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The Alishan National Scenic Area is a mountain resort and natural preserve located in the mountains of Chiayi County in Taiwan.[citation needed]

 

Contents

 

1 Geography

2 Climate

3 Topography

4 Vegetation and wildlife

5 History

6 Attractions and landmarks

7 See also

8 References

9 Bibliography

10 External links

 

Geography

Alishan Forest Park.

Dawn view from Alishan.

 

Alishan is 415 square kilometres (41,500 ha) in area. Notable characteristics include mountain wilderness, four villages, waterfalls, high altitude tea plantations, the Alishan Forest Railway, and a number of hiking trails. The area is popular with tourists and mountain climbers. Alishan, or Mount Ali, itself has become one of the major landmarks associated with Taiwan. The area is famous for its production of high mountain tea and wasabi.[citation needed]

 

Alishan is well known for its sunrises, and on a suitable morning one can observe the sun come up on a sea of clouds in the area between Alishan and Yüshan. Alishan and Sun Moon Lake are two of the best known scenic spots in Asia. The indigenous people of the area, the Thao people, have only recently been recognized as a discrete ethnic group. They have long been confused with the Tsou people.

Climate

 

Alishan National Scenic Area spans a broad range in altitude. Lower elevations, such as in Leye Township, share the same subtropical and tropical climate as the rest of southern Taiwan, while the climate changes to temperate and alpine as the elevation increases. Snow sometimes falls at higher elevations in the winter.[citation needed]

 

Alishan National Scenic Area covers most, but not all, of Alishan Rural Township in Chiayi County, as well as parts of neighboring townships in Taiwan.[citation needed]

 

Average temperatures are moderate:[citation needed]

 

Low elevations: 24 °C in the summer, 16 °C in the winter.

Medium elevations: 19 °C in the summer, 12 °C in the winter.

High elevations: 14 °C in the summer, 5 °C in the winter.

 

Topography

 

Alishan is mountainous:[citation needed]

 

Number of peaks above 2000 meters: 25

Highest point: Da Ta Shan (大塔山), 2,663 meters.

Average height of Alishan Mountain Range: 2,500 meters.

 

Vegetation and wildlife

 

Important trees in the area include:[citation needed]

 

Taiwania cryptomerioides, a large coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae (the same family as the next three species)

Chamaecyparis formosensis, or Formosan Cypress

Chamaecyparis taiwanensis

Cunninghamia konishii

Pinus taiwanensis, or Taiwan Red Pine

Picea morrisonicola, or Yüshan Spruce

Pseudotsuga sinensis var. wilsoniana, or Taiwan Douglas-fir

Abies kawakamii, a species of conifer in the Pinaceae family, only found in Taiwan

Tsuga chinensis var. formosana, Taiwan or Chinese Hemlock

Ulmus uyematsui, a species of elm only found in the Alishan region

 

History

Longyin Temple of Chukou Village in Alishan National Scenic Area.

Boardwalk at Alishan National Scenic Area.

 

The Alishan area was originally settled by the Tsou tribe of the Taiwanese aborigines; the name derives from the aboriginal word Jarissang. Ethnic Han Chinese settlers first settled on the plains near modern-day Chiayi as early as the late Ming Dynasty (around the mid-17th century), but did not move into the mountains until the late 18th century, establishing the towns of Ruili (瑞里), Ruifeng (瑞峰), Xiding (隙頂), and Fenqihu (奮起湖). The resulting armed clashes between the settlers and the aborigines pushed the aborigines even further into the mountains.[citation needed]

 

Following the cession of Taiwan to Japan at the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, Japanese expeditions to the area found large quantities of cypress (檜木, or hinoki in Japanese). This led to the development of the logging industry in the area and the export of local cypress and Taiwania wood. A series of narrow-gauge railways were built in the area during this time to facilitate the transportation of lumber from the mountains to the plains below, part of which continues to operate as the Alishan Forest Railway. Several new villages also began to sprout up along the railway lines. It was also during this time that the first tourists began to visit the area. Plans were even drawn up to incorporate the area into the new Niitaka (New Highest) Arisan National Park (新高阿里山国立公園).[citation needed]

 

With the exhaustion of forest resources by the 1970s, domestic and international tourism overtook logging to become the primary economic activity in the area. The tourism industry continued to expand with the completion of the Alisan highway in the 1980s, displacing the railroad as the primary mode of transportation up the mountain. To combat the problems associated with the growing crowds of tourists and the expanding tea and wasabi plantations, the area was declared a national scenic area in 2001.[citation needed]

 

On 1 December 2014, fire broke out at Alishan spreading over more than 5 hectares of land. The area affected was located near Tapang No. 3 Bridge. The fire was believed to happen due to dry ground which was vulnerable to fire because of the absence of rain in the area for months.[1]

Attractions and landmarks

A Japanese-built train on the Alishan Forest Railway.

 

Fenqihu (奮起湖) is a small town of low wooden buildings built into the mountainside at 1,400 meters, midpoint of the Alishan Forest Railway. It is famous for natural rock formations, mountain streams, forests, and the ruins of a Shinto temple in the vicinity, as well as for its production of high altitude food products such as bamboo shoots and aiyu jelly (愛玉). The local box lunches (奮起湖便當, Fenqihu bento), which were once sold to passengers on the rail line, are also well known.[citation needed]

 

Taiwan (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ (About this sound listen)), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Its neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations and the largest economy outside the UN.

 

The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China (ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty. Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROC's loss of the mainland to the Communists, and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC continued to claim to be the legitimate government of China, its effective jurisdiction has since the loss of Hainan in 1950 been limited to Taiwan and its surrounding islands, with the main island making up 99% of its de facto territory. As a founding member of the United Nations, the ROC continued to represent China at the United Nations until 1971, when the PRC assumed China's seat, causing the ROC to lose its UN membership.

 

In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system. Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, healthcare,[15] public education, economic freedom, and human development.[d][13][16] The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most highly educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[17][18]

 

The PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and asserted the ROC is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China Policy the PRC refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC. Today 20 countries recognize the ROC as the sole legal representative of China,[19] but many other states maintain unofficial ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. Although Taiwan is fully self-governing, most international organizations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Internally, the major division in politics is between the aspirations of eventual Chinese unification or Taiwanese independence, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal. The PRC has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible.[20]

 

Contents

 

1 Etymology

2 History

2.1 Prehistoric Taiwan

2.2 Opening in the 17th century

2.3 Qing rule

2.4 Japanese rule

2.5 After World War II

2.6 Chinese Nationalist one-party rule

2.7 Democratization

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

3.2 Geology

4 Political and legal status

4.1 Relations with the PRC

4.2 Foreign relations

4.3 Participation in international events and organizations

4.4 Opinions within Taiwan

5 Government and politics

5.1 Major camps

5.2 Current political issues

5.3 National identity

6 Military

7 Administrative divisions

8 Economy and industry

9 Transportation

10 Education, research, and academia

11 Demographics

11.1 Ethnic groups

11.2 Languages

11.3 Religion

11.4 Largest cities

12 Public health

13 Culture

13.1 Sports

13.2 Calendar

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

16.1 Citations

16.2 Works cited

17 Further reading

18 External links

18.1 Overviews and data

18.2 Government agencies

 

Etymology

See also: Chinese Taipei, Formosa, and Names of China

Taiwan

Taiwan (Chinese characters).svg

"Taiwan" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters

Chinese name

Traditional Chinese 臺灣 or 台灣

Simplified Chinese 台湾

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Táiwān

Bopomofo ㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Tair'uan

Wade–Giles T'ai²-wan¹

Tongyong Pinyin Táiwan

IPA [tʰǎi.wán]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing تَاَىْوًا‎

Wu

Romanization The平-uae平

Xiang

IPA dwɛ13 ua44

Hakka

Romanization Thòi-vàn

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Tòiwāan

Jyutping Toi4waan1

Southern Min

Hokkien POJ Tâi-oân

Tâi-lô Tâi-uân

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Dài-uăng

China

Traditional Chinese 中國

Simplified Chinese 中国

Literal meaning Middle or Central State[21]

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Zhōngguó

Bopomofo ㄓㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jong'gwo

Wade–Giles Chung1-kuo2

Tongyong Pinyin Jhongguó

MPS2 Jūng-guó

IPA [ʈʂʊ́ŋ.kwǒ]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing ﺟْﻮﻗُﻮَع

Sichuanese Pinyin Zong1 gwe2

Wu

Romanization Tson平-koh入

Gan

Romanization Tung-koe̍t

Xiang

IPA Tan33-kwɛ24/

Hakka

Romanization Dung24-gued2

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Jūnggwok

Jyutping Zung1gwok3

Southern Min

Hokkien POJ Tiong-kok

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Dṳ̆ng-guók

Pu-Xian Min

Hinghwa BUC De̤ng-go̤h

Northern Min

Jian'ou Romanized Dô̤ng-gŏ

Republic of China

Traditional Chinese 中華民國

Simplified Chinese 中华民国

Postal Chunghwa Minkuo

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Zhōnghuá Mínguó

Bopomofo ㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jonghwa Min'gwo

Wade–Giles Chung¹-hua² Min²-kuo²

Tongyong Pinyin Jhonghuá Mínguó

MPS2 Jūng-huá Mín-guó

IPA [ʈʂʊ́ŋxwǎ mǐnkwǒ]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing ﺟْﻮ ﺧُﻮَ مٍ ﻗُﻮَع

Wu

Romanization tson平 gho平 min平 koh入

Gan

Romanization tung1 fa4 min4 koet7

Hakka

Romanization Chûng-fà Mìn-koet

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Jūngwà màn'gwok

Jyutping Zung1waa4 man4gwok3

Southern Min

Hokkien POJ Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok

Tâi-lô Tiong-hûa Bîn-kok

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Dṳ̆ng-huà Mìng-guók

Japanese name

Kanji 台湾

Kana たいわん

Kyūjitai 臺灣

Transcriptions

Romanization Taiwan

 

There are various names for the island of Taiwan in use today, derived from explorers or rulers by each particular period. The former name Formosa (福爾摩沙) dates from 1542,[verification needed] when Portuguese sailors sighted the main island of Taiwan and named it Ilha Formosa, which means "beautiful island".[22] The name "Formosa" eventually "replaced all others in European literature"[23] and was in common use in English in the early 20th century.[24]

 

In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia (modern-day Anping, Tainan) on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan",[25] after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Tayowan, Teijoan, etc.[26] This name was also adopted into the Chinese vernacular (in particular, Hokkien, as Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tāi-oân/Tâi-oân) as the name of the sandbar and nearby area (Tainan). The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, which is seen in various forms (大員, 大圓, 大灣, 臺員, 臺圓 and 臺窩灣) in Chinese historical records. The area of modern-day Tainan was the first permanent settlement by Western colonists and Chinese immigrants, grew to be the most important trading centre, and served as the capital of the island until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name (臺灣) was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development, the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as "Taiwan".[27][28][29][30]

 

In his Daoyi Zhilüe (1349), Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it near to Penghu.[31] Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; indeed the name Ryūkyū is the Japanese form of Liúqiú. The name also appears in the Book of Sui (636) and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or even Luzon.[32]

 

The official name of the state is the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" Zhōngguó (中國), to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng ("central" or "middle") and guó ("state, nation-state"), [e] A term which also developed under the Zhou Dynasty in reference to its royal demesne[f] and the name was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qingera .[34] During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had fled to Taiwan due to losing the Chinese Civil War, it was commonly referred to as "Nationalist China" (or "Free China") to differentiate it from "Communist China" (or "Red China").[36] It was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become commonly known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts, especially official ones from the ROC government, the name is written as "Republic of China (Taiwan)", "Republic of China/Taiwan", or sometimes "Taiwan (ROC)."[37] The Republic of China participates in most international forums and organizations under the name "Chinese Taipei" due to diplomatic pressure from the People's Republic of China. For instance, it is the name under which it has competed at the Olympic Games since 1984, and its name as an observer at the World Health Organization.[38]

History

Main articles: History of Taiwan and History of the Republic of China

See the History of China article for historical information in the Chinese Mainland before 1949.

Prehistoric Taiwan

Main article: Prehistory of Taiwan

A young Tsou man

 

Taiwan was joined to the mainland in the Late Pleistocene, until sea levels rose about 10,000 years ago. Fragmentary human remains dated 20,000 to 30,000 years ago have been found on the island, as well as later artefacts of a Paleolithic culture.[39][40][41]

 

Around 6,000 years ago, Taiwan was settled by farmers, most likely from mainland China.[42] They are believed to be the ancestors of today's Taiwanese aborigines, whose languages belong to the Austronesian language family, but show much greater diversity than the rest of the family, which spans a huge area from Maritime Southeast Asia west to Madagascar and east as far as New Zealand, Hawaii and Easter Island. This has led linguists to propose Taiwan as the urheimat of the family, from which seafaring peoples dispersed across Southeast Asia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans.[43][44]

 

Han Chinese fishermen began settling in the Penghu islands in the 13th century, but Taiwan's hostile tribes and its lack of valuable trade products meant that few outsiders visited the island until the 16th century, when visits to the coast by fishermen from Fujian and Chinese and Japanese pirates became more frequent.[45]

Opening in the 17th century

Main articles: Dutch Formosa, Spanish Formosa, and Kingdom of Tungning

Fort Zeelandia, the Governor's residence in Dutch Formosa

 

The Dutch East India Company attempted to establish a trading outpost on the Penghu Islands (Pescadores) in 1622, but were militarily defeated and driven off by the Ming authorities.[46]

 

In 1624, the company established a stronghold called Fort Zeelandia on the coastal islet of Tayouan, which is now part of the main island at Anping, Tainan.[30] David Wright, a Scottish agent of the company who lived on the island in the 1650s, described the lowland areas of the island as being divided among 11 chiefdoms ranging in size from two settlements to 72. Some of these fell under Dutch control, while others remained independent.[30][47] The Company began to import labourers from Fujian and Penghu (Pescadores), many of whom settled.[46]

 

In 1626, the Spanish Empire landed on and occupied northern Taiwan, at the ports of Keelung and Tamsui, as a base to extend their trading. This colonial period lasted 16 years until 1642, when the last Spanish fortress fell to Dutch forces.

 

Following the fall of the Ming dynasty, Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong), a self-styled Ming loyalist, arrived on the island and captured Fort Zeelandia in 1662, expelling the Dutch Empire and military from the island. Koxinga established the Kingdom of Tungning (1662–1683), with his capital at Tainan. He and his heirs, Zheng Jing, who ruled from 1662 to 1682, and Zheng Keshuang, who ruled less than a year, continued to launch raids on the southeast coast of mainland China well into the Qing dynasty era.[46]

Qing rule

Main article: Taiwan under Qing Dynasty rule

Hunting deer, painted in 1746

 

In 1683, following the defeat of Koxinga's grandson by an armada led by Admiral Shi Lang of southern Fujian, the Qing dynasty formally annexed Taiwan, placing it under the jurisdiction of Fujian province. The Qing imperial government tried to reduce piracy and vagrancy in the area, issuing a series of edicts to manage immigration and respect aboriginal land rights. Immigrants mostly from southern Fujian continued to enter Taiwan. The border between taxpaying lands and "savage" lands shifted eastward, with some aborigines becoming sinicized while others retreated into the mountains. During this time, there were a number of conflicts between groups of Han Chinese from different regions of southern Fujian, particularly between those from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, and between southern Fujian Chinese and aborigines.

 

Northern Taiwan and the Penghu Islands were the scene of subsidiary campaigns in the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885). The French occupied Keelung on 1 October 1884, but were repulsed from Tamsui a few days later. The French won some tactical victories but were unable to exploit them, and the Keelung Campaign ended in stalemate. The Pescadores Campaign, beginning on 31 March 1885, was a French victory, but had no long-term consequences. The French evacuated both Keelung and the Penghu archipelago after the end of the war.

 

In 1887, the Qing upgraded the island's administration from Taiwan Prefecture of Fujian to Fujian-Taiwan-Province (福建臺灣省), the twentieth in the empire, with its capital at Taipei. This was accompanied by a modernization drive that included building China's first railroad.[48]

Japanese rule

Main articles: Taiwan under Japanese rule and Republic of Formosa

Japanese colonial soldiers march Taiwanese captured after the Tapani Incident from the Tainan jail to court, 1915.

 

As the Qing dynasty was defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), Taiwan, along with Penghu and Liaodong Peninsula, were ceded in full sovereignty to the Empire of Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Inhabitants on Taiwan and Penghu wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China. Very few Taiwanese saw this as feasible.[49] On 25 May 1895, a group of pro-Qing high officials proclaimed the Republic of Formosa to resist impending Japanese rule. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan and quelled this resistance on 21 October 1895.[50] Guerrilla fighting continued periodically until about 1902 and ultimately took the lives of 14,000 Taiwanese, or 0.5% of the population.[51] Several subsequent rebellions against the Japanese (the Beipu uprising of 1907, the Tapani incident of 1915, and the Musha incident of 1930) were all unsuccessful but demonstrated opposition to Japanese colonial rule.

 

Japanese colonial rule was instrumental in the industrialization of the island, extending the railroads and other transportation networks, building an extensive sanitation system, and establishing a formal education system.[52] Japanese rule ended the practice of headhunting.[53] During this period the human and natural resources of Taiwan were used to aid the development of Japan and the production of cash crops such as rice and sugar greatly increased. By 1939, Taiwan was the seventh greatest sugar producer in the world.[54] Still, the Taiwanese and aborigines were classified as second- and third-class citizens. After suppressing Chinese guerrillas in the first decade of their rule, Japanese authorities engaged in a series of bloody campaigns against the mountain aboriginals, culminating in the Musha Incident of 1930.[55] Also, those intellectual and labours who participated in left-wing movement of Taiwan were arrested and massacred (e.g. Tsiúnn Uī-Suí(蔣渭水), masanosuke watanabe(渡辺政之辅)).[56]

 

Around 1935, the Japanese began an island-wide assimilation project to bind the island more firmly to the Japanese Empire and people were taught to see themselves as Japanese under the Kominka Movement, during which time Taiwanese culture and religion were outlawed and the citizens were encouraged to adopt Japanese surnames.[57] The "South Strike Group" was based at the Taihoku Imperial University in Taipei. During World War II, tens of thousands of Taiwanese served in the Japanese military.[58] For example, former ROC President Lee Teng-hui's elder brother served in the Japanese navy and was killed in action in the Philippines in February 1945. The Imperial Japanese Navy operated heavily out of Taiwanese ports. In October 1944, the Formosa Air Battle was fought between American carriers and Japanese forces based in Taiwan. Important Japanese military bases and industrial centres throughout Taiwan, like Kaohsiung, were targets of heavy American bombings.[59] Also during this time, over 2,000 women were forced into sexual slavery for Imperial Japanese troops, now euphemistically called "comfort women."[60]

 

In 1938, there were 309,000 Japanese settlers in Taiwan.[61] After World War II, most of the Japanese were expelled and sent to Japan.[62]

After World War II

Main article: Taiwan after World War II

General Chen Yi (right) accepting the receipt of General Order No. 1 from Rikichi Andō (left), the last Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan, in Taipei City Hall

 

On 25 October 1945, the US Navy ferried ROC troops to Taiwan in order to accept the formal surrender of Japanese military forces in Taipei on behalf of the Allied Powers, as part of General Order No. 1 for temporary military occupation. General Rikichi Andō, governor-general of Taiwan and commander-in-chief of all Japanese forces on the island, signed the receipt and handed it over to General Chen Yi of the ROC military to complete the official turnover. Chen Yi proclaimed that day to be "Taiwan Retrocession Day", but the Allies considered Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to be under military occupation and still under Japanese sovereignty until 1952, when the Treaty of San Francisco took effect.[63][64] Although the 1943 Cairo Declaration had envisaged returning these territories to China, in the Treaty of San Francisco and Treaty of Taipei Japan has renounced all claim to them without specifying to what country they were to be surrendered. This introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan.

