. Hungary. 14. Babylbnica, Linn. Silvery white perennial: sts. simple, stout, erect, 6-10 or 12 ft. high : Ivs. long^ coria- ceous, strongly deeurrent on the stem, the radical lyrate, the lower stem-lvs. oval or oblong-acute, entire or undu- late, the upper lance-acute : fls. yellow, the globular heads almost sessile in the axils of narrow bract-like Ivs.; H-Vi of the stem flower-bearing: involucre-scales with a short, recurved tip. Asia Minor, Syria. Gn.2,'p.73; 8, p. 263. R. H. 1859, pp. 540-1.-Tall, stout and striking P'^"*- Jaked G. Smith and L. H. B. CENTAUBtDIUU, See Xanthisma. CEITTBAD£NIA (Greek for toothed gland, alluding to the anther glands). Melastom&cem, Pour species in Mexico and Central Amer., grown in warmhouses for their showy-colored Ivs. and pretty fls. They are herbs or shrubs, with angled or winged branches, petiolate, opposite lanceolate or ovate-entire, ribbed Ivs., and fls. with 4-lobed calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a 4-loculed ovary. The blossoms are pink or white,in axillary or terminal clusters. Prop, by cuttings. Very showy and desirable plants. Stems often colored. Centradenias like rich leaf-mold with sharp sand, and brisk heat. Give a light but shady position. Strong plants are much benefited by liquid manure, and such applications give better colors in both flowers and fruit. Monogr. by Cogniaux, DC, Monographiae Phanerogamarum, 7:116. grandifblia, Endl. Branches 4-winged : Ivs. ovate- lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, brilliant red beneath, long-pointed and curving at the end; cymes iliany-fld., shorter than the Ivs., the fls. light rose, rotate, the petals very obtuse, the stamens unequal. B.M. 5228.— The plant grows 2 ft. high, and blooms in winter. Very showy. The cut branches hold their color a long time, making the plant useful for decorations. floribunda, Planch. Branches obscurely angled, pu- bescent, red: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering below, 3- nerved, red-nerved below : fls. pink, in terminal pani- cles. P.S. 5:453. —Smaller than C. grandifolia. inaequilaterilis, G. Don {C. rdsea, Lindl.). Lvs. ovate- lanceolate, unequal-sided, entire, ciliate, reddish be- neath: fls. pink, in terminal corymbose racemes: dwarf. Mex. B.E. 29:20. l. h. B. and H. A. Siebreoht. CENTEANTHUS (Greek, spurred flower). Valerian- dcece. A few annual and perennial herbs of the Medi- terranean region, with dense clusters of small red or white fls. terminating the branches, and opposite entire or cut lvs.: calyx cut into 5-15 narrow divisions, en- larging after flowering; corolla slender-tubed, 5-parted, spurred at the base; stamen 1: fls. with a pappus-like crest. Of easiest culture. riiber, DC. Red Valerian. Jupiter's Beard. Per- ennial, 1-3 ft., smooth and glaucous, forming a compact and floriferous, bushy plant: lvs. ovate to lanceolate, some of them toothed at base: fls. very numerous, deep crimson.-A very handsome old garden plant, too much neglected. It blooms all summer. Excellent for cut- ting. Increased by division; also by seeds. There is a white-fld. form (var. dibits). macrosiphon, Boiss. Annual, of easy culture in any good soil: 1-2 ft.: lvs. ovate, glaucous, toothed: fls. larger than in the last, red. Spain. —There are white- fld. (var. dlbus) and dwarf {Ya,r.nAniis) forms. Excel- lent for rockeries and borders; also good for lawn vases. L. H. B. CENTEOPdGON (Greek kentron, spur, and pngon, beard, referring to the fringed stigma). Campanu- Idcece. About 36 tropical Amer. sub-shrubs or shrubs, often scandent, with alternate, mostly dentate lvs., and long, tubular fls. which are violet, purple, red, or orange, and usually borne singly on long peduncles: bracteoles very small or wanting. Warmhouse perennial, prop, by cuttings. Lucy^nus, Houllet. Height 1-2 ft.: stem somewhat woody: lvs. short-petioled, finely toothed: fls. rose, win- ter; hemispherical, with lanceolate segments recurved at the tips. R.H. 1868:290.-Said to be a hybrid of C. fastjwsus and Siphocamjiylns betulwformis, but seems to show little influence of the latter, which has longer petioles and peduncles, more coarsely toothed lvs., longer calyx-segments, and a yellow-tipped corolla. fastudsus, Scheldw. Lvs. peach-like, oblong, acute, bordered with glandular teeth, very glabrous, short- petioled: fls. rose-colored, winter; calyx hemispherical, with 5 lanceolate, denticulate segments. Mex. R.H. 1853:181. W. M. GENTBOSSMA (Greek, spurred-standard). Legw- minbsce. Butterfly Pea. Twining herbs (at least those in cult.), with pinnate, .3-7-foliolate lvs., and showy white or reddish fls. in the axils. PI. papiliona- ceous, the standard spurred on the back, the keel broad, and the style bearded at the apex. Species nearly 40 in tropical Amer. and 2 in U. S. Virginianum, Benth. Roughish, climbing, 2-6 ft.: Ifts. ovate to linear, shining, stipitate : fls. 1-4 in the axil, 1 in. long, violet and splashed, showy: pod straight and long-pointed, 4-5 in. long. Md. S., in sandy lands. A.G. 13:649. —Int. to cult, many years ago, but again in- troduced in 1892 (as C. grandiflorum), and much adver- tised. It is a hardy and desirable perennial vine, bloom- ing the first season from seed. There is a white-fld. var. L. H. B. CENTUET PLANT. Consult Agave. CEPHALANTHfiBA (Greek for Jiead and anther). Orchid&ceee, tribe JYedttiew. About 10 species of small, temperate-region terrestrial orchids, allied to Epipactis, Pogonia, etc. Some of them are western N. American, and others are European. Sepals 3: petals small, ovate: lip saccate : lvs. (sometimes wanting) lanceolate or oblong: fls. mostly small (sometimes showy), in an open spike. The species are scarcely known in cult., but two Japanese species have been offered by importers. These are E. ialc4ta, Blume, yellow, and E. er6cta, Blume, white. CEPHALANTHUS (Greek, head and flower; fls. in heads). Rubi&cece. Button Bush. Shrubs with oppo- site or whorled, entire, stipulate lvs.: fls. small, tubu- lar, white or yellowish, 4-merous, with included stamens and long, exserted style, in globular heads: fr. dry, sepa- rating into 2 nutlets. Six species in Amer., Africa and Asia, of which only the one North American species is

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture : comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofame02bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening; Horticulture; Horticulture; Horticulture

Publisher: New York : Macmillan

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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bd» GEONOMA AA. Lvs. pinnate. B. Basal leaf-segments narrow; the upper ones the broadest. â¢acaulis, Mart. Acaulescent : Its. long-petioled, 3-4 ft. high ; blade unequally pinnatisect, 22-25-nerved on each side ; basal segments i lines wide, spreading, the middle and upper ereet-spreading at an acute angle, %-i in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil. BB. Broad and narrow segments irregularly intermingled. c. Blade of leaf 6 ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPohlikna, Mart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequal, linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved and many-nerved intermixed, 16-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil, cc. Blade 2-2K ft.: petiole 4 in. long. t^Iegans, Mart., var. robuBta, Dr. Stem 6 ft. high, 3-4 lines in diam.: segments rarely 3, usually 5-7, 1- nerved, 10-14 in. long, some 4 lines wide, intermixed with broader, many-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi- nate. Central Brazil. BBB. Leaf segments all alike {except the ennnireiit apical ones). c. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfy. *EiedeU4na, H. Wendl. (G. grdcilis, Lind. & Andr^). Habit of C'ocos WeddelUana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above : rachis triangular, bisulcate above : lvs. spread- ing, drooping at the apes ; segments 10-12 in. long, about 9 lines wide, linear-acute, elegantly recurved, the 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. l.H. 21:169. cc. Equidistant: petiole half as long as the blade. Schottiina, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, 1-1 J^i in. thick : lvs. recurved, spreading; petiole half or more than half as long as the blade ; segments about 35 on each side, 10-12 in. long, two-fifths in. wide, equidi.stant, linear or linear-lanceolate, very long acuminate. E. Brazil. The following are imperfectly described, but are in the trade : *G. imperidlis. Linden.â*G. princeps. Linden.â*6. Pynter- (irtna, Hort. Belongs under A. One of the smallest lvs. measures 28 in. long by 10 in. at the broadest. Has not flowered yet, and the genus is thereforenncertain. R.H. 1898,p. 262. G.C. HI. 2.'i;258. F.E. 10:886.-G. «peiriS«a,Barb.-Rodr. Jared G. Smith, W. H. Tapldj and W. M. GEORGIA, HORTICULTURE IN. Fig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unique. Latitude and altitude combine to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is effected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tennessee line) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Intermediately may be found as varied a climate, and consequently as extended a range of horticultural pro- duction, as can be met with in a journey of a thousand miles due i.drth mill sontli, in a region of normal eleva- tion, su.'l, :<- t',.. AI.^M -i;m.| N.illry. Measii! i. , i. .! !m state corresponds with itseli-viii , :i' h , , ; :⢠iuKitology, and is not com- plex e\<-r|.i III t!,, . \ii, iiH 11-1 thwestern portion. Two formaticiii'i âthe tertiary and raetamorphicâcover nine- teuths of its area. The .Sea Islands, and coast for a short distance inland, are alluvial or quartemary, and here the vegetation is of a subtropical characterâpalmet- toes and live-oaks on the islands and pines and ham- mock growth inland, together with the citrus, fig and olive families, where cultivated. Slightly beyond the tide-water limit begins the vast sweep of the pine forests, kii.-vn l...nllv as the "Wire- grass Region," which ext.inl. :,,; nl ..,t,i,. ir,0 miles, on an average, covering nearl, : i i lie tertiary for- mation. A range of low -:r, : ,' it :iiio feet high, extending diagonally acr.i-. :1,, -".<â¢â â . -. j.arates the ter- GEORGIA tiarr and metamorphic regions. At its base the land has attained an average altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea-beach, stretches the metamorphic region -the red clay or cotton beltârising gradually toward the northwest tmtil the Piedmont escarpment is reached â another low hill range on the southern side of and parallel to the Chattahoochee river valley. The height of this escarpment varies from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Be- yond this are the Appalachian foothills and then the

 

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]â Apple and cherry belt. | Hi'Pcach and grape belt, ^g Fig and citrus belt. 900. Georgia, to show horticultural regions. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In extreme northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general way toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet), interspersed, however, with a cIki.'s of mountains and coves, with a complex tnncle of L'roloiri- cal formations, from lower Silurian t â !.â The prevailing natural growth of i' , ,1- low pineâthat of the metamorphic v â nU, embracing nearly all of the North ,\in.iim:i |h ri.s, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may he classified as follows : Hortiailtural Areas : Corresponding Geological Divisions, 1. Fig ASTt Citrus Beuf Quartemary Formation 2. Pear and Meix)S Belt Tertiary Formation 3. Peach and Grape Belt Metamorphic Formation 4. Apple AND Cheeet Belt Tennessee Dip 1. TJte Fig and Cltrns Belt.-In this zone the citrus family does not thrive indigenously, nor is it planted for commercial purposes. Yet oranges and lemons live and bear unprotected, though latterly subject to in.jury from frost. It is the home of the Ogeechee lime, and formerly both indigo and the olive flourished on the Sea Islands, but their culture has been for many years abandoned. Figs grow to perfection. About the ports âespecially Savannah âheavy trucking is followed for the northern marketâchiefly potatoes, strawberries, cabbages, celery, tomatoes, onions and peas.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer01bail1

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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CANTUA CANTUA (from Canto, Peruvian name). Polemonih- ce(e. Ten species of South American flowering slirubs with very variable foliage and showy, tubular fls. of va- rious colors. C. buxifoUa is cult, out of doors in S. Calif., and is recommended in Europe as a coolhouse shrub. Probably no tenderer than Fuchsias. Prop, by cuttings. bnxifdiia, Lam. {G.depiiidens, Pers.). Much branched shrub, about 4 ft. high ; branches more or less downy: Ivs. very variable, generally oblong-obovate, acute, taper- ing at the base, entire or serrate, downy or glabrous : fls. 5-8, drooping vertically, in a kind of leafy, termi- nal corjTnb ; calyx pale, membranous, green-streaked, 5-toothed, a fourth shorter than the corolla tube; corolla long-funnel-shaped, the tube 2>2in. long, red, usually streaked ; limb of fringed, obcordate, crimson lobes : stamens included. Peru. B.M. 4.582. P.S. 7:650. R.H. 1858, p. 294. —One of the choicest of European green- house plants. Very liable to red spider in our climate. O. bicolor, Lem. Distinguished from the above by the entire Ivs., which are shorter, aboutlin.long, and the solitary fls., with a short, yellow tube, the limb not fringed. The fls. droop, but not vertically. Peru. B.M.4729. P.S. 4:343. Probably less de- sirable than the above. — C. pyrifblia, Pers. Lvs. generally broader and more toothed than in C. bicolor: fls. as many as 17, in an erect, terminal, compound corymb ; calyx red-tipped, nearly half as long as the yellow corolla tube ; corolla about l^in. long, with a white hmb : stamens long, exserted. Peru. B.M. 4386. P.S. 4:383. W. M. CAPE BULBS. Treated under Bulbs. CAPE CHEST- NUT is Caloden- druvi Gapensis. CAPE GOOSEBERRY is a J^hyaalis. CAPSICUM 241

 

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CAPE JESSAMINE. Gardenia, See CAPE PONDWEED. See Aponogeton. CAPER. See Capparis. For Caper-spurge,see Euphor- bia Latliyrus. CAPPARIS (Greek, caper). Caper-bush, or Caper Tree. Capparidiieem. Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower buds of C. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out of old walls, rocks, and rubbish in Mediterranean regions and India. Also rarely cult, as a greenhouse flowering shrub. The genus is large and polymorphic, and none of its relatives are familiar north. Prop, by cuttings in green- houses, and by seeds south. spindsa, Linn. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high : lvs. roundish or ovate, deciduous : fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading before noon; sepals 4; petals 4, oblong, clawed,wavy,white, IHin. long: stamens 40-50: filaments purple above, per- haps the chief beauty of the plant. B.M. 291.—What seems to be the long style with a short, un- opened stigma, is really the elon- 352. Capriola Dactylon. Nat. size. P^^d peduncle or torus topped by the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. W. M. CAPRIFOLIUM. See Lonicera. 16 CAFRtOLA (the wild goat, which feeds upon this grass). Graminem. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into finger-like branches. Spikelets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes 3, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. Ddctylon, Kuntze (Cynodon Dactylon, Pers.). Ber- muda Grass. Fig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping habit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-making, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a lawn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ -^ Kennedy. CAFSIGUM (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). Solandcece. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World.tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-6 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- liptical, entire, acuminate : fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3' corolla rotate, usually lobed; stamens 5, rarely or 7, with bluish anthers c hiscinglongitudinally;ova originally 2-3-loculed : a juiceless berry or pc extremely variable in foi and size, many-seeded, a with more or less pungen about the seeds and pe carp. Pig. 353. The fruit 1_ comes many-loculed and monstrous in cultivation. About 90 species have been named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper. A. Annual or biennial, dnnuum, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties in the United States readily find classifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear, c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoldes, Irish (C. conoldes, Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect:. fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%m.: fr. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about IJiin. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicnl^tom, Irish (C. fasciculdttim, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, round ornearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by Min. in diam., very acrid. This is the Red Cluster Pepper.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches, and a synopsis of the vegetable kingdom

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer03bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954, ed; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869- joint ed

Subjects: Gardening -- Dictionaries; Plants -- North America encyclopedias

Publisher: New York, Doubleday, Page & Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

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638 GEONOMA AA. Lvs. pinnate. B. Basal leaf-segments narrow; the upper ones the broadest. •acaiilis, Mart. Acaulescent : lvs. long-petioled, 3-4 It. hiffli ; blade unequally pinnatisect, 22-25-nerved on each si<le ; basal segments i lines wide, spreading, the middle and upper erect-spreading at an acute angle, %-4 in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil. BB. Broad and narrow segments irregularhf intermingled. c. Blade of leaf C ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPohli&na, Blart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequal, linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved an<l many-nerved intermixed, lG-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil. cc. Blade 2-2% ft.: petiole 4 in. long. tilegans. Mart., var. robusta, Dr. Stem 6 ft. high, 3-4 lines in diam.; segments rarely 3, usually 5-7, 1- nerved, 10-14 in. long, some 4 lines wide, intermixed with broader, many-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi- nate. Central Brazil. EBB. Leaf segments all alike {except the connivent apical ones). C. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfy. *Riedeli&,iia, H. Wendl. {G. gracilis, Lind. & Andr^). Habit of Vocos WeddelUana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above : rachis triangular, bisulcate above : lvs. spread- ing, drooping at the apex ; segments 10-12 in. long, about 9 lines wide, linear-actite, elegantly recurved, the 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. I.H. 21:169. cc. Eqtddistant: petiole half as long as the blade. Sohotti4na, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, 1-lH in. thiols : lvs. recurved, spreading; petiole half or more than half as long as the blade ; segments about 35 on each side, 10-12 in. long, two-fifths in. wide, equidistant, linear or linear-lanceolate, very long acuminate. E. Brazil. The foHowing are imperfectly described, but are in the trade : *G. imperidlis. Linden.—*6?. prtriceps, Linden.—*G. Fyna^r- (ia/ia, Hort. Belongs under A. Oneof the smallest lvs. measures 28 in. long by 10 in. at the brcidest. H.is not flowered yet. and the genus is therefore uncertain. R.H. 1898, p. 262. G.C. III. 2,'!:258. P.E. 10:886.—G. spcciisa,Barb.-Rodr. Jared G. Smith, W. H. Taplin and W. M. GEORGIA, HORTICULTURE IN. Fig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unitjue. Latitude and altitude comlnne to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is effected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tennessee line) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Intermediately may be found as varied a climate, and consequently as extended a range of horticultural pro- duction, as can be met with in a journey of a thousand miles due uorth and south, in a region of normal eleva- tion, .such as the Mississippi valley. Measurably the geology of the state corresponds with its elevation and consequent climatology, and is not com- plex except in the extreme northwestern portion. Two formations—the tertiary and metamorphic —cover nine- tenths of its area. The SeaLslands, and coast for a short distance Inland, are alluvial or quarternary, and here the vegetation is of a subtropical character—palraet- toes and live-oaks on the islands and pines and ham- mock groNvth inland, together with the citrus, fig and olive families, where cultivated. Slightly beyond the tide-water limit begins the vast sweep of the pine forests, known locally as the "Wire- grass Region," which extends inland some 160 miles, on an average, covering nearly the whole of the tertiary for- mation. A range of low sand hills, about 300 feet high, extending diagonally across the state, separates the ter- GEORGIA tiary and metamorphic regions. At its base the land has attained an average altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea-beach, stretches the metamorphic region — the red clay or cotton belt—rising gradually toward the northwest until the Piedmont escarpment is reached — another low hill range on the southern side of and parallel to the Chattahoochee river valley. The height of this escarpment varies from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Be- yond this are the Appalachian foothills and then the

 

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IJ-Apple and cherry belt. ^MPear and melon belt. |-Peach and grape belt. ^^ Fig and citrus belt. 900. Georgia, to shoiv horticultural regions. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In exfrcTMp northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general \v:iy toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet I, interspersed, however, with a chaos of mountains and coves, with a complex tangle of geologi- cal formations, from lower Silurian to eocene. The prevailing natural growth of the tertiary Is yel- low pine-that of the metamorphic region hard woods, erabr.acing nearly all of the North American species, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may be classified as follows : Horticultural Areas : Corresponding Geological Divisions. 1. Fig and Citrus Beut Quarternary Formation 2. Pear AND Melon Belt Tertiary Formation 3. Peach and Grape Belt Met,imorphic Formation 4. Apple and Chekky Belt Tennessee Dip 1. The Fig and Citrus Belt. —In this zone the citrus family does not thrive indigenously, nor is it planted for commercial purposes. Yet oranges and lemons live and bear unprotected, though latterly subject to injury from frost. It is the home of the Ogeechee lime, and formerly both indigo and the olive flourished on the Sea Islands, but their culture has been for many years abandoned. Figs grow to perfection. About the ports —especially Savannah —heavy trucking is followed for the northern market—chieflypotatoes, strawberries, cabbages, celery, tom.atoes, onions and peas.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924074091772