 

The ROC administration of Taiwan under Chen Yi was strained by increasing tensions between Taiwanese-born people and newly arrived mainlanders, which were compounded by economic woes, such as hyperinflation. Furthermore, cultural and linguistic conflicts between the two groups quickly led to the loss of popular support for the new government, while the mass movement led by the working committee of the communist also aimed to bring down the Kuomintang government.[65][66] The shooting of a civilian on 28 February 1947 triggered island-wide unrest, which was suppressed with military force in what is now called the February 28 Incident. Mainstream estimates of the number killed range from 18,000 to 30,000. Those killed were mainly members of the Taiwanese elite.[67][68]

Chinese Nationalist one-party rule

Main articles: Chinese Civil War, Chinese Communist Revolution, and History of the Republic of China § Republic of China on Taiwan (1949–present)

For the history of Republic of China before 1949, see Republic of China (1912–49).

The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.

 

After the end of World War II, the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang), led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Communist Party of China, led by Mao Zedong. Throughout the months of 1949, a series of Chinese Communist offensives led to the capture of its capital Nanjing on 23 April and the subsequent defeat of the Nationalist army on the mainland, and the Communists founded the People's Republic of China on 1 October.[69]

 

On 7 December 1949, after the loss of four capitals, Chiang evacuated his Nationalist government to Taiwan and made Taipei the temporary capital of the ROC (also called the "wartime capital" by Chiang Kai-shek).[70] Some 2 million people, consisting mainly of soldiers, members of the ruling Kuomintang and intellectual and business elites, were evacuated from mainland China to Taiwan at that time, adding to the earlier population of approximately six million. In addition, the ROC government took to Taipei many national treasures and much of China's gold reserves and foreign currency reserves.[71][72][73]

 

After losing most of the mainland, the Kuomintang held remaining control of Tibet, the portions of Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Yunnan provinces along with the Hainan Island until 1951 before the Communists subsequently captured both territories. From this point onwards, the Kuomintang's territory was reduced to Taiwan, Penghu, the portions of the Fujian province (Kinmen and Matsu Islands), and two major islands of Dongsha Islands and Nansha Islands. The Kuomintang continued to claim sovereignty over all "China", which it defined to include mainland China, Taiwan, Outer Mongolia and other areas. On mainland China, the victorious Communists claimed they ruled the sole and only China (which they claimed included Taiwan) and that the Republic of China no longer existed.[74]

A Chinese man in military uniform, smiling and looking towards the left. He holds a sword in his left hand and has a medal in shape of a sun on his chest.

Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang from 1925 until his death in 1975

 

Martial law, declared on Taiwan in May 1949,[75] continued to be in effect after the central government relocated to Taiwan. It was not repealed until 1987,[75] and was used as a way to suppress the political opposition in the intervening years.[76] During the White Terror, as the period is known, 140,000 people were imprisoned or executed for being perceived as anti-KMT or pro-Communist.[77] Many citizens were arrested, tortured, imprisoned and executed for their real or perceived link to the Communists. Since these people were mainly from the intellectual and social elite, an entire generation of political and social leaders was decimated. In 1998 law was passed to create the "Compensation Foundation for Improper Verdicts" which oversaw compensation to White Terror victims and families. President Ma Ying-jeou made an official apology in 2008, expressing hope that there will never be a tragedy similar to White Terror.[78]

 

Initially, the United States abandoned the KMT and expected that Taiwan would fall to the Communists. However, in 1950 the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in 1945, escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, US President Harry S. Truman intervened again and dispatched the US Navy's 7th Fleet into the Taiwan Strait to prevent hostilities between Taiwan and mainland China.[79] In the Treaty of San Francisco and the Treaty of Taipei, which came into force respectively on 28 April 1952 and 5 August 1952, Japan formally renounced all right, claim and title to Taiwan and Penghu, and renounced all treaties signed with China before 1942. Neither treaty specified to whom sovereignty over the islands should be transferred, because the United States and the United Kingdom disagreed on whether the ROC or the PRC was the legitimate government of China.[80] Continuing conflict of the Chinese Civil War through the 1950s, and intervention by the United States notably resulted in legislation such as the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty and the Formosa Resolution of 1955.

With President Chiang Kai-shek, the US President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to crowds during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

 

As the Chinese Civil War continued without truce, the government built up military fortifications throughout Taiwan. Within this effort, KMT veterans built the now famous Central Cross-Island Highway through the Taroko Gorge in the 1950s. The two sides would continue to engage in sporadic military clashes with seldom publicized details well into the 1960s on the China coastal islands with an unknown number of night raids. During the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis in September 1958, Taiwan's landscape saw Nike-Hercules missile batteries added, with the formation of the 1st Missile Battalion Chinese Army that would not be deactivated until 1997. Newer generations of missile batteries have since replaced the Nike Hercules systems throughout the island.

 

During the 1960s and 1970s, the ROC maintained an authoritarian, single-party government while its economy became industrialized and technology oriented. This rapid economic growth, known as the Taiwan Miracle, was the result of a fiscal regime independent from mainland China and backed up, among others, by the support of US funds and demand for Taiwanese products.[81][82] In the 1970s, Taiwan was economically the second fastest growing state in Asia after Japan.[83] Taiwan, along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore, became known as one of the Four Asian Tigers. Because of the Cold War, most Western nations and the United Nations regarded the ROC as the sole legitimate government of China until the 1970s. Later, especially after the termination of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, most nations switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC (see United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758).

 

Up until the 1970s, the government was regarded by Western critics as undemocratic for upholding martial law, for severely repressing any political opposition and for controlling media. The KMT did not allow the creation of new parties and those that existed did not seriously compete with the KMT. Thus, competitive democratic elections did not exist.[84][85][86][87][88] From the late 1970s to the 1990s, however, Taiwan went through reforms and social changes that transformed it from an authoritarian state to a democracy. In 1979, a pro-democracy protest known as the Kaohsiung Incident took place in Kaohsiung to celebrate Human Rights Day. Although the protest was rapidly crushed by the authorities, it is today considered as the main event that united Taiwan's opposition.[89]

Democratization

Main articles: Democratic reforms of Taiwan and Elections in Taiwan

 

Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek's son and successor as the president, began to liberalize the political system in the mid-1980s. In 1984, the younger Chiang selected Lee Teng-hui, a Taiwanese-born, US-educated technocrat, to be his vice-president. In 1986, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) was formed and inaugurated as the first opposition party in the ROC to counter the KMT. A year later, Chiang Ching-kuo lifted martial law on the main island of Taiwan (martial law was lifted on Penghu in 1979, Matsu island in 1992 and Kinmen island in 1993). With the advent of democratization, the issue of the political status of Taiwan gradually resurfaced as a controversial issue where, previously, the discussion of anything other than unification under the ROC was taboo.

 

After the death of Chiang Ching-kuo in January 1988, Lee Teng-hui succeeded him as president. Lee continued to democratize the government and decrease the concentration of government authority in the hands of mainland Chinese. Under Lee, Taiwan underwent a process of localization in which Taiwanese culture and history were promoted over a pan-China viewpoint in contrast to earlier KMT policies which had promoted a Chinese identity. Lee's reforms included printing banknotes from the Central Bank rather than the Provincial Bank of Taiwan, and streamlining the Taiwan Provincial Government with most of its functions transferred to the Executive Yuan. Under Lee, the original members of the Legislative Yuan and National Assembly(a former supreme legislative body defunct in 2005),[90] elected in 1947 to represent mainland Chinese constituencies and having held the seats without re-election for more than four decades, were forced to resign in 1991. The previously nominal representation in the Legislative Yuan was brought to an end, reflecting the reality that the ROC had no jurisdiction over mainland China, and vice versa. Restrictions on the use of Taiwanese Hokkien in the broadcast media and in schools were also lifted.[citation needed]

US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Taiwan's special envoy to the APEC summit, Lien Chan, November 2011

 

Democratic reforms continued in the 1990s, with Lee Teng-hui re-elected in 1996, in the first direct presidential election in the history of the ROC.[91] During the later years of Lee's administration, he was involved in corruption controversies relating to government release of land and weapons purchase, although no legal proceedings commenced. In 1997,"To meet the requisites of the nation prior to national unification",[92] the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China was passed and then the former "constitution of five powers" turns to be more tripartite. In 2000, Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party was elected as the first non-Kuomintang (KMT) President and was re-elected to serve his second and last term since 2004. Polarized politics has emerged in Taiwan with the formation of the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties led by the KMT, favouring eventual Chinese reunification, and the Pan-Green Coalition of parties led by the DPP, favouring an eventual and official declaration of Taiwanese independence.[93][clarification needed] In early 2006, President Chen Shui-bian remarked: “The National Unification Council will cease to function. No budget will be ear-marked for it and its personnel must return to their original posts...The National Unification Guidelines will cease to apply."[94]

The ruling DPP has traditionally leaned in favour of Taiwan independence and rejects the so-called "One-China policy".

 

On 30 September 2007, the ruling DPP approved a resolution asserting a separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country". It also called for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China.[95] The Chen administration also pushed for referendums on national defence and UN entry in the 2004 and 2008 elections, which failed due to voter turnout below the required legal threshold of 50% of all registered voters.[96] The Chen administration was dogged by public concerns over reduced economic growth, legislative gridlock due to a pan-blue, opposition-controlled Legislative Yuan and corruption involving the First Family as well as government officials.[97][98]

 

The KMT increased its majority in the Legislative Yuan in the January 2008 legislative elections, while its nominee Ma Ying-jeou went on to win the presidency in March of the same year, campaigning on a platform of increased economic growth and better ties with the PRC under a policy of "mutual nondenial".[96] Ma took office on 20 May 2008, the same day that President Chen Shui-bian stepped down and was notified by prosecutors of possible corruption charges. Part of the rationale for campaigning for closer economic ties with the PRC stems from the strong economic growth China attained since joining the World Trade Organization. However, some analysts say that despite the election of Ma Ying-jeou, the diplomatic and military tensions with the PRC have not been reduced.[99]

Photo Copyright 2012, dynamo.photography.

All rights reserved, no use without license

 

++++++++ from wikipedia.org ++++++++

 

The Alishan National Scenic Area is a mountain resort and natural preserve located in the mountains of Chiayi County in Taiwan.[citation needed]

 

Contents

 

1 Geography

2 Climate

3 Topography

4 Vegetation and wildlife

5 History

6 Attractions and landmarks

7 See also

8 References

9 Bibliography

10 External links

 

Geography

Alishan Forest Park.

Dawn view from Alishan.

 

Alishan is 415 square kilometres (41,500 ha) in area. Notable characteristics include mountain wilderness, four villages, waterfalls, high altitude tea plantations, the Alishan Forest Railway, and a number of hiking trails. The area is popular with tourists and mountain climbers. Alishan, or Mount Ali, itself has become one of the major landmarks associated with Taiwan. The area is famous for its production of high mountain tea and wasabi.[citation needed]

 

Alishan is well known for its sunrises, and on a suitable morning one can observe the sun come up on a sea of clouds in the area between Alishan and Yüshan. Alishan and Sun Moon Lake are two of the best known scenic spots in Asia. The indigenous people of the area, the Thao people, have only recently been recognized as a discrete ethnic group. They have long been confused with the Tsou people.

Climate

 

Alishan National Scenic Area spans a broad range in altitude. Lower elevations, such as in Leye Township, share the same subtropical and tropical climate as the rest of southern Taiwan, while the climate changes to temperate and alpine as the elevation increases. Snow sometimes falls at higher elevations in the winter.[citation needed]

 

Alishan National Scenic Area covers most, but not all, of Alishan Rural Township in Chiayi County, as well as parts of neighboring townships in Taiwan.[citation needed]

 

Average temperatures are moderate:[citation needed]

 

Low elevations: 24 °C in the summer, 16 °C in the winter.

Medium elevations: 19 °C in the summer, 12 °C in the winter.

High elevations: 14 °C in the summer, 5 °C in the winter.

 

Topography

 

Alishan is mountainous:[citation needed]

 

Number of peaks above 2000 meters: 25

Highest point: Da Ta Shan (大塔山), 2,663 meters.

Average height of Alishan Mountain Range: 2,500 meters.

 

Vegetation and wildlife

 

Important trees in the area include:[citation needed]

 

Taiwania cryptomerioides, a large coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae (the same family as the next three species)

Chamaecyparis formosensis, or Formosan Cypress

Chamaecyparis taiwanensis

Cunninghamia konishii

Pinus taiwanensis, or Taiwan Red Pine

Picea morrisonicola, or Yüshan Spruce

Pseudotsuga sinensis var. wilsoniana, or Taiwan Douglas-fir

Abies kawakamii, a species of conifer in the Pinaceae family, only found in Taiwan

Tsuga chinensis var. formosana, Taiwan or Chinese Hemlock

Ulmus uyematsui, a species of elm only found in the Alishan region

 

History

Longyin Temple of Chukou Village in Alishan National Scenic Area.

Boardwalk at Alishan National Scenic Area.

 

The Alishan area was originally settled by the Tsou tribe of the Taiwanese aborigines; the name derives from the aboriginal word Jarissang. Ethnic Han Chinese settlers first settled on the plains near modern-day Chiayi as early as the late Ming Dynasty (around the mid-17th century), but did not move into the mountains until the late 18th century, establishing the towns of Ruili (瑞里), Ruifeng (瑞峰), Xiding (隙頂), and Fenqihu (奮起湖). The resulting armed clashes between the settlers and the aborigines pushed the aborigines even further into the mountains.[citation needed]

 

Following the cession of Taiwan to Japan at the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, Japanese expeditions to the area found large quantities of cypress (檜木, or hinoki in Japanese). This led to the development of the logging industry in the area and the export of local cypress and Taiwania wood. A series of narrow-gauge railways were built in the area during this time to facilitate the transportation of lumber from the mountains to the plains below, part of which continues to operate as the Alishan Forest Railway. Several new villages also began to sprout up along the railway lines. It was also during this time that the first tourists began to visit the area. Plans were even drawn up to incorporate the area into the new Niitaka (New Highest) Arisan National Park (新高阿里山国立公園).[citation needed]

 

With the exhaustion of forest resources by the 1970s, domestic and international tourism overtook logging to become the primary economic activity in the area. The tourism industry continued to expand with the completion of the Alisan highway in the 1980s, displacing the railroad as the primary mode of transportation up the mountain. To combat the problems associated with the growing crowds of tourists and the expanding tea and wasabi plantations, the area was declared a national scenic area in 2001.[citation needed]

 

On 1 December 2014, fire broke out at Alishan spreading over more than 5 hectares of land. The area affected was located near Tapang No. 3 Bridge. The fire was believed to happen due to dry ground which was vulnerable to fire because of the absence of rain in the area for months.[1]

Attractions and landmarks

A Japanese-built train on the Alishan Forest Railway.

 

Fenqihu (奮起湖) is a small town of low wooden buildings built into the mountainside at 1,400 meters, midpoint of the Alishan Forest Railway. It is famous for natural rock formations, mountain streams, forests, and the ruins of a Shinto temple in the vicinity, as well as for its production of high altitude food products such as bamboo shoots and aiyu jelly (愛玉). The local box lunches (奮起湖便當, Fenqihu bento), which were once sold to passengers on the rail line, are also well known.[citation needed]

 

Taiwan (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ (About this sound listen)), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Its neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations and the largest economy outside the UN.

 

The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China (ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty. Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROC's loss of the mainland to the Communists, and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC continued to claim to be the legitimate government of China, its effective jurisdiction has since the loss of Hainan in 1950 been limited to Taiwan and its surrounding islands, with the main island making up 99% of its de facto territory. As a founding member of the United Nations, the ROC continued to represent China at the United Nations until 1971, when the PRC assumed China's seat, causing the ROC to lose its UN membership.

 

In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system. Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, healthcare,[15] public education, economic freedom, and human development.[d][13][16] The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most highly educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[17][18]

 

The PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and asserted the ROC is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China Policy the PRC refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC. Today 20 countries recognize the ROC as the sole legal representative of China,[19] but many other states maintain unofficial ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. Although Taiwan is fully self-governing, most international organizations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Internally, the major division in politics is between the aspirations of eventual Chinese unification or Taiwanese independence, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal. The PRC has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible.[20]

 

Contents

 

1 Etymology

2 History

2.1 Prehistoric Taiwan

2.2 Opening in the 17th century

2.3 Qing rule

2.4 Japanese rule

2.5 After World War II

2.6 Chinese Nationalist one-party rule

2.7 Democratization

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

3.2 Geology

4 Political and legal status

4.1 Relations with the PRC

4.2 Foreign relations

4.3 Participation in international events and organizations

4.4 Opinions within Taiwan

5 Government and politics

5.1 Major camps

5.2 Current political issues

5.3 National identity

6 Military

7 Administrative divisions

8 Economy and industry

9 Transportation

10 Education, research, and academia

11 Demographics

11.1 Ethnic groups

11.2 Languages

11.3 Religion

11.4 Largest cities

12 Public health

13 Culture

13.1 Sports

13.2 Calendar

14 See also

15 Notes

16 References

16.1 Citations

16.2 Works cited

17 Further reading

18 External links

18.1 Overviews and data

18.2 Government agencies

 

Etymology

See also: Chinese Taipei, Formosa, and Names of China

Taiwan

Taiwan (Chinese characters).svg

"Taiwan" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters

Chinese name

Traditional Chinese 臺灣 or 台灣

Simplified Chinese 台湾

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Táiwān

Bopomofo ㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Tair'uan

Wade–Giles T'ai²-wan¹

Tongyong Pinyin Táiwan

IPA [tʰǎi.wán]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing تَاَىْوًا‎

Wu

Romanization The平-uae平

Xiang

IPA dwɛ13 ua44

Hakka

Romanization Thòi-vàn

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Tòiwāan

Jyutping Toi4waan1

Southern Min

Hokkien POJ Tâi-oân

Tâi-lô Tâi-uân

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Dài-uăng

China

Traditional Chinese 中國

Simplified Chinese 中国

Literal meaning Middle or Central State[21]

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Zhōngguó

Bopomofo ㄓㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jong'gwo

Wade–Giles Chung1-kuo2

Tongyong Pinyin Jhongguó

MPS2 Jūng-guó

IPA [ʈʂʊ́ŋ.kwǒ]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing ﺟْﻮﻗُﻮَع

Sichuanese Pinyin Zong1 gwe2

Wu

Romanization Tson平-koh入

Gan

Romanization Tung-koe̍t

Xiang

IPA Tan33-kwɛ24/

Hakka

Romanization Dung24-gued2

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Jūnggwok

Jyutping Zung1gwok3

Southern Min

Hokkien POJ Tiong-kok

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Dṳ̆ng-guók

Pu-Xian Min

Hinghwa BUC De̤ng-go̤h

Northern Min

Jian'ou Romanized Dô̤ng-gŏ

Republic of China

Traditional Chinese 中華民國

Simplified Chinese 中华民国

Postal Chunghwa Minkuo

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Zhōnghuá Mínguó

Bopomofo ㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jonghwa Min'gwo

Wade–Giles Chung¹-hua² Min²-kuo²

Tongyong Pinyin Jhonghuá Mínguó

MPS2 Jūng-huá Mín-guó

IPA [ʈʂʊ́ŋxwǎ mǐnkwǒ]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing ﺟْﻮ ﺧُﻮَ مٍ ﻗُﻮَع

Wu

Romanization tson平 gho平 min平 koh入

Gan

Romanization tung1 fa4 min4 koet7

Hakka

Romanization Chûng-fà Mìn-koet

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Jūngwà màn'gwok

Jyutping Zung1waa4 man4gwok3

Southern Min

Hokkien POJ Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok

Tâi-lô Tiong-hûa Bîn-kok

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Dṳ̆ng-huà Mìng-guók

Japanese name

Kanji 台湾

Kana たいわん

Kyūjitai 臺灣

Transcriptions

Romanization Taiwan

 

There are various names for the island of Taiwan in use today, derived from explorers or rulers by each particular period. The former name Formosa (福爾摩沙) dates from 1542,[verification needed] when Portuguese sailors sighted the main island of Taiwan and named it Ilha Formosa, which means "beautiful island".[22] The name "Formosa" eventually "replaced all others in European literature"[23] and was in common use in English in the early 20th century.[24]

 

In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia (modern-day Anping, Tainan) on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan",[25] after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Tayowan, Teijoan, etc.[26] This name was also adopted into the Chinese vernacular (in particular, Hokkien, as Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tāi-oân/Tâi-oân) as the name of the sandbar and nearby area (Tainan). The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, which is seen in various forms (大員, 大圓, 大灣, 臺員, 臺圓 and 臺窩灣) in Chinese historical records. The area of modern-day Tainan was the first permanent settlement by Western colonists and Chinese immigrants, grew to be the most important trading centre, and served as the capital of the island until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name (臺灣) was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development, the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as "Taiwan".[27][28][29][30]

 

In his Daoyi Zhilüe (1349), Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it near to Penghu.[31] Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; indeed the name Ryūkyū is the Japanese form of Liúqiú. The name also appears in the Book of Sui (636) and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or even Luzon.[32]

 

The official name of the state is the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" Zhōngguó (中國), to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng ("central" or "middle") and guó ("state, nation-state"), [e] A term which also developed under the Zhou Dynasty in reference to its royal demesne[f] and the name was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qingera .[34] During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had fled to Taiwan due to losing the Chinese Civil War, it was commonly referred to as "Nationalist China" (or "Free China") to differentiate it from "Communist China" (or "Red China").[36] It was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become commonly known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts, especially official ones from the ROC government, the name is written as "Republic of China (Taiwan)", "Republic of China/Taiwan", or sometimes "Taiwan (ROC)."[37] The Republic of China participates in most international forums and organizations under the name "Chinese Taipei" due to diplomatic pressure from the People's Republic of China. For instance, it is the name under which it has competed at the Olympic Games since 1984, and its name as an observer at the World Health Organization.[38]

History

Main articles: History of Taiwan and History of the Republic of China

See the History of China article for historical information in the Chinese Mainland before 1949.