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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CENTAUREA CEPHALANTHUS 275

 

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11. montina, Linn. Mountain Bldet. Perennial: sts. low, stoloniferous, unbranclied, 12-16 or rarely 20 in. high : Ivs. decurrent, the young ones silvery white, oval-lanoe-shaped : involucre of 4 or 5 rows of scales, black-ciliate along the margins; fls. blue, the marginal ones 1 in. long, disc-fls. very short, becoming purple. Europe. B.M. 77. Var. 41ba, Hort. Fls. white. Var. rdsea, Hort. Fls. rose-colored. Var. citrlna, DC. (var. sulphwrea, Hort.). Disc-fls. brown, rays yellow. Ar- menia. B.M. 1175. OC. stems erect, simple or branched, 12. dealbita, Willd. Perennial : sts. sub-erect, 8-24 in. high ; Ivs. white-villous beneath, glabrous above, the lower ones 1-lJ^ ft. long, pet- ioled, pinnate, the obovate lobes coarsely cut-toothed or auricled at the base; stem-lvs. sessile, pinnate, with oblong-lance lobes : 11.-head solitary, just above the uppermost leaf : fls. red, those of the disc rosy or white : outer scales of the involucre with lanceolate tips, the middle rounded, deeply fringed, ciliate. Asia Minor, Persia. 13. atropurpvlrea, Waldst. & Kit. (C. calociphala, Willd.). Peren- nial ; sts. erect, branched, about 2-3 ft. high, the branches white- woolly at the summit: Ivs. bipin- nate, lobes linear-lanceolate, acumi- 408. Centaurea Ameri- "ate ; lowest Ivs. petioled, upper- cana (X Ji). most pinnatifid: fl.-heads without bracts ; invol. scales with fringed ciliate white lanceolate tips, the innermost ones rounded, scarious-margined : fls. black-purple. Hungary. 14. BabyUnica, Linn. Silvery white perennial: sts. simple, stout, erect, 6-10 or 12 ft. high : Ivs. long^ coria- ceous, strongly decurrent on the stem, the radical lyrate, the lower stem-lvs. oval or oblong-acute, entire or undu- late, the upper lance-acute : fls. yellow, the globular heads almost sessile in the axils of narrow bract-like Its.; J^-K of the stem flower-bearing: involucre-scales with a short, recurved tip. Asia Minor, Syria. Gn. 2,'p.73; 8, p. 263. R. H. 1859, pp. 540-1.—Tall, stout and striking P'*°*- Jabed G. Smith and L. H. B. CENTATTElDIUM. See Xanthisma. CEITTBAD£NIA (Greek for toothed gland, alluding to the anther glands). Melastomdcece. Four species in Mexico and Central Amer., grown in warmhouses for their showy-colored Ivs. and pretty fls. They are herbs or shrubs, with angled or winged branches, petiolate, opposite lanceolate or ovate-entire, ribbed Ivs., and fls. with 4-lobed calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a 4-loculed ovary. The blossoms are pink or white, in axillary or terminal clusters. Prop, by cuttings. Very showy and desirable plants. Stems often colored. Centradenias like rich leaf-mold with sharp sand, and brisk heat. Give a light but shady position. Strong plants are much benefited by liquid manure, and such applications give better colors in both flowers and fruit. Monogr. by Cogniaux, DC, Monographiee Phanerogamarum, 7:116. ^andiJ61ia, Endl. Branches 4-winged : Ivs. ovate- lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, brilliant red beneath, long-pointed and curving at the end: cymes many-fld., shorter than the Ivs., the fls. light rose, rotate, the petals very obtuse, the stamens unequal. B.M. 5228.— The plant grows 2 ft. high, and blooms in winter. Very showy. The cut branches hold their color a long time, making the plant useful for decorations. floribiinda, Planch. Branches obscurely angled, pu- bescent, red: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering below, 3- nerved, red-nerved below : fls. pink, in terminal pani- cles. F.S. 5:453.—Smaller than G. grandifolia. inaequilateraiis, G. Don (C. rdsea, Lindl.). Lvs. ovate- lanceolate, unequal-sided, entire, ciliate, reddish be- neath: fls. pink, in terminal corymbose racemes; dwarf. Mex. B.K. 29:20, L. H. B. and H. A. Siebrecht. CENTEANTHUS (Qreek, spurred flower). Valerlan- dcece. A few annual and perennial herbs of the Medi- terranean region, with dense clusters of small red or white fls. terminating the branches, and opposite entire or cut lvs.: calyx cut into 5-15 narrow divisions, en- larging after flowering; corolla slender-tubed, 5-parted, spurred at the base; stamen!: fls. with a pappus-like crest.. Of easiest culture. rdber, DC. Red Valerian. Jupitee's Bbakd. Per- ennial, 1-3 ft., smooth and glaucous, forming a compact and floriferous, bushy plant : lvs. ovate to lanceolate, some of them toothed at base: fls. very numerous, deep crimson.—A very handsome old garden plant, too much neglected. It blooms all summer. Excellent for cut- ting. Increased by division; also by seeds. There is a white-fld. form (var. dlbns). macroslphon, Boiss. Annual, of easy culture in any good soil: 1-2 ft.: lvs. ovate, glaucous, toothed: fls. larger than in the last, red. Spain. —There are white- fld. (var. dlbus) and dwarf (var. mdntts) forms. Excel- lent for rockeries and borders; also good for lawn vases. L. H. B. CENTEOPOGON (Greek kentron, spur, and pngon, beard, referring to the fringed stigma). Campanu- lAceoe. About 36 tropical Amer. sub-shrubs or shrubs, often scandent, with alternate, mostly dentate lvs., and long, tubular fls. which are violet, purple, red, or orange, and usually home singly on long peduncles: braoteoles very small or wanting. Warmhouse perennial, prop, by cuttings. Lucy&nus, Houllet. Height 1-2 ft.: stem somewhat woody: lvs. short-petioled, finely toothed: fls. rose, win- ter; hemispherical, with lanceolate segments recurved at the tips. E.H. 1868:290.-Said to be a hybrid of O. fastnosus and Siphocampylus betulceformis, but seems to show little influence of the latter, which has longer petioles and peduncles, more coarsely toothed lvs., longer calyx-segments, and a yellow-tipped corolla. fastudsus, Scheidw. Lvs. peach-like, oblong, acute, bordered with glandular teeth, very glabrous, short- petioled: fls. rose-colored, winter ; calyx hemispherical, with 5 lanceolate, denticulate segments. Mex. R.H. 1853:181. w. M. CENIE0S£MA (Greek, spurred-standard). Legu- mindsce. Botterfly Pea. Twining herbs (at least those in cult.), with pinnate, .3-7-foliolate lvs., and showy white or reddish fls. in the axils. Fl. papiliona- ceous, the standard spurred on the back, the keel broad, and the style bearded at the apex. Species nearly 40 in tropical Amer. and 2 in U. S. Virgini^tnum, Benth. Houghish, climbing, 2-6 ft.: Ifts. ovate to linear, shining, stipitate : fls. 1-4 in the axil, 1 in. long, violet and splashed, showy: pod straight and long-pointed, 4-5 in. long. Md. S., in sandy lands. A.G. 13:649. —Int. to cult, many years ago, but again in- troduced in 1892 (as C. granditlorum), and much adver- tised. It is a hardy and desirable perennial vine, bloom- ing the first season from seed. There is a white-fld. var. L. H. B. CENTTTEY PLANT. Consult Agave. CEPHALANTHfiEA (Greek for head and anther). OrchidAcece, tribe Ne6ttiece. About 10 species of small, temperate-region terrestrial orchids, allied to Epipactis, Pogonia, etc. Some of them are western N. American, and others are European. Sepals 3: petals small, ovate: lip saccate : lvs. (sometimes wanting) lanceolate or oblong: fls. mostly small (sometimes showy), in an open spike. The species are scarcely known in cult., but two Japanese species have been offered by importers. These are £. falo4ta, Blume, yellow, and E. erficta, Blume, white. CEPHALANTHUS (Greek, head and nower; fls. in heads). Bubictcem. Button Bush. Shrubs with oppo- site or whorled, entire, stipulate lvs.: fls. small, tubu- lar, white or yellowish, 4-merous, with included stamens and long, exserted style, in globular heads: fr. dry, sepa- rating into 2 nutlets. Six species in Amer., Africa and Asia, of which only the one North American species is

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofam02bail

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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638 GEONOMA AA. Lvs. pinnate. B. Basal leaf-segments narrow; the upper ones the broadest. â¢acaiilis, Mart. Acaulescent: lvs. long-petioled 3-4 ft. high ; blade unequally pinnatisect, 22-25-nerved on each side ; basal .segments i lines wide, spreading the middle and upper erect-spreading at an acute an^le %-i in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil BB. Broml anil narrow segments irregularly intermingled. C. Blade of leaf (1 ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPoliU4na, Mart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequil linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved an 1 many-nerved intermixed, 16-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil cc. Blade 2-2% ft.: petiole 4 in. long. t^legans, Jliirt., var. robusta, Dr. Stem 6 ft. high .'f-1 lines in diara.: segments rarely 3, usually 5-7 1 nerved, 10-U in. long, some i lines wide, intermixed with broader, many-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi nate. Central Brazil. ent c. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfi/. â¢Biedeliina, H. Wendl. {G. gracilis, Lind. & Andr^) Habit of Coeos Weddelliana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above : rachis triangular, bisulcate above : lvs. spread ing, drooping at the apex ; segments 10-12 in. long about 9 lines wide, linear-acute, elegantly recurved the 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. I.H. 21:169. cc. Equidistant: petiole half as long as the blade SchottiAna, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, 1-lK in. thiols lvs. recurved, spreading; petiole half or more thai hilf as long as the blade; sei^mrTil- :ilHHi( "' mm . ;i,1i ule 10-12 in. long, two-fiftl.^ i;i. > 1.1 /.â¢;â .,- In, ici linear-lanceolate, very I"ii4 :" 1^1 I i; I, ThefolloTviiigaveiiaticrfVrily ,1, -., i. 11 ,,,, iii ! i,- le *0. ,-;«;v,-;,>',s, T.in.i.T, -i(,. ;âââ>,,.». i.iii.i,.u.-'.,. 1 linn'r- 28in.inii I iiriiadest. Has not flowered yet, and the genual- iiin. R.H.1898,p.262. G.C.III.23:258. F.E. li':-H, -(, ,,,,, ,.,, l!:irb.-Rodr. Jakeh O. Smith, W. H. Taplin and W. M. GEORGIA, HOKTICULTUKE IN. Fig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unique. Latitude and altitude combine to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is effected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tenness. .. lin.) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Internn i!i:itil\- iii;i\- he found as varied a climate, and consei|Ui iiily as , -.ii leled a range of horticultural pro- ducticTi, a- tan Im- in.t witli iti a journey of a thousand miles ilia' 1,1.nil ami s,mill, in a region of normal eleva- tion, sia-li a~ 11.,, M I I ii.i.i \ alley. MeasiiraliM IV .1 itSelrvaliinia!,.!...., . ... Plexexia.i.tin , . formations âtill ii i: in. tenths of its ana. I'ln s distance inlaiai, an ,ill.i the vegetation is ..| a toes and live-oai;s on th grass Region," which extends inland some IGO miles, on an average, covering nearly the whole of the tertiary for- mation. A range of low sand hills, about 300 feet high, extending diagonally across the state, separates the ter- GEORGIA tiar\ and metimorphi retirns At its base the land has attained an <i\ erage altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea beach, stretches the metamorphic region â the 1 1 I % r tt n I It âri ng gradually toward tl Iff eirpment is reached â ithern side of and Uey. The height to 1,.500 feet. Be- tl ills and then the 7^ '( WAP GEORGIA HORTICULTURAL Divisions. \

 

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j-Apple and chenT belt. ^^Pear and melon belt. ^H"Pea<"l' ""d erape belt, ^g Fig and citrus belt. 900. Georeia, to show horticultural rcEions. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In extreme northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general way toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet), interspersed, however, with a chaos of mountains and coves, with a complex tangle of geologi- cal formations, from lower silurian to eocene. The prevailing natural growth of the tertiary is yel- low pine âthat of the metamorphic region hard woods, embracing nearly all of the North American species, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may be classified as follows : Horticultural Areas ; Corresponding Geological Dirisions. 1. Fio ANn Citrus Belt Quartemary Formation 2. Pear Axn Melon Belt Tertiary Formation 3. Peacb and Orape Belt Metamorphic Formation 4. Apple axu Cherry Belt Tennessee Dip 1. The Fig and Citrus Belt. âIn this zone the citrus family does not thrive indigenously, noris it planted for oiiinineivial ].iiri...... s. Yrt nranires and lemons live and hear unimitii-teil, tlmn-li latti ilv subject to injury from frii^t It is till- In,III.. â¢.! ilii I 1^1 I i-liee'lime, and formerly lii.th in.liL'" ami il Iim- il, ai ii-ln-d on the Sea Islands, lull iImIi-i-nitnri. 1ki~ l.iin f.T many years abandoned, |a . t,, a, I, ill iii.in. .\i...ai the portsâespecially ^ . iria.kiiiL'i~ f. Unwed for the northern 11 , !! |.,,taiiii-.-iiawliirrics, cabbages, celery.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer02bail2

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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638 GEONOMA GEORGIA AA. Iivs. pinnate. B. Sasal Jeaf-segvients narrow; the upper oyies the broadest. *acaulis, Mart. Acaulescent : Ivs. long-petioled, 3-4 ft. high ; blade unequally pinnatisect, 22-25-nerved on each side ; basal segments 4 lines wide, spreading, the middle and upper erect-spreading at an acute angle, %-i in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil. BB. Sroad and narroiv seginents irregularly intermingled. c. Blade of leaf 6 ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPohli&na, Mart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequal, linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved and many-nerved -intermixed, 16-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil. 00. Blade 2-2}4 ft.: petiole 4 in. long. t^legans, Mart., var. robusta, Dr. Stem 6 ft. high, 3^ lines in diam.: segments rarely 3, usually 5-7, 1- nerved, 10-14 in. long, some 4 lines wide, intermixed with broader, many-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi- nate. Centra! Brazil. BBB. Leaf segments all alike {except the connivent apical ones). c. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfy. *Eiedeliina, H. Wendl. {G. gracilis, Lind. & Andr^). Habit of C'ocos Wcddelliana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above ; rachis triangular, bisulcate above : Ivs. spread- ing, drooping at the apes ; segments 10-12 in. long, about 9 lines wide, linear-acute, elegantly recurved, the , 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. I.H. 21:169. CO. Equidistant: petiole half as long as the lilade. Schottitoa, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, 1-lK in. thick : Ivs, recurved, spreading; petiole half or more than half as long as the blade ; segments about 35 on each side, 10-12 in. long, two-flfths in. wide, equidistant, linear or linear-lanceolate, very long acuminate. E. Brazil. The following are imperfectly described, but are in the trade : *G. irnperialis. Linden.â*6'. princeps. Linden.â*G. Fyria^r- fifinffl, Hort. Belongs under A. Oneof the smallest Ivs. measures 28in. longbylOin. at the broadest. Hasnot flowered yet, and the genus is thereforexmcertain, R,H, 1898, p, 262. G.C. HI. 2.'i:258. P.E. 10:886,â(J. SiJectdsa,Barb.-Eodr. Jaked G. Smith, W. H. Taplin and W. M. GEORGIA, HORTICULTURE IN. Pig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unique. Latitude and altitude combine to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is effected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tennessee line) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Intermediately may be found as varied a climate, and consequently as extended a range of horticultural pro- duction, as can be met with in a journey of a thousand miles due north and south, in a region of normal eleva- tion, such as the Mississippi valley. Measurably the geology of the state corresponds with its elevation and consequent climatology, and is not com- plex except in the extreme northwestern portion. Two formationsâthe tei-tiary and metamorphicâcover nine- tenths of its area. The Sealslands, and coast for a short distance inland, are alluvial or quarternary, and here the vegetation is of a subtropical characterâpalmet- toes and live-oaks on the islands and pines and ham- mock growth inland, together with the citrus, flg and olive families, where cultivated. Slightly beyond the tide-water limit begins the vast sweep of the pine forests, known locally as the "Wire- grass Region," which extends inland some 160 miles, on an average, covering nearly the whole of the tertiary for- mation. A range of low sand hills, about 300 feet high, extending diagonally across the state, separates the ter- tiary and metamorphic regions. At its base the land has attained an average altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea-beach, stretches the metamorphic region âthe red clay or cotton beltârising gradually toward the northwest until the Piedmont escarpment is reached â another low hill range on the southern side of and parallel to the Chattahoochee river valley. The height of this escarpment varies from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Be- yond this are the Appalachian foothills and then the

 

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Apple and cherry belt. Peach and grape belt. 900, Georgia, to showr horticultural regions. Pear and melon belt. â Fig and citrus belt. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In extreme northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general way toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet), interspersed, however, with a chaos of mountains and coves, with a complex tangle of geologi- cal formations, from lower Silurian to eocene. The prevailing natural growth of the tertiary is yel- low pineâthat of the metamorphic region hard woods, embracing nearly all of the North American species, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may be classified as follows : Horticultural Areas : Corresponding Geological Divisions. 1. Fig and Citrus Belt Quarternary Formation 2. Pear and Melon Belt Tertiary Formation 3. Peach and G-bape Belt Metamorphic Formation 4. Apple and Cherry Belt Tennessee Dip 1. The Fig and Citrus Belt. âIn this zone the citi-us family does not thrive indigenously, nor is it planted for commercial purposes. Yet oranges and lemons live and bear unprotected, though latterly subject to injury from frost. It is the home of the Ogeechee lime, and formerly both indigo and the olive flourished on the Sea Islands, but their culture has been for many years abandoned. Pigs grow to perfection. About the ports âespecially Savannah âheavy trucking is followed for the northern marketâchiefly potatoes, strawberries, cabbages, celery, tom.atoos, onions and peas.