Prehistoric Taiwan

Main article: Prehistory of Taiwan

A young Tsou man

 

Taiwan was joined to the mainland in the Late Pleistocene, until sea levels rose about 10,000 years ago. Fragmentary human remains dated 20,000 to 30,000 years ago have been found on the island, as well as later artefacts of a Paleolithic culture.[39][40][41]

 

Around 6,000 years ago, Taiwan was settled by farmers, most likely from mainland China.[42] They are believed to be the ancestors of today's Taiwanese aborigines, whose languages belong to the Austronesian language family, but show much greater diversity than the rest of the family, which spans a huge area from Maritime Southeast Asia west to Madagascar and east as far as New Zealand, Hawaii and Easter Island. This has led linguists to propose Taiwan as the urheimat of the family, from which seafaring peoples dispersed across Southeast Asia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans.[43][44]

 

Han Chinese fishermen began settling in the Penghu islands in the 13th century, but Taiwan's hostile tribes and its lack of valuable trade products meant that few outsiders visited the island until the 16th century, when visits to the coast by fishermen from Fujian and Chinese and Japanese pirates became more frequent.[45]

Opening in the 17th century

Main articles: Dutch Formosa, Spanish Formosa, and Kingdom of Tungning

Fort Zeelandia, the Governor's residence in Dutch Formosa

 

The Dutch East India Company attempted to establish a trading outpost on the Penghu Islands (Pescadores) in 1622, but were militarily defeated and driven off by the Ming authorities.[46]

 

In 1624, the company established a stronghold called Fort Zeelandia on the coastal islet of Tayouan, which is now part of the main island at Anping, Tainan.[30] David Wright, a Scottish agent of the company who lived on the island in the 1650s, described the lowland areas of the island as being divided among 11 chiefdoms ranging in size from two settlements to 72. Some of these fell under Dutch control, while others remained independent.[30][47] The Company began to import labourers from Fujian and Penghu (Pescadores), many of whom settled.[46]

 

In 1626, the Spanish Empire landed on and occupied northern Taiwan, at the ports of Keelung and Tamsui, as a base to extend their trading. This colonial period lasted 16 years until 1642, when the last Spanish fortress fell to Dutch forces.

 

Following the fall of the Ming dynasty, Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong), a self-styled Ming loyalist, arrived on the island and captured Fort Zeelandia in 1662, expelling the Dutch Empire and military from the island. Koxinga established the Kingdom of Tungning (1662–1683), with his capital at Tainan. He and his heirs, Zheng Jing, who ruled from 1662 to 1682, and Zheng Keshuang, who ruled less than a year, continued to launch raids on the southeast coast of mainland China well into the Qing dynasty era.[46]

Qing rule

Main article: Taiwan under Qing Dynasty rule

Hunting deer, painted in 1746

 

In 1683, following the defeat of Koxinga's grandson by an armada led by Admiral Shi Lang of southern Fujian, the Qing dynasty formally annexed Taiwan, placing it under the jurisdiction of Fujian province. The Qing imperial government tried to reduce piracy and vagrancy in the area, issuing a series of edicts to manage immigration and respect aboriginal land rights. Immigrants mostly from southern Fujian continued to enter Taiwan. The border between taxpaying lands and "savage" lands shifted eastward, with some aborigines becoming sinicized while others retreated into the mountains. During this time, there were a number of conflicts between groups of Han Chinese from different regions of southern Fujian, particularly between those from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, and between southern Fujian Chinese and aborigines.

 

Northern Taiwan and the Penghu Islands were the scene of subsidiary campaigns in the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885). The French occupied Keelung on 1 October 1884, but were repulsed from Tamsui a few days later. The French won some tactical victories but were unable to exploit them, and the Keelung Campaign ended in stalemate. The Pescadores Campaign, beginning on 31 March 1885, was a French victory, but had no long-term consequences. The French evacuated both Keelung and the Penghu archipelago after the end of the war.

 

In 1887, the Qing upgraded the island's administration from Taiwan Prefecture of Fujian to Fujian-Taiwan-Province (福建臺灣省), the twentieth in the empire, with its capital at Taipei. This was accompanied by a modernization drive that included building China's first railroad.[48]

Japanese rule

Main articles: Taiwan under Japanese rule and Republic of Formosa

Japanese colonial soldiers march Taiwanese captured after the Tapani Incident from the Tainan jail to court, 1915.

 

As the Qing dynasty was defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), Taiwan, along with Penghu and Liaodong Peninsula, were ceded in full sovereignty to the Empire of Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Inhabitants on Taiwan and Penghu wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China. Very few Taiwanese saw this as feasible.[49] On 25 May 1895, a group of pro-Qing high officials proclaimed the Republic of Formosa to resist impending Japanese rule. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan and quelled this resistance on 21 October 1895.[50] Guerrilla fighting continued periodically until about 1902 and ultimately took the lives of 14,000 Taiwanese, or 0.5% of the population.[51] Several subsequent rebellions against the Japanese (the Beipu uprising of 1907, the Tapani incident of 1915, and the Musha incident of 1930) were all unsuccessful but demonstrated opposition to Japanese colonial rule.

 

Japanese colonial rule was instrumental in the industrialization of the island, extending the railroads and other transportation networks, building an extensive sanitation system, and establishing a formal education system.[52] Japanese rule ended the practice of headhunting.[53] During this period the human and natural resources of Taiwan were used to aid the development of Japan and the production of cash crops such as rice and sugar greatly increased. By 1939, Taiwan was the seventh greatest sugar producer in the world.[54] Still, the Taiwanese and aborigines were classified as second- and third-class citizens. After suppressing Chinese guerrillas in the first decade of their rule, Japanese authorities engaged in a series of bloody campaigns against the mountain aboriginals, culminating in the Musha Incident of 1930.[55] Also, those intellectual and labours who participated in left-wing movement of Taiwan were arrested and massacred (e.g. Tsiúnn Uī-Suí(蔣渭水), masanosuke watanabe(渡辺政之辅)).[56]

 

Around 1935, the Japanese began an island-wide assimilation project to bind the island more firmly to the Japanese Empire and people were taught to see themselves as Japanese under the Kominka Movement, during which time Taiwanese culture and religion were outlawed and the citizens were encouraged to adopt Japanese surnames.[57] The "South Strike Group" was based at the Taihoku Imperial University in Taipei. During World War II, tens of thousands of Taiwanese served in the Japanese military.[58] For example, former ROC President Lee Teng-hui's elder brother served in the Japanese navy and was killed in action in the Philippines in February 1945. The Imperial Japanese Navy operated heavily out of Taiwanese ports. In October 1944, the Formosa Air Battle was fought between American carriers and Japanese forces based in Taiwan. Important Japanese military bases and industrial centres throughout Taiwan, like Kaohsiung, were targets of heavy American bombings.[59] Also during this time, over 2,000 women were forced into sexual slavery for Imperial Japanese troops, now euphemistically called "comfort women."[60]

 

In 1938, there were 309,000 Japanese settlers in Taiwan.[61] After World War II, most of the Japanese were expelled and sent to Japan.[62]

After World War II

Main article: Taiwan after World War II

General Chen Yi (right) accepting the receipt of General Order No. 1 from Rikichi Andō (left), the last Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan, in Taipei City Hall

 

On 25 October 1945, the US Navy ferried ROC troops to Taiwan in order to accept the formal surrender of Japanese military forces in Taipei on behalf of the Allied Powers, as part of General Order No. 1 for temporary military occupation. General Rikichi Andō, governor-general of Taiwan and commander-in-chief of all Japanese forces on the island, signed the receipt and handed it over to General Chen Yi of the ROC military to complete the official turnover. Chen Yi proclaimed that day to be "Taiwan Retrocession Day", but the Allies considered Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to be under military occupation and still under Japanese sovereignty until 1952, when the Treaty of San Francisco took effect.[63][64] Although the 1943 Cairo Declaration had envisaged returning these territories to China, in the Treaty of San Francisco and Treaty of Taipei Japan has renounced all claim to them without specifying to what country they were to be surrendered. This introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan.

 

The ROC administration of Taiwan under Chen Yi was strained by increasing tensions between Taiwanese-born people and newly arrived mainlanders, which were compounded by economic woes, such as hyperinflation. Furthermore, cultural and linguistic conflicts between the two groups quickly led to the loss of popular support for the new government, while the mass movement led by the working committee of the communist also aimed to bring down the Kuomintang government.[65][66] The shooting of a civilian on 28 February 1947 triggered island-wide unrest, which was suppressed with military force in what is now called the February 28 Incident. Mainstream estimates of the number killed range from 18,000 to 30,000. Those killed were mainly members of the Taiwanese elite.[67][68]

Chinese Nationalist one-party rule

Main articles: Chinese Civil War, Chinese Communist Revolution, and History of the Republic of China § Republic of China on Taiwan (1949–present)

For the history of Republic of China before 1949, see Republic of China (1912–49).

The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.

 

After the end of World War II, the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang), led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Communist Party of China, led by Mao Zedong. Throughout the months of 1949, a series of Chinese Communist offensives led to the capture of its capital Nanjing on 23 April and the subsequent defeat of the Nationalist army on the mainland, and the Communists founded the People's Republic of China on 1 October.[69]

 

On 7 December 1949, after the loss of four capitals, Chiang evacuated his Nationalist government to Taiwan and made Taipei the temporary capital of the ROC (also called the "wartime capital" by Chiang Kai-shek).[70] Some 2 million people, consisting mainly of soldiers, members of the ruling Kuomintang and intellectual and business elites, were evacuated from mainland China to Taiwan at that time, adding to the earlier population of approximately six million. In addition, the ROC government took to Taipei many national treasures and much of China's gold reserves and foreign currency reserves.[71][72][73]

 

After losing most of the mainland, the Kuomintang held remaining control of Tibet, the portions of Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Yunnan provinces along with the Hainan Island until 1951 before the Communists subsequently captured both territories. From this point onwards, the Kuomintang's territory was reduced to Taiwan, Penghu, the portions of the Fujian province (Kinmen and Matsu Islands), and two major islands of Dongsha Islands and Nansha Islands. The Kuomintang continued to claim sovereignty over all "China", which it defined to include mainland China, Taiwan, Outer Mongolia and other areas. On mainland China, the victorious Communists claimed they ruled the sole and only China (which they claimed included Taiwan) and that the Republic of China no longer existed.[74]

A Chinese man in military uniform, smiling and looking towards the left. He holds a sword in his left hand and has a medal in shape of a sun on his chest.

Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang from 1925 until his death in 1975

 

Martial law, declared on Taiwan in May 1949,[75] continued to be in effect after the central government relocated to Taiwan. It was not repealed until 1987,[75] and was used as a way to suppress the political opposition in the intervening years.[76] During the White Terror, as the period is known, 140,000 people were imprisoned or executed for being perceived as anti-KMT or pro-Communist.[77] Many citizens were arrested, tortured, imprisoned and executed for their real or perceived link to the Communists. Since these people were mainly from the intellectual and social elite, an entire generation of political and social leaders was decimated. In 1998 law was passed to create the "Compensation Foundation for Improper Verdicts" which oversaw compensation to White Terror victims and families. President Ma Ying-jeou made an official apology in 2008, expressing hope that there will never be a tragedy similar to White Terror.[78]

 

Initially, the United States abandoned the KMT and expected that Taiwan would fall to the Communists. However, in 1950 the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in 1945, escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, US President Harry S. Truman intervened again and dispatched the US Navy's 7th Fleet into the Taiwan Strait to prevent hostilities between Taiwan and mainland China.[79] In the Treaty of San Francisco and the Treaty of Taipei, which came into force respectively on 28 April 1952 and 5 August 1952, Japan formally renounced all right, claim and title to Taiwan and Penghu, and renounced all treaties signed with China before 1942. Neither treaty specified to whom sovereignty over the islands should be transferred, because the United States and the United Kingdom disagreed on whether the ROC or the PRC was the legitimate government of China.[80] Continuing conflict of the Chinese Civil War through the 1950s, and intervention by the United States notably resulted in legislation such as the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty and the Formosa Resolution of 1955.

With President Chiang Kai-shek, the US President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to crowds during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

 

As the Chinese Civil War continued without truce, the government built up military fortifications throughout Taiwan. Within this effort, KMT veterans built the now famous Central Cross-Island Highway through the Taroko Gorge in the 1950s. The two sides would continue to engage in sporadic military clashes with seldom publicized details well into the 1960s on the China coastal islands with an unknown number of night raids. During the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis in September 1958, Taiwan's landscape saw Nike-Hercules missile batteries added, with the formation of the 1st Missile Battalion Chinese Army that would not be deactivated until 1997. Newer generations of missile batteries have since replaced the Nike Hercules systems throughout the island.

 

During the 1960s and 1970s, the ROC maintained an authoritarian, single-party government while its economy became industrialized and technology oriented. This rapid economic growth, known as the Taiwan Miracle, was the result of a fiscal regime independent from mainland China and backed up, among others, by the support of US funds and demand for Taiwanese products.[81][82] In the 1970s, Taiwan was economically the second fastest growing state in Asia after Japan.[83] Taiwan, along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore, became known as one of the Four Asian Tigers. Because of the Cold War, most Western nations and the United Nations regarded the ROC as the sole legitimate government of China until the 1970s. Later, especially after the termination of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, most nations switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC (see United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758).

 

Up until the 1970s, the government was regarded by Western critics as undemocratic for upholding martial law, for severely repressing any political opposition and for controlling media. The KMT did not allow the creation of new parties and those that existed did not seriously compete with the KMT. Thus, competitive democratic elections did not exist.[84][85][86][87][88] From the late 1970s to the 1990s, however, Taiwan went through reforms and social changes that transformed it from an authoritarian state to a democracy. In 1979, a pro-democracy protest known as the Kaohsiung Incident took place in Kaohsiung to celebrate Human Rights Day. Although the protest was rapidly crushed by the authorities, it is today considered as the main event that united Taiwan's opposition.[89]

Democratization

Main articles: Democratic reforms of Taiwan and Elections in Taiwan

 

Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek's son and successor as the president, began to liberalize the political system in the mid-1980s. In 1984, the younger Chiang selected Lee Teng-hui, a Taiwanese-born, US-educated technocrat, to be his vice-president. In 1986, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) was formed and inaugurated as the first opposition party in the ROC to counter the KMT. A year later, Chiang Ching-kuo lifted martial law on the main island of Taiwan (martial law was lifted on Penghu in 1979, Matsu island in 1992 and Kinmen island in 1993). With the advent of democratization, the issue of the political status of Taiwan gradually resurfaced as a controversial issue where, previously, the discussion of anything other than unification under the ROC was taboo.

 

After the death of Chiang Ching-kuo in January 1988, Lee Teng-hui succeeded him as president. Lee continued to democratize the government and decrease the concentration of government authority in the hands of mainland Chinese. Under Lee, Taiwan underwent a process of localization in which Taiwanese culture and history were promoted over a pan-China viewpoint in contrast to earlier KMT policies which had promoted a Chinese identity. Lee's reforms included printing banknotes from the Central Bank rather than the Provincial Bank of Taiwan, and streamlining the Taiwan Provincial Government with most of its functions transferred to the Executive Yuan. Under Lee, the original members of the Legislative Yuan and National Assembly(a former supreme legislative body defunct in 2005),[90] elected in 1947 to represent mainland Chinese constituencies and having held the seats without re-election for more than four decades, were forced to resign in 1991. The previously nominal representation in the Legislative Yuan was brought to an end, reflecting the reality that the ROC had no jurisdiction over mainland China, and vice versa. Restrictions on the use of Taiwanese Hokkien in the broadcast media and in schools were also lifted.[citation needed]

US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Taiwan's special envoy to the APEC summit, Lien Chan, November 2011

 

Democratic reforms continued in the 1990s, with Lee Teng-hui re-elected in 1996, in the first direct presidential election in the history of the ROC.[91] During the later years of Lee's administration, he was involved in corruption controversies relating to government release of land and weapons purchase, although no legal proceedings commenced. In 1997,"To meet the requisites of the nation prior to national unification",[92] the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China was passed and then the former "constitution of five powers" turns to be more tripartite. In 2000, Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party was elected as the first non-Kuomintang (KMT) President and was re-elected to serve his second and last term since 2004. Polarized politics has emerged in Taiwan with the formation of the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties led by the KMT, favouring eventual Chinese reunification, and the Pan-Green Coalition of parties led by the DPP, favouring an eventual and official declaration of Taiwanese independence.[93][clarification needed] In early 2006, President Chen Shui-bian remarked: “The National Unification Council will cease to function. No budget will be ear-marked for it and its personnel must return to their original posts...The National Unification Guidelines will cease to apply."[94]

The ruling DPP has traditionally leaned in favour of Taiwan independence and rejects the so-called "One-China policy".