  

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Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofam01bail

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

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ANGB^CUM from near the base of the st.; fls. large, green and white, placed alternately back to back ; sepals and petals spreading, green ; labellum whitish, round, thickish ; spur green. Valuable ; grows to enormous proportions. Madagascar. B.M. 4761. B.B. 1522. L. 236. Var. vlrens, Hort.. (A. vlrens. Lindl.). Fls. smaller ; labellum tinged â n-ith green. B.M. 5170. Oakes Ames. ANGULdA (dedicated to Don Francisco de Angulo). Orchi(lAce(p,tTihe Vdndece. Pseudobulbs rathertall (when old 1, spinose at the summits with the remnants of leaf Teins : leaf-blades 1-2 ft. long, prominently nerved, as in Acineta, Stanhopea and Lyeaste : fls. large, sub- globular, on erect scapes : habit similar to Lyeaste, which is a member of the same sub-tribe. The Anguloas grow under shade of trees in leaf-mold. Some growers find that they do well when placed under vines. They are coolhouse orchids, but require a moderate rise in temperature during the growing season. Oakes Ames. Anguloa is a very interesting genus of cool orchids that thrive well in an ordinary greenhouse t^emperature, in which a minimum of 50° can be maintained. They are natives of the Andes of Colombia and Peru. The popular name of "Boat Orchid" somewhat suggests their shape and general appearance, the lip, being delicately hinged at its base, allowing this organ to oscillate when shaken. A. Clowesii is the best known as well as the most decorative species, its color being clear yel- low. A. Bm-keri is similar in structiire, but the fls. are chocolate-brown, with a decided aromatic fragrance, resembling Anise. There is also a white varietv of A. Cioii-exii, but it is very rare in cultivation, as arc all of the white forms of well known oniiiiN, tlii- iiKikinsr them very valuable commercially. A . nnifl.^ra i- aKo a pretty plant, with white flowers, spotti-d \vitli jiink. Put culture is best, as they require similar treatmtut to Lycuste Skinneri. E. O. Okpet. uniflora, Ruiz & Pavon. (A. virgindlis, Hort.). Pseu- dobulbs about 6 in.high( sometimes considerably higher): leaf-blades lK-2 ft. long, lanceolate : fls. whitish, some- times spotted within, or the labellum streaked with rose. Colombia. G. C. III. 19:423. A. F. 6: 607.-There is a white-fld. var. C16wesli, Lindl. Larger in every way than the above: fls. lemon-yellow, labellum tending toward white, mar- bled with orange. Colombia. Euckerl, Lindl. Smaller than A. Clowesii: fls. yel- low, spotted with crimson. A variety has been figured with the crimson or red color predominant (var. sam/iiiu- f(i, A.F.6:607). Colombia. ebiimea, Nicholson. Simi- lar to-i. Cloivesii.hut sepals and petals pure white and lip spotted pink. New Gra- nada. Oakes Ames. ANHAL6NIUM (name of no significance). C'actdce(r. Top-shaped succulent des- ert plants, mostly buried in the ground, the flat aerial portion covered with angular tubercles bearing ANISE 67 as wide at base, the upper surface variously fissured, even to the edges, presenting an irregular warty appear- ance : fls. central, about 1 In. long and broad, shading from whitish to rose. On limestone hills in the "Great Bend " region of the Rio Grande in Texas, and extending into Mexico. I.H. 16, p. 73, and fig. Kotchibeyi, Lem. (A. sulctltum, Salm-Dyck). This appears as a trade name, but the form is very uncertain, as no type seems to be in existence. According to the description, it is very much like the preceding species, except that the upper surface of the tubercle is not ir- regularly fissured, but is smooth, at least at the edges, except for the central furrow. B. Upper surface of tubercle not grooved. prismAticum, Lem. The flat top 3-8 in. across: tuber- cles imbricate, but squarrose-spreading, sharply triangu- lar-pyramidal and very acute, with a sharp, cartilaginous tip, which usually disappears with age and leaves the older tubercles blunt or retuse, %-\ in. long and about as wide at base, the upper surface almost plane and smooth, except that it is more or less pulverulent, and often bears a small tomentose tuft just behind the claw- like tip: fls.rose color. Mts.ofMex. âResembles an Aloe. John M. Coulter. ANIGOZANTHTJS (Greek, expanded-floiver). Bctmo- dorAcem. Eight or 10 species of Australian greenhouse or half-hardy perennials, with greenish, yellow or purple fls. and sword-like Ivs., cult, in Europe, but unknown to the Amer. trade. ANISACANTHUS {Gree^, unequal acantlnts). Acan- thdcece. A genus of six species of Mexican and Ameri- can shrubs, with mostly lanceolate, entire, petioled Ivs., and loosely spicate or scattered red fls. an inch or more long ; corolla lobes 4 ; stamens 2, equaling â ing the corolla lobes. Wrightii, Gray. Height, 2^ ft.: Ivs. 1-2 in Tex.-Once stl 1 ) a 7 1 ji s , il \\ i 1 in t ii I exceed- long,

 

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91. Informal disposition of against a background strictly Me to Ma iiilla J^ewin. For eultuiv. ~ - ' A. Uppers;. beariiiij ;..,,;-. £ngelmanni, Lr Rock. The flat tu: A genus of 4 or 5 species, , except that a single species [A. JSngel- the Rio Grande into Texas. It is referred by sonif. For A. Williamsii and A. Klrr Frhhmrite.tus, section Lophophora. irtth a broad and deep wool- ore, which toidens below, snriitum, Engelm.). Living i?red top 2-5 in. across, taper- ing below into a thick root : tubercles imbricated appressed, triangular in outline, K-1 in. long and about Anise. UmbelUfene. An aromatic condimental and medicinal herb {Pimpinilla Anlsttm, Linn.) of the Ori- ent. It is an annual, and is easily grown from seeds in any warm and mellow soil. The seeds are commonly sown where the plants are to stand. The seeds are used in medicine and in cookery, and for flavoring liquors. They yield a highly perfumed essential oU. They are mostly grown in Mediterranean countries. The leaves are also used as seasoning and garnishing. The plant reaches a height of 2 ft., bears twice-pinnate Ivs. and small yel- lowish white fls. in large, loose umbels. The seeds are oblong and curved, ribbed on the convex side, grayish,

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924074091772

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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CANTUA CAPSICUM 241 GANTTTA (from Cantu, Peruvian name). PoUmonidi- cece. Ten species of South American flowering shrubs with very variable foliage and showy, tubular fls. of va- rious colors. C. buxifolia is cult, out of doors in S. Calif., and is recommended in Europe as a coolhouse shrub. Probably no tenderer than Fuchsias. Prop, by cuttings. buxiSdlia, Lam. (0. depindens, Pers.). Much branched shrub, about 4 ft. high ; branches more or less downy: Ivs. very variable, generally oblong-obovate, acute, taper- ing at the base, entire or serrate, downy or glabrous : fls. 5-8, drooping vertically, in a kind of leafy, termi- nal corymb ; calyx pale, membranous, green-streaked, 5-toothed, a fourth shorter than the corolla tube; corolla long-funnel-shaped, the tube 2Kin. long, red, usually streaked ; limb of fringed, obcordate, crimson lobes : stamens included. Peru. B.M. 4582. F.S. 7:650. R.H. 1858, p. 294. —One of the choicest of European green- house plants. Very liable to red spider in our climate. C. bicolor, Lem. Distinguislied frora the above by the entire Ivs., which are shorter, about 1 in. long, and the solitary fls., with a short, yellow tube, the limb not fringed. The fls. droop, but not vertically. Peru. B.M. 4729. F.S.4;343. Probably less de- sirable than the above. — O. pyrifblia, Pers. Lvs. generally broader and more toothed than in C. bicolor: fls. as many as 17, in an erect, terminal, compound corymb ; calyx red-tipped, nearly half as long as the yellow corolla tube ; corolla about Ij^in. long, with a white limb : stamens long, exserted. Peru. B.M. 4386. F.S. 4:383. W. M. CAPE BULBS. Treated under £ulbs. CAFE CHEST- NUT is Caloden- drum Gapensis. CAPE GOOSEBEREY is a Phynalis. CAFE JESSAMIITE. See Gardenia. CAPE FOND WEED. See Aponogeton. CAFEB. See Capparis. For Caper-spurge,see Euphor- bia Lathy rus. CAPPAKIS (Greek, caper). Capeb-btjsh, or Caper Tree. Gappariddcece. Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower buds of G. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out of old walls, rocks, and rubbish in Mediterranean regions and India. Also rarely cult, as a greenhouse flowering shrub. The genus is large and polymorphic, and none of its relatives are familiar north. Prop, by cuttings in green- houses, and by seeds south. spindsa, Linn. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high : lvs. roundish or ovate, deciduous : fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading before noon; sepals 4; petals 4, oblong, clawed,wavy,white, IKin. long : stamens 40-50: filaments purple above, per- haps the chief beauty of the Dlant. B.M. 291.—What seems to be the long style with a short, un- opened stigma, is really the elon- gated peduncle or torus topped by the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. W. M. CAPBIFOLIUM. See Zonicera.

 

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352. Caprlola Dactylon. Nat. size. CAPEtOLA (the wild goat, whici feeds upon this grass). Graminece. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into flnger-like branches. Spikelets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes 3, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. D&ctylon, Kuntze (Gynodon Ddctylon, Pers.). Bbr- MnDA Grass. Fig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping habit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-making, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a lawn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ g_ Kennedy. CAFSICUK (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). SolancLcem. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-6 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- lipticaJ, entire, acuminate : fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3's; corolla rotate, usually 5- lobed; stamens 5, rarely 6 or 7, with bluish anthers de- hiscing longitudinally ;ovary originally 2-3-loculed : fr. a juiceless beri-y or pod, extremely variable in form and size, many-seeded, and with more or less pungency about the seeds and peri- carp. Fig. 353. The fruit be- comes many-loouled and monstrous in cultivation. About 90 species have been named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper. A. Anmial or biennial. innuTun, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but iu warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties In the United States readily find classifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear. c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoides, Irish (C. conoldes, Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 m. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect: fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%in.: fr. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about l^in. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicul&tiun, Irish {G. fascicul&tum, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, round or nearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by Kin. In diam., very acrid. This is the Red Cluster Pepper.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches, and a synopsis of the vegetable kingdom

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer02bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954, ed; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869- joint ed

Subjects: Gardening -- Dictionaries; Plants -- North America encyclopedias

Publisher: New York, Doubleday, Page & Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

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CENTAUREA 11. montflna, Linn. Mountain Bluet. Perennial : sts. low, stolonit'erous, unbranched, 12-16 or rarely 20 in. high : Ivs. decurrent, the young ones silvery white, oval-lance-shaped : involucre of 4 or 5 rows of scales, blackciliate along the margins; fls. blue, the marginal ones 1 in. long, disc-fls. verv short, becoming purple. Europe. B. M. 77. Var. Alba^ Hort. Fls. white. Var. rbsea, Hort. Pis. rose-colored. Var. citrlna, DC. (var. sulphurea, Hort.). Disc-fls. brown, rays yellow. Ar- menia. B.M. 1175. CEPHALANTHUS 275 cc. stems cf, simple or branched.

 

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Centaurea Amen cana(X h)- 12. dealbata, Willd. Perennial : sts. sub-erect, 8-24 in. high : Ivs. white-villous beneath, glabrous above, the lower ones 1-1% ft. long, pet- 1 - 1 led, pinnate, the obovate lobes ^ irsely cut-toothed or auricled at ^ III base; stem-lvs. sessile,pinnate, w ith oblong-lance lobes: fl.-head 'solitary, just above the uppermost leif : fls. red, those of the disc rosy or white : outer scales of the mvolucre with lanceolate tips, the middle rounded, deeply fringed, (.iliate. Asia I\linor, Persia. 13. atropurpiirea, Waldst. & Kit. (t calocfphiila, Willd.). Peren- ni-il : sts. erect, branched, about 2-3 ft. higii, the branches white- woollj' at the summit: Ivs. bipin- nate, lobes liriear-lanceolate, acumi- nate ; lowest Ivs. petioled, upper- most pinnatifld: fl.-heads without bracts ; invol. scales with fringed ciliate white lanceolate tips, the innermost ones rounded, scarious-margined : fls. black-purple. Hungary. 14. Babyl6nica, Linn. Silvery white perennial: sts. simple, stout, erect, (i-lO or 12 ft. high : Ivs. long, coria- ceous, strongly decurrent on the stem, the radical lyrate, the lower stem-lvs. oval or oblong-acute, entire or undu- late, the upper lance-acute : fla. yellow, the globular heads almost sessile in the axils of narrow bract-like Ivs.; ^i-K of the stem flower-bearing: involucre-scales with a short, recurved tip. Asia Minor, Syria. Gn.2,p.73: 8, p. 263. E. H. 18.59, pp. 540-1.-Tall, stout and striking P'*°'- Jared Cx. Smith and L. H. B. CENTAUEtDIUM. See Xanthismu. CENTRADfiNIA( Greek for f()o«ifaiid, alluding to the anther glands). Melastonuicea-. Four species in Mexico and Central Amer., grown in warmhouses for their showy-colored Ivs. and pretty fls. They are herbs or shrubs, with angled or winged branches, petiolate, opposite lanceolate or ovate-entire, ribbed ivs., and fls. with 4-lobed calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a 4-loculed ovary. The blossoms are pink or white, in axillary or terminal clusters. Prop, by cuttings. Very showy and desirable plants. Stems often colored. Centradenias like rich leaf-mold with sharp sand, and brisk heat. Give a light but shady position. Strong plants are much benefited by liquid manure, and such applications give better colors in both flowers and fruit. Monogr. by Cogniaux. DC, Monographiae Phanerogamarum, 7: 116. ^andifolia, Endl. Branches 4-winged : Ivs. ovate- lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, brilliant red beneath, long-pointed and curving at the end: cymes many-tid., shorter than the ivs., the fls. light rose, rotate, the petals very obtuse, the stamens unequal. B.M. 5228.— The plant grows 2 ft. high, and blooms in winter. Very showy. The cut branches hold their color a long time, making the plant useful for decorations. floribiinda. Planch. Branches obscurely angled, pu- bescent, red: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering below, 3- nerved, red-nerved below : fls. pink, in terminal pani- cles. l''.S. 5:453. —Smaller than C. grandifolia. inaequilaterilis, G. Don (C. roseo, Lindl.). Lvs. ovate- lanceolate, unequal-sided, entire, ciliate, reddish be- neath: fls pink, in terminalcorjnnbose racemes: dwarf. Mes. B.R. 29:20. L. H. B. and H. A. Siebeecht. CENTRANTHUS [ijreek, spurred flower), falerian- <)ce(r. A few annual and perennial herbs of the Medi- terranean region, with dense clusters of small red or white fls. terminating the branches, and opposite entire or cut lvs.: calyx cut into 5-15 narrow divisions, en- larging after flowering; corolla slender-tubed, 5-parted, spurred at the base; stamen 1: fls. with a pappus-like crest. Of easiest culture. riiber, DC. Red Valerian. Jupiter's Beakd. Per- ennial, 1-3 ft., smooth and glaucous, forming a compact and floriferous, bushy plant ; lvs. ovate to lanceolate, some of them toothed at base: fls. very numerous, deep crimson. —A very handsome old garden plant, too much neglected. It blooms all summer. Excellent for cut- ting. Increased by division; also by seeds. There is a white-fld. form (var. rillnis). macroslphon, Boiss. Annual, of easy culture in any good soil: 1-2 ft.; lvs. ovate, glaucous, toothed: fls. larger than in the last, red. Spain. —There are white- fld. (var. dlbus) and dwarf (var. ndnns) forms. Excel- lent for rockeries and borders; also good for lawn vases. L. H. B. CENTEOPdGON (Greek kentron. spur, and pogon, l)i_':ir<l, nfninig t<i the fringed stigma). Campanti- h}':<',r. ^VlMtut .'it; ti-ujiical Amer. sub-shrubs or shrubs, often .scaiideiit, witli alternate, mostly dentate Ivs., and long, tubular fls. wliich are violet, purple, red, or orange, and usually liornr singly on long peduncles: bracteoles very small or wanting. Warmhouse perennial, prop, by cuttings. Lucyanus, Houllet. Height 1-2 ft.: stem somewhat woody; lvs. short-petioled. finely toothed: fls. rose, win- ter; hemispherical, with hmct'olate segments recurved at the tips. E.H. 1868:2'.ill.~ Said to be a hybrid of C. fastiwsits and Siphocfimjiiihis helulwformis, but seems to show little influence of the latter, which has longer petioles and peduncles, more coarsely toothed lvs., longer calyx-segments, and a yellow-tipped corolla. fastudsus, Scheidw. Lvs. peach-like, oblong, acute, bordered with glandular teeth, very glabrous, short- petioled: fls. rose-colored, winter ; calyx hemispherical, with 5 lanceolate, denticulate segments. Mex. R.H. 1853:181. W. M. CENTROSfiMA (Greek, spiirred-standard). Legii- mindsw. Butterfly Pe.\. Twining herbs (at least those in cult.), with pinnate, 3-7-foIiolate lvs., and showy white or reddish fls in the axils. Fl. papiliona- ceoTis. the standard spurred on the back, the keel broad, and the style bearded at the apex. Species nearly 40 in tropical Amer. and 2 in V. S. Virginianum. Benth. Roughish, climbing, 2-6 ft.: Ifts. ovate to linear, shining, stipitate : fls. 1^ in the axil, 1 in. long, violet and splashed, showy: pod straight and long-pointed, 4-5 in. long. Md. S., in sandy lands. A.G. 13:649.-Int. to cult, many years ago, but again in- troduced in 1892 (as C. grandiflorum), and much adver- tised. It is a hardy and desirable perennial vine, bloom- ing the first season from seed. There is a white-fld. var. L. H. B. CENTURY PLANT. Consult Agave. CEPHALANTHfiRA (Greek for head and anther). ()rihid:'ti-iii. frilic Xcflttieie. About 10 species of small. tenipi'rati-ri'gicin tirrestrial orchids, allied to Epipactis, Pogonia, etc. Some of them are western N. American, ahd others are European. Sepals 3: petals small, ovate: lip saccate : Ivs. (sometimes wanting) lanceolate or oblong: fls. mostly small (sometimes showy), in an open spike. The species are scarcely known in cult., but two Japanese species have been offered by importers. These are E. falcata, Blume. yellow, and E. erScta, Blume, white. CEPHALANTHUS (Greek, Mad and flower: fls. in heads). liuhiileeie. Button Bush. Shrubs with oppo- site or whorled, entire, stipulate lvs.: fls. small, tuliu- lar, white or yellowish, 4-merous, with included stamens and long, exserted style, in globular heads: fr. dry, sepa- rating into 2 nutlets. Six species in Amer., Africa and Asia, of which only the one North American species is

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924074091772

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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ANGR-ECUM ANISE 67 from nearthe base of the st.; fls. large, green and white, placed alternately back to back ; sepals and petals spreading, green ; labellum whitish, round, thickish ; spur green. Valuable ; grows to enormous proportions. Madagascar. B.M. 4761. B.R. 1522. L. 236. Var. vlrens, Hort. {A. vlrens, Lindl.). Fls. smaller ; labellum tinged with green. B.M. 5170. Oakes Ames. ANGTTLdA (dedicated to Don Francisco de Angulo). Orcli iddcew,tTihe Vdndew. Pseudobulbs rathertall (when old), spinose at the summits with the remnants of leaf veins : leaf-blades 1-2 ft. long, prominently nerved, as in Acineta, Stanhopea and Lycaste : fls. large, sub- globular, on erect scapes : habit similar to Lycaste, which is a member of the same sub-tribe. The Anguloas grow imder shade of trees in leaf-mold. Some growers find that they do well when placed under vines. They are coolhouse orchids, but require a moderate rise in temperature during the growing season. Oakes Ames. Anguloa is a very interesting genus of cool orchids that thrive well in an ordinary greenhouse temperature, in which a minimum of 50° can be maintained. They are natives of the Andes of Colombia and Peru. The popular name of "Boat Orchid" somewhat suggests their shape and general appearance, the lip, being delicately hinged at its base, allowing this organ to oscillate when shaken, A. Clowesii is the best known as well as the most decorative species, its color being clear yel- low. A. Bucheri is similar in structure, but the fls. are chocolate-brown, with a decided aromatic fragrance, resembling Anise. There is also a white variety of A. Clowesii, but it is very rare in cultivation, as are all of the white forms of well known orchids, this making them very valuable commercially. A.uniflora is also a pretty plant, with white flowers, spotted with pink. Pot culture is best, as they require similar treatment to I/ijcaste Skinneri. y,. O. Orpet. uniildra, Ruiz & Pavon. {A.virgin&lis,'B.OTi.). Pseu- dobulbs about 6 in.high( sometimes considerably higher): leaf-blades l%-2 ft. long, lanceolate : fls. whitish, some- times spotted within, or the labellum streaked with rose. Colombia. G. C. III. 19: 423. A. F. 6: 607. —There is a white-fld. var. CISwesii, Lindl. Larger in every way than the above: fls. lemon-yellow, labellum tending toward white, mar- bled with orange. Colombia. Buckeri, Lindl. Smaller than A. Clowesii: fls. yel- low, spotted with crimson. A variety has been flgured with the crimson or red color predominant {va,T. sangiiin- «a, A.F. 6:607). Colombia. ehiimea, Nicholson. Simi- lar to A. Clowesii,hut sepals and petals pure white and lip spotted pink. New Gra- nada. Oakes Ames. as wide at base, the upper surface variously fissured, even to the edges, presenting an irregular warty appear- ance : fls. central, about 1 in. long and broad, shading from whitish to rose. On limestone hills in the "Great Bend" region of the Rio Grande in Texas, and extending into Mexico. I.H. 16, p. 73, and flg. Kotchiibeyi, Lem. (^1. sulcdtnm, Salm-Dyck). This appears as a trade name, but the form is very uncertain, as no type seems to be in existence. According to the description, it is very much like the preceding species, except that the upper surface of the tubercle is not ir- regularly fissured, but is smooth, at least at the edges, except for the central furrow. B. Upper surface of tubercle not grooved. prism&ticum, Lem. The fiat top 3-8 in. across: tuber- cles imbricate, but squarrose-spreading, sharply triangu- lar-pyramidal and very acute, with a sharp, cartilaginous tip, which usually disappears with age and leaves the older tubercles blunt or retuse, %-l in. long and about as wide at base, the upper surface almost plane and smooth, except that it is more or less pulverulent, and often bears a small tomentose tuft just behind the claw- like tip: fls.rose color. Mts.ofMex.—Resembles an Aloe. John M.Coulter. ANIGOZANTHTJS {Greek, ej-panded-flower). Hasmo- dordeecB. Eight or 10 species of Australian greenhouse or half-hardy perennials, with greenish, yellow or purple fls. and sword-like Ivs., cult, in Europe, but unknown to the Amer. trade. ANISACANTHUS {Greek, unequal acanthus). Acan- thAcece. A genus of six species of Mexican and Ameri- can shrubs, with mostly lanceolate, entire, petioled Ivs., and loosely spicate or scattered red fls. an inch or more long ; corolla lobes 4 ; stamens 2, equaling or exceed- ing the corolla lobes. Wrlghtii, Gray. Height, 2-4 ft.: Ivs. 1-2 in. long, ob- long- or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate. S. and W. Tex. —Once sold by John Saul, Washington, DC. ANHALdNIlTM (name of no significance). Cact&cece. Top-shaped succulent des- ert plants, mostly buried in the ground, the flat aerial portion covered with angular tubercles hearing no spines. A genus of 4 or 5 species, strictly Mexican, except that a single species {A.Engel- manni) crosses the Rio Grande into Texas. It is referred to MamUlaria by some. For A. WilUamsii and A. Jjewinii, see under ^chinocactus, section Jjophophora. For culture, see Cactus. A. Upper surface ofluhercle witJi a broad and deep wool- bearing longitudinal groove, which widens below. fingelmanm, Lem. {A. fissiir&tum, Engelm.). Living Rock. The flat tubercle-covered top 2-5 in. across, taper- ing below into a thick root: tubercles imbricated and appressed, triangular in outline, }i-l in. long and about