 

On 30 September 2007, the ruling DPP approved a resolution asserting a separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country". It also called for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China.[95] The Chen administration also pushed for referendums on national defence and UN entry in the 2004 and 2008 elections, which failed due to voter turnout below the required legal threshold of 50% of all registered voters.[96] The Chen administration was dogged by public concerns over reduced economic growth, legislative gridlock due to a pan-blue, opposition-controlled Legislative Yuan and corruption involving the First Family as well as government officials.[97][98]

 

The KMT increased its majority in the Legislative Yuan in the January 2008 legislative elections, while its nominee Ma Ying-jeou went on to win the presidency in March of the same year, campaigning on a platform of increased economic growth and better ties with the PRC under a policy of "mutual nondenial".[96] Ma took office on 20 May 2008, the same day that President Chen Shui-bian stepped down and was notified by prosecutors of possible corruption charges. Part of the rationale for campaigning for closer economic ties with the PRC stems from the strong economic growth China attained since joining the World Trade Organization. However, some analysts say that despite the election of Ma Ying-jeou, the diplomatic and military tensions with the PRC have not been reduced.[99]

Mercantour National Park (French: Parc national du Mercantour) is one of the ten national parks of France. Since it was created in 1979, the Mercantour Park has proven popular, with 800,000 visitors every year enjoying the 600 km of marked footpaths and visiting its villages.

 

The protected area covers some 685 km², consisting of a central uninhabited zone comprising seven valleys - Roya, Bévéra, Vésubie, Tinée, Haut Var/Cians (in the Alpes-Maritimes) plus Verdon and Ubaye (in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) - and a peripheral zone comprising 28 villages. Many of them are perched villages,such as Belvédère at the entrance to the spectacular Gordolasque valley, concealing great architectural riches (numerous churches decorated with murals and altar pieces by primitive Niçois painters). More than 150 rural sites are located within the Park. Around Mont Bégo there are petroglyphs pecked out on schist and granite faces. They have been dated from the late Neolithic and Bronze Ages.

 

In the heart of this setting of vertiginous summits (including Mont Gélas (obscured by clouds here), the highest point in the Maritime Alps at 3,143 m), lies a gem listed as a Historical Monument, the famous Vallée des Merveilles (out of view to the upper right), the aptly named "valley of marvels". At the foot of Mont Bégo, climbers can admire some 37,000 petroglyphs dating back to the Bronze Age, representing weapons, cattle and human figures that are sometimes very mysterious. A less challenging destination is the Musée des Merveilles at Tende.

 

In addition to the holm oak, the Mediterranean olive tree, rhododendrons, firs, spruces, swiss pines and above all larches, the Mercantour is also endowed with more than 2,000 species of flowering plants, 200 of which are very rare: edelweiss and martagon lily are the best known, but there is also saxifrage with multiple flowers, houseleek, moss campion and gentian offering a multi-coloured palette in the spring. The Mercantour is the site of a large-scale All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring programme to identify all its living species, organised by the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy.

 

Walkers may easily glimpse a chamois, several thousand of which live in the park and may often hear the whistling of marmots. The ermine is rarer (and more furtive), as is the ibex and the mouflon, although with a little luck you may be able to observe them during the coolest parts of the day in the summer. There is a tremendous variety of wildlife in the Mercantour: Red Deer and Roe Deer in the undergrowth, hares and wild boars, partridges, Golden Eagles and Buzzards, numerous species of butterflies and even about 50 Italian Wolves (which migrated there at the beginning of the nineties). A Wolves Centre welcomes visitors in Saint-Martin-Vésubie.

 

The Maritime Alps are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps. They form the border between the French region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and the Italian regions of Piedmont and Liguria. They are the southernmost part of the Alps.

 

Administratively the range is divided between the Italian provinces of Cuneo and Imperia (eastern slopes) and the French department of Alpes-Maritimes (western slopes).

 

The Maritime Alps are drained by the rivers Roya, Var and Verdon and their tributaries on the French side; by the Stura di Demonte and other tributaries of the Tanaro and Po on the Italian side. There are many attractive perched villages, such as Belvédère at the entrance to the spectacular Gordolasque valley, some concealing unexpected architectural riches (for example in the south there are numerous churches decorated with murals and altar pieces by primitive Niçois painters).

  

Parc national du Mercantour est l'un des dix parcs nationaux de France. Depuis sa création en 1979, le Parc du Mercantour a prouvé populaire, avec 800 000 visiteurs chaque année profiter des 600 km de sentiers balisés et visiter ses villages.

 

La zone protégée couvre environ 685 km², composé d'une zone inhabitée central comprenant sept vallées de la Roya -, la Bévéra, Vésubie, Tinée, Haut Var / Cians (dans les Alpes-Maritimes), plus Verdon et l'Ubaye (dans les Alpes-de-Haute- Provence) - et une zone périphérique comprenant 28 villages. Beaucoup d'entre eux sont perchés les villages, comme Belvédère à l'entrée de la vallée de la Gordolasque spectaculaire, cachant de grandes richesses architecturales (nombreuses églises décorées de fresques et retables de peintres primitifs niçois). Plus de 150 sites ruraux sont situés dans le parc. Autour du Mont Bégo il ya pétroglyphes piquetées sur schiste et de granit visages. Ils ont été datés de la fin du Néolithique et l'Age de Bronze.

 

Au cœur de ce cadre de sommets vertigineux (y compris Mont Gélas (obscurci par les nuages ici), le point le plus élevé dans les Alpes Maritimes à 3143 m), se trouve un joyau classé Monument Historique, la célèbre Vallée des Merveilles (hors de la vue en haut à droite), la «vallée des merveilles» porte bien son nom. Au pied du Mont Bégo, les grimpeurs peuvent admirer quelques 37 000 pétroglyphes datant de l'âge du bronze, représentant des armes, des bovins et des figures humaines qui sont parfois très mystérieuse. Une destination moins difficile est le musée des Merveilles de Tende à.

 

En plus le chêne vert, l'olivier méditerranéen, rhododendrons, sapins, épicéas, pins suisses et surtout les mélèzes, le Mercantour est également doté de plus de 2000 espèces de plantes à fleurs, dont 200 sont très rares: edelweiss et lys martagon sont les plus connus, mais il est aussi saxifrage à fleurs multiples, joubarbe, silène acaule et gentiane offrant une palette multicolore au printemps. Le Mercantour est le site d'une grande échelle par les taxons biodiversité programme d'inventaire et de surveillance pour identifier tous ses espèces vivantes, organisé par l'Institut européen de Taxonomie.

 

Les marcheurs peuvent facilement apercevoir un chamois, plusieurs milliers de qui vivent dans le parc et peut souvent entendre le sifflement des marmottes. L'hermine est plus rare (et plus furtif), tout comme le bouquetin et le mouflon, mais avec un peu de chance vous pourrez peut-être de les observer pendant les heures les plus fraîches de la journée en été. Il ya une grande variété de la faune dans le Mercantour: Red Deer et de chevreuils dans le sous-bois, les lièvres et les sangliers, perdrix, Golden Eagles et des buses, de nombreuses espèces de papillons et même environ 50 loups italiens (qui ont migré là au début de les années nonante). Un Centre des Loups accueille les visiteurs à Saint-Martin-Vésubie.

 

Les Alpes-Maritimes sont une chaîne de montagnes dans la partie sud-ouest des Alpes. Ils forment la frontière entre la région française de Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur et les régions italiennes du Piémont et de la Ligurie. Ils sont la partie la plus au sud des Alpes.

 

Administrativement la gamme est divisée entre les provinces italiennes de (pentes orientales) Cuneo et Imperia et du département français des Alpes-Maritimes (versant ouest).

 

Les Alpes Maritimes sont drainés par les rivières de la Roya, Var et du Verdon et leurs affluents du côté français; par la Stura di Demonte et autres affluents du Tanaro et le Pô sur le versant italien. Il ya beaucoup de villages perchés attrayantes, comme le Belvédère à l'entrée de la vallée de la Gordolasque spectaculaire, quelques richesses architecturales dissimulant inattendus (par exemple dans le sud, il ya de nombreuses églises décorées de fresques et retables de peintres primitifs niçois).

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritime_Alps

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantour_National_Park

Marine Le Pen

from Wikipedia

 

Marine Le Pen

MEP

 

Leader of the National Front

Incumbent

Assumed office

16 January 2011

Preceded by Jean-Marie Le Pen

Member of the European Parliament

Incumbent

Assumed office

14 July 2009

Constituency North-West France

 

In office

20 July 2004 – 13 July 2009

Constituency Île-de-France

Regional Councillor

Incumbent

Assumed office

26 March 2010

Constituency Nord-Pas-de-Calais

In office

28 March 2004 – 21 March 2010

Constituency Île-de-France

In office

15 March 1998 – 28 March 2004

Constituency Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Municipal Councillor

In office

23 March 2008 – 24 February 2011

Constituency Hénin-Beaumont

 

Personal details

Born Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen

5 August 1968 (age 48)

Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

Political party National Front (1986–present)

Spouse(s) Franck Chauffroy (m. 1995; div. 2000)

Eric Lorio (m. 2002; div. 2006)

Domestic partner Louis Aliot (2009–present)

Relations Jean-Marie Le Pen (father)

Marion Maréchal-Le Pen (niece)

Children 3

Alma mater Panthéon-Assas University

Website Official website

 

Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen, known as Marine Le Pen (French pronunciation: ​[ma.ʁin lə.pɛn]; born 5 August 1968), is a French attorney and politician. She is the president of the National Front (FN), a political party in France. She is the youngest daughter of long-time FN leader Jean-Marie Le Pen and the aunt of FN MP Marion Maréchal-Le Pen.

 

Le Pen joined the National Front in 1986 and has been elected as a regional councillor (1998–present), a Member of European Parliament (2004–present), and a municipal councillor in Hénin-Beaumont (2008-2011). She was a candidate for the leadership of the FN in 2011 and won with 67.65% (11,546 votes) of the vote, defeating her opponent Bruno Gollnisch and succeeding her father Jean-Marie Le Pen, president of the party for nearly forty years.[1][2][3][4] She then became the second president of the party.[5][6][7] In 2012, she placed third in the presidential election with 17.90% of the vote, behind François Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy.[8][9][10][11] She launched a second presidential bid for the upcoming election, scheduled for April 2017.

 

Described as more democratic and republican than her nationalist father, Le Pen has led a movement of "de-demonization of the Front National" to detoxify it and soften its image, based on renovated positions and renewed teams, also expelling controversial members accused of racism, antisemitism, or pétainism. She finally expelled her father from the party on 20 August 2015 after new controversial statements.[12][13]

 

She has also relaxed some political positions of the party, advocating for civil unions for same-sex couples instead of her party's previous opposition to legal recognition of same-sex partnerships, accepting unconditional abortion and withdrawing the death penalty from her platform.[14][15][16][17]

 

Le Pen was ranked among the most influential people in 2011 and 2015 by the Time 100.[18][19] In 2016, she was ranked as second-most influential MEP in the European Parliament by Politico, just behind the President of the European Parliament Martin Schulz.[20]

 

Contents

 

1 Early life

1.1 Childhood

1.2 Legal studies and work

1.3 Private life

2 Early political career

2.1 First steps and rise within the FN : 1986–2010

2.2 Internal campaign for the FN leadership : 2010–11

2.2.1 Controversy

3 Media rise (2002–2011)

3.1 National media

3.2 International media

4 President of the FN

4.1 De-demonization of the FN

4.2 First steps as a new leader : 2011

4.3 First presidential candidacy : 2011–12

4.4 Electoral progression : 2012–16

4.5 Second presidential candidacy : 2016–17

5 Political positions

5.1 Economy

5.1.1 Agriculture and environment

5.1.2 Energy and transport

5.1.3 Taxation

5.2 European Union and globalization

5.2.1 Euro and eurozone

5.2.2 Geopolitics and intergovernmental organizations

5.3 Immigration

5.3.1 Illegal immigration

5.3.2 Legal immigration

5.3.3 Citizenship and nationality

5.3.4 Communitarianism and secularism

5.4 Social issues

5.5 National politics and overseas

5.5.1 Mayotte

5.5.2 New Caledonia

5.6 International politics

5.6.1 Europe

5.6.1.1 Russia and Ukraine

5.6.2 North Africa, Middle East and Asia

5.6.3 Africa

6 Elections (1993–2012)

6.1 European elections

6.1.1 North-West France in 2009

6.1.2 Île-de-France in 2004

6.2 Parliamentary elections

6.2.1 Paris in 1993

6.2.2 Lens in 2002

6.2.3 Hénin-Beaumont in 2007

6.2.4 Hénin-Beaumont in 2012

6.2.4.1 Convicted for fraud

6.3 Regional elections

6.3.1 Nord-Pas-de-Calais in 2010

6.3.2 Île-de-France in 2004

6.3.3 Nord-Pas-de-Calais in 1998

6.4 Municipal elections

6.4.1 Hénin-Beaumont in 2008

6.4.2 2009 Hénin-Beaumont by-election

7 Political mandates

7.1 Local mandates

7.2 European mandates

8 Bibliography

9 References

10 External links

 

Early life

Childhood

 

Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen was born on 5 August 1968[21] in Neuilly-sur-Seine. She is the youngest of the three daughters of Jean-Marie Le Pen, a Breton politician and a former paratrooper, with his first wife Pierrette Lalanne. She was baptized 25 April 1969, at La Madeleine by Father Pohpot. Her godfather was Henri Botey, a relative of her father.

 

She has two sisters: Yann and Marie Caroline. In 1976, Marine survived a bomb attack on the family as they slept in their beds.[22] She was eight when a bomb meant for her father exploded in the stairwell outside the family's apartment. The blast ripped a hole into the outside wall of the building. Marine, her two older sisters and their parents were unharmed.[23]

 

She was a student at the lycée Florent Schmitt at Saint-Cloud. Her parents divorced in 1987.[24][25]

Legal studies and work

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Le Pen studied law at Panthéon-Assas University, graduating with a Master of Laws in 1991 and a Master of Advanced Studies (DEA) in criminal law in 1992.[26] Registered at the Paris bar association, she worked as a lawyer for six years (1992–1998).[26] In France, when a defendant cannot afford a lawyer, one is chosen to represent him or her. She often fulfilled this role.

 

In 1992, she received the certificate as a lawyer (CAPA) and became a lawyer practising in Paris. She then argued regularly before the criminal chamber of the 23rd District Court of Paris which judges immediate appearances. She was a member of the Bar of Paris until 1998, when she joined the legal department of the National Front.

Private life

 

Le Pen was raised Roman Catholic.[27] She was married in 1995 to Franck Chauffroy, a business executive who worked for the National Front. By Chauffroy, she has three children (Jehanne, Louis, and Mathilde).[24] After her divorce from Chauffroy in 2000, she married Eric Lorio in 2002, the former national secretary of the National Front and a former adviser to the Regional election in Nord-Pas de Calais, whom she also divorced in 2006.

 

Since 2009, she has been in a relationship with Louis Aliot, whose grandfather was Algerian Jewish. Aliot was the National Front General Secretary from 2005 to 2010, then the National Front vice president who was in charge of the Project.[28] She spends most of her time in Saint-Cloud, and has resided in La Celle-Saint-Cloud with her three children since September 2014. She has an apartment in Hénin-Beaumont. In 2010, she also bought a house with Aliot in Millas.[29]

Early political career

First steps and rise within the FN : 1986–2010

 

In 1986, at the age of 18, Marine Le Pen joined the FN. In 2000, she became president of Generations Le Pen, a loose association close to the party aimed at "de-demonizing the Front National".[24] In 1998, she joined the FN's juridical branch, which she led until 2003.

 

In 2000, she joined the FN Executive Committee (bureau politique). In 2003, she became vice-president of the FN.[24] In 2006, Jean-Marie Le Pen entrusted her with the management of his 2007 presidential campaign. In 2007, she became one of the two executive vice-presidents of the FN and was in charge of training, communication and publicity.[26]

 

In 1998, she acquired her first political mandate when she was elected regional councillor in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais. From 2002, she began to establish her parliamentary base in the former coal mining area of the Pas-de-Calais.[24]

 

Her aim is to expand the political influence of the FN and transform it into a "big popular party that addresses itself not only to the electorate on the right but to all the French people".[3] She has frequently stated that she rules out any political alliance with the Union for a Popular Movement.[30][31]

 

She has at numerous times distanced herself from some of Jean-Marie Le Pen's controversial statements,[32] notably those relating to war-crimes, which the media point to her attempts to improve the party's image. While her father has provoked a long-time controversy by saying that the gas chambers were "a detail of the history of World War II", she said it has been "the height of barbarism".[33][34]

Internal campaign for the FN leadership : 2010–11

 

Her candidacy was endorsed by an overwhelming majority of senior executives[35] and notably by Jean-Marie Le Pen, founder of the FN.[36][37]

 

She spent four months campaigning for the FN leadership, holding meetings with FN members in 51 departments to explain in detail her political views and projects for the party.[38] All the other departments were visited by one of her official supporters.[35]

 

On 3 September 2010, she launched her internal campaign at Cuers, Var.[39] During a meeting in Paris on 14 November 2010, she claimed: "My project is not to assemble our political family, or rather is not only to assemble our political family. It consists of shaping the Front National as the center of grouping of the whole French people". She also explained why the FN leadership and the candidature for the presidential election must not be dissociated: thus the next FN leader will run in the 2012 presidential election.[40] During her final meeting at Hénin-Beaumont on 19 December 2010, she claimed that the FN presents the real debates of the next presidential campaign.[41][42] Most of her campaign tours throughout France were reported in local newspapers and regional television programmes.

 

In December 2010 and early January 2011, FN members voted by post to elect their new president and the hundred members of the Central Committee. The party held its congress at Tours for two days (15–16 January 2011).[43] On 16 January 2011, Marine Le Pen was officially elected with 67.65% (11,546 votes) as the new president of the Front National[26][44] and Jean-Marie Le Pen became de facto its honorary chairman. Her challenger Bruno Gollnisch polled 32.35% (5,522 votes).

Controversy

 

Marine Le Pen stirred up controversy during the internal campaign. During a speech to the party faithful in Lyon on 10 December 2010, she said that the weekly illegal blocking of public streets and squares in multiple French cities (notably the rue Myrha in the 18th arrondissement of Paris) for Muslim prayers was comparable with an occupation of parts of French territory. Specifically, Le Pen said:

 

For those who want to talk a lot about World War II, if it's about occupation, then we could also talk about it (Muslim prayers in the streets), because that is occupation of territory. ...It is an occupation of sections of the territory, of districts in which religious laws apply. ... There are of course no tanks, there are no soldiers, but it is nevertheless an occupation and it weighs heavily on local residents.[45]

 

The mention of World War II brought claims from the media and politicians that she had drawn an irresponsible parallel with the Nazi occupation of France (May 1940 – December 1944).[46] Nearly the entire political and media class strongly criticised her statement, which was widely commented on by different political analysts.[47][48][49][50][51][52] Whereas the CRIF,[53] the French Council of Muslim Faith (CFCM)[54] and the LICRA[55] denounced her statement, other groups like the MRAP[56] and the LDH[57] declared their intention of lodging a formal complaint. The imam of the Great Mosque of Paris and former president of the CFCM, Dalil Boubakeur, claimed that though her parallel was questionable and condemnable, she had asked a valid question.[58]

 

A member of the FN's Executive Committee, Louis Aliot, denounced "the attempted manipulation of opinion by communitarian groups and those really responsible for the current situation in France".[59] On 13 December 2010, she confirmed her statement during a press conference held in the FN's headquarters in Nanterre.[60][61][62] After Jean-François Kahn's comments on BFM TV on 13 December 2010, she denounced "state manipulation" mounted from the Elysée with the intention of demonizing her in public opinion.[63][64]

 

On 15 December 2015, the Lyon court acquitted her of "inciting hatred", considering that her statement "did not target all of the Muslim community" and was protected "as a part of freedom of expression". Furthermore, France is a secular state prohibiting public religious demonstrations such as street prayers.[65]

Media rise (2002–2011)

National media

Marine Le Pen on 5 March 2005

 

Her various appearances on television and radio have played an important role in her political rise at national and local levels. Her political personality regularly attracts the attention of the French media[66][67][68][69][70] as well as the European,[25][71][72][73][74] the Middle Eastern[75][76] and the US press.[77][78][79]

 

On 5 May 2002, after the run-off in the 2002 presidential election, she took part in a televised debate on France 3. Political analysts compared her appearance to a "media baptism" and claim that her political emergence has its roots in this debate.