 

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Informal disposition of annuals,— a mass against a background. (See Annuals, p. 68.) Anise, UmbelUferce. An aromatic condimental and medicinal herb {Pimpinilla Anisum, Linn.) of the Ori- ent. It is an annual, and is easily grown from seeds in any warm and mellow soil. The seeds are commonly sown where the plants are to stand. The seeds are used in medicine and in cookery, and for flavoring liquors. They yield a highly perfumed essential oU. They are mostly grown in Mediterranean countries. The leaves are also used as seasoning and garnishing. The plant reaches a height of 2 ft., bears twice-pinnate Ivs. and small yel- lowish white fls. in large, loose umbels. The seeds are oblong and curved, ribbed on the convex side, grayish.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer04bail4

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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1892 VACCINIUJVI VACCINIUM EE. Racemes shorter. F. Corolla cylindric: fr. blue 18. corymliosuin FF, Corolla urn-shaped: fr. black 19. atrococcum AA. Species cultivated cJiiefly for ornament. B. Plants low, 1-2 ft, high. c. Stems creeping, witJi branches erect, or as- cending. D. Lvs. small, shining 20. crassiiolium DD. Xjvs.larger,paleorgla'U- cescent 21. uliginosum 00. Stems erect: twigs red 22. erythrinum BB. Plants taller, 2-20 ft. high. 0. Foliage evergreen, rigid. .2"^. ovatum CO. Foliage deciduous. D. Surface shining above, more or less pubescent beneath 24. arboreum DD. Surface paler above, glaucous beneath 25. stamineum DDD. Surface bright green both sides. {Here might besought No. 5.) 5. erythrocarpon 1. Oxycficcus, Linn. Small, Ceanberkt. Crasberrt of the Old World. Slender creeping plants with short, filiform stems 4-10 in. long: lvs. ovate acute or acumi- nate, % in. long, with revolute margins: pedicels 1-4, terminal: corolla deeply 4-parted, the lobes reflexed; anthers exserted, with very long terminal tubes: berry red, globose, 34-/^ in. in diam., 4-loculed. Sphagnum swamps in subarctic and alpine regions. —Though smaller, its fruit is by many considered superior to that of the next. 2. macrocirpon, Ait. Larger American Cranberry. Stems slender, creeping, elongated (1—4 ft.), the flower- ing branches ascending: lvs. oblong or oval, obtuse or retuse, Yz-Y^ in. long, whitened beneath: pedicels sev- eral, axillary and lateral: berry red or reddish, globose or pyriform, H-1 in. long. N. America. B.M. 2586. Em. 2:456. See Cranberrif.

 

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2629. Cowberry or Mountain Cranberry — Vaccinium Vitis-Idasa (X about %). 3. Vitis-Idaea, Linn. Cowberry. Mountain Cran- berry. PoxBERRY. Pig. 2629. Plants low (6-10 in.): lvs. coriaceous, persistent, obovate or oval, }/i-% in. long, dark green and shining above, with blackish bristly points beneath: fls. in short, terminal racemes; corolla white or rose-colored, 4-cleft: berries dark red, acid, rather bitter. Arctic regions, south to coast of New England, Minn, and Brit. Col. B.B. 2:580. L.B.C. 7:616(as var. major); ll:1023(var. jHiMor). —Thefruits, which are rather larger than currants, acid and some- what bitter when uncooked, are largely used in the more nortliern regions for tarts, jellies and preserves, or as a substitute for the common cranberry. According to Macoun, the fishermen's families along the Gasp6 coast and the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence gather the fruit of this species in large quantities for their own use and for sale, calling it "Low-bush Cranberry." Throughout the whole of northern Canada hunters and trappers, as well as the native Indians, have frec^uently to depend upon it for food. It is valuable for the shrub- bery border, where the strong contrast of the dark green foliage and the bright-colored persistent fruit is very striking. 4. parvifolium, Smith. Shrub, 6-12 ft. high, strag- gling, with slender, green, sharply angled branches: lvs. oblong or oval, obtuse, entire, dull or pale, K-% in. long: fls. solitary in the axils; corolla globular, nearly wliite; calyx 5-lobed: berries light red, rather dry. "Northern Calif, to Alaska.— Offered by only one nurseryman. T. J. Howell, of Oregon, characterizes the fruit as "of good flavor, excellent for tarts," while Gray says "rather dry, hardly edible." 5. erythrocirpon, Michx. Shrub, erect, divergently branching, 1-4 ft. high: lvs. oblong-lanceolate, acumi- nate, serrate, thin, 1^-3 in. long: pedicels solitary, axillary, bractless: corolla flesh-colored, K in. long, 4-cleft, revolute: berries globose, % in. in diam., light red, turning to deep blue-black at full maturity, watery, slightly acid, scarcely edible. July. Higher Allegha- nies, Va. to Ga. B.M. 7413. 6. nitidum, Andr. A diffusely much branched shrub, with smooth branchlets: lvs. thick, coriaceous, shining above, obovate or oblong: fls. in fascicles on short ra- cemes, the almost persistent bracts as well as the roundish or obtuse calyx-teeth reddish; corolla short- campannlate, 5-toothed: berry "somew^hat pear-shaped, black." Pla. and Ga. —Near to or passing into V. Myr- sinites. 7. Myrsinites, Lam. Low, evergreen shrub erect or decumbent: lvs. exceediiii,'ly variable, }i-l in. long, en- tire or serrulate, sometinn:-s denticulate, mostly shining above; bracts and calyx-teeth acute or acutish: berries "globose, blue." Sandy pine barrens N.Car.to Fla.and La. B.M. 1550 (as F. nitidum., var. decumbens}. — The differ- ence between this species and the preceding is obscure. The chief points of distinction seem to be that V. Myrsi- nites has puberulent branchlets, prominently veined lvs. and acute calyx-teeth and bracts, while V. nitidum has smooth branchlets, smaller and faintly veined lvs., with obtuse or roundish calyx-teeth and bracts. Grown as a pot-plant in coolhouses in England under the name of V. Sprengelii. 8. vacillans, Ealm. Low Blueberry. Blue Huckle- berry. Erect, glabrous: lvs. obovate or oval, entire or sparingly serrulate: fls. in rather loose clusters, gener- ally on leafless summits of twigs; corolla campanulate or cylindraceous, contracted at the mouth : berries large, blue, with much bloom, of excellent flavor, ripening with V. Canadense. Dry, sandy, or rocky places, N. Amer. B.B. 2:579. Em. 1:454. —One of the most com- mon species of the northern and central states, particu- larly west of the Alleghanies. The fls. are quite showy, while the fruit is particularly valuable. .9. Myrtillus, Linn. Whortleberry. Bilberry. Low shrubs, glabrous: lvs. ovate or oval, serrate, conspicu- ously veined, yi-% in. long: calyx almost entire: ber- ries black, nodding. Mountainous regions, N. Amer., En., Asia.—The most widely distributed species and very generally used as an article of diet and in the mak- ing of drinks, particularly in the Old World. It is from this species tliat the common name Whortleberry is de- rived. Not of special importance in America. 10. csespitdsum, Michx. Dwarf Bilberry. A dwarf tufted shrub, 3-12 in. high, nearly glalirous throughout: lvs. obovate, obtuse or acutish, serrulate, shining on both sides: fls. solitary; corolla obovoid, pink or white, slightly 5-tootlied (rarely 4-toothed): berries large, globose, blue with bloom, sweet. N. Amer. B.B. 2:576

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofam01bail

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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CANTUA CANTITA (from Cantu, Peruvian name). PolemoniA- ce(B. Ten species of South American flowering slinibs witli very variable foliage and showy, tubular fls. of va- rious colors. C. buxifolia is cult, out of doors in S.Calif., and is recommended in Europe as a coolhouse shrub. Probably no tenderer than Fuchsias. Prop, by cuttings. btmldlia, Lam. (('. d, i^f'mh us. Pers.). Much branched shrub, about i ft. lii^'h ; l.iaii.lns more or less downy: Ivs. very variable. ^-.iicriiHy -2in. long, red, usually streaked ; limb of fringed, obcordate, crimson lobes : stamens included. Peru. B.M. 4.582. P.S. 7:650. R.H. 1858, p. 294. —One of the choicest of European green- house plants. Very liable to red spider in our climate. C bicolor, hem. Distinguished from the above by the entire Ivs., which are shorter, abnut 1 in. long, and the solitary fls., with a short, yellow tube, tlie liiuli not fringed. The lis. droop, but not vertically. Peru. B.M. 47'.''J. F..'^. 4:343. Probably less de- sirable than the above.— <'. p^jrifolia, Pers. Lvs. generally broader and more toothed tlum in C. bicolor: fls. as many as 17, in an erect, terminal, compound corymb ; calyx red-tipped, nearly half as long as the yellow corolla tube : corolla about long, with a white limb : stamens long, exserted. Peru. "- "3.4:383. -nr. M. CAPE Treated Bidh.s. CAPSICUM 241

 

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CAPE GOOSEBEEEY CAPE PONDWEED. See Aponogeion. _ CAPEE. See Capparis. L'aper-spurge,see .BnpAor- hia Lathyms. CAPPAEIS (Greek, coper). Caper-bush, or Caper Tree. Cappariddcece. Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower buds of C. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out of old walls, rocks, and rubbish in Mediterranean regions and India. Also rarely cult, as a greenhouse flowering shrub. The genus is large and polymorphic, and none of its relatives are familiar north. Prop, by cuttings in green- and by seeds south. spindsa, Linn. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high : lvs. roundish or ovate, deciduous : fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading before noon; sepals 4; petals 4, oblong, clawed,wavy,white, IHin. long: stamens 40-50: filaments purple above, per- haps the chief beauty of the plant. B.M. 291.-What seems to be the long style with a short, un- opened stigma, is really the elon- 352. Capriola Dactylon. Nat. size. f^^^<^ ^to'^^^d^ by the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. CAPBIFOHUM. See Lonicera. CAFElOLA (the wild goat, which feeds upon this grass). Gramt)ie(F. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into flnger-like branches. Spikelets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes 3, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. D&ctylon, Kuntze {Ci/iiorloH Ddctylon. Pers.). Ber- muda Grass. Pig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping haliit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-makiug, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a l,iwn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ ^ jj^^^-^DV. CAFSICUH (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). Solandcew. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World.tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-ti ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- liptical, entire, acuminate: fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3's; corolla rotate, usually 5- lobed; stamens 5, rarely 6 or 7, with bluish anthers de- biscinglongitudinally ;ovary ] originally 2-3-loculed : fr. a juiceless beiTy or pod, extremely variable in form and size, many-seeded, and with more or less pungency about the seeds and peri- carp. Pig. 353. The fruit be- comes many-loculed and monstrous in cultivation. 353. Normal 2-loculed fruit o£ About 90 species have been Capsicum, in cross section. named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. Eept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper. A. Annual or hiennlal. innuum, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties in the United States readily find cla,ssifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear. c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoldes, Irish (C. conoldes. Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect; fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%in.: fr. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about IJiin. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicuiatum, Irish (C. fascicuUtnm, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, round or nearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by Min. in diam., very acrid. This is the Eed Cluster Pepper.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofam01bail

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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CENTAUREA 11. montina, Linn. Mountain Bluet. Perennial : sts. low, stoloniferous, unbranched, 12-10 or rarely 20 in. high : Ivs. decurrent, the young ones silvery white, oval-lance-shaped : involucre of 4 or 5 rows of scales, black-ciliate along the margins; fls. blue, the marginal ones 1 in. long, disc-fls. very short, becoming purple. Europe. B. M. 77. Var. Alba, Hort. Fls. white. Var. rdsea, Hort. Fls. rose-colored. Var. citrlna, DC. (var. sulphured. Hort.). Disc-fls. brown, rays yellow. Ar- menia. B.M. 1175. cc. Stetns erect, simple or brajiched. 12. dealbata, Willd. Perennial : sts. sub-erect, 8-24 in. hij;h : Ivs. white-villous beneath, glabrous above, the lower ones 1-1 >2 ft. long, pet- ioled, pinnate, the obovate lobes ,^.; . coarsely cut-toothed or auricled at -- .-,>'- the base; steni-lvs. sessile, pinnate, with oblong-lance lobes : fl.-head solitary, just above the uppermost leaf : fls. red, those of the disc rosy or white : outer scales of the involucre with lanceolate tips, the middle rounded, deeply fringed, ciliate. Asia Minor, Persia. 13. atropurpiirea, Waldst. & Kit. (C. calociphala, Willd.). Peren- nial : sts. erect, branched, about 2-3 ft. high, the branches white- woolly at the summit: Ivs. bipin- nate, lobes linear-lanceolate, acumi- nate ; lowest Ivs. petioled, upper- most pinnatifid: fl.-heads without bracts ; invol. scales with fringed ciliate white lanceolate tips, the innermostones rounded, scarious-margined : fls. black-purple. Hungary. 14. BabyWnioa, Linn. Silvery white perennial : sts. simple, stout, erect, 6-10 or 12 ft. high : Ivs. long, coria- ceous, strongly decurrent on the stem, the radical lyrate, the lower stem-lvs. oval or oblong-acute, entire or undu- late, the upper lance-acute : fls. yellow, the globular heads almost sessile in the axils of narrow bract-like Ivs.; 5^-J^ of the stem flower-bearing: involucre-scales with ashort, recurved tip. Asia Minor, Syria. Gn. 2,p.73; 8, p. 263. R.H.1859,pp. 540-1. —Tall, stout and striking P'*°'- Jared G. Smith and L. H. B. CENTATJElDITTM. See Xanthisma. CENTEADfiNIA (Greek for toothed gland, alluding to the anther glands). Melastomdcece. Pour species in Mexico and Central Amer., grown in warmhouses for their showy-colored Ivs. and pretty fls. They are herbs or shrubs, with angled or winged branches, petiolate, opposite lanceolate or ovate-entire, ribbed Ivs., and fls. with 4-lobed calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a 4-loculed ovary. The blossoms are pink or white, in axillary or terminal clusters. Prop, by cuttings. Very showy and desirable plants. Stems often colored. Centradenias like rich leaf-mold with sharp sand, and brisk heat. Give a light but shady position. Strong plants are much benefited by liquid manure, and such applications give better colors in both flowers and fruit. Monogr. by Cogniaux, DC, Monographite Phanerogamarum, 7:116. grandifolia, Endl. Branches 4-winged : Ivs. ovate- lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, brilliant red beneath, long-pointed and curving at the end: cymes many-fld., shorter than the Ivs., the fls. light rose, rotate, the petals very obtuse, the stamens unequal. B.M. 5228.— The plant grows 2 ft. high, and blooms in winter. Very showy. The cut branches hold their color a long time, making the plant useful for decorations. iloribiinda. Planch. Branches obscurely angled, pu- bescent, red: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering below, 3- nerved, red-nerved below : fls. pink, in terminal pani- cles. F.S. 5:453.-Smaller than C. grandifolia. in8EqmlaterS,Us, G. Don (C. rdscn, Lindl.). Lvs. ovate- lanceolate, unequal-sided, entire, ciliate, reddish be- neath: fls. pink, in terminal corymbose racemes: dwarf. CEPHALANTHUS 275 CENTEANTHUS (Greek, spurred flower). Valerian- dcew. A few annual and perennial herbs of the Medi- terranean region, with dense clusters of small red or white fls. terminating the branches, and opposite entire or cut lvs.: calyx cut into 5-15 narrow divisions, en- larging after flowering; corolla slender-tubed. 5-parted, spurred at the b:ise; stamen 1: fls. with a pappus-like crest. Of easiest culture. rtiber, DC. Red Valerian. Jupiter's Beard. Per- ennial, 1-3 ft., smooth and glaucous, forming a compact and floriferous, bushy plant : lvs. ovate to lanceolate, some of them toothed at base: fls. very numerous, deep crimson.—A very handsome old garden plant, too much neglected. It blooms all summer. Excellent for cut- ting. Increased by division; also by seeds. There is a white-fld. form (var. dlbus}. macrosiphon, Boiss. Annual, of easy culture in any good soil: 1-2 ft.: lvs. ovate, glaucous, toothed: fls. larger than in the last, red. Spain. —There are white- fld. (var. dlbus) and dwarf (var. ndnus) forms. Excel- lent for rockeries and borders; also good for lawn vases. L. H. B. CENTKOPOGON (Greek kentron. spur, and pogon, beard, referring to the fringed stigma). Campanu- lAcew. About 36 tropical Amer. sub-shrubs or shrubs, often scandent, with alternate, mostly dentate lvs., and long, tubular fls. which are violet, purple, red, or orange, and usually borne singly on long peduncles: bracteoles very small or wanting. Warmhouse perennial, prop, by cuttings. Lucyinus, Houllet. Height 1-2 ft.: stem somewhat woody: Ivs. short-petioled, finely toothed: fls. rose, win- ter; hemispherical, with lanceolate segments recurved at the tips. R.H. 1868:290.-Said to be a hybrid of C. fastuosus and Siphocampylus betul(pformis, but seems to show little influence of the latter, which has longer petioles and peduncles, more coarsely toothed lvs., longer calyx-segments, and a yellow-tipped corolla. fastudsus, Scheidw. Lvs. peach-like, oblong, acute, bordered with glandular teeth, very glabrous, short- petioled: fls. rose-colored, winter ; calyx hemispherical, •ith 5 lanceolate, denticulate segments. Mex. R.H. 1853:18L W. M. Mex. B.R. 29:: L. H. and H. A. Siebrecht. CENTEOSfiMA (Greek, spurred-sfandard). Legu- mindsw. Butterfly Pea. Twining herbs (at least those in cult.), with pinnate, .3-7-foliolate lvs., and showy white or reddish fls in the axils. Fl. papiliona- ceous, the standard spurred on the back, the keel broad, and the style bearded at the apex. Species nearly 40 in tropical Amer. and 2 in U. S. Virginianum, Benth. Roughish, climbing, 2-6 ft.: Ifts. ovate to linear, shining, stipitate : fls. 1^ in the axil, 1 in. long, violet and splashed, showy: pod straight and long-pointed, 4-5 in. long. Md. S., in sandy lands. A.G. 13:649. —Int. to cult, many years ago, but again in- troduced in 1892 (as C. grundiflorum), and much adver- tised. It is a hardy and desirable perennial vine, bloom- ing the first season from seed. There is a white-fld. var. L. H. B. CENTUEY PLANT. Consult Agave. CEPHALANTHfiEA (Greek for head and anther). OrchidAcew, tribe Ifeittiew. About 10 species of small, temperate-region terrestrial orchids, allied to Epipactis, Pogonia, etc. Some of them are western N. American, and others are European. Sepals 3: petals small, ovate: lip saccate : lvs. (sometimes wanting) lanceolate or oblong: fls. mostly small (sometimes showy), in an open Bpike. The species are scarcely known in cult., but two Japanese species have been offered by importers. These are E. faloita, Blume, yellow, and E, erScta, Blume, white. CEPHALANTHUS (Greek, head and flower; fls. in heads). Subiacew. Button BusH. Shrubs with oppo- site or whorled, entire, stipulate lvs.: fls. small, tubu- lar, white or yellowish, 4-merous, with included stamens and long, exserted style, in globular heads: fr. dry, sepa- rating into 2 nutlets. Six species in Amer., Africa and Asia, of which only the one North American species is

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924000537732

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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638 GEONOMA AA. Lcs. phtnaie. B. Basal leaf-segments narrov; the upper ones ih- broadest. *acaulis, Mart. Acaulescent : Ivs. long-petioled, 3-4 ft. high ; blade uneq-ually pinnatisect, 22-25-nerYed on each side ; basal .segments 4 Hues -wide, spreading, the middle and upper erect-spreading at an acute angle, ^-4 in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil. EB. Broad and narrow segments irregidiirlif Interiii inijted. c. Blade of leaf 6 ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPohlitaa, Mart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequal, linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved and many-nerved intermixed, lG-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil. cc. Blade 2-Syi ft.: petiole 4 in. long. t^legaus. Mart., var. robusta, Dr. Stem (J ft. high. :i-4 lines in diani.: segments rarely 3, usually 5-7, 1- nerved, 10-14 in. long, some 4 lines wide, intermixed with broader, m,any-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi- nate. Central Brazil. BBB. Leaf segnunils all alil;e (except the connivent apical ones). c. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfij. *Eiedeliina, H. Wendl. (ff. gracilis, Lind. & Andre). Habit of Cocos Weddetliana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above : rachis triangular, bisulcate above : Ivs. spread- ing, drooping at the apex ; segments 10-12 in. long, about 9 lines wide, linear-acute, elegantly recurved, the 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. I.H. 21:169. cc. Eeptidistant: petiole half as long as the blade. Schottiana, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, \-l}i in. thick : Ivs. recurved, spreading; petiole half or more than half as long as the blade ; segments about .35 on eaeli side, 10-12 in. long, two-fifths in. wide, equidistant, linear or linear-lanceolate, very long acuminate. E. Brazil. The following .^â re imperfectly descri1>ecl, but are in the trade : *(?. imperialis. Linden.â*(?. princeps, Ijinden.â*Cr. Fynecr- tidna,Kort. Belongs under A. Oneof thesmallestlvs. measures 28 in. long by 10 in. at tlie broadest. Hasnot flowered yet, and the genus is therefore uncertain. R.H. 1898, p. 202. G.C. III. 23:258. F.E. 10:886. â(J. siJccwsa, Barb.-Rodr. Jaeed Ct. Smith, W. H. Taplin and W. M. GEORGIA, HOETICULTTJRE IN, Fig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unique. Latitude and altitude combine to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is eflfected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tennessee line) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Intermediately may be found as varied a climate, and consequently as extended a range of horticultural pro- duction, as can bo met with in a journey of a thousand miles due liortb and south, in a region of normal eleva- tion, such as the Mississippi valley. Measurably the geology of the state corresponds with its elevation and consequent climatology, and is not com- plex except in the extreme northwestern portion. Two formations âthe tertiary and metamorphicâcover nine- tenths of its area. The Sealslands, andcoastforashort distance inLand, are alluvial or quarternary, and here the vegetation is of a subtropical character â]}almet- toes and live-oaks on the islands and pines and ham- mock growth inland, together with the citrus, tig and olive families, where cultivated. Sliglitly beyond the tide-w.ater limit begins the vast sweep of the pine forests, known locally as the "Wire- grass Region," which extends inland some 100 miles, on an average, covering nearly the whi>le of the tertiary for- mation. A range of low s.and hills, about 300 feet high, extending diagonally across the state, separates the ter- GEOEGIA tiary and metamorphic regions. At its base the land has attained an average altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea-beach, stretches the metamorphic region â the red clay or cotton beltârising gradually toward the nortliwest until the Piedmont escarpment is reached â another low hill range on the southern side of and parallel to the Chattahoochee river valley. The height of this escarpment varies from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Be- yond this ai-e tin- Ap])alacliian foothills and then the

 

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Pear and melon belt. Fig and citrus belt. 900. Georeia, to show horticultural reeions. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In extreme northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general way toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet), interspersed, however, with a chaos of mountains and coves, with a complex tangle of geologi- cal formations, from lower Silurian to eocene. The prevailing natural growth of the tertiary is yel- low pine âthat of the metamorphic region hard woods, embracing nearly all of the North American species, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may be classified as follows ; Horticultural Areas : Currespondimj Geological Divisions. 1. Fio ANO CiTEUS Belt Quarternary Formation 2. Pear anu Melon Belt Tertiary Form,itioii 3. Pbaoh anii (4RArE Belt Met:imorphic Formation 4. Apple A.N'ii CUERRT Belt Tennessee Dip 1. The Fill and Citrus Belt.-In this zone the citrus family does not thrive indigenously, nor is it planted for commercial purposes. Yet oranges and lemons live and bear unprotected, though latterly sub.iect to iu.iury from frost. It is the h(Oue of the Ogeechee lime, and formerly l)oth indigo and the olive fl<.urisbed on the Sea Islands, but their culture has been for nuiny years abandoned. Figs grow to perfection. About the ports-especially Savannah-heavy trucking is fidlowed for the northern market âidiieflypotatoes, strawberries, cabbages, celery, tomatOf-s. onions and peas.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924000537757

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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1892 VACCINIUM VACCINIUM EE. Racemes shorter. F. Corolla cylitidric: fr. blue LS. corymbosum FF. CorolJn i(rn'sJi<ipi:'d: fr. hhich ID. atrococcum AA. iSj'ecies ruUivateil clilef'h/ for ornament. B. Pl<i)ds loiv, 1-2 fl. li'ujh. ;. snniU, .s]thiin</ '20. crassi£olium DD. Xr.s*. lanjcr,/!'! tc or ijloii- cescent '2]. uliginosum cc. Stems erect: tici</s n<J... .22. erytkrinum BB. Plants taller, S-20 ft. hiijl,. C. Foll'f'jc cv'-'n/rrr)!. ri;//tl. .2'.i. ovatum CC. Foliinje ijrrltinniis. D. Sttrf'ice slii Himi a hove, more or less piilxscmt beneaiJi 1^4. arboreum DD. Surface p a I e r a h o v e, glaacons beneath 25. stamineum DDD. Surface bright green hath si.U'H. {Here might he sought No. 5.) 5. erytbrocarpon 1. Oxyc6ccus, Linn. Small Cranberry. Craxbkrry of the (JId \\'ori<l. Slender creeping plantH with siidct, filiform stems 4-10 in. long: Ivs. ovate acnte or acumi- nate, M ill- long, with revolute margins: pedicels 1-4, terminal: corolla deeply 4-parted, the lobes reflexed; anthers exserted, with very long terminal tubes: berry red, globose, ^i~^z in. in diam., 4-loculed. Sphagnum swamps in subarctic ami alpine regions. —Though smaller, its fruit is by nu\ny considered superior to tluit of the next. 2. macrocArpon, Ait. Larger American Cranberry. Stems slender, creeping, elongated (1-4 ft.), the flower- ing branches ascending: Ivs. oblong or oval, obtuse or refuse, '-3-H in. long, whitened beneath; pedicels sev- eral, axillary and lateral: berry red or reddish, globose or pvrifnrm, ^-^-l in. long. N. Amn-iea. B.M'. 2586. Em. 2:456. See Cranherri/.

 

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2629- Cowberry or Mountain Cranberry—Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea {X Mbont ^;l. 3. Vitis-Idsea, Linn. Cowberry. Mountain Cran- berry. FoxBERRY. Fig. 2(i2!t. Plants low (6-10 in.): Ivs. coriaceous, persistent. ol)OYate or oval, 34-^ in. long, dark green and shining above, with blackisli bristly points beneath: fls. in short, terminal racentps; corolla white or rose-colored, 4-fieft: berries dark red", acid, rather bitter. Arctic regions, south to coast of New England, Minn, and Brit. Col. B.B. 2:580. L.B.C. 7:616 fas var. major); ll:U)23fvar. mrnor).—Thefruits, which are rather larger than currants, acid and some- what bitter when uncooked, are largely used in the more northern regions for tai'ts, jellies and preserves, or as a substitute for the common cranl)erry. According to Macoun, the fishermen's families along the Gasp(5 coast and the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence gather the fruit of this species in large quantities for their own use and for sale, calling it "Low-bush Cranlierry." Throughout the whole of northern Canada hunters and trappers, as well as the native Indians, have frequently to depend upon it for food. It is valuable for the shrub- bery border, where the strong contrast of the dark gnea foliage and the bright-colored persistent fruit is \ery striking. 4. parvif61ium, Smith. Shrub, G-12 ft. high, strag- gling, with slender, green, sharply angled branches: Ivs. oblong or oval, obtuse, entire, dull or pale, }4~-% in. long: fls. solitary in the axils; corolla globular, nearly white; calyx 5-lobed: berries light red, rather dry. Northern Calif, to Alaska. —Offered by only one nurseryman. T. J. Howell, of Oregon, characterizes the fruit as "of good flavor, excellent for tarts," while racts. Grown as a pot-plant in coolhouses in England under the name of I'. SprengeVii. 8. vacillans, Kalm. Low Blueberry. Blfe HrcKLE- BERRY. Erect, glabrous: Ivs. obovate or oval, entire or sparingly serrulate: fls. in rather loose clusters, gener- ally on leafless summits of twigs; corolla campanulate or cylindraceous, coiitracted at the mouth : berries large, blue, with much bloom, of excellent flavor, ripening with r. Canadi'nae. Dry, sandy, or rocky places, N. Amer. B.B. 2:579. Em. 1:454. —One of the most com- mon species of the northern and central states, particu- larly west of the Alleghanies. The Hs. are quite showy, while the fruit is particularly valuable. 9. Myrtillus, Linn. Whortleberry. Bilberry. Low shrubs, glabrous: Ivs. ovate or oval, serrate, conspicu- ously veined, K-% in. long: calyx almost entire: ber- ries black, nodding. Mountainous regions, N. Amer., Eu., Asia.—The most widely distributed species and very generally used as an article of diet ami in the mak- ing of drinks, particularly in the Old Worbl. It is from this species that the common name Whortleberrj' is de- rived. Not of special importance in America. 10. caespitdsura, iMirbx. Dwarf Bilberry. A dwarf tufted shrub, :!-12 in. high, nearly glabrous througliDuC: ivs. obovate, obtuse or acutish, serrulate, shining on both sides: fls. solitary; corolla obovoid, pink or white, slightly 5-tootlipd (rarely 4-toothed) : l)erries large, globose, blue with bloom, sweet. N. Amer. B.B. 2:576

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture : comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofame04bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening; Horticulture; Horticulture; Horticulture

Publisher: New York : Macmillan

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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atrococcum 92 VACCINIUM EE. Hacemes shorter. F. Corolla cylindric: fr. blue 1; FF. Corolla iim-shaped: fr. black 1 . Species cultivated chiefly for ornament. B. Plants low, 2-2 ft. high. c. Stems creeping, with branches erect, or as- cending. D. T/vs. small, shining 20. crasslfollum DD. Lvs.larger,pale orglaii- cescent 21. uliginosum ec. Stems erect: twigs red 22. erythrinum IB. Plants taller, S-SO ft. high. c. Foliage evergreen, rigid. .2'^. ovatum re. Foliage deciduous. D. Surface shining above, more or less pubescent beneath 24. DD. Surface paler above, glaucous beneath 25. DDD. Surface bright green both sides. (Here might be sought No. 5.) arboreum stamineum erytlirocarpon 1. Oxyc6ocuB, Linn. Small Cranberry. Cranberry •of the Old World. Slender creeping plants with short, filiform stems 4-10 in. long: Ivs. ovate acute or acumi- nate, H in. long, with revolute margins: pedicels 1-4, terminal: corolla deeply 4-parted, the lobes reflexed; anthers exserted, with very long terminal tubes: berry red, globose, H-/^ in. in diam., 4-loculed. Sphagnum swamps in subarctic and alpine regions. —Though smaller, its fruit is by many considered superior to that of the next. 2. macroc&Tpon, Ait. Larger American Cranberry. Stems slender, creeping, elongated (1-4 ft.), the flower- ing branches ascending: Ivs. oblong or oval, obtuse or retuse, %-H in. long, whitened beneath: pedicels sev- «ral, axillary and lateral: berry red or reddish, globose or pyriform, %-l in. long. N. America. B.M. 2586. Em. 2:456. See Cranberni.

 

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3. Vitis-IdsBa, Linn. Cowberry. Mountain Cran BERRY. Fosberry. Fig. 2629. Plants low (G-10 in.) Ivs. coriaceous, persistent, obovate or oval, ii-% in long, dark green and shining above, with blackish bristly points beneath: fls. in short, terminal racemes corolla white or rose-colored, 4-cIeft: berries dark red acid, rather bitter. Arctic regions, south to coast VACCINIUM New England, Minn, aud Brit. Col. B.B. 2:580. L.B.C. 7:61C(as var. major); ll:1023(var. miKor).-Thefruits, which are rather larger than currants, acid and some- what bitter when uncooked, are largely used in the more nortliern regions for tarts, jellies and preserves, or as a substitute for the common cranberry. According to Macoun, the fishermen's families along the Gasp^ coast and the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence gather the fruit of this species in large quantities for their own use and for sale, calling it "Low-bush Cranberry." Throughout the whole of northern Canada hunters and trappers, as well as the native Indians, have frequently to depend upon it for food. It is valuable for the shrub- bery border, where the strong contrast of the dark green foliage and the bright-colored persistent fruit is very striking. 4. parvifdlium, Smith. Shrub, 6-12 ft. high, strag- gling, with slender, green, sharply angled branches: Ivs. oblong or oval, obtuse, entire, dull or pule, H-H in. long: fls. solitary in the axils; corolla globular, nearly white; calyx 5-lobed: berries light red, rather dry. Northern Calif, to Alaska. —Offered by only one nurseryman. T. J. Howell, of Oregon, characterizes the fruit :is "of good flavor, excellent for tarts," while Gray says "rather dry, hardly edible." 5. erythrocirpon, Michx. Shrub, erect, divergently branching, 1-4 ft. high: Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, acumi- nate, serrate, thin, lK-3 in. long: pedicels solitary, axillary, bractless: corolla flesh - colored, K in. long, 4-cleft, revolute: berries globose, yi in. in diam., light red, turning to deep blue-black at full maturity, watery, slightly acid, scarcely edible. July. Higher AUegha- uies, Va. to Ga. B.M. 7413. 6. nitidum, Andr. A diffusely much branched shrub, with smooth branchlets: Ivs. thick, coriaceous, shining above, obovate or oblong: fls. in fascicles on short ra- cemes, the almost persistent bracts as well as the roundish or obtuse calyx-teeth reddish; corolla short- campanulate, 5-toothed: berry "somewhat pear-shaped, black." Fla. and Ga. —Near to or passing into T'. Myr- sinites. 7. Myrsinites, Lam. Low, evergreen shrub erect or decumbent: Ivs. exceedingly variable, K-1 in. long, en- tire or serrulate, sometimes denticulate, mostly shining above; bracts and calyx-teeth acute or acutish: berries "globose,blue." Sandy pine barrens N.Car.toFla.and La. B.M. 1550 (as K nitidum, var. decumbens).-The differ- ence between this species and the preceding is obscure. The chief points of distinction seem to be that V. Myrsi- nites has puberulent branchlets, prominently veined Ivs. and acute calyx-teeth and bracts, while V. nitidum has smooth branchlets, smaller and faintly veined Ivs., with obtuse or roundish calyx-teeth and bracts. Grown as a [lOt-plant in coolhouses in England under the name of r. Sprengelii. 8. vacillans, Kalm. Low Blueberry. Blue Hcckle beery. Erect, glabrous: Ivs. obovate or oval, entire or sparingly serrulate: fls. in rather loose clusters, gener- ally on leafless summits of twigs; corolla campanulate or cylindraceous, contracted at the mouth: berries large, blue, with much bloom, of excellent flavor, ripening with r. Canndense. Dry, sandy, or rocky places, N. Amer. B.B. 2:57!l. Em. 1:454. —One of the most com- mon species of the northern and central states, particu- larly west of the Alleghanies. The fls. are quite .showy, while the fruit is particularly valuable. 9. Myrtillus, Linn. Whortleberry. Bilberry. Low shrubs, glabrous: Ivs. ovate or oval, serrate, conspicu- ously veined, K-^ in. long: calyx almost entire: ber- ries black, nodding. Mountainous regions, N. Amer., Eu., Asia.—The most widely distributed species and very generally used as an article of diet and in the mak- ing of drinks, particularly in the Old World. It is from this species that the commbn name Whortleberry is de- rived. Not of special importance in America. 10. csespitdsum, Michx. Dwarf Bilberry. A dwarf tufted shrub, 3-12 in. high, nearly glabrous throughout: Ivs. obovate, obtuse or acutLsh, serrulate, shining on both sides: fls. solitary; corolla obovoid, pink or white, slightly 5-toothed (rarely 4-toothed): berries large, globose, blue with bloom, sweet. N. Amer. B.B. 2:576

  

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Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer01bail1

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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CAPE JESSAMINE. Gardenia, See CAPE PONDWEED. See Aponogeton. CAPER. See Capparis. For Caper-spurge,see Euphor- bia Latliyrus. CAPPARIS (Greek, caper). Caper-bush, or Caper Tree. Capparidiieem. Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower buds of C. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out of old walls, rocks, and rubbish in Mediterranean regions and India. Also rarely cult, as a greenhouse flowering shrub. The genus is large and polymorphic, and none of its relatives are familiar north. Prop, by cuttings in green- houses, and by seeds south. spindsa, Linn. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high : lvs. roundish or ovate, deciduous : fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading before noon; sepals 4; petals 4, oblong, clawed,wavy,white, IHin. long: stamens 40-50: filaments purple above, per- haps the chief beauty of the plant. B.M. 291.—What seems to be the long style with a short, un- opened stigma, is really the elon- 352. Capriola Dactylon. Nat. size. P^^d peduncle or torus topped by the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. W. M. CAPRIFOLIUM. See Lonicera. 16 CAFRtOLA (the wild goat, which feeds upon this grass). Graminem. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into finger-like branches. Spikelets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes 3, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. Ddctylon, Kuntze (Cynodon Dactylon, Pers.). Ber- muda Grass. Fig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping habit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-making, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a lawn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ -^ Kennedy. CAFSIGUM (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). Solandcece. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World.tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-6 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- liptical, entire, acuminate : fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3' corolla rotate, usually lobed; stamens 5, rarely or 7, with bluish anthers c hiscinglongitudinally;ova originally 2-3-loculed : a juiceless berry or pc extremely variable in foi and size, many-seeded, a with more or less pungen about the seeds and pe carp. Pig. 353. The fruit 1_ comes many-loculed and monstrous in cultivation. About 90 species have been named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper. A. Annual or biennial, dnnuum, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties in the United States readily find classifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear, c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoldes, Irish (C. conoldes, Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect:. fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%m.: fr. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about IJiin. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicnl^tom, Irish (C. fasciculdttim, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, round ornearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by Min. in diam., very acrid. This is the Red Cluster Pepper.

 

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353. Normal 2-loculed fruit of Capsicum, in cross section.