 

During the programme Mots croisés (Crossed Words) on France 2 on 5 October 2009,[80] Marine Le Pen quoted sections of Frédéric Mitterrand's autobiographical novel The Bad Life, accusing him of having sex with underage boys and engaging in "sex tourism", demanding his resignation as a Minister of Culture.[81][82][83][84] According to French political commentator Jérôme Fourquet, during the Mitterrand case she broke through and gained a media ascendancy over the party.[85]

 

Hosted on France 2 by journalist and commentator Arlette Chabot, À vous de juger (You Be The Judge) was one of France's foremost political programmes. For her first appearance as a guest debater on 14 January 2010, Marine Le Pen opposed Éric Besson, then Minister of Immigration, Integration, National Identity and Mutually Supportive Development.[86]

Marine Le Pen in 2008

 

For her first appearance as a main guest on 9 December 2010, she was successively questioned on economic, societal and immigration matters by Arlette Chabot and political commentator Alain Duhamel, then debated with the socialist mayor of Évry Manuel Valls and finally was matched against Rachida Dati, former Minister of Justice.[87] Her appearance attracted 3,356,000 viewers (14.6% of the televised audience),[88] which represented the highest viewing figures for 2010 and the fourth best since the start of the series in September 2005.[89]

 

In December 2010, French journalist Guillaume Tabard described her as the "revelation of the year". He further described her as "first an electoral phenomenon" and "a media phenomenon after".[90]

 

Hosted on France 2 by journalist and anchorman David Pujadas, Des paroles et des actes (Words and Acts) replaced À vous de juger. For her first appearance as a main guest on 23 June 2011, Le Pen opposed Cécile Duflot, national secretary of the Greens.[91][92] Her appearance attracted 3,582,000 viewers which represented 15.1% of the televised audience.[93][94]

 

Hosted on TF1 by anchorwoman Laurence Ferrari and political commentator François Bachy, Parole directe (Direct Speech) is one of France's foremost political programmes. For her first appearance as a sole guest on 15 September 2011, Le Pen attracted an average of 6 million viewers (23.3% of the televised audience) with a peak of 7.3 million in the second half of the programme.[95][96]

International media

 

At an international level, she was invited by the Quebec web-radio Rockik in December 2008,[97] the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Radio Canada) in May 2010[98] and the Israeli radio 90FM in March 2011.[99] In March 2011, she appeared on the front cover page of The Weekly Standard magazine with the heading "The Future of the European Right?".[100] During a press conference organized on 13 January 2012 by the European American Press Club, she spoke in front of international journalists about various topical and thematic issues.[101]

 

On 4 April 2011, she appeared for the first time as a candidate in the 2011 Time 100 Poll.[102] On 21 April, she was listed in the 2011 Time 100.[18] Vladimir Zhirinovsky, leader of the far-right Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and vice chairman of the State Duma, wrote a commentary about her political destiny.[103]

 

In October 2011, she presented her book in Verona, Italy and met Assunta Almirante, the widow of the far-right MSI leader Giorgio Almirante.[104] The logo of the Front National was inspired by MSI logo.

 

In February 2013, she spoke at the Cambridge Union Society, the University of Cambridge's debating society. Her appearance sparked controversy, with anti-fascist group Unite Against Fascism opposing her invitation on a No Platform basis and organising a demonstration of about 200 people outside the venue.[105][106] The protests were supported by numerous Cambridge societies, including Cambridge University Students' Union and Cambridge Universities Labour Club, however others, notably the Cambridge Libertarians,[107] supported her right to freedom of expression.

President of the FN

De-demonization of the FN

 

From a general point of view, Marine Le Pen is often judged more moderate than her father. A part of the French electorate considers her positions more nuanced, polished and detoxified than Jean-Marie Le Pen's "provocations". Her smiling, calm image contrasts with much of the stereotypes generally attributed to her political family.[108] At the beginning of her media rise, she often talked about her particular treatment as the daughter of "Le Pen" and of the 1976 attack (then the biggest bomb explosion in France since World War II).[108][109] It has been seen as a way to humanize her party.[108][110]

Marine Le Pen in the traditional Jeanne d'Arc march, 1 May 2011.

 

For example, Bernard-Henri Lévy, a strong opponent of the FN, talked about "a far-right with a human face".[111] Journalist Michèle Cotta claims that the fact she is a young woman condemning racism and refusing her father's "faults" (notably his enjoyment of shocking other people) contributed to her strategy of de-demonization of the National Front.[112] References to World War II or to the French colonial wars are absent from her speeches, which is often looked on as a generation gap.[113] She distanced herself from her father on the gas chambers he famously called "a detail in the history of World War II", saying that she "didn’t share the same vision of these events".[114] L’Express wrote that the exclusion of Jean-Marie Le Pen in 2015 was the completion of her endeavour. The opponents of the FN denounce a more dangerous strategy because of its evident success.[115]

 

In a 2010 RTL interview, Le Pen stated that her strategy was not about changing the FN's program but about showing it as it really is, instead of the image given to it by the media in the previous decades. The media and her political adversaries are accused of spreading an "unfair, wrong and caricatural" image of the National Front. She refuses the qualification of far-right or extreme-right, considering it a "perjorative" term : "How am I party of the extreme right? ... I don't think that our propositions are extreme propositions, whatever the subject".[116] However, the radical far-right (Minute, Rivarol, Patrick Buisson, Henry de Lesquen,..) reproached her for abandoning or softening her stance on immigration, gay marriage and abortion. In her speech in Lyon on 10 December 2010, she mentioned the fate of gays living in difficult neighbourhoods, victims of religious laws replacing the republican law.[117][118][119]

 

In 2014, the American magazine Foreign Policy mentioned her, along with four other Frenchmen, in its list of the 100 global thinkers of the year, underlining the way she "renovated the image" of her party, which had became a model for other right-wing parties in Europe after her success in the European elections.[120] At a European level, she stopped the alliance built by her father with some right-wing extremist parties and refused to be part of a group with the radical Jobbik or the neo-nazi Golden dawn. Her transnational allies share the fact that they have officially condemned antisemitism, accepted a more liberal approach toward social matters and to be sometimes pro-Israel such as the Dutch PVV. French historian Nicolas Lebourg concluded she is looked upon as a compass for them in order to copy while maintaining local particularities.[121][122]

 

For a long time, she has been reluctant to endorse Donald Trump, while other European populists have already embraced his candidacy, and only supported him by saying: "For France, anything is better than Hillary Clinton". However, on 8 November 2016 she posted a tweet congratulating Trump on his presidential victory.[123] Nevertheless, her strategy has difficulties as her image seems to remain controversial: Germany's Angela Merkel has said she will "I will contribute to make other political forces be stronger than the National Front" and Israel still holds a bad opinion of her party.[124][125] Nigel Farage has said : "I've never said a bad word about Marine Le Pen; I've never said a good word about her party".[126]

 

Her social program and her support of SYRIZA in the 2015 Greek general elections have led Nicolas Sarkozy to declare her a far-left politician sharing some of Jean-Luc Mélenchon's propositions. President François Hollande said she was talking "like a leaflet of the Communist Party". Eric Zemmour, journalist for the conservative newspaper Le Figaro, wrote during the 2012 presidential election that the FN had become a left-wing party under the influence of Florian Philippot. She has also relaxed some political positions of the party, advocating for civil unions for same-sex couples instead of her party's previous opposition to legal recognition of same-sex partnerships, accepting unconditional abortion and withdrawing the death penalty from her platform.[127][128][14][15][16][17]

First steps as a new leader : 2011

 

As a president of the Front National, Marine Le Pen currently sits as an ex officio member among the FN Executive Office (8 members),[129] the Executive Committee (42 members)[130] and the Central Committee (3 ex officio members, 100 elected members, 20 co-opted members).[131]

 

During her opening speech in Tours on 16 January 2011, she advocated to "restore the political framework of the national community" and to implement the direct democracy which enables the "civic responsibility and the collective tie" thanks to the participation of public-spirited citizens for the decisions. The predominant political theme was the uncompromising defence of a protective and efficient State, which favours secularism, prosperity and liberties. She also denounced the "Europe of Brussels" which "everywhere imposed the destructive principles of ultra-liberalism and Free trade, at the expense of public utilities, employment, social equity and even our economic growth which became within twenty years the weakest of the world".[132]

 

After the traditional Joan of Arc and Labor Day march in Paris on 1 May 2011, she gave her first speech in front of 3000 supporters.[133][134] On 11 August 2011, she held an exceptional press conference about the current systemic crisis.[135]

 

On 10 and 11 September 2011, she made her political comeback with the title "the voice of people, the spirit of France" in the convention center of Acropolis in Nice.[136] During her closing speech on 11 September 2011, she tackled the audience about immigration, insecurity, the economic and social situation, reindustrialization and 'strong state'.[137]

 

During a demonstration held in front of the Senate on 8 December 2011, she expressed during a speech her "firm and absolute opposition" to the right of foreigners to vote.[138]

 

She regularly holds thematic press conferences[139] and interventions[140] on varied issues in French, European and international politics.

First presidential candidacy : 2011–12

Main articles: French presidential election, 2012 and Marine Le Pen presidential campaign, 2012

Marine Le Pen sings "La Marseillaise" at the conclusion of the presentation of her presidential project held in Paris on 19 November 2011.

Marine Le Pen present her presidential project on 19 November 2011 in Paris.

 

Marine Le Pen stood in the 2012 French presidential election. On 16 May 2011, her presidential candidacy was unanimously validated by the FN Executive Committee.[141] On 10 and 11 September 2011, her political comeback in Nice prefigured the launching of her presidential campaign.[137] During a press conference on 6 October 2011, she officially unveiled the line-up of her presidential campaign team.[142]

 

On 19 November 2011, she presented in Paris the main thematic issues of her presidential project: sovereign people and democracy, Europe, reindustrialization and strong state, family and education, immigration and assimilation versus communitarianism, geopolitics and international politics.[143][144][145] During a press conference held on 12 January 2012,[146] she presented in detail the assessment of her presidential project[147] and a plan of debt paydown of France.[148] During a press conference held on 1 February 2012, she presented an outline of her presidential project for the overseas departments and territories of France.[149] Many observers have notice her tendance to enhance economical and social subjects such as globalization and delocalisations, instead of immigration or law and order which have been the paramount platform of the FN in the previous decades.

 

On 11 December 2011, she held her first presidential meeting in Metz.[150][151] From early January to mid April 2012, she held weekly meetings in the major French cities. On 17 April 2012, between 6,000 and 7,000 people took part in her final meeting organized at the Zenith in Paris.[152][153]

 

On 13 March 2012, she publicly announced that she had the 500 necessary signatures to take part in the presidential election.[154][155] On 19 March 2012, the Constitutional Council officially validated her candidature and the one of nine others competitors.[8]

 

On 22 April 2012, she polled 17.90% (6,421,426 votes) in the first round and finished in third position behind François Hollande and incumbent president Nicolas Sarkozy.[9][10][11] Her national result was higher in percentage and votes than those of Jean-Marie Le Pen in the 2002 presidential election (16.86%, 4,804,772 votes in the first round; 17.79%, 5,525,034 votes in the run-off).[156]

Marine Le Pen in her presidential campaign, on 15 April 2012.

First round results : candidates with the most votes by departments (mainland France, overseas and French citizens living abroad). Marine Le Pen came first in Gard.

 

She was in ahead in Gard (25.51%, 106,646 votes) whereas Sarkozy and Hollande respectively polled 24.86% (103,927 votes) and 24.11% (100,778 votes).[10][157] She came first in her municipal stronghold of Hénin-Beaumont (35.48%, 4,924 votes) whereas Hollande and Sarkozy respectively polled 26,82% (3,723 votes) and 15,76% (2,187 votes).[158] She globally achieved her highest results east of a line from Le Havre in the north to Perpignan in the south.[159] In contrast, she globally polled less in western France, especially big cities such as Paris, overseas and among the French citizens living abroad (5.95%, 23,995 votes).[160] However, she got significative results in two rural departments in western France such as Orne (20.00%, 34,757 votes)[161] and Sarthe (19.17%, 62,516 votes).[162]

 

She achieved her highest regional result in Picardy (25.03%, 266,041 votes),[163] her highest departmental result in Vaucluse (27.03%, 84,585 votes),[164] her highest overseas result in Saint Pierre and Miquelon (15.81%, 416 votes).[165]

 

In addition to Picardy, she also polled over 20% in ten other regions : Corsica (24.39%, 39,209 votes),[166] Champagne-Ardenne (23.91%, 172,632 votes),[167] Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (23.87%, 650,336 votes),[168] Lorraine (23.66%, 308,392 votes),[169] Languedoc-Roussillon (23.45%, 363,880 votes),[170] Nord-Pas-de-Calais (23.29%, 517,115 votes),[171] Alsace (22.12%, 219,252 votes),[172] Franche-Comté (21.29%, 141,972 votes),[173] Burgundy (20.36%, 191,148 votes),[174] Upper Normandy (20.15%, 207,520 votes).[175] In addition to Vaucluse, she also polled over 25% in nine other departments : Aisne (26.33%, 78,452 votes),[176] Meuse (25.82%, 29,038 votes),[177] Corse-du-Sud (25.71%, 19,081 votes),[178] Pas-de-Calais (25.53%, 216,753 votes),[179] Gard (25.51%, 106,646 votes),[157] Haute-Marne (25.26%, 27,624 votes),[180] Aube (25.12%, 40,740 votes),[181] Haute-Saône (25.12%, 36,807 votes),[182] Oise (25.08%, 109,339 votes).[183] In addition to Saint Pierre and Miquelon, she also polled over 10% in the Collectivity of Saint Martin (12.51%, 665 votes),[184] in New Caledonia (11.66%, 10,409 votes),[185] in Saint Barthélemy (11.41%, 310 votes),[186] in French Guiana (10.48%, 3,920 votes)[187] and in Réunion (10.31%, 37,549 votes).[188]

First round results : candidates with the most votes by municipalities in metropolitan France (dark gray : Marine Le Pen)

 

She achieved her lowest regional result in Île-de-France (12.28%, 655,926 votes),[189] her lowest departmental result in Paris (6.20%, 61,503 votes),[190] her lowest overseas result in Wallis and Futuna (2.37%, 152 votes).[191]

 

In addition to Île-de-France, she polled less 15% in Brittany (13.24%, 262,095 votes)[192] and in Pays de la Loire (14.39%, 308,806 votes).[193] In addition to Paris, she polled less 10% in Hauts-de-Seine (8.51%, 62,447 votes).[194] In addition to Wallis and Futuna, she polled less 5% in Mayotte (2.77%, 996 votes)[195] and in Martinique (4.76%, 6,960 votes).[196]

 

A French sociologist, Sylvain Crépon who analysed the social and occupational groups of the FN voters in 2012, explained : "The FN vote is made up of the victims of globalisation. It is the small shopkeepers who are going under because of the economic crisis and competition from the out-of-town hypermarkets; it is low-paid workers from the private sector; the unemployed. The FN scores well among people living in poverty, who have a real fear about how to make ends meet."[159] Crépon also analysed the increase of the FN vote in "rural" areas and the recent sociological changes in these areas made up of small provincial towns and new housing-estate commuter belts built on the distant outskirts of the cities : "The rural underclass is no longer agricultural. It is people who have fled the big cities and the inner suburbs because they can no longer afford to live there. Many of these people will have had recent experience of living in the banlieues (high immigration suburbs) – and have had contact with the problems of insecurity."[159] Commentators also pointed that there are more young people and women voting for the party in 2012.[159]

 

During a speech delivered in Paris on 1 May 2012 after the traditional Joan of Arc and Labor Day march, she has refused to back either incumbent president Sarkozy or socialist Hollande in the run-off on 6 May. Addressing the party's annual rally at Place de l'Opéra, she vowed to cast a blank ballot and told her supporters to vote with their conscience, saying : "Hollande and Sarkozy – neither of them will save you. On Sunday I will cast a blank protest vote. I have made my choice. Each of you will make yours." Accusing both candidates of surrendering to Europe and financial markets, she asked : "Who between Francois Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy will impose the austerity plan in the most servile way? Who will submit the best to the instructions of the IMF, the ECB or the European Commission?"[197]

Electoral progression : 2012–16

 

In the wake of her success, she announced the foundation of the "Blue Marine Gathering", an electoral coalition dedicated to the June parliamentary elections. Herself a candidate in the Pas-de-Calais' 11th constituency, she collected 42,36% of the vote, far before the Socialist representative Philippe Kemel (23.50%) and her far-left rival Jean-Luc Mélenchon (21.48%). She was beaten in the second round with 49.86%. She filed an appeal rejected by the constitutional Council which however recognized some proven deceptions. Nationally, her party has only elected two lawmakers : her niece Marion Maréchal-Le Pen and Gilbert Collard.

 

In 2014, she led her party to other success in the municipal and senatorial elections : eleven mayors and two senators were elected. It was the first time the National Front entered in France's upper chamber.

 

On 24 May 2014, the National Front won the European election in France with 24.90% of the vote. Marine Le Pen came in first place in her North-West constituency with a score of 33.60%. 25 FN members were sent at the European Parliament of Strasbourg. They voted against the Juncker Commission in July. One year later, she was able to announce the formation of a group composed of the French National Front, the Freedom Party of Austria, the Italian Lega Nord, the Dutch Party for Freedom, the Polish Congress of the New Right, the Flemish Vlaams Belang and former UKIP member Janice Atkinson. Her first attempt to constitute this group in 2014 has failed because of the UKIP refusal and of controversial statements of her father Jean-Marie Le Pen in June. Le Pen sit in the commission for international trade. In 2016, Politico have ranked her second as the most influential MEP after Martin Schulz.

 

In April 2015, her father provoked a political crisis in the National Front because of two interviews he gave. Some controversial statements include his opinion on World War II and on minorities in France. Marine Le Pen organized a postal vote to ask the FN members to change the statuts of the party in order to expel her father. Le Pen père pursued his movement and the justice canceled the vote. On 25 August, the FN executive Office voted his exclusion from the party he has founded forty years earlier. Many observers have concluded on her dependence toward her closest advisor, Florian Philippot, a former left-wing technocrat. A national purge excluded the members refusing the evolution of the FN under Marine Le Pen's leadership.

 

She tardily announced her candidacy for the presidency of the regional council of Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie for the 2015 regional elections. She have regretted the proximity with the next presidential election. On 6 December, she arrived first with 40.6% of the vote. But the Socialist candidate (third with 18.12%) has withdrawed and called to vote for her right-wing opponent Xavier Bertrand who won by 57.80% of the vote. Her niece Marion also lost but got a better score than her.