  

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Title: An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions, from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian

Identifier: cu31924024548525

Year: 1913 (1910s)

Authors: Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1859-1934; Brown, Addison, 1830-1913

Subjects: Botany; Botany

Publisher: New York, Scribner

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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Genus 9. MALLOW FAMILY,

 

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I. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. Bristly- fruited Mallow. Fig. 2867. Malva caroliniana L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753. Modiola multifida Moench, Meth. 620. 1791. Modiola caroliniana G. Don, Gen. Hist. PI. i: 466. 1831. Annual or biennial, more or less pubescent, freely branching; stems slender, 6'-i8' long. Leaves nearly orbicular in outline, ¥-2i' wide, petioled, pedately 3-s-cleft, the lobes dentate or incised; leaves sometimes simply dentate; flowers axillary, solitary, 3"-S" broad; peduncles at length elongated, slender; petals obovate; fruit depressed-orbicular, the carpels hispid-aristate along the back. In low grounds, Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, and in Central and South America and the West Indies. The same species apparently occurs in South Africa. Summer. 10. KOSTELETZKYA Presl, Rel. Haenk.T: 130. 'pi. 70. 1836. Perennial, scabrous or pubescent herbs or shrubs, with hastate or angular leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels several, linear. Calyx S-toothed or 5-cleft. Stamen-column entire, or S-toothed at the summit, anther-bearing below for nearly its entire length. Ovary s-celled, the cells l-ovuled; style-branches of the same number, stigmatic at the capitate summits. Capsule depressed, 5-angled. Seeds reni- form, ascending. [Named in honor of V. F, Kosteletzky, a botanist of Bohemia.] About 8 species, natives of warm and temperate America. In addition to the foU'owing, another occurs in the southwestern United States. Type species; Kosteletzkya hastata Presl. I. Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) A. Gray. Virginia Kosteletzkya. Fig. 2868. Hibiscus z'irginicus L. Sp. PI. 697. 1753. K. virginica A. Gray, Gen. 2 : 80. t. 132. 1849. K. virginica var. althaeifolia Chapm, Fl. S. States 57- i860. K. althaeifolia A. Gray; S. Wats. Bibl. Index 136. 1878. Perennial, erect, branching, 2°-a° high, more or less stellate-pubescent and scabrous. Leaves ovate, or hastate, truncate or cordate at the base, 2'-s' long, unequally dentate and often 3-Iobed below, sometimes with an additional lobe or two at the middle, acute, velvety or pubescent; flow- ers pink, iV-iV broad, in loose terminal leafy panicles; bractlets of the involucels 8-g, linear, shorter than the lanceolate acute calyx-segments; capsule hispid-pubescent. In salt or brackish marshes, southeastern New York to Florida and Louisiana. Bermuda; Cuba. Aug. II. HIBISCUS L. Sp. PL 693. 1753. Herbs, shrubs, or in tropical regions even small trees, with dentate or lobed leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate, mostly campanulate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels numer- ous, narrow. Calyx S-cleft or 5-toothed. Column of stamens truncate or S-toothed at the apex, anther-bearing below along much of its length. Ovary 5-ceIled, the cells 3-several- ovuled; style-branches S, stigmatic at the capitate summit. Capsule S-valved. Seeds reni- form. [An ancient name, used by Dioscorides for the Marsh Mallow.] About 180 species, widely distributed in warm and temperate countries. In addition to the following, about 14 others occur in the southern and western United States. Type species: Hibiscus Trionum L.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofam01bail

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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CAPE GOOSEBEEEY CAPE PONDWEED. See Aponogeion. _ CAPEE. See Capparis. L'aper-spurge,see .BnpAor- hia Lathyms. CAPPAEIS (Greek, coper). Caper-bush, or Caper Tree. Cappariddcece. Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower buds of C. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out of old walls, rocks, and rubbish in Mediterranean regions and India. Also rarely cult, as a greenhouse flowering shrub. The genus is large and polymorphic, and none of its relatives are familiar north. Prop, by cuttings in green- and by seeds south. spindsa, Linn. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high : lvs. roundish or ovate, deciduous : fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading before noon; sepals 4; petals 4, oblong, clawed,wavy,white, IHin. long: stamens 40-50: filaments purple above, per- haps the chief beauty of the plant. B.M. 291.-What seems to be the long style with a short, un- opened stigma, is really the elon- 352. Capriola Dactylon. Nat. size. f^^^<^ ^to'^^^d^ by the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. CAPBIFOHUM. See Lonicera. CAFElOLA (the wild goat, which feeds upon this grass). Gramt)ie(F. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into flnger-like branches. Spikelets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes 3, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. D&ctylon, Kuntze {Ci/iiorloH Ddctylon. Pers.). Ber- muda Grass. Pig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping haliit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-makiug, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a l,iwn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ ^ jj^^^-^DV. CAFSICUH (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). Solandcew. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World.tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-ti ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- liptical, entire, acuminate: fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3's; corolla rotate, usually 5- lobed; stamens 5, rarely 6 or 7, with bluish anthers de- biscinglongitudinally ;ovary ] originally 2-3-loculed : fr. a juiceless beiTy or pod, extremely variable in form and size, many-seeded, and with more or less pungency about the seeds and peri- carp. Pig. 353. The fruit be- comes many-loculed and monstrous in cultivation. 353. Normal 2-loculed fruit o£ About 90 species have been Capsicum, in cross section. named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. Eept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper. A. Annual or hiennlal. innuum, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties in the United States readily find cla,ssifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear. c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoldes, Irish (C. conoldes. Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect; fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%in.: fr. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about IJiin. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicuiatum, Irish (C. fascicuUtnm, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, round or nearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by Min. in diam., very acrid. This is the Eed Cluster Pepper.

 

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924000537732

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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LYONOTHAiMNUS LYONOTHAMNUS {Lyon's xhrub : named for W. S. LyoQ, wbo sent specimens to Asa Uray from Santa Cata- lina Island, California). SasifriKjdvew. A monotypic genus contined to the islands of tlje Santa Barbara cbannel, and represented by two forms, —i, floribundas as described by Gray, and L. uaplenifolius as described by Greene. Tbese forms <liffer only in the structure of the Ivs., as tlie species is dimorpbic. Locally the tree is known as ironwood. It is rather plentiful in Santa Cruz Island, attaining 40 ami 50 ft. in height. It is less frequent and more dvA'arfed in other islands of the group. Fls. hermaphrodite; calyx 1-3-bracteoled ; tube hemi- spherical; lobes.o; disk lanate; petals 5, orbicidate, im- bricate in the bud; stamens 15, inserted witli the petals on the margin of the disk: carpels 2, free: ovules i: stigma subcapitate. floribiindus, Gray. Lvs. opposite, lanceolate, petiolate, subenlire, oleander-shaped : lis. white, very numerous in a large, tiattish, terminal cyme. —Highly praised for out- (loorculture and for pots. The clusters are 4-5 in. across. The form aspIeniioUus has pinmite lvs. with pinnae cut to the rib. P Fkanceschi. LTSICHiTUM (Greek, a loose or free eloak: probably referring to the spathe). Also written L}fsicJiiion. ArcLeeep. A genus of one species, a plant resembling the skunk cabbage, offered in 1892 by Oregon dealers. Nearly stemless swamp herb with large lvs. from a thick, horizontal rootstock; spathe sheathing at base, with a broad colored lamina or none, at first enveloping the cylindrical spadix, which becomes long-exserted upon a stout peduncle: fls. perfect, crowding and cover- ing the spadix ; perianth 4-lobed ; stamens 4 : ovary 2-celIed, 2-ovuIed: ovules horizontal, orthotropous. Camtscliatcense, Schott. Lvs. 1-21^ ft. long, 3-10 in. wide, oblong-lanceolate. ]Mav,June. E. Siberia, Japan, Ore., Calif. LTSILOMA is a small leguminous genus allied to Acacia, but not in cultivation. They are tender trees and shrubs,with flowers in heads or in cylindrical spikes. The pods are straight and flat, and the valves open away from the persistent sutures. Some of these plants are often called Acacias. Thus A. Acapulcensis ^ i^. Acapnlcensis, Benth.; A. divaric;ita^//. Scliiedeana, Benth.; A. latisiliqua^/^. hitisilitjita, Benth. LYSIMACHIA (probably after King Lysimachus). Prhnifh'teece. Loose-strife. Found in temperate and subtropical regions of all parts of the world. Erect or creeping leafy herbs, with opposite or whorled, entire, usually black-punctate lvs., spicate, racemose or soli- tary fls., a rotate, 5-parted corolla with an equal number of slightly monadelphous stamens opposite the lobes, a 1-loculed capsule, and many seeds on a central placenta. Only a few in cultivation, and these all perennials. They differ from related genera in the absence of staminodia between the stamens, which are usually slightly united. A. Flowers ijellow. B. Stem ereepi)tff : Irs. round-ovate, obtuse. nummuliria, Linn. Money-wort. Creeping Charlie. Creeping Jenny. Glabrous, forming large patches: lvs. opposite, rarely cordate, petiolate, }i-\ in. long: fls. 8-12 lines broad; sepals cordate or lanceolate, acute, half as long as the 5 oval, sparingly dark-dotted corolla lobes; filaments glandular. June-Aug. Europe: also natural- ized extensively in the eastern U. S. R.H. 1891. p. .H03. B.B. 2:589. —Very useful for rustic vases and baskets, also for carpeting ground in shady places. Var. aitrea, Hort. Lvs. all or in part bright yellow. BB. Stem erect: lvs. lanceolate, acute. <'. Plant glabrous or nearly so : fls. i^-0 lines broad. stricta, Soland. Simple or branched, glabrous, 8 in. to 2 ft. high; Ivs. opposite, lance-linear, acute at both ends, glaucous beneath, scarcely veiny, 1-3 in long: fls. 3-5 lines broad, very numerous, in a distinct, elon- gated, terminal raceme; pedicels .3-9 lines long, slender; corolla lobes elliptical, streaked with purple; filaments LYSIMACHIA 961 glandular. Common on nioist ground in the eastern U.S. B.M.lOi {as Jj.bnlbilera). U. 141. B.B.2:588.- Often bears bulblets in the leaf-axils after flowering. quadrifdilia, Linn. Usually simple, sometimes slightly pubescent, 1-3 ft. high: Ivs. verticillate, in 3's-4'a, rarely some opposite, lanceolate, oblong or ovate, acute, 1-4 in. long, green beneath, veiny: fls. axillary, 3-0 lines broad, on very slender pedicels, which are }'^-i% in. long; calyx and corolla as in the last. Dry soil, eastern U.S. D. 139. B.B. 2:588. CO. Plant densely pttbescevl: fls. 9-1:1 lines broad. vulgaris, Linn. Common Yellow Loosestrife. Tall and erect, 2-3 ft. high, and stout; branched above, downy, especially on the stem: lvs. verticillate, in 3's-4's, ovate-

 

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1342. Lythrum Salicaria (X !i;). (Seer-D62.) lanceolate or lance-oval, acute at both ends, nearly ses- sile: fls. in the upper axils, or densely paniculate at the summit; calyx often red-margined; corolla large, the lobes broad, glabrous. Europe, Asia. R. H. 1891, p. 303. —Quite showy when grown in clumps.

  

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Title: An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions : from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian

Identifier: ed2illustratedflo02brit

Year: 1913 (1910s)

Authors: Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1859-1934; Brown, Addison, 1830-1913

Subjects: Botany

Publisher: New York : Scribner

Contributing Library: Robarts - University of Toronto

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

  

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Cenus 9. MALLOW FAMILY, Bristly-

 

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I. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. fruited Mallow. Fig. 2867. Maha caroliniana L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753- Modiola miiltifida Moench, Meth. 620. 1791. Modiola caroliniana G. Don, Gen. Hist. PI. i: 466. 1831. Annual or biennial, more or less pubescent, freely branching; stems slender, 6'-i8' long. Leaves nearly orbicular in outline, i'-2i' wide, petioled, pedate!y3-5-cleft, the lobes dentate or incised; leaves sometimes simply dentate; flowers axillary, solitary, j"-j" broad; peduncles at length elongated, slender; petals obovate; fruit depressed-orbicular, the carpels hispid-aristate along the back. In low grounds, Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, and in Central and South America and the West Indies. The same species apparently occurs in South Africa. Summer. 10. KOSTELETZKYA Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 130. pi. 70. it Perennial, scabrous or pubescent herbs or shrubs, with hastate or angular leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels several, linear. Calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft. Stamen-column entire, or s-toothed at the summit, anther-bearing below for nearly its entire length. Ovary 5-celled, the cells l-ovuled; style-branches of the same number, stigmatic at the capitate summits. Capsule depressed, 5-angled. Seeds reni- form, ascending. [Named in honor of V. F, Kosteletzky, a botanist of Bohemia.] About 8 species, natives of warm and temperate .•Vmerica. In addition to the following, another occurs in the southwestern United States. Type species: Kostcletzkya haslata Presl. I. Kosteletzkya virgmica (L.) A. Gray. Virginia Kosteletzkya. Fig. 2868. Hibiscus I'irginicus L. Sp. PI. 697. 1753. K. lirginica A. Gray, Gen. 2: 80. t. 132. 1849. K. virginica var. althaeifolia Chapm. Fl. S. States 57- i860. A', althaeifolia A. Gray; S. Wats. Bibl. Index 136. 1878. Perennial, erect, b^-anching, 2°-4° high, more or less stellate-pubescent and scabrous. Leaves ovate, or hastate, truncate or cordate at the base. 2-5' long, unequally dentate and often 3-lobed below, sometimes with an additional lobe or two at the middle, acute, velvety or pubescent; flow- ers pink, ii'-2J' broad, in loose terminal leafy panicles; bractlets of the involucels 8-9, linear, shorter than the lanceolate acute calyx-seginents; capsule hispid-pubescent. In salt or brackish marshes, southeastern Mew York to Florida and Louisiana. Bermuda: Cuba. Aug. II. HIBISCUS L. Sp. PI. 693. 1753. Herbs, shrubs, or in tropical regions even small trees, with dentate or lobed leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate, mostly campanulate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels numer- ous, narrow. Calyx s-cleft or 5-toothed. Column of stamens truncate or 5-toothed at the apex, anther-bearing below along much of its length. Ovary s-celled, the cells 3-several- ovuled; style-branches 5, stigmatic at the capitate summit. Capsule 5-valved. Seeds reni- form. [An ancient name, used by Dioscorides for the Marsh Mallow.] .^bout 180 species, widely distributed in warm and temperate countries. In addition to the following, about 14 others occur in the southern and western United States. Type species : Hibiscus Trionum L.

  

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Title: An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions : from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian

Identifier: ed2illustratedflo02brit

Year: 1913 (1910s)

Authors: Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1859-1934; Brown, Addison, 1830-1913

Subjects: Botany

Publisher: New York : Scribner

Contributing Library: Robarts - University of Toronto

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

  

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I. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. fruited Mallow. Fig. 2867. Maha caroliniana L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753- Modiola miiltifida Moench, Meth. 620. 1791. Modiola caroliniana G. Don, Gen. Hist. PI. i: 466. 1831. Annual or biennial, more or less pubescent, freely branching; stems slender, 6'-i8' long. Leaves nearly orbicular in outline, i'-2i' wide, petioled, pedate!y3-5-cleft, the lobes dentate or incised; leaves sometimes simply dentate; flowers axillary, solitary, j"-j" broad; peduncles at length elongated, slender; petals obovate; fruit depressed-orbicular, the carpels hispid-aristate along the back. In low grounds, Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, and in Central and South America and the West Indies. The same species apparently occurs in South Africa. Summer. 10. KOSTELETZKYA Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 130. pi. 70. it Perennial, scabrous or pubescent herbs or shrubs, with hastate or angular leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels several, linear. Calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft. Stamen-column entire, or s-toothed at the summit, anther-bearing below for nearly its entire length. Ovary 5-celled, the cells l-ovuled; style-branches of the same number, stigmatic at the capitate summits. Capsule depressed, 5-angled. Seeds reni- form, ascending. [Named in honor of V. F, Kosteletzky, a botanist of Bohemia.] About 8 species, natives of warm and temperate .•Vmerica. In addition to the following, another occurs in the southwestern United States. Type species: Kostcletzkya haslata Presl. I. Kosteletzkya virgmica (L.) A. Gray. Virginia Kosteletzkya. Fig. 2868. Hibiscus I'irginicus L. Sp. PI. 697. 1753. K. lirginica A. Gray, Gen. 2: 80. t. 132. 1849. K. virginica var. althaeifolia Chapm. Fl. S. States 57- i860. A', althaeifolia A. Gray; S. Wats. Bibl. Index 136. 1878. Perennial, erect, b^-anching, 2°-4° high, more or less stellate-pubescent and scabrous. Leaves ovate, or hastate, truncate or cordate at the base. 2-5' long, unequally dentate and often 3-lobed below, sometimes with an additional lobe or two at the middle, acute, velvety or pubescent; flow- ers pink, ii'-2J' broad, in loose terminal leafy panicles; bractlets of the involucels 8-9, linear, shorter than the lanceolate acute calyx-seginents; capsule hispid-pubescent. In salt or brackish marshes, southeastern Mew York to Florida and Louisiana. Bermuda: Cuba. Aug. II. HIBISCUS L. Sp. PI. 693. 1753. Herbs, shrubs, or in tropical regions even small trees, with dentate or lobed leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate, mostly campanulate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels numer- ous, narrow. Calyx s-cleft or 5-toothed. Column of stamens truncate or 5-toothed at the apex, anther-bearing below along much of its length. Ovary s-celled, the cells 3-several- ovuled; style-branches 5, stigmatic at the capitate summit. Capsule 5-valved. Seeds reni- form. [An ancient name, used by Dioscorides for the Marsh Mallow.] .^bout 180 species, widely distributed in warm and temperate countries. In addition to the following, about 14 others occur in the southern and western United States. Type species : Hibiscus Trionum L.

 

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofam02bail

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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LYONOTHAJINUS LYONOTHAMNUS (Lyon's shrub; named for W. S. Lyon, wlio sent specimens to Asa Gray from Santa Cata- lina Island, California). ISaxifragacea:. A monotypic genns confined to the islands of the Santa Barbara channel, and represented by two forms, —i. floribiiiidus as described by Gray, and i. asplenifoHus as described by Greene. These forms differ only in the structure of the Irs., as the species is dimorphic. Locally the tree is known as Ironwood. It is rather plentiful in Santa Cruz Island, attaining 40 and 50 ft. in height. It is less frequent and more dwarfed in other islands of the group. Fls. hermaphrodite; calyx 1-3-bracteoled; tube hemi- spherical; lobes 5; disk lanate; petals 5, orbiculate, im- bricate in the bud; stamens 15, inserted with the petals on the margin of the disk: carpels 2, free: ovules 4: stigma subcapitate. floribundus, Gray. Lvs. opposite, lanceolate, petiolate, subentire, oleander-shaped: Hs. white, very numerous in a large, Battish, terminal cyme.-Highly praised for out- door culture and for pots. The clusters are 4-5 in. across. The form aspleniSdlius has pinnate Ivs. with pinna? cut to the rib. p. Franceschi. LYSICHlTUM (Greek, a loose or free cloak; probably referring to the spathe). Also written Lyskhitoii. Arctcew. A genus of one species, a plant resembling the skunk cabbage, offered in 1892 by Oregon dealers. Nearly stemless swamp herb with large Ivs. from a thick.'horizontal rootstock; spathe sheathing at base, with a broad colored lamina or none, at first enveloping the cvlin(lrio:il spadix, which becomes long-exserted upon a stout peduncle: fls. perfect, crowding and cover- ing the spadix ; perianth 4-lobed ; stamens 4 : ovary 2-celled, 2-ovuled : ovules horizontal, orthotropous. Camtschatcense, Schott. Lvs. 1-2H ft. long, 3-10 in. wide, oblong-lanceolate. May, June. E. Siberia, Japan, Ore., Calif. LTSILOMA is a small leguminous genus allied to Acacia, but not in cultivation. They are tender trees and shrubs,with flowers in heads or in cylindrical spikes. The pods are straight and flat, and the valves open away from the persistent sutures. Some of these plants are often called Acacias. Thus A. Acapulcensis = //. Acapulcensts, Benth.; A. divaricata = X. Schiedeana, Benth.; A. latisiliqua = i. lalisilmia, Benth. LYSIMACHIA (probably after King Lysimaehus). PrimulAcew. Loose-strife. Found in temperate and subtropical regions of all parts of the world. Erect or creeping leafy herbs, with opposite or whorled, entire, usually black-punctate lvs., spicate, racemose or soli- tary fls., a rotate, 5-parted corolla with an equal number of slightly monadelphous stamens opposite the lobes, a 1-loeuled capsule, and many seeds on a central placenta. Only a few in cultivation, and these all perennials. They differ from related genera in the absence of staminodia between the stamens, which are usually slightly united. A. Flowers yellow. E. Stem creeping ; lvs. round-ovate, obtuse. nummuliria, Linn. Money-wort. Creeping Charlie. Creeping Jenny. Glabrous, forming large patches: lvs. opposite, rarely cordate, petiolate, Y^-l in. long: fls. 8-12 lines broad; sepals cordate or lanceolate, acute, half as long as the 5 oval, sparingly dark-dotted corolla lobes; filaments glandular. June-Aug. Europe; also natural- ized extensively in the eastern U. S. R.H. 1891, p. 303. B.B. 2:589.-Very useful for rustic vases and baskets, also for carpeting ground in shady places. Var. atirea, Hort. Lvs. all or in part bright yellow. BB. Stem erect: lvs. lanceolate, acute. r. Plant glabrous or nearly so : fls. S-6 lines broad. stricta, Soland. Simple or branched, glabrous, 8 in. to 2 ft. high; lvs. opposite, lance-linear, acute at both ends, glaucous beneath, scarcely veiny, 1-3 in long: fls. 3-5 lines broad, very numerous, in a distinct, elon- gated, terminal raceme; pedicels 3-9 lines long, slender; corolla lobes elliptical, streaked with purple; filaments LYSIMACHIA 961 glandular. Common on moist ground in the eastern U.S. B.U.Wl [as L.bulbifera). D. 141. B.B.2:588.- Often bears bulblets in the leaf-axils after tlowering. quadrifdlia, Linn. Usually sinii.l,., ...„„.tinn-s slightly pubescent, 1-3 ft. high: Ivs. Mriinllai.-, in 3's-4's, rarely some opposite, lanceolati-,..1.1.mi: i.r ..v.ite, acute, 1-4 in. long, green beneath, vfiny: II-. axillary, 3-6 lines broad, on very slender pedicels, which are J^-15^ in. long; calyx and corolla as in the last. Dry soil, eastern U.S. D. 139. B.B. 2:588. cc. Plant densely p\tbescent: fls. 9-lS lines broad. vulgaris, Linn. Common Yellow Loosestrife. Tall and erect, 2-3 ft. high, and stout; branched above, downy, especially on the stem: Ivs.verticillate, in3's-4's, ovate-

 

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1342. Lythrum Sal lanceolate or lance-oval, acute at both ends, nearly ses- sile: fls. in the upper axils, or densely paniculate at the summit; calyx often red-margined; corolla large, the lobes broad, glabrous. Europe, Asia. R. H. 1891, p. 303.-Quite showy when grown in clumps.