Second presidential candidacy : 2016–17

Main article: French presidential election, 2017

Marine Le Pen’s 2017 campaign logo

 

Excepting the candidates for the center-right primary, Marine Le Pen was the first to announce her candidacy for the 2017 French presidential election on 8 April 2016. She has consistently maintained high popularity in polling figures : she is predicted to gather between 28% and 30% in the first round, which is close to the figures predicted for front-runner François Fillon. She has appointed David Rachline, a young FN member of the Senate, as her campaign manager. The FN had difficulties finding funding because of the opposition of every French bank to her political platform. This led to the National Front borrowing €9 million from the First Czech-Russian bank in Moscow in 2014, even as the E.U. placed sanctions on Russia for annexing Crimea. In February 2016, the FN asked Russia for another loan, this time in the amount of €27 million. The loan has not materialized.[198]

 

Most political analysts notice her strong position because of the absence of a primary in her party (consolidating her leadership), of the news such as the migrants crisis or the terrorist attacks in France (reinforcing her political positions) and of the very right-wing campaign of Nicolas Sarkozy in the Republican primary (enlarging her themes). In a 2016 interview with the BBC, Le Pen stated that Donald Trump's presidential victory will in fact help her in the 2016-2017 presidential race. In her opinion, Mr Trump has "made possible what had previously been presented as impossible".[199] However, she stated she would not officially launch her campaign before February 2017, waiting for the results of the Republican and Socialist primaries, and preferred to remain silent in the media and usher thematic think tanks dedicated to the elaboration of her program. In consequence, her rare media appearances attract consistent audiences (2.3 million viewers for Vie politique on TF1 on 11 September 2016 and 4 million for Une ambition intime on M6 on 16 October).

 

The communication of her party also attracts media attention : a new Mitterrand-inspired poster showing her in a rural landscape with the slogan "Appeased France" is an attempt to respond to surveys indicating she remains somewhat controversial for an important part of the French electorate. But the mockeries sparked by this poster led to a change of slogan : "In the name of the people". Others have noticed the disappearance of the FN logo and of the name Le Pen on the campaign's posters.

 

She officially launched her candidacy on 4 and 5 February 2017 in Lyon while she is predicted to be the frontrunner with 25% of the votes, explaining the national and international attention she attracted. Le Pen promised a referendum in which the nation would decide whether to withdraw from the European Union if she could not achieve France's territorial, monetary, economical and legislative sovereignties in a six-month renegotiation with the EU. Her first appearance on TV four days later generated the highest viewing figures of France 2 since the previous presidential election (16.70% with 3.7 million telespectators).[200]

 

On 2 March 2017, the European Parliament voted to revoke Le Pen's immunity from prosecution for tweeting violent imagery. Le Pen had tweeted an image of beheaded journalist James Foley in December 2015. She took down the tweet following a request from Foley's family. In an unrelated case, Le Pen faces prosecution for allegedly spending European Union Parliament funds on her own political party; the lifting of her immunity from prosecution does not apply to the ongoing investigation into the misuse of parliamentary funds by the FN.[201]

Political positions

Economy

 

Marine Le Pen contends that the FN's immigration programme is better known among the voters; she thus concentrates on the party's economic and social programme.[202][203]

On 17 October 2011, in front of the French Dexia headquarters in La Défense, Marine Le Pen holds a press conference about the systemic banking crisis

 

Opposed to free trade and autarky, she advocates protectionism as a median way. In her view, if one considers the economy to be a raging river, then free trade is like allowing the torrent to rush along unchecked; autarky equates to the erection of a dam whereas protectionism is to install a sluice gate. "Protectionism is not autarky! ... Our position is not extreme – as our opponents would have it believed – but one which favours the middle way".[40]

 

In 2010, she vigorously criticized the pension plan drawn up by Nicolas Sarkozy and his liberal-conservative government.[204][205]

 

She paid tribute to the economist Maurice Allais, who died on 9 October 2010.[206] A French laureate of the Nobel Prize in Economics (1988), Allais had expressed concerns about the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the single European currency, free trade and globalization and the 2004 European Constitution.[207][208]

 

She favours the repeal of the 1973 Pompidou-Giscard Law, which makes it illegal for France to borrow at zero or a low rate of interest from the Banque de France and forces the country to borrow at higher rate on the international financial markets. In her view, the national debt has grown steeply because of this law. She claimed that in 2010 France had already refunded 1.355 trillion euros of accrued interest on loans at a time when the national debt represented around 1.650 trillion euros.[203][209]

 

She has expressed support for the French public utilities, the civil servants, and the general public interest.[210][211] She thus opposes the programmed privatization of the French Post Office (La Poste) : in her view, "the privatization, with the aim of only making profitable, will result in the removal of post offices in the rural areas where the relinquishment of the state is already high". In October 2009, she claimed that three post offices had already disappeared each day in France since 1 January 2009.[212][213] She said that the liberalization of the French public utilities had been ratified by the former Prime Minister Lionel Jospin during the Barcelona summit on 15 and 16 March 2002.[214][215] She had also warned that the UMP government planned a "progressive privatization of the French Social Security system from 2011" – a condition imposed by the financial markets.[216]

 

During a press conference in June 2011, she advocated to reintroduce the Havana Charter and implement an "International Trade Organization" (in place of World Trade Organization), in order to reorganize the world trade exchanges.[217] Signed by 53 countries and rejected by the US in 1951, this Charter was a trade agreement that would have established an international currency known as the bancor.[218] She claimed that the "Havana Charters's proposals perfectly fit into her economic philosophy"[217] and that "its first article conciliates international trade and employment".[219]

 

During her speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. in November 2011, she proposed "three essential solutions to stop the current world systemic crisis and turn the world towards a greater justice and greater prosperity": reintroduction of a "polymetallic standard" in the International monetary systems as a world standard of reference and exchanges in order to establish a "free monetary system" and struggle against speculation; the ratification of the modernized Havana Charter by the 1948 signatory nations and incoming emerging countries, in order to favour a "reasonable protectionism that encourages cooperation in trade among nations through the end of 'unbridled free trade'"; application of the 1933 Glass–Steagall Act, which legally separated investment banking and commercial banking, to "the banking system of each country".[218][219] In her view, these solutions will be able to bring a global support for employment thanks to the integration of "full employment" appearing as one of the main targets of the Havana Charter and for industry thanks to the authorization of state aids appearing in the Charter's article 13.[219]

 

In October 2011, she advocated to implement a drastic regulation of the banking sector separating by law the deposit banks from the merchant banks. She claimed that "the deposit banks should be rescued by a temporary and partial nationalization". In her view, "the balance sheet of the banks should be the object of a transparency operation".[220]

 

In October 2011, she suggested 7 measures to save €30 billion per year in order to preserve France's AAA credit rating.[221] The largest part of the measures are made up of avoiding fraud on welfare payments and avoidance of tax loopholes (together €18.5 bn), stopping not useful local spending (€4bn) as well as stopping payments of France to the EU (€7bn).

 

A president of the Mouvement des Entreprises de France (MEDEF), Laurence Parisot regularly levels strong criticism at the FN's economic and social programme.[222] She replied that "the FN is not the friend of the CAC 40 and is fighting the social regression brought about by the MEDEF and inflicted on the French people by the allies of the UMP and the PS".[223] After Parisot's new criticism, she claims that "the philosophy of the FN's economic project comes down to some words: construction of a strong, protective and strategist state, reasoned protections at the boundaries, support to the small and medium enterprises, and get back the monetary sovereignty, only able to assure France's recovery".[224] She also replied that "Laurence Parisot, this is the exact opposite of her democratic and republican project, a project of hope which puts back man and nation in the center of politics".[225] After the publication of Parisot's critical book relating to the FN economic project, she suggested a "direct and public debate" with the president of the MEDEF.[226]

Agriculture and environment

 

In her view, "the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) after 2013 will be unable to protect our farmers from speculators and savage global competition, or to compensate for the excesses of the multinationals of the food processing industry and large-scale distributors. The CAP after 2013 will remain wedged between the ultraliberal and internationalist market logic of the European Commission and a future ‘green’ CAP, in reality serving the neo-capitalists of ecological business".[227]

 

During her first visit at the Paris International Agricultural Show on 25 February 2011,[228] Marine Le Pen denounced the CAP as an "unbearable bureaucracy" and advocated to replace it with a "French agricultural policy". She also claimed that "leaving the EU, we could allocate 15 billions of euros to our agriculture".[229][230][231]

 

She claims that 'internationalist organisations' such as the EU, FAO, United Nations and G-20 are directly responsible for the food crises throughout the world. She advocates France's food independence with regard to multinationals[232] and "a realignment of the farm aid politics to the third countries in order to favour their food sovereignty in particular by the reintroduction of localized food crops".[233]

 

She advocates the implementation of the "autarky of big spaces" and an "economy in concentric circles". In her view, it is an "ecological heresy to consume products grown at 20,000 km away and recycle waste thousands km further". She claims that we should "produce to the closest", "distribute on the spot", "consume as a priority products of its region" and then "in the nearby region" if not produced on the spot. She seeks to implement "contracts of cooperation" if necessary goods like coffee are not produced in Europe.[234]

Energy and transport

On 19 October 2011, Marine Le Pen in Milipol

 

Marine Le Pen regularly denounces sharp rises in energy prices[235][236] (gas,[237] gasoline,[238][239][240] electricity[241]) which has "harmful consequences on the purchasing power of the working and middle-class families".[238][239][240] In her view, this rise mainly stems from the European liberalization of the energy sector, jointly implemented by right wing and socialist governments since 1996.[235][237][241]

 

She advocates an immediate reduction of 20% of the domestic tax on oil products (TIPP), a surcharge of fantastic profits of the largest gas and oil companies and a struggle against international speculation on basic products such as food and energy.[235][236][238][239][240] She considers that "a strong state has authority to be the guarantor of public utilities, being the exclusive owner of the strategic companies of public utility and the regulator of tariffs".[237]

 

After a fatal event occurred on 12 September 2011 in the Centraco nuclear installation located on the Marcoule Nuclear Site, she claimed that "this accident illustrated the dangerousness of this energy and the necessity to consider a progressive and well-thought-out exit from nuclear power". In her view, "the State must secure the 58 French nuclear power plants and invest in researches to process nuclear waste". She advocates to "start the energy diversification of France, in particular with an ambitious programme of research into hydrogen".[242]

 

She favours accompanied combined transport (ferroutage) and public transport.[234]

Taxation

 

Marine Le Pen denounces the current corporate tax as "a crying injustice". She claims that the main groups of CAC 40 only pay 8% of corporate tax whereas the small offices/home offices, the small and medium enterprises, the craftsmen and the shopkeepers fully pay 33.33%. She advocates to implement a flexible corporate tax according to the use of profits: heavier when the profits benefit the shareholders and lighter when the profits turn towards profit sharing, salaries, employment and productive investment, enabling a relocation of activities.[243]

European Union and globalization

Le Pen with Volen Siderov

 

As MEP, she holds globalization, intergovernmental organizations, 'euro-mondialism', free trade and ultra-liberalism responsible for the decline of agriculture[244] and the fishing industry,[245] deindustrialization, offshoring and structural unemployment.[246][247][248] Advocating a 'Europe of the nations' like a loose confederation of sovereign nation states, she opposes supranationalism,[249] the euro and the eurozone,[250] the technocracy of Brussels,[251] and the EU's federalism.[252]

 

She opposes the establishment of a direct European tax, which is favoured by the leaders of the European Parliament and European Commission. She claims that an indirect European tax already exists, since France is a net annual contributor to the EU budget by up to 7 billion euros annually.[253]

 

She claims that the Treaty of Lisbon is the 'gravedigger of the independence and identity of the European nations' and the 'executioner of public utilities in the name of a cult of profitability and free competition – both mortal enemies of public interest'.[211][213] In her view, the Treaty of Lisbon is an 'exact copy' of the European Constitution which was twice rejected by referendum: first in France by 54.67% of the voters on 29 May 2005[254][255] and then in Netherlands by 61.54% of the voters on 1 June 2005.[256] She thus regretted that the Treaty of Lisbon had been imposed on the French people by parliament in order to avoid another referendum.[257][258] She also criticized its approval by the Socialist Party.[213] She denounces the Treaty's amending implemented by the EU leaders, notably Germany.[259] In her view, the revision is aimed at "solving the euro" and "forever eliminating the budgetary sovereignty of the states to institute a kind of supranational European monetary fund".[260]

 

Opposed to the accession of Turkey to the European Union, she prefers the option of a "privileged partnership".[261] Marine Le Pen opposes accession of Ukraine to the European Union, while supporting its association status.[262] She is currently campaigning for a referendum on France leaving the EU.[263]

Euro and eurozone

 

She is a strong opponent of the Euro and advocates France to leave the common currency.

 

She claims that the implementation of the Euro entailed a rise in prices and its abandonment would lead to an increase in purchasing power.[264] Quoting economic data from Eurostat (annual average growth, unemployment, GDP gap), she notes that "the European countries which did not enter the euro display higher performances than countries in the eurozone for ten years".[264] Interviewed in October 2011 by Adam Boulton on Sky News, she cited the UK's relative stability as an example of how France's economy need not suffer from pulling out of the euro. She noticed that "United Kingdom is not in the eurozone and does not have the least desire to be in it. UK does not tolerate this kind of taking away of its freedom".[73]

 

In order to recover monetary sovereignty, she advocates that France should gradually leave the euro with a new conversion rate fixed to 1 euro = 1 franc. In her view, France should jointly negotiate a "grouped departure" from the euro and eurozone. This departure should take effect on the same day and include the other European countries (such as Ireland, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium) which are suffering because of the single currency.[265] Since the present government and the whole political class had strongly criticized her economic plan, she submitted a new document detailing how a successful departure of United Kingdom, Spain and Italy from the European Monetary System (EMS) had been achieved from September 1992.[266]

 

She explains the tenet and the mechanism of a competitive devaluation (J curve),[266] which "will quickly have a positive effect on employment and purchasing power, stimulating industry, international trade and enabling to fight offshorings".[264] Quoting extracts from a book by the French economist Alain Cotta, she claims that a devaluation of the franc will not bring about inflation.[264]

 

She anticipates a "total economic federalization of the eurozone". In her view, "this option which is favoured by the European technostructure, presents all the features of a totalitarian utopia". She claims that a "monstrous superstructure, already named 'European ministry of Finance', would decide in the opaqueness our policies of education, health and security". In her view, "the federal headlong rush also supposes a massive financial transfer of our countries towards Southern and Eastern Europe, at the detriment of the most vulnerable French people".[267]

 

About successive bailout plans, she laments that "the contributing countries, France in particular, throw in the hole of the European debt billions which dig their deficits and come them closer to the eye of the cyclone".[267] In her view, "the hundred of billions paid do not product any result, will not settle any problem, will not rescue a eurozone already in bankruptcy and push France into the chasm of excessive debt, whereas the French debt has already exploded under the mandate of Nicolas Sarkozy". Fearing that "France falls into the excessive debt", she refuses "any new assistance plan in order to bail out one after the other the countries suffering because of the single currency".[268]

 

She asserts that despite the expansion of the abilities of the European Financial Stability Facility, reassuring announcements and new austerity plans, Greece is sinking, social devastation is intensifying and the anger of the people bursts out.[267] In July 2011, she claimed that "after the seventeen billions of the first Greek bailout plan, the fifteen billions of the new assistance plan to Greece will make heavy our own already huge debt".[269][270] During her press conference organized on 6 September 2011 at the Pont de la Concorde in front of the National Assembly, she vigorously denounced the favourable voting by Socialist and UMP-NC MPs of second Greek bailout plan.[271][272][273]

Geopolitics and intergovernmental organizations

 

She pledged to pull France out of NATO, saying that the National Front has from day one been opposed to NATO membership.[274] Interviewed in October 2011 by Kommersant, she claimed that "she believed in a multipolar world".[74][275]

 

In her view, France has also to revise its geostrategic relations with the USA.[274] She regularly denounces France's bandwagoning towards the USA. She advocates that France takes its independence towards US and regains the geopolitical independence beloved by Charles de Gaulle.[276]

 

In May 2011, she claimed that the "old institutions" such as World Trade Organization, World Bank and International Monetary Fund were "expired".

 

In 2011, she advocated the "replacement of WTO by an 'International Trade Organization', founded on the sane principles of protection, interest of people and support to small and medium enterprises, the 'humbles' faced with the 'powerful' and cartels".[217][219]

 

In her view, IMF which "has become an infernal machine at the service of the ultraliberal ideology, is in its current form an extremely harmful institution". She claims that "the structural adjustment plans that IMF imposes on countries where it operates, systematically result in privatization of public utilities, dismantling of the state, drop in salaries and pensions, and removal of protections at boundaries". In her view, "citizens are always the first victims of IMF like in Argentina in 2001 and today in Greece". She claims that "the in-depth results of IMF are disastrous : rise in debts and sharp increase in rhythm of financial crises for two decades". She consequently advocates the abolition of IMF.[277] On 28 July 2011, she reacted after the publication of the IMF yearly report on France. In a letter addressed to the managing director of IMF Christine Lagarde, she explained in detail the "four pillars to get out France of the debt and straighten out our public accounts".[278]

Immigration

Illegal immigration

 

Marine Le Pen advocates to "vote for the abolition of the law enabling the regularization of the illegal immigrants". In her view, "this measure corresponds with the interest of France, the respect of its authority and the most elementary justice".[137]

 

In July 2011, she wrote an open letter to policemen, gendarmes and customs officers concerning the policy of the fight against illegal immigration.[279] She criticized the "passivity and inactivity of the UMP government faced with the collapse of expulsions of illegal immigrants" as well as its "blind submissiveness to very questionable European injunctions". Denouncing a "sharp fall in deportations since the beginning of 2011 after a decrease of near 5% in 2010", she claimed that "most of the detention centres are almost empty in 2011". Advocating the "return of any foreigner illegally entered to France towards his/her country of origin", she claims that she "refuses to give up the fight against illegal immigration".[279]

 

She favours a "radical change of politics in order to drastically reduce upstream the influx of illegal immigrants towards France". In her view, this policy requires to "cut the 'suction pumps' of illegal immigration while France is in this field one of the most incentive countries in the world".[279] Implemented in 2000 by Lionel Jospin's government, the aide médicale d'Ėtat (AME) grants free medical care to illegal immigrants. Denouncing a "state scandal" and an "increasing financial black hole for the French social security system", she "pledges to repeal the AME as soon as she will come to power".[216][279] She claims that, in the wake of selected immigration and then endured immigration, Nicolas Sarkozy is imposing health-care immigration on the French people.[216]

 

In February 2011, she claimed that in the wake of the Arab Spring, Europe and particularly France would be confronted with a surge in illegal immigration. She denounced "the EU's tragic helplessness to respond to this new migratory challenge" and "the EU's inability to face these emergency situations and to control effectively the migratory flows".[280]

 

Accompanied by the vice-president of the FN Louis Aliot and Mario Borghezio MEP (Lega Nord), she travelled to Lampedusa on 14 March 2011.[281] She met the island's mayor Bernardino De Rubeis (Movement for the Autonomies) and visited a housing center for illegal immigrants. She said that "Europe can't welcome everyone... We would be pleased to take them all in our boat, but it's not big enough. We'll all go to the bottom. We would be adding one misery to another" and "I also want to offer my support to the inhabitants of Lampedusa who have had the feeling of being completely abandoned". Around 9,000 migrants had already reached Lampedusa by boat since mid-January 2011 when protests in Tunisia unleashed a revolution across the Arab world.[282][283][284][285] During an international press conference held in Rome on 15 March 2011, she explained the situation of illegal immigration in Lampedusa, emphasized "the helplessness of EU" and how "each nation is more efficient to deal with the issue", and proposed solutions to settle this issue.[286]

 

In order to curb the illegal immigration influx from Tunisia and Libya, she has enjoined Nicolas Sarkozy to announce France's immediate and definitive withdrawal from Schengen Area and to reinstate urgently customs controls in all the borders of the country. She claimed that the UMP government's deceptive announcements about Schengen issue aimed at concealing its political inactivity and attempting to cheat public opinion.[287][288] In her view, the announcement of a technical adjustment of Schengen Agreement proposed by Nicolas Sarkozy and Silvio Berlusconi during 26 April 2011 French-Italian summit "will not settle strictly anything". Reminding that the United Kingdom and Ireland have refused the Agreement, she claims that only the withdrawal from Schengen Area will enable France to re-establish necessary customs controls and stop immigration.[289] She claims that "traffickers and networks of smugglers thrive when a country does not control its borders".[279]

Legal immigration

 

Marine Le Pen seeks to establish a moratorium on legal immigration.[290][291] During a press conference on 21 February 2011, she unveiled "the 2010 real figures of immigration" based on data transmitted by high-ranking officials of the Minister of the Interior, detailed the welfare benefits to which the legal and illegal immigrants are entitled, and proposed concrete solutions based on working models in the UK and the Netherlands.[292] In July 2011, she claims that "with 203,000 residence permits allocated in 2010 versus 114,000 in 2000 under Lionel Jospin, the UMP power promotes a laxer than ever policy of legal immigration".[279]

 

On 28 November 2010, 52.9% of the Swiss voters and 15 5/2 cantons approved the popular initiative "for the deportation of criminal foreigners" while the governmental counterproposal was rejected by 54.2% of voters and all the 20 6/2 cantons. She praised "the great victory of the Swiss people against the ruling elite".[293] Afterwards, she took part in debates on Radio Suisse Romande (RSR) with the SVP national councillor Oskar Freysinger[294] and then on Radio Cité Genève.[295]

 

Interviewed by The Daily Telegraph, she praised David Cameron's pledge to cut net annual immigration to UK from around 200,000 to "tens of thousands".[296] In February 2011, David Cameron expressed a rejection of multiculturalism during a speech at Munich Security Conference.[297] Afterwards, she congratulated him, for what she claimed was an endorsement of the FN's views on the failure of multiculturalism and immigration.[298]

Citizenship and nationality

 

In Le Pen

Castilleja auriculata var. auriculata, near cut off road to the nearby town of Santa Inez del Monte from road from Ciudad Oaxaca to the summit region of the Sierra de Clavellinas, Oaxaca, Mexico, 22 Aug 2001.