  

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Title: Gray's new manual of botany. A handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

Identifier: cu31924090296785

Year: 1908 (1900s)

Authors: Gray, Asa, 1810-1888; Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln, 1864-1935; Fernald, Merritt Lyndon, 1873-1950

Subjects: Botany

Publisher: New York, American Book Co

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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SALICAOEAE (willow FAMILY) nh Uva-ursi.

 

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657. S. herbacea. (Eu.) Fig. 657. *+ -w- Prostrate or creeping and, matted alpine shrubs. 17. S. Uva-ursi Pursh. â Leaves elliptical and pointed, or obovate and obtuse, 0.5-2.5 cm. long, tapering at base, slightly toothed, strongly veined, smooth and shining above, pale and rather glaucous beneath ; aments home on slender lateral leafy peduncles, thick-cylindric, the fertile lengthening, to 2 or 3 cm. and becoming narrowly cylindric, densely flowered above, often loose below ; scales obovate, rose- red at the tip, covered with long silky hairs ; stamen 1 (rarely 2); capsule ovoid-conical, brownish at maturity; pedicel scarcely exceeding the gland ; style distinct. â Lab. to Alaska, s. to alpine summits of n. N. E. and N. Y.âClosely prostrate, spreading from a stout central root over an area 3-9 dm. broad. Eio. 656. 18. S. herb&cea L. Leaves roundish oval, heart-shaped, obtuse or retuse, 1-3 cm. long, serrate, smooth and shining, reticulately veined ; aments terminating 2-leaved branchlets, small, ovoid, ^10-flowered ; scales concave, obovate, obtuse, glabrous or slightly pubescont; capsule subsessile. âArctic Am., s. to alpine regions of Mt. Katahdin, Me., and Mt. Washington, N. H.âA very small herb-like species, the half-underground stems creeping and rooting in moss or humus, the branches seldom rising 0.5 dm. from the ground. 1- â¢>- Capsule pubescent. ** Fruiting pedicel 3-6 times the length of the gland; style short or none (elon. gate in no. 25). = Mature leaves glabrous or glabrate beneath, or at most with a few scattered hairs. {Extreme furms ofS. rostrata may be looked for here.) a. Aments sessile on the old wood, naked at base, appearing before the leaves; scales dark red, brown, or blackish; mature capsule 1-12 mm. long. 19. S. discolor Muhl. (Glaucous W.) Leaves lanceolate to elliptic, smooth and bright green above, soon smooth and glaucous beneath, irregularly crenate- serrate, the serratures remote at base, closer, finer and becom- ing obsolete toward the point; stipules 1 cm. or more long and sharply toothed, or small and nearly entire; aments thick, cylindrical, 2.5-7 cm. long, appearing in earliest spring ; scales copiously clothed with long glossy hairs; style short but distinct. Fig. 658. Var. eriocephala (Michx.) Anders. Aments more densely flowered and more silvery-silky; leaves sometimes retaining a ferruginous pubescence beneath even vsrhen fully grown. {iS. eriocephala Michx.) Var. prinoIdes (Pursh) Anders. Aments more loosely flowered, less silky; capsules more thinly tomentose; style longer; stigma-lobes laciniate; leaves narrower. {S. prinoidesFnrsh.) Includes narrow-leaved forms of the type, and others which are probably hybrids with S. cor- data. â Large shrub or small tree of low mead- ows and river-banks, common.âThe just expanding leaves are often overspread with evan- escent ferruginous hairs. 6. Aments short-stalked, leafy-hracted at base, appearing with the leaves ; scales pale brown 658. 9. discolor. or yellowish ; mature capsule 4-6 mm. long. 20. S. petioUrls Sm. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, taper- pointed, finely and evenly serrate, slightly silky when young. soon smooth; stipules linear or semioordate, deciduous; fertile 658, S.petlolarie

  

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Title: Bergens Museums skrifter

Identifier: bergensmuseumssk1190914berg

Year: 1878 (1870s)

Authors: Bergens Museum

Subjects: Science

Publisher: [Bergen, Norway : s. n. ]

Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Smithsonian Libraries

  

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List of Spontaneous Vascular Plants, hitherto observert in Cyprns. 29 Fl. (irieut. V. 695: I'cjst in Mt-iu. Herli. I'.oiss. IHilil. no, IH, Hist, alirt'v. pluiit. I'yr.-n. suiijil. 146 (1818); I'arlnt. in IK'. P. nigra ArnoM, Reise n. Mariazell, 8 (1785); Aschers. u. (iraebn. Syn. I, 21.3. P. Laririo Poiret, Encycl. V, .S39 (18(14); Biiiss. Fl. orient V. 6H6; Kotsi'hy, (]ypern, 214: Hartmann, Willrt. Cypern, 172. snb.sp. P. Pallasiana Lamb. Dese. Pin. ed. 2. I, 11 (1828); Aschers. unrt (iraebn. Syn. I. 214. P. Lnrido 8 Cmaiiiann Enrtl. Syn. Conif. 178 (1847). P. L. rnr. mientnlis Kotschy in scbert. pi. Cypri (1862). _ P. Cmaniana (laurtry. Recherehes, 199 (1895). saltern p. p. P. Lancio Post in Mém. Herb. Boiss. no. 18. K") (1900). Mairé-e-jzo,-. In the central part of the Troodos-mountains, about Cliionisti-a, this is the most important forcst- trec, often attaining to majestctical dimonsions. It is also indicated by Kotschy (Cypern p. 1121 for the mountains about Makhaeras, but as neither Haktm.\xn (Wiihl. Gyp. 173) nor the author have observed it so far east, I behove that Kot.schy has confunded it with P. Iinttia Ten.—Abovo Prodromo (.TH i)o5). P. halepeusis Jlill. (nwl. rtirt. ert. 8 (17B8), s. 1.. Aschers. unrt (iraebn. Syn. 1. 217. P. mantima Lamb. I'in. eil. 1, 10 (1803): Sibth. et Smith, Prortr. 11, 247; Poech, Enuni. plant, (.'ypr. 12; Kotschy, Cypern, 214; nee Lam., nee Jlill. Ileu/.o;. The typical form of P. ludepensis is common in the lover regions of Cyprus, constituting an im- portant part of the forests, in the northern as well as the southern parts of the island. This is the only species of Pinus. which Sibthokp has observed on the island. The highest locality, from where I possess a specimen, is the mountains of Lavramis (near the top, ca. 900 m. above the sea) in the Tylliria (.IH 80.5). 1 have also specimens from Salamis (JH 4fi8) and Alethriko (JH 205). In the superior regions it is replaced by subsp. P. brutia Ten. Fl. Neap. 1. 72 (1811); Boiss. 100; Aschers. et Graebn. Synops. I. 218. 7'. pi/>eiiaica Lapeyr. I'rortr. XVI, 2, 384. Although this tree appears to be widely di- stiibuted over the island, it is not mentioned as occurring hero either by Kotschy. Boissier or Sintenis. It was first time indicated for the island in 18GS by Par- LATORE, 1. c, Avho had examined a specimen collected by Labillaruiéke. I found it common in the middler regions of the Troodos-mountains, ascending almost to the summits of Kionia and Paputsa (JH 1112 and 1142), ca. 1550 m. above the sea. According to Post it also grows on the Kyrenia-mountains. Cednis libanotica Link, Hanrth. II. 480 (1831). C'. Libatii Lawson, Man. 380 (1836); Boiss. Fl. orient V. 6t>9. Finns Ctdnis L. Sp. pi. ert. 1. 1001 (1753). subsp. C. brevifolia nov. comb. C. Libnni var. brevi- folia .1. It. Hook, in .Journ. Linn. Soc. XVIL 518 (1880); Boiss. Fl. urient.. 1. c; Beissner, Handb. Xartelholzk.. 300. fig. 75. C. LMni Post in Mém. Herb. Boiss no. 18, 100(1900). K£6po;. A ('. Ubcmoticd typica differt foliis multo brcvioribus (plerumque 5—6, rarius ad 8 mm. longis), glaucis, strobilis cylindrico-oblongiSj niinoribus (ca. 7 cm. longis et 4 cm. crassis), ex impressione apicali in urn bon em bre v em obtusam protractis. The characters distinguishing the Cyprian cedar may seem to be rather insignificant, but still they have appeared to be fully constant and hereditary. I have had occasion to see hundreds of trees of ditTerent age, growing^iu free nature, all exhibiting the same characters without any transitions to the typical Lebanon-cedar. The numerous young seedlings, which I have examined in the forest of Irka Steiatsa. (luite resemble their parents, and thus prove the heredity

 

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7. ('one of CeiJriis libanotica subsj). brevifolia frum Irka Steratsa C/i). a. Part of the Cone ('/„).

  

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Title: The vegetation of the Siberian-Mongolian frontiers (the Sayansk region)

Identifier: cu31924001742760

Year: 1921 (1920s)

Authors: Printz, Henrik, 1888-

Subjects: Botany; Botany

Publisher: [Trondhjem] K. Norske Videnskabers Selskab

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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var. genuina Trautv. Enum. PI. Song. (1860—68) no. 396; Wolf, 1. c. p. 162;K]im.i. 1. c. The specimens collected arc especially disLinguished by having the leaves 5- lo 8- pinnate, with very approximate pinnae. The upper pinnae are largest, and decrease in size down the rachis. The incisions of the pinnae nearly reach the vein; the segments are linear, very fine and narrow, 0,5—1 mm. broad, with distinctly Fccurved margins, and subobtuse summits. The leaves are densely white-pubescent on both sides. Of common occurrence on the dry Devonian sandstone cliffs on the Abakan Steppe. In full flower in the second half of June. Distribution: Eastern Russia (Perm, Orenburg), Siberia to Trans Baikal, central Asia, the Caucasus, and Armenia? Potentilla soongorica Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 244; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 301; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 42; Wolf, Monogr. Gatt. Potentilla p. 159. P. miilticaulis Bunge in Mem. Acad. Sc. St. Petersb. II (1831) p. 99 p. p. P. sericea ^ multi- caulis Lehm. Revis. Potent, p. 34. Scattered on the steppes between Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk, where I have taken it in full flower at the beginning of June. Besides the typical species, agreeing perfectly with Bunge's authentic specimens, I have collected, on the steppes on the Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk, some specimens diffe- ring in various respects, and which I enter as: var. glandulosa nov. var. [Tab. VII, Fig. 3.] Caudex crassiis, validus, lignosus residuis foliorum vetustorum obtectus. Caules numerosi, tenues, graciles, subadscendentes, multiflori, pilis longis, albis, pateniibuspuree vestiti. Folia radicalia breviter petiolata, ambitu oblonge obovata, 3-^fjuga. Foliola oblonge obovata fissa, laciniae aequilaiae, 0,5-2 mm. - saepissime 1-1,5 mm. - latae,apicesub- obtusae et marginibus distincte revolutis, siibtus albo-tomentosae, glandulisflavis, minutis, numerosis praeditae, supra virides, pilis sparsis vestitae. Stipii- laesuffuscae, membranaceae, lanceolatae, apice acu- minatae in lacinias longas, fdiformes fissae. Flores numerosi, 12-H mm. diametro. Sepala dense io- mentosa et glandulosa, externa quasi spatulata vel clavata, apice late rotundata, interna fere triangularia, acuminata, externis longiora. Pelala ftava obovata velcordata, antice leviter emarginata. Stamina et carpella ut in specie tgpica. In the shape of the leaves this variety differs distinctly from the typical P. soon- gorica, especially so in the narrower, linear, rather approximate segments of the leaflets, moreover, in having the under sides of the leaves densely white-felted and with distinct-

 

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Fig. 94. Potentilla soongorica Bunge var. glandulosa nov. var (+/i). Flower seen from below. 283

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches, and a synopsis of the vegetable kingdom

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer02bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954, ed; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869- joint ed

Subjects: Gardening -- Dictionaries; Plants -- North America encyclopedias

Publisher: New York, Doubleday, Page & Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

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352. Capriola Dactylon. Nat. size, the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. W. M. CAPEIFOLIUM. See Lonieera. CAPRIOLA (the wild goat, which feeds upon this grass). G^-aminea'. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into finger-like branches. Spikeiets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes [i, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and wanner temperate regions of the world. Dd,ctylon, Kuntze (Cynodon Dactylon, Pers.). Ber- muda Gkass. Fig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping habit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-making, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a lawn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ ^ Kennedy. CAPSICUM (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). SolanAcew. Red Pepper. Cayennf Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-6 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- liptical, entire, acauiinate •• fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3 s corolla rotate, usually 5 lobed; stamens 5, rarely b or 7, with bluish anthers de liiscinglongitudinally;ovar^ originally 2-3-loculed : fr a juiceless berry or pod extremely variable in form and size, many-seeded, and with more or less pungenc\ about the seeds and pen carp. Fig. 353. The fruit be comes many-locialed and monstrous in cultivation. 353. Normal 2-loculed fruit of About 90 species have been Capsicum, in cross section, named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr, by Irish, 9th Ann. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper, A. Annual or biennial. &nnuum, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties in the United States readily find classifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear. c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoldes, Irish (C. conoldes. Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect: fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%m.: f r. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about 13^in. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicul&tum, Irish {C. fascicul&ttim, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, roiind or nearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by i^in. in diam., very acrid. This is the Red Cluster Pepper.

 

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Title: Gray's new manual of botany. A handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

Identifier: cu31924090296785

Year: 1908 (1900s)

Authors: Gray, Asa, 1810-1888; Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln, 1864-1935; Fernald, Merritt Lyndon, 1873-1950

Subjects: Botany

Publisher: New York, American Book Co

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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752 EUBIACEAE (MADDER EAJriLY) 1. C. occidentalis L. Smooth ; leaves petioled, essentially glalirous, ovate or lanceolate-oblong, pointed, opposite or whorled in threes, with sliort interveii- ing stipules. — Swamps and along streams, s. w. N. B. to w. Ont., and southw. July, Aug. —Usually a shrub with us, rarely arborescent and 5 or 6 m. high. (Mex., W. I.) •Var. pubfiscens Raf. Branchlets and at least the lower surfaces of the leaves soft-pubescent. —111. to Ga., La., and Tex. 8. houst6nia l. Calyx 4-lobed, persistent; the lobes in fruit distant. Corolla usually much longer than the calyx-lobes, the lobes valvate in the bud. Anthers linear or oblong. Style 1 ; stigmas 2. Ovary 2-celled. Pod top-shaped, globular, or didymous, thin, its summit or upper half free from and projecting beyond the tube of the calyx, loculicidal across the top. Seeds 4-20 in each cell, pitted. — Small herbs, with short entire stipules connecting the petioles or narrowed bases of the leaves, and cymose or solitary and peduncled flowers ; these dimorphous, in some individuals with exserted anthers and short included style; in others the anthers included and the style long, the stigmas therefore protruding. (Named for Dr. William Houston, an English botanist, who collected in tropi- cal America.) * Small and delicate, vernal-flowering; peduncles i-flowered; corolla salver- form; upper half of the broad and somewhat 2-lobed pod free ; seeds globu- lar, with a very deep round cavity occupyiny the inner face. t- Perennial by delicate filiform creeping rootstocks or creeping stems; pedun- cles filiform, 2-5 cm. long. '/ 1. H. caeriilea L. (Butets, Innocence.) Glabrous; stems erect, slender, sparingly branched from the base, 0.5-2 dm. high; leaves oblong-spatulate, 6-9 mm. long ; peduncle filifonn, erect; corolla light blue, pale lilac or nearly white, with a yellowish eye, the straight slender long-exserted tube much longer than its lobes or than those of the calyx. — Moist and grassy places, N. S. to Ga., w. to Ont., Wise, and Ala.; producing from early spring to midsummer its delicate little iiowers. Var. Faxonbrum Pease & Moore. Corolla white, with a prominent yellow eye, the tube shorter, gradually expanding to the limb. — Alpine regions. White Mts., N. H. 2. H. serpyllifblia Michx. Like the preceding species, but the filiform stems prostrate, extensively creeping and rooting; leaves orbicular to ovate, 4-9 mm. long; corolla rather larger, and deep violet-blue. — Along streamlets and on mts., Pa. to Tenn. and S. C. -I- 1- Winter-annuals, branching chiefly from the base ; root simple; peduncles much shorter. 3. H. patens Ell. Stems 2 cm. to at length 1 dm. high, with ascending branches and erect peduncles ; leaves spatu- late to ovate ; corolla much smaller than that of no. 1, violet-blue or purplish without yellowish eye, the tube longer than its lobes, twice the length of the calyx-lobes. {S. minor Britton.) — Dry or sandy soil, Va. to 111. and Mo., s. to Ga. and Tex. Fis. 913. 4. H. minima Beck. More difiuse, commonly scabrous; stems at length much branched and spreading, 2-10 cm. high; lowest leaves ovate or spatulate, the upper oblong 913 H patens "'' "e^rly linear; earlier peduncles elongated and spreading in fruit, the later ones short; tube of the purplish corolla not longer than its lobes or the ample calyx-lobes (3 mm. long).—Dry hill^ s. e. la. to Tex. Mar.-May.

 

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer02bail2

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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M^X-^ fr-1,. *•* 1325. Lupinus parviflorus. 18. mutabilis, Sweet. Stem erect, branched, somewhat woody, 5 ft. tall: lfts. 7-9, lanceolate, obtuse, hairy be- low and somewhat glaucous: fls. large, somewhat ver- ticillate, fragrant; standard white mixed with blue, becoming blue with a large yellow mark in the center; wings and keel white. .June-Aug. Mts. of S. America. S.B.P.G. 130. B.M. 2682.-Attractive species, erect and branching but half-hardy. Var. Cruckshanksii, Hook. (i. Cmckshanksii, A. Gray). Fls. large, fragrant, white, the standard yellow- rose, becoming violet. B.M. 3056. 19. subcarnosus, Hook. Stem 8-10 in. high, ascending, silky pubescent: lfts. 5-7, obovate-lauceolate obtuse.