 

First installment of my photos of this species endemic to highlands of central Mexico.

Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches, and a synopsis of the vegetable kingdom

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer03bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954, ed; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869- joint ed

Subjects: Gardening -- Dictionaries; Plants -- North America encyclopedias

Publisher: New York, Doubleday, Page & Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

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638 GEONOMA AA. Lvs. pinnate. B. Basal leaf-segments narrow; the upper ones the broadest. •acaiilis, Mart. Acaulescent : lvs. long-petioled, 3-4 It. hiffli ; blade unequally pinnatisect, 22-25-nerved on each si<le ; basal segments i lines wide, spreading, the middle and upper erect-spreading at an acute angle, %-4 in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil. BB. Broad and narrow segments irregularhf intermingled. c. Blade of leaf C ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPohli&na, Blart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequal, linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved an<l many-nerved intermixed, lG-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil. cc. Blade 2-2% ft.: petiole 4 in. long. tilegans. Mart., var. robusta, Dr. Stem 6 ft. high, 3-4 lines in diam.; segments rarely 3, usually 5-7, 1- nerved, 10-14 in. long, some 4 lines wide, intermixed with broader, many-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi- nate. Central Brazil. EBB. Leaf segments all alike {except the connivent apical ones). C. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfy. *Riedeli&,iia, H. Wendl. {G. gracilis, Lind. & Andr^). Habit of Vocos WeddelUana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above : rachis triangular, bisulcate above : lvs. spread- ing, drooping at the apex ; segments 10-12 in. long, about 9 lines wide, linear-actite, elegantly recurved, the 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. I.H. 21:169. cc. Eqtddistant: petiole half as long as the blade. Sohotti4na, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, 1-lH in. thiols : lvs. recurved, spreading; petiole half or more than half as long as the blade ; segments about 35 on each side, 10-12 in. long, two-fifths in. wide, equidistant, linear or linear-lanceolate, very long acuminate. E. Brazil. The foHowing are imperfectly described, but are in the trade : *G. imperidlis. Linden.—*6?. prtriceps, Linden.—*G. Fyna^r- (ia/ia, Hort. Belongs under A. Oneof the smallest lvs. measures 28 in. long by 10 in. at the brcidest. H.is not flowered yet. and the genus is therefore uncertain. R.H. 1898, p. 262. G.C. III. 2,'!:258. P.E. 10:886.—G. spcciisa,Barb.-Rodr. Jared G. Smith, W. H. Taplin and W. M. GEORGIA, HORTICULTURE IN. Fig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unitjue. Latitude and altitude comlnne to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is effected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tennessee line) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Intermediately may be found as varied a climate, and consequently as extended a range of horticultural pro- duction, as can be met with in a journey of a thousand miles due uorth and south, in a region of normal eleva- tion, .such as the Mississippi valley. Measurably the geology of the state corresponds with its elevation and consequent climatology, and is not com- plex except in the extreme northwestern portion. Two formations—the tertiary and metamorphic —cover nine- tenths of its area. The SeaLslands, and coast for a short distance Inland, are alluvial or quarternary, and here the vegetation is of a subtropical character—palraet- toes and live-oaks on the islands and pines and ham- mock groNvth inland, together with the citrus, fig and olive families, where cultivated. Slightly beyond the tide-water limit begins the vast sweep of the pine forests, known locally as the "Wire- grass Region," which extends inland some 160 miles, on an average, covering nearly the whole of the tertiary for- mation. A range of low sand hills, about 300 feet high, extending diagonally across the state, separates the ter- GEORGIA tiary and metamorphic regions. At its base the land has attained an average altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea-beach, stretches the metamorphic region — the red clay or cotton belt—rising gradually toward the northwest until the Piedmont escarpment is reached — another low hill range on the southern side of and parallel to the Chattahoochee river valley. The height of this escarpment varies from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Be- yond this are the Appalachian foothills and then the

 

Text Appearing After Image:

IJ-Apple and cherry belt. ^MPear and melon belt. |-Peach and grape belt. ^^ Fig and citrus belt. 900. Georgia, to shoiv horticultural regions. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In exfrcTMp northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general \v:iy toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet I, interspersed, however, with a chaos of mountains and coves, with a complex tangle of geologi- cal formations, from lower Silurian to eocene. The prevailing natural growth of the tertiary Is yel- low pine-that of the metamorphic region hard woods, erabr.acing nearly all of the North American species, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may be classified as follows : Horticultural Areas : Corresponding Geological Divisions. 1. Fig and Citrus Beut Quarternary Formation 2. Pear AND Melon Belt Tertiary Formation 3. Peach and Grape Belt Met,imorphic Formation 4. Apple and Chekky Belt Tennessee Dip 1. The Fig and Citrus Belt. —In this zone the citrus family does not thrive indigenously, nor is it planted for commercial purposes. Yet oranges and lemons live and bear unprotected, though latterly subject to injury from frost. It is the home of the Ogeechee lime, and formerly both indigo and the olive flourished on the Sea Islands, but their culture has been for many years abandoned. Figs grow to perfection. About the ports —especially Savannah —heavy trucking is followed for the northern market—chieflypotatoes, strawberries, cabbages, celery, tom.atoes, onions and peas.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924074091772

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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CENTAUREA CEPHALANTHUS 275

 

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11. montina, Linn. Mountain Bldet. Perennial: sts. low, stoloniferous, unbranclied, 12-16 or rarely 20 in. high : Ivs. decurrent, the young ones silvery white, oval-lanoe-shaped : involucre of 4 or 5 rows of scales, black-ciliate along the margins; fls. blue, the marginal ones 1 in. long, disc-fls. very short, becoming purple. Europe. B.M. 77. Var. 41ba, Hort. Fls. white. Var. rdsea, Hort. Fls. rose-colored. Var. citrlna, DC. (var. sulphwrea, Hort.). Disc-fls. brown, rays yellow. Ar- menia. B.M. 1175. OC. stems erect, simple or branched, 12. dealbita, Willd. Perennial : sts. sub-erect, 8-24 in. high ; Ivs. white-villous beneath, glabrous above, the lower ones 1-lJ^ ft. long, pet- ioled, pinnate, the obovate lobes coarsely cut-toothed or auricled at the base; stem-lvs. sessile, pinnate, with oblong-lance lobes : 11.-head solitary, just above the uppermost leaf : fls. red, those of the disc rosy or white : outer scales of the involucre with lanceolate tips, the middle rounded, deeply fringed, ciliate. Asia Minor, Persia. 13. atropurpvlrea, Waldst. & Kit. (C. calociphala, Willd.). Peren- nial ; sts. erect, branched, about 2-3 ft. high, the branches white- woolly at the summit: Ivs. bipin- nate, lobes linear-lanceolate, acumi- 408. Centaurea Ameri- "ate ; lowest Ivs. petioled, upper- cana (X Ji). most pinnatifid: fl.-heads without bracts ; invol. scales with fringed ciliate white lanceolate tips, the innermost ones rounded, scarious-margined : fls. black-purple. Hungary. 14. BabyUnica, Linn. Silvery white perennial: sts. simple, stout, erect, 6-10 or 12 ft. high : Ivs. long^ coria- ceous, strongly decurrent on the stem, the radical lyrate, the lower stem-lvs. oval or oblong-acute, entire or undu- late, the upper lance-acute : fls. yellow, the globular heads almost sessile in the axils of narrow bract-like Its.; J^-K of the stem flower-bearing: involucre-scales with a short, recurved tip. Asia Minor, Syria. Gn. 2,'p.73; 8, p. 263. R. H. 1859, pp. 540-1.—Tall, stout and striking P'*°*- Jabed G. Smith and L. H. B. CENTATTElDIUM. See Xanthisma. CEITTBAD£NIA (Greek for toothed gland, alluding to the anther glands). Melastomdcece. Four species in Mexico and Central Amer., grown in warmhouses for their showy-colored Ivs. and pretty fls. They are herbs or shrubs, with angled or winged branches, petiolate, opposite lanceolate or ovate-entire, ribbed Ivs., and fls. with 4-lobed calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a 4-loculed ovary. The blossoms are pink or white, in axillary or terminal clusters. Prop, by cuttings. Very showy and desirable plants. Stems often colored. Centradenias like rich leaf-mold with sharp sand, and brisk heat. Give a light but shady position. Strong plants are much benefited by liquid manure, and such applications give better colors in both flowers and fruit. Monogr. by Cogniaux, DC, Monographiee Phanerogamarum, 7:116. ^andiJ61ia, Endl. Branches 4-winged : Ivs. ovate- lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, brilliant red beneath, long-pointed and curving at the end: cymes many-fld., shorter than the Ivs., the fls. light rose, rotate, the petals very obtuse, the stamens unequal. B.M. 5228.— The plant grows 2 ft. high, and blooms in winter. Very showy. The cut branches hold their color a long time, making the plant useful for decorations. floribiinda, Planch. Branches obscurely angled, pu- bescent, red: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering below, 3- nerved, red-nerved below : fls. pink, in terminal pani- cles. F.S. 5:453.—Smaller than G. grandifolia. inaequilateraiis, G. Don (C. rdsea, Lindl.). Lvs. ovate- lanceolate, unequal-sided, entire, ciliate, reddish be- neath: fls. pink, in terminal corymbose racemes; dwarf. Mex. B.K. 29:20, L. H. B. and H. A. Siebrecht. CENTEANTHUS (Qreek, spurred flower). Valerlan- dcece. A few annual and perennial herbs of the Medi- terranean region, with dense clusters of small red or white fls. terminating the branches, and opposite entire or cut lvs.: calyx cut into 5-15 narrow divisions, en- larging after flowering; corolla slender-tubed, 5-parted, spurred at the base; stamen!: fls. with a pappus-like crest.. Of easiest culture. rdber, DC. Red Valerian. Jupitee's Bbakd. Per- ennial, 1-3 ft., smooth and glaucous, forming a compact and floriferous, bushy plant : lvs. ovate to lanceolate, some of them toothed at base: fls. very numerous, deep crimson.—A very handsome old garden plant, too much neglected. It blooms all summer. Excellent for cut- ting. Increased by division; also by seeds. There is a white-fld. form (var. dlbns). macroslphon, Boiss. Annual, of easy culture in any good soil: 1-2 ft.: lvs. ovate, glaucous, toothed: fls. larger than in the last, red. Spain. —There are white- fld. (var. dlbus) and dwarf (var. mdntts) forms. Excel- lent for rockeries and borders; also good for lawn vases. L. H. B. CENTEOPOGON (Greek kentron, spur, and pngon, beard, referring to the fringed stigma). Campanu- lAceoe. About 36 tropical Amer. sub-shrubs or shrubs, often scandent, with alternate, mostly dentate lvs., and long, tubular fls. which are violet, purple, red, or orange, and usually home singly on long peduncles: braoteoles very small or wanting. Warmhouse perennial, prop, by cuttings. Lucy&nus, Houllet. Height 1-2 ft.: stem somewhat woody: lvs. short-petioled, finely toothed: fls. rose, win- ter; hemispherical, with lanceolate segments recurved at the tips. E.H. 1868:290.-Said to be a hybrid of O. fastnosus and Siphocampylus betulceformis, but seems to show little influence of the latter, which has longer petioles and peduncles, more coarsely toothed lvs., longer calyx-segments, and a yellow-tipped corolla. fastudsus, Scheidw. Lvs. peach-like, oblong, acute, bordered with glandular teeth, very glabrous, short- petioled: fls. rose-colored, winter ; calyx hemispherical, with 5 lanceolate, denticulate segments. Mex. R.H. 1853:181. w. M. CENIE0S£MA (Greek, spurred-standard). Legu- mindsce. Botterfly Pea. Twining herbs (at least those in cult.), with pinnate, .3-7-foliolate lvs., and showy white or reddish fls. in the axils. Fl. papiliona- ceous, the standard spurred on the back, the keel broad, and the style bearded at the apex. Species nearly 40 in tropical Amer. and 2 in U. S. Virgini^tnum, Benth. Houghish, climbing, 2-6 ft.: Ifts. ovate to linear, shining, stipitate : fls. 1-4 in the axil, 1 in. long, violet and splashed, showy: pod straight and long-pointed, 4-5 in. long. Md. S., in sandy lands. A.G. 13:649. —Int. to cult, many years ago, but again in- troduced in 1892 (as C. granditlorum), and much adver- tised. It is a hardy and desirable perennial vine, bloom- ing the first season from seed. There is a white-fld. var. L. H. B. CENTTTEY PLANT. Consult Agave. CEPHALANTHfiEA (Greek for head and anther). OrchidAcece, tribe Ne6ttiece. About 10 species of small, temperate-region terrestrial orchids, allied to Epipactis, Pogonia, etc. Some of them are western N. American, and others are European. Sepals 3: petals small, ovate: lip saccate : lvs. (sometimes wanting) lanceolate or oblong: fls. mostly small (sometimes showy), in an open spike. The species are scarcely known in cult., but two Japanese species have been offered by importers. These are £. falo4ta, Blume, yellow, and E. erficta, Blume, white. CEPHALANTHUS (Greek, head and nower; fls. in heads). Bubictcem. Button Bush. Shrubs with oppo- site or whorled, entire, stipulate lvs.: fls. small, tubu- lar, white or yellowish, 4-merous, with included stamens and long, exserted style, in globular heads: fr. dry, sepa- rating into 2 nutlets. Six species in Amer., Africa and Asia, of which only the one North American species is

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofam02bail

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

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638 GEONOMA AA. Lvs. pinnate. B. Basal leaf-segments narrow; the upper ones the broadest. â¢acaiilis, Mart. Acaulescent: lvs. long-petioled 3-4 ft. high ; blade unequally pinnatisect, 22-25-nerved on each side ; basal .segments i lines wide, spreading the middle and upper erect-spreading at an acute an^le %-i in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil BB. Broml anil narrow segments irregularly intermingled. C. Blade of leaf (1 ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPoliU4na, Mart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequil linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved an 1 many-nerved intermixed, 16-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil cc. Blade 2-2% ft.: petiole 4 in. long. t^legans, Jliirt., var. robusta, Dr. Stem 6 ft. high .'f-1 lines in diara.: segments rarely 3, usually 5-7 1 nerved, 10-U in. long, some i lines wide, intermixed with broader, many-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi nate. Central Brazil. ent c. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfi/. â¢Biedeliina, H. Wendl. {G. gracilis, Lind. & Andr^) Habit of Coeos Weddelliana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above : rachis triangular, bisulcate above : lvs. spread ing, drooping at the apex ; segments 10-12 in. long about 9 lines wide, linear-acute, elegantly recurved the 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. I.H. 21:169. cc. Equidistant: petiole half as long as the blade SchottiAna, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, 1-lK in. thiols lvs. recurved, spreading; petiole half or more thai hilf as long as the blade; sei^mrTil- :ilHHi( "' mm . ;i,1i ule 10-12 in. long, two-fiftl.^ i;i. > 1.1 /.â¢;â .,- In, ici linear-lanceolate, very I"ii4 :" 1^1 I i; I, ThefolloTviiigaveiiaticrfVrily ,1, -., i. 11 ,,,, iii ! i,- le *0. ,-;«;v,-;,>',s, T.in.i.T, -i(,. ;âââ>,,.». i.iii.i,.u.-'.,. 1 linn'r- 28in.inii I iiriiadest. Has not flowered yet, and the genual- iiin. R.H.1898,p.262. G.C.III.23:258. F.E. li':-H, -(, ,,,,, ,.,, l!:irb.-Rodr. Jakeh O. Smith, W. H. Taplin and W. M. GEORGIA, HOKTICULTUKE IN. Fig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unique. Latitude and altitude combine to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is effected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tenness. .. lin.) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Internn i!i:itil\- iii;i\- he found as varied a climate, and consei|Ui iiily as , -.ii leled a range of horticultural pro- ducticTi, a- tan Im- in.t witli iti a journey of a thousand miles ilia' 1,1.nil ami s,mill, in a region of normal eleva- tion, sia-li a~ 11.,, M I I ii.i.i \ alley. MeasiiraliM IV .1 itSelrvaliinia!,.!...., . ... Plexexia.i.tin , . formations âtill ii i: in. tenths of its ana. I'ln s distance inlaiai, an ,ill.i the vegetation is ..| a toes and live-oai;s on th grass Region," which extends inland some IGO miles, on an average, covering nearly the whole of the tertiary for- mation. A range of low sand hills, about 300 feet high, extending diagonally across the state, separates the ter- GEORGIA tiar\ and metimorphi retirns At its base the land has attained an <i\ erage altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea beach, stretches the metamorphic region â the 1 1 I % r tt n I It âri ng gradually toward tl Iff eirpment is reached â ithern side of and Uey. The height to 1,.500 feet. Be- tl ills and then the 7^ '( WAP GEORGIA HORTICULTURAL Divisions. \

 

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j-Apple and chenT belt. ^^Pear and melon belt. ^H"Pea<"l' ""d erape belt, ^g Fig and citrus belt. 900. Georeia, to show horticultural rcEions. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In extreme northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general way toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet), interspersed, however, with a chaos of mountains and coves, with a complex tangle of geologi- cal formations, from lower silurian to eocene. The prevailing natural growth of the tertiary is yel- low pine âthat of the metamorphic region hard woods, embracing nearly all of the North American species, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may be classified as follows : Horticultural Areas ; Corresponding Geological Dirisions. 1. Fio ANn Citrus Belt Quartemary Formation 2. Pear Axn Melon Belt Tertiary Formation 3. Peacb and Orape Belt Metamorphic Formation 4. Apple axu Cherry Belt Tennessee Dip 1. The Fig and Citrus Belt. âIn this zone the citrus family does not thrive indigenously, noris it planted for oiiinineivial ].iiri...... s. Yrt nranires and lemons live and hear unimitii-teil, tlmn-li latti ilv subject to injury from frii^t It is till- In,III.. â¢.! ilii I 1^1 I i-liee'lime, and formerly lii.th in.liL'" ami il Iim- il, ai ii-ln-d on the Sea Islands, lull iImIi-i-nitnri. 1ki~ l.iin f.T many years abandoned, |a . t,, a, I, ill iii.in. .\i...ai the portsâespecially ^ . iria.kiiiL'i~ f. Unwed for the northern 11 , !! |.,,taiiii-.-iiawliirrics, cabbages, celery.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture : comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofame02bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening; Horticulture; Horticulture; Horticulture

Publisher: New York : Macmillan

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

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bd» GEONOMA AA. Lvs. pinnate. B. Basal leaf-segments narrow; the upper ones the broadest. â¢acaulis, Mart. Acaulescent : Its. long-petioled, 3-4 ft. high ; blade unequally pinnatisect, 22-25-nerved on each side ; basal segments i lines wide, spreading, the middle and upper ereet-spreading at an acute angle, %-i in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil. BB. Broad and narrow segments irregularly intermingled. c. Blade of leaf 6 ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPohlikna, Mart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequal, linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved and many-nerved intermixed, 16-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil, cc. Blade 2-2K ft.: petiole 4 in. long. t^Iegans, Mart., var. robuBta, Dr. Stem 6 ft. high, 3-4 lines in diam.: segments rarely 3, usually 5-7, 1- nerved, 10-14 in. long, some 4 lines wide, intermixed with broader, many-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi- nate. Central Brazil. BBB. Leaf segments all alike {except the ennnireiit apical ones). c. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfy. *EiedeU4na, H. Wendl. (G. grdcilis, Lind. & Andr^). Habit of C'ocos WeddelUana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above : rachis triangular, bisulcate above : lvs. spread- ing, drooping at the apes ; segments 10-12 in. long, about 9 lines wide, linear-acute, elegantly recurved, the 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. l.H. 21:169. cc. Equidistant: petiole half as long as the blade. Schottiina, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, 1-1 J^i in. thick : lvs. recurved, spreading; petiole half or more than half as long as the blade ; segments about 35 on each side, 10-12 in. long, two-fifths in. wide, equidi.stant, linear or linear-lanceolate, very long acuminate. E. Brazil. The following are imperfectly described, but are in the trade : *G. imperidlis. Linden.â*G. princeps. Linden.â*6. Pynter- (irtna, Hort. Belongs under A. One of the smallest lvs. measures 28 in. long by 10 in. at the broadest. Has not flowered yet, and the genus is thereforenncertain. R.H. 1898,p. 262. G.C. HI. 2.'i;258. F.E. 10:886.-G. «peiriS«a,Barb.-Rodr. Jared G. Smith, W. H. Tapldj and W. M. GEORGIA, HORTICULTURE IN. Fig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unique. Latitude and altitude combine to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is effected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tennessee line) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Intermediately may be found as varied a climate, and consequently as extended a range of horticultural pro- duction, as can be met with in a journey of a thousand miles due i.drth mill sontli, in a region of normal eleva- tion, su.'l, :<- t',.. AI.^M -i;m.| N.illry. Measii! i. , i. .! !m state corresponds with itseli-viii , :i' h , , ; :⢠iuKitology, and is not com- plex e\<-r|.i III t!,, . \ii, iiH 11-1 thwestern portion. Two formaticiii'i âthe tertiary and raetamorphicâcover nine- teuths of its area. The .Sea Islands, and coast for a short distance inland, are alluvial or quartemary, and here the vegetation is of a subtropical characterâpalmet- toes and live-oaks on the islands and pines and ham- mock growth inland, together with the citrus, fig and olive families, where cultivated. Slightly beyond the tide-water limit begins the vast sweep of the pine forests, kii.-vn l...nllv as the "Wire- grass Region," which ext.inl. :,,; nl ..,t,i,. ir,0 miles, on an average, covering nearl, : i i lie tertiary for- mation. A range of low -:r, : ,' it :iiio feet high, extending diagonally acr.i-. :1,, -".<â¢â â . -. j.arates the ter- GEORGIA tiarr and metamorphic regions. At its base the land has attained an average altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea-beach, stretches the metamorphic region -the red clay or cotton beltârising gradually toward the northwest tmtil the Piedmont escarpment is reached â another low hill range on the southern side of and parallel to the Chattahoochee river valley. The height of this escarpment varies from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Be- yond this are the Appalachian foothills and then the

 

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]â Apple and cherry belt. | Hi'Pcach and grape belt, ^g Fig and citrus belt. 900. Georgia, to show horticultural regions. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In extreme northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general way toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet), interspersed, however, with a cIki.'s of mountains and coves, with a complex tnncle of L'roloiri- cal formations, from lower Silurian t â !.â The prevailing natural growth of i' , ,1- low pineâthat of the metamorphic v â nU, embracing nearly all of the North ,\in.iim:i |h ri.s, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may he classified as follows : Hortiailtural Areas : Corresponding Geological Divisions, 1. Fig ASTt Citrus Beuf Quartemary Formation 2. Pear and Meix)S Belt Tertiary Formation 3. Peach and Grape Belt Metamorphic Formation 4. Apple AND Cheeet Belt Tennessee Dip 1. TJte Fig and Cltrns Belt.-In this zone the citrus family does not thrive indigenously, nor is it planted for commercial purposes. Yet oranges and lemons live and bear unprotected, though latterly subject to in.jury from frost. It is the home of the Ogeechee lime, and formerly both indigo and the olive flourished on the Sea Islands, but their culture has been for many years abandoned. Figs grow to perfection. About the ports âespecially Savannah âheavy trucking is followed for the northern marketâchiefly potatoes, strawberries, cabbages, celery, tomatoes, onions and peas.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer01bail1

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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CENTAUREA CEPHALANTHUS 275

 

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408. Centaurea Ameri cana (X M). 11. monta,na, Linn. Mountain Bluet. Perennial : sts. low, stoloniterous, unbranched, 12-16 or rarely 20 in. high : Ivs. deeurrent, the young ones silvei-y white, oval-lance-shaped : involucre of 4 or 5 rows of scales, black-ciliate along the margins; fls. blue, the marginal ones 1 in. long, disc-fls. very short, becoming purple. Europe. B. M. 77. Var. dlba, Hort. Pis. white. Var. rdsea, Hort. Fls. rose-colored. Var. citrina, DC. (var. sulphiirea, Hort.). Disc-fls. brown, rays yellow. Ar- menia. B.M. 1175. CO. stems erect, simple or branched: 12. dealb^ta, Willd. Perennial : sts. sub-erect, 8-24 in. high : Ivs. white-villous beneath, glabrous above, the lower ones 1-1% ft. long, pet- ioled, pinnate, the obovate lobes coarsely cut-toothed or auricled at the base; stem-lvs. sessile, pinnate, with oblong-lance lobes : fl.-head solitary, just above the uppermost leaf ; fls. red, those of the disc rosy or white : outer scales of the involucre with lanceolate tips, the middle rounded, deeply fringed, ciliate. Asia Minor, Persia. 13. atropurptirea, Waldst. & Kit. (C calociphala, Willd.). Peren- nial : sts. erect, branched, about 2-3 ft. high, the branches white- woolly at the summit: Ivs. bipin- nate, lobes linear-lanceolate, acumi- . nate ; lowest Ivs. petioled, upper- most pinnatifid: fl.-heads without bracts ; invol. scales with fringed ciliate white lanceolate tips, the innermost ones rounded, scarious-raargined : iJs. black-purple. Hungary. 14. Babylbnica, Linn. Silvery white perennial: sts. simple, stout, erect, 6-10 or 12 ft. high : Ivs. long^ coria- ceous, strongly deeurrent on the stem, the radical lyrate, the lower stem-lvs. oval or oblong-acute, entire or undu- late, the upper lance-acute : fls. yellow, the globular heads almost sessile in the axils of narrow bract-like Ivs.; H-Vi of the stem flower-bearing: involucre-scales with a short, recurved tip. Asia Minor, Syria. Gn.2,'p.73; 8, p. 263. R. H. 1859, pp. 540-1.-Tall, stout and striking P'^"*- Jaked G. Smith and L. H. B. CENTAUBtDIUU, See Xanthisma. CEITTBAD£NIA (Greek for toothed gland, alluding to the anther glands). Melastom&cem, Pour species in Mexico and Central Amer., grown in warmhouses for their showy-colored Ivs. and pretty fls. They are herbs or shrubs, with angled or winged branches, petiolate, opposite lanceolate or ovate-entire, ribbed Ivs., and fls. with 4-lobed calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a 4-loculed ovary. The blossoms are pink or white,in axillary or terminal clusters. Prop, by cuttings. Very showy and desirable plants. Stems often colored. Centradenias like rich leaf-mold with sharp sand, and brisk heat. Give a light but shady position. Strong plants are much benefited by liquid manure, and such applications give better colors in both flowers and fruit. Monogr. by Cogniaux, DC, Monographiae Phanerogamarum, 7:116. grandifblia, Endl. Branches 4-winged : Ivs. ovate- lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, brilliant red beneath, long-pointed and curving at the end; cymes iliany-fld., shorter than the Ivs., the fls. light rose, rotate, the petals very obtuse, the stamens unequal. B.M. 5228.— The plant grows 2 ft. high, and blooms in winter. Very showy. The cut branches hold their color a long time, making the plant useful for decorations. floribunda, Planch. Branches obscurely angled, pu- bescent, red: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering below, 3- nerved, red-nerved below : fls. pink, in terminal pani- cles. P.S. 5:453. —Smaller than C. grandifolia. inaequilaterilis, G. Don {C. rdsea, Lindl.). Lvs. ovate- lanceolate, unequal-sided, entire, ciliate, reddish be- neath: fls. pink, in terminal corymbose racemes: dwarf. Mex. B.E. 29:20. l. h. B. and H. A. Siebreoht. CENTEANTHUS (Greek, spurred flower). Valerian- dcece. A few annual and perennial herbs of the Medi- terranean region, with dense clusters of small red or white fls. terminating the branches, and opposite entire or cut lvs.: calyx cut into 5-15 narrow divisions, en- larging after flowering; corolla slender-tubed, 5-parted, spurred at the base; stamen 1: fls. with a pappus-like crest. Of easiest culture. riiber, DC. Red Valerian. Jupiter's Beard. Per- ennial, 1-3 ft., smooth and glaucous, forming a compact and floriferous, bushy plant: lvs. ovate to lanceolate, some of them toothed at base: fls. very numerous, deep crimson.-A very handsome old garden plant, too much neglected. It blooms all summer. Excellent for cut- ting. Increased by division; also by seeds. There is a white-fld. form (var. dibits). macrosiphon, Boiss. Annual, of easy culture in any good soil: 1-2 ft.: lvs. ovate, glaucous, toothed: fls. larger than in the last, red. Spain. —There are white- fld. (var. dlbus) and dwarf {Ya,r.nAniis) forms. Excel- lent for rockeries and borders; also good for lawn vases. L. H. B. CENTEOPdGON (Greek kentron, spur, and pngon, beard, referring to the fringed stigma). Campanu- Idcece. About 36 tropical Amer. sub-shrubs or shrubs, often scandent, with alternate, mostly dentate lvs., and long, tubular fls. which are violet, purple, red, or orange, and usually borne singly on long peduncles: bracteoles very small or wanting. Warmhouse perennial, prop, by cuttings. Lucy^nus, Houllet. Height 1-2 ft.: stem somewhat woody: lvs. short-petioled, finely toothed: fls. rose, win- ter; hemispherical, with lanceolate segments recurved at the tips. R.H. 1868:290.-Said to be a hybrid of C. fastjwsus and Siphocamjiylns betulwformis, but seems to show little influence of the latter, which has longer petioles and peduncles, more coarsely toothed lvs., longer calyx-segments, and a yellow-tipped corolla. fastudsus, Scheldw. Lvs. peach-like, oblong, acute, bordered with glandular teeth, very glabrous, short- petioled: fls. rose-colored, winter; calyx hemispherical, with 5 lanceolate, denticulate segments. Mex. R.H. 1853:181. W. M. GENTBOSSMA (Greek, spurred-standard). Legw- minbsce. Butterfly Pea. Twining herbs (at least those in cult.), with pinnate, .3-7-foliolate lvs., and showy white or reddish fls. in the axils. PI. papiliona- ceous, the standard spurred on the back, the keel broad, and the style bearded at the apex. Species nearly 40 in tropical Amer. and 2 in U. S. Virginianum, Benth. Roughish, climbing, 2-6 ft.: Ifts. ovate to linear, shining, stipitate : fls. 1-4 in the axil, 1 in. long, violet and splashed, showy: pod straight and long-pointed, 4-5 in. long. Md. S., in sandy lands. A.G. 13:649. —Int. to cult, many years ago, but again in- troduced in 1892 (as C. grandiflorum), and much adver- tised. It is a hardy and desirable perennial vine, bloom- ing the first season from seed. There is a white-fld. var. L. H. B. CENTUET PLANT. Consult Agave. CEPHALANTHfiBA (Greek for Jiead and anther). Orchid&ceee, tribe JYedttiew. About 10 species of small, temperate-region terrestrial orchids, allied to Epipactis, Pogonia, etc. Some of them are western N. American, and others are European. Sepals 3: petals small, ovate: lip saccate : lvs. (sometimes wanting) lanceolate or oblong: fls. mostly small (sometimes showy), in an open spike. The species are scarcely known in cult., but two Japanese species have been offered by importers. These are E. ialc4ta, Blume, yellow, and E. er6cta, Blume, white. CEPHALANTHUS (Greek, head and flower; fls. in heads). Rubi&cece. Button Bush. Shrubs with oppo- site or whorled, entire, stipulate lvs.: fls. small, tubu- lar, white or yellowish, 4-merous, with included stamens and long, exserted style, in globular heads: fr. dry, sepa- rating into 2 nutlets. Six species in Amer., Africa and Asia, of which only the one North American species is

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofam01bail

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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CENTAUREA 11. montina, Linn. Mountain Bluet. Perennial : sts. low, stoloniferous, unbranched, 12-10 or rarely 20 in. high : Ivs. decurrent, the young ones silvery white, oval-lance-shaped : involucre of 4 or 5 rows of scales, black-ciliate along the margins; fls. blue, the marginal ones 1 in. long, disc-fls. very short, becoming purple. Europe. B. M. 77. Var. Alba, Hort. Fls. white. Var. rdsea, Hort. Fls. rose-colored. Var. citrlna, DC. (var. sulphured. Hort.). Disc-fls. brown, rays yellow. Ar- menia. B.M. 1175. cc. Stetns erect, simple or brajiched. 12. dealbata, Willd. Perennial : sts. sub-erect, 8-24 in. hij;h : Ivs. white-villous beneath, glabrous above, the lower ones 1-1 >2 ft. long, pet- ioled, pinnate, the obovate lobes ,^.; . coarsely cut-toothed or auricled at -- .-,>'- the base; steni-lvs. sessile, pinnate, with oblong-lance lobes : fl.-head solitary, just above the uppermost leaf : fls. red, those of the disc rosy or white : outer scales of the involucre with lanceolate tips, the middle rounded, deeply fringed, ciliate. Asia Minor, Persia. 13. atropurpiirea, Waldst. & Kit. (C. calociphala, Willd.). Peren- nial : sts. erect, branched, about 2-3 ft. high, the branches white- woolly at the summit: Ivs. bipin- nate, lobes linear-lanceolate, acumi- nate ; lowest Ivs. petioled, upper- most pinnatifid: fl.-heads without bracts ; invol. scales with fringed ciliate white lanceolate tips, the innermostones rounded, scarious-margined : fls. black-purple. Hungary. 14. BabyWnioa, Linn. Silvery white perennial : sts. simple, stout, erect, 6-10 or 12 ft. high : Ivs. long, coria- ceous, strongly decurrent on the stem, the radical lyrate, the lower stem-lvs. oval or oblong-acute, entire or undu- late, the upper lance-acute : fls. yellow, the globular heads almost sessile in the axils of narrow bract-like Ivs.; 5^-J^ of the stem flower-bearing: involucre-scales with ashort, recurved tip. Asia Minor, Syria. Gn. 2,p.73; 8, p. 263. R.H.1859,pp. 540-1. —Tall, stout and striking P'*°'- Jared G. Smith and L. H. B. CENTATJElDITTM. See Xanthisma. CENTEADfiNIA (Greek for toothed gland, alluding to the anther glands). Melastomdcece. Pour species in Mexico and Central Amer., grown in warmhouses for their showy-colored Ivs. and pretty fls. They are herbs or shrubs, with angled or winged branches, petiolate, opposite lanceolate or ovate-entire, ribbed Ivs., and fls. with 4-lobed calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a 4-loculed ovary. The blossoms are pink or white, in axillary or terminal clusters. Prop, by cuttings. Very showy and desirable plants. Stems often colored. Centradenias like rich leaf-mold with sharp sand, and brisk heat. Give a light but shady position. Strong plants are much benefited by liquid manure, and such applications give better colors in both flowers and fruit. Monogr. by Cogniaux, DC, Monographite Phanerogamarum, 7:116. grandifolia, Endl. Branches 4-winged : Ivs. ovate- lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, brilliant red beneath, long-pointed and curving at the end: cymes many-fld., shorter than the Ivs., the fls. light rose, rotate, the petals very obtuse, the stamens unequal. B.M. 5228.— The plant grows 2 ft. high, and blooms in winter. Very showy. The cut branches hold their color a long time, making the plant useful for decorations. iloribiinda. Planch. Branches obscurely angled, pu- bescent, red: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering below, 3- nerved, red-nerved below : fls. pink, in terminal pani- cles. F.S. 5:453.-Smaller than C. grandifolia. in8EqmlaterS,Us, G. Don (C. rdscn, Lindl.). Lvs. ovate- lanceolate, unequal-sided, entire, ciliate, reddish be- neath: fls. pink, in terminal corymbose racemes: dwarf. CEPHALANTHUS 275 CENTEANTHUS (Greek, spurred flower). Valerian- dcew. A few annual and perennial herbs of the Medi- terranean region, with dense clusters of small red or white fls. terminating the branches, and opposite entire or cut lvs.: calyx cut into 5-15 narrow divisions, en- larging after flowering; corolla slender-tubed. 5-parted, spurred at the b:ise; stamen 1: fls. with a pappus-like crest. Of easiest culture. rtiber, DC. Red Valerian. Jupiter's Beard. Per- ennial, 1-3 ft., smooth and glaucous, forming a compact and floriferous, bushy plant : lvs. ovate to lanceolate, some of them toothed at base: fls. very numerous, deep crimson.—A very handsome old garden plant, too much neglected. It blooms all summer. Excellent for cut- ting. Increased by division; also by seeds. There is a white-fld. form (var. dlbus}. macrosiphon, Boiss. Annual, of easy culture in any good soil: 1-2 ft.: lvs. ovate, glaucous, toothed: fls. larger than in the last, red. Spain. —There are white- fld. (var. dlbus) and dwarf (var. ndnus) forms. Excel- lent for rockeries and borders; also good for lawn vases. L. H. B. CENTKOPOGON (Greek kentron. spur, and pogon, beard, referring to the fringed stigma). Campanu- lAcew. About 36 tropical Amer. sub-shrubs or shrubs, often scandent, with alternate, mostly dentate lvs., and long, tubular fls. which are violet, purple, red, or orange, and usually borne singly on long peduncles: bracteoles very small or wanting. Warmhouse perennial, prop, by