 

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1326. Lupinus luteus, somewhat fleshy, smooth above, silky below and on margins: fls. in pyramidal racemes, alternate; standard orbicular, deep blue with a white spot in the center di- vided by a longitudinal fold: pod linear-oblong, silky. Spring. Texas. B.M.34C7. — Spreadingspecies of merit. 20. nanus, Dougl. Stem slender, J^-1 ft., often branching from the base, hairy; lfts. .5-f, linear to ob- lanceolate pointed, pubescent both sides, stalks 1-3 times longer: fls. in elongated, loose racemes, verticil- late on slender stalks, large, white, pointed with clear blue, edged with deeper blue; wings bluisli, hiding white- brownish keel: pod hairy. June, July. Calif. S.B.F.G. 11.257. B. R. 20:1705.-This species and its varieties are very floriferous, giving a fine effect in masses and in the border. Var. albus, Hort., white, tinged with lilac. Var. albo-cocciueus, Hort. A very compact va- riety, the lower half of the spike rosy red, the upper white; forms compact tufts and is called a superior variety. L. angustifolius, Linn., with blue fls.. is much grown in Eu. as a fodder plant and for plowing under: annual. Native to the Mediterranean region. The following are garden hybrids of xinknown origin. They mostly have variegated lis. and are common in cult.: L. atrn- violdceus. Perennial, 2 ft. high. Fls. dark violet, striped with wliite and yellow.— L. ccelestinus. Annu.il, 2 ft. higli. Fls. light blue.—i. Dxinnetti, Fls. lilac-purple, gold and white. Ac- cording to Voss, this is the same as the kinds known to the trade as superbus, insignis (Vilmorin, not Dippe), tricolor ele- gans. and superbus Dunnetti. There is also a double form.—L. hubridus. Prob.ably mixed kinds.—L. pubescens, Benth. Per- ennial or subshiiibby, the pubescence short spreading hardly silky in the new parts: lfts. 7-9, oblong-lanceolate, acute, shorter than the petiole, pubescent on botli sides; fls. loosely arranged almost in whorls; pedicels shorter than the calyx: pod liirsute, 4-6-seeded. Tlie above is from the original de- scription. Benth.am neglects to state the color of the fls., but an allied species has blue fls. Mottet mxist be in error in call- ing this au annual. Mex., Central Amer., Colombia.—i. tri- color. See L. Dunnetti. a. Phelps Wyman. LYCASTE (fanciful name). OrchidAcetv. This genus contains about 30 species, all natives of S. Amer., Mexico and the West Indies. The flowers are freely produced and remain in good condition on the plant for several weeks. They are normally borne singly on erect or sub- erect bracted scapes, but sometimes twin-flowered stalks occur. Pseudobulbs ovate or oblong-ovate, bearing 1- several plicate leaves at the summit, and sheathing leaves from the base; sepals sub-similar, spreading, the lateral pair united with the base of the column and form- ing a spur-like chin or mentum; petals smaller, project- ing forward, with the tips often recurved ; labellum 3-lobed,the lateral lobes erect, middle lobe ascending or recurved, with a fleshy, tongue-like callus on the disk: pollinia 4. In Lycaste the scape arises from the very young leafy axis, which does not develop until several months later. The scape, therefore, appears from the base of the bulb. Among the species, i. Skinneri is a favorite orchid with growers. The species of Lycaste

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches, and a synopsis of the vegetable kingdom

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer03bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954, ed; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869- joint ed

Subjects: Gardening -- Dictionaries; Plants -- North America encyclopedias

Publisher: New York, Doubleday, Page & Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

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1325 LuD nus parv floi 18. mutabills, Sweet. Stem erect, branched, somewhat woody, 5 ft. tall: lfts. 7-9, lanceolate, obtuse, hairy lie- low and somewhat glaucous: fls. large, somewhat ver- ticillate, fragrant; standard white mixed with blue, becoming blue with a large yellow mark in the center; wings and keel white. June-Aug. Mts. of S. America. S.B.P.G. 130. B.M. 2682.-Attractive species, erect and branching but half-hardy.

 

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1326 Lupi somewhat fleshy, smooth above, silky below and on margins: fls. in pyramidal racemes, alternate; standard orbicular, deep blue with a white spot in the center di- vided by a longitudinal fold: pod linear-oblong, silky. Spring. Texas. B.M. 34(i7. — Spreadingspecies of merit. 20. ninus, Dougl. Stem slender, J^-1 ft., often branching from the base, hairy: lfts. ,5-7, linear to ob- lauceolate pointed, pubescent both sides, stalks 1-3 times longer: fls. in elongated, loose racemes, verticil- late on slender stalks, large, white, pointed with clear blue, edged with deeper blue; wings bluish, hiding white- brownish keel: pod hairy. June, July. Calif. S.B.P.G. 11.257. B. R. 20:1705. —This species and its varieties are very floriferous, giving a fine effect in masses and in the border. Var. albus, Hort., white, tinged with lilac. Var. albo-coccineus, Hort. A very compact va- riety, the lower half of the spike rosy red, the upper white; forms compact tufts and is called a superior variety. L. angustlfbUus, Linn., witli Ijlue fls., is much grown in Eu. as a fodder plant and for plowing under: anniial. Native to the Mediterranean region. The following are garden hybrids of unknown origin. They mostly have variegated fls. and are common in cult.: L. atrn- viotdceus. Perennial. 2 ft. high. Fls. dark violet, striped with white and yellow.— L, ccelestinits. Annual, 2 ft. high. Fls. light blue.—Z/. Dunnetti. Fls. lilac-purple, gold and white. Ac- cording to Voss, this is the s.ime as the kinds known to the trade as superbus. insignis (Vilmorin. not Dippe), tricolor ele- gans, and superbus Dunnetti. There is also a double form.—i. hybridus. Probably mixed kinds.—I/, pwfiescens, Benth. Per- ennial or subshi-ubby, the pubescence short spreading hardly silky in tlie new parts: lfts. 7-9, oblong-lanceolate, acute, shorter than tlie petiole, pubescent on both sides: fls. loosely arranged almost in whorls: pedicels shorter than tlie calyx: pod hirsute, 4-6-seeded. The above is from the original de- scription. Bentham neglects to state the color of the lis., but an allied species has blue fls. Mottet must be in error in call- ing this ,^n annual. Mex., Central Amer,, Colombia.—i. «ri- color. See L. Dunnetti. j^ Phelps Wyman. LYCASTE (fanciful name). OrcliirlAcea'. This genus contains about 30 species, all natives of ,S. Amer., Mexico and the AVest Indies. The flowers are freely produced and remain in good condition on the plant for several weeks. They are normally borne singly on erect or sul>- erect bracted scapes, but sometimes twin-flowered stalks occur. Pseudobulbs ovate or oblong-ovate, bearing 1- several plicate leaves at the summit, and sheathing leaves from the base: sepals sub-similar, spreading, the lateral pair united with the base of the column and form- ing a spur-like chin or mentum; petals smaller, project- ing forward, with the tips often recurved ; labellum 3-lobed,the lateral lobes erect, middle lobe ascending or recurved, with a fleshy, tongue-like callus on the disk: pollinia 4. In Lycaste the scape arises from the very young leafy axis, which does not develop until several months later. The scape, therefore, appears from the base of the bulb. Among the species, L. Skinnen is a favorite orchid with growers. The species of Lycaste

  

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Title: Gray's new manual of botany. A handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

Identifier: cu31924090296785

Year: 1908 (1900s)

Authors: Gray, Asa, 1810-1888; Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln, 1864-1935; Fernald, Merritt Lyndon, 1873-1950

Subjects: Botany

Publisher: New York, American Book Co

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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CYPERACEAE ([SEDGE FAMILY) 201 824. B. capillacea. Sept. Fig. 324. to Alaska, s. to Pla., Ky., the Great Lake region, and n. Cal, July-Sept. (Eurasia, Porto Rioo.) Fig. 323. Var. mIcra Clarke. Coarser, 4-8 dm. high; terminal corymb often 2-4 cm. broad. — The common southern form, extending n. to central N. Y. and Mass. ++ -w- Spikelets chestnut-colored, few-several-floioered; stamens 3 ; bristles usually 6. 12. R. capillacea Torr. Culm 1-4.6 dm. high, slender; leaves bristle-furm; spikelets 3-0 in a ter- minal cluster, and commonly 1 or 2 on approximate or remote axilliary peduncles, oblong-laticeolate (pale 328. K. .ilba, chestnut-color); achene oblong-ovoid, stipitate, very obscurely wrinkled, about half the length of the (6, rarely 12) stout bristles, and twice the length of the lanceolate-beaked tubercle. — Marly bogs and wet limestone rooks, e. Que. to w. Ont., s. very locally to N. J., Pa., 0., Mich., and Mo. July- Var. LEvisiTA E. J. Hill. Bristles perfectly smooth.—Local, Me., Ont., Mich., and Ind. 13. R. Knieskfirnii Carey. Culm 1-6 dm. high, slender; leaves narrowly linear, short; spikelets numerous, crowded in 4-6 distant clusters, oblong-ovoid, 2-3 mm. long; achene obovoid, narrowed at base, equaling the bristles, twice the length of the triangular flattened tubercle. — Pine-barrens of N. J. (on bog iron ore exclusively) to Va. ; rare. July-Sept. Fig. 325. 14. R. glomerslta (L.) Vahl. Culms 0.1-1 m. higli ; leaves linear, flat; spikelets numerous in distant clusters or heads (0.5-1.5 cm. broad) often in pairs from the same sheath, ovoid-oblong; achene obovoid, margined, narrowed at base, as long as the lance- awl-shaped flattened tubercle, which equals the always down- wardly barbed bristles. — Low grounds, N. B. to Ont., and southw. July-Sept. Fig. 326. Var. nisctiTiENS Clarke. Bristles barbed only at the tip or quite smooth. — N. J., and southw. Var. paniculata (Gray) Chapm. Coarse and tall (1-2 m.); the very elongate inflores- cence bearing numerous loose clusters of heads.—Md. and Ind., southw. 15. R. axillaris (Lam.) Britton. Culm stout (0.4-1.2 m. high); leaves narroidy linear, flat, keeled ; spikelets very numerous, croioded in 2 or 3 or more dense globular heads CI.5-2.5 cm. thick), which are dis- tant (and often in pairs), oblong-lanceolate, dark brown; achene orbicular-obovoid, margined, narrowed at ha.se, 2-2.5 mm. long, about as long as the awl-shaped beak ; bristles twice longer, stout, barbed downward and sometimes also upward. (R. cephalantha Gray.) — Sandy swamps, L. I. and N. J. to Fla. and La. Aug.-Oct. Fig. 327. Var. microc^phala Britton. More slender, and usually lower; glomerules 0.7-1.5 cm. thick ; achenes smaller. — N. J. to Fla. and La. 825. E. Knies- kernii.

 

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R. glomerata. S2T. E. axillaris. 15. CLAdIUM p. Br. Twig Bush Spikelets ovoid or oblong, of several loosely Imbricated scales; the lower empty, one or two above bearing a staminate or imperfect flower ; the terminal flower perfect and fertile. Perianth none. Stamens 2. Style 2-3-cleft, decidu- ous. Achene ovoid or globular, somewhat corky at the summit, or pointed, without any tubercle, in which it differs from Bynchospora. (Diminutive of K\i.Sos, a branch, from the repeatedly branched cyme of the original species.) . , , , , .. . , 1. C. mariscoide? (Mubl.) Torr. Perennial; culm obscurely triangular

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924074091772

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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352. Caprlola Dactylon. Nat. size. CAPEtOLA (the wild goat, whici feeds upon this grass). Graminece. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into flnger-like branches. Spikelets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes 3, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. D&ctylon, Kuntze (Gynodon Ddctylon, Pers.). Bbr- MnDA Grass. Fig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping habit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-making, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a lawn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ g_ Kennedy. CAFSICUK (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). SolancLcem. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-6 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- lipticaJ, entire, acuminate : fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3's; corolla rotate, usually 5- lobed; stamens 5, rarely 6 or 7, with bluish anthers de- hiscing longitudinally ;ovary originally 2-3-loculed : fr. a juiceless beri-y or pod, extremely variable in form and size, many-seeded, and with more or less pungency about the seeds and peri- carp. Fig. 353. The fruit be- comes many-loouled and monstrous in cultivation. About 90 species have been named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper. A. Anmial or biennial. innuTun, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but iu warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties In the United States readily find classifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear. c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoides, Irish (C. conoldes, Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 m. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect: fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%in.: fr. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about l^in. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicul&tiun, Irish {G. fascicul&tum, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, round or nearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by Kin. In diam., very acrid. This is the Red Cluster Pepper.

 

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353. Normal 2-loculed fruit of Capsicum, in cross section. 16

  

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Title: An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions, from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian

Identifier: cu31924024548525

Year: 1913 (1910s)

Authors: Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1859-1934; Brown, Addison, 1830-1913

Subjects: Botany; Botany

Publisher: New York, Scribner

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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I. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. Bristly- fruited Mallow. Fig. 2867. Malva caroliniana L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753. Modiola multifida Moench, Meth. 620. 1791. Modiola caroliniana G. Don, Gen. Hist. PI. i: 466. 1831. Annual or biennial, more or less pubescent, freely branching; stems slender, 6'-i8' long. Leaves nearly orbicular in outline, ¥-2i' wide, petioled, pedately 3-s-cleft, the lobes dentate or incised; leaves sometimes simply dentate; flowers axillary, solitary, 3"-S" broad; peduncles at length elongated, slender; petals obovate; fruit depressed-orbicular, the carpels hispid-aristate along the back. In low grounds, Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, and in Central and South America and the West Indies. The same species apparently occurs in South Africa. Summer. 10. KOSTELETZKYA Presl, Rel. Haenk.T: 130. 'pi. 70. 1836. Perennial, scabrous or pubescent herbs or shrubs, with hastate or angular leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels several, linear. Calyx S-toothed or 5-cleft. Stamen-column entire, or S-toothed at the summit, anther-bearing below for nearly its entire length. Ovary s-celled, the cells l-ovuled; style-branches of the same number, stigmatic at the capitate summits. Capsule depressed, 5-angled. Seeds reni- form, ascending. [Named in honor of V. F, Kosteletzky, a botanist of Bohemia.] About 8 species, natives of warm and temperate America. In addition to the foU'owing, another occurs in the southwestern United States. Type species; Kosteletzkya hastata Presl. I. Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) A. Gray. Virginia Kosteletzkya. Fig. 2868. Hibiscus z'irginicus L. Sp. PI. 697. 1753. K. virginica A. Gray, Gen. 2 : 80. t. 132. 1849. K. virginica var. althaeifolia Chapm, Fl. S. States 57- i860. K. althaeifolia A. Gray; S. Wats. Bibl. Index 136. 1878. Perennial, erect, branching, 2°-a° high, more or less stellate-pubescent and scabrous. Leaves ovate, or hastate, truncate or cordate at the base, 2'-s' long, unequally dentate and often 3-Iobed below, sometimes with an additional lobe or two at the middle, acute, velvety or pubescent; flow- ers pink, iV-iV broad, in loose terminal leafy panicles; bractlets of the involucels 8-g, linear, shorter than the lanceolate acute calyx-segments; capsule hispid-pubescent. In salt or brackish marshes, southeastern New York to Florida and Louisiana. Bermuda; Cuba. Aug. II. HIBISCUS L. Sp. PL 693. 1753. Herbs, shrubs, or in tropical regions even small trees, with dentate or lobed leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate, mostly campanulate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels numer- ous, narrow. Calyx S-cleft or 5-toothed. Column of stamens truncate or S-toothed at the apex, anther-bearing below along much of its length. Ovary 5-ceIled, the cells 3-several- ovuled; style-branches S, stigmatic at the capitate summit. Capsule S-valved. Seeds reni- form. [An ancient name, used by Dioscorides for the Marsh Mallow.] About 180 species, widely distributed in warm and temperate countries. In addition to the following, about 14 others occur in the southern and western United States. Type species: Hibiscus Trionum L.

 

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924000537732

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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1325. Lupinus parviflorus. IS. mutabilis, Sweet. Stem erect, branched, somewhat woody, 5 ft. tall: lfts. 7-9, lanceolate, obtuse, hairy be- low and somewhat glaucous: tls. large, somewhat ver- ticillate, fragrant; standard white mixed with blue, becoming blue with a large yellow mark in the center; wings and keel w-hite. .Jnne-Aug. Jits, of S. America. S.B.P.ii. 130. B.M. 2082.-Attractive species, erect and branching but halt-hardy. Var. Cruckshanksii, Hook. ( /,. On Oray). Els. large, fragrant, while, the rose, becoming violet. B.M. 3(150. 19. subcarndsus, Hook. Stem 8-10 in. high, ascending silky pubescent: lfts. 5-7, obovate-lanceolate obtuse

 

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1326. Lupinus luteus. somewhat fleshy, smooth above, silky below and on margins: fls. in pyramidal racemes, alternate; standard orbicular, deep blue with a white spot in the center di- vided by a longitudinal fold: pod linear-oblonfr, silky. Spring. Texas. B.M. 34G7. — Spreadingspecies of merit. 20. n^nus, Dougl. Stem slender, ^{~X ft., often branching from the base, hairy: Iftw. 5-7, linear to ob- lanceolate pointed, pubescent both sides, stalks l-:i times longer: lis. in elongated, loose racemes, verticil- late on slender stalks, large, white, pointetl with clear blue, edge<l with deeper blue; wings bluish, hiding wliite- brownish keel: pod hairy. June, July. ('alif. S^B.P.G. 11.237, B. R. 20:1705. —This species and its varieties are very Horiferous, giving a fine effect in mas^ses and in the border. Var. ^Ibus, Hort., wliite, tinged with lilac. Var. albo-coccineus, Hort. A very compact va- riety, the lower halt of the spike rosy red, the iipper white; forms compact tufts and is called a superior variety. L. r(n<jiis(ifnlh(s, Liini., with blue fls;., is min^-h thrown in En, ;is a t'uiiiU'v i.);int and for plowing under: annu^d. Native to tlie MedlToTrrinean region. The foliowing are y;irden hybrids of unknown origin. They mostly have variegated tls. and are common in r-ult.: L. atm- riolaccus. Perennial, IJ ft. high. Fl;^. (hirk violet, striped with white and yellow.— L. Cipfestinus. Annual, 2 ft. high. Fls. light h)ue. —//. Diuniclti,. Fls. lilar'-ymrple, gold and wliite. Ac- cording to Voss, this is the same as the kind.s known to the trude as snpert)us, insignis (Vilmorin, not Dipxie), tri'.-Ldor ele- gans, and superbns Dunnetti. There is also a double form.—i. hybn-dus. Prohahly nnxed 'kindf^. — L. puWscens, Bentli. Per- ennial or suhslii-uhliy, the pubescence short spreading hardly silky in the new parts: lfts. 7-9, olilongdan'-eolate, acute, sliorter tlian the petiole, pubescent on Itoth sides: tls. loosely arranged almost in whorls; pedicels shorter than the calyx: pod hirsute, 4-fi-seecle(l. Tlie above is from the original de- scription. Bentham neglects to state the color of the fls., but an allied species has tilne fis. ^Mnttet must he in error in c;dl- ing this an annual, ^b'x.. Central Ami-n-., <.'ulnMilii;[. —L, tri- color. See L. Dunnetti. j,^ Phei-PS Wym-vn LYCASTE (fanciful name). Orrhi'Jnrm . q'his genus contains about 30 species, all nativ(.',s of S. Arner., Mexico and the West Indies. The flowers are freely produced and remain in good condition on the plant for several weeks. Tliey are normally borne singly on erect or sub- erect bracted scapes, but sometimes twin-tiowered stalks occur. Pseudobull)S ovate or oblong-ovate, bearing 1- several plicate leaves at the summit, and sheathing leaves f mm the base: sepals sub-similar, spreading, the lateral pair united with thet^ase of the column and form- ing a spur-like chin or mentuiu; petals smaller, project- ing forward, with the tips often recurved ; labellum ;"i-lobed, the lateral lobes erect, middle lobe ascending or recurved, with a fleshy, tongue-like callus on the disk: pollinia 4. In Lycaste the scape arises from the very young leafy axis, which does not develop until several months later. The scape, therefore, appears from the base of the bulb. Among the species, L. Ski}nieri is a favorite orchid wifh growers. The species of Lycaste

  

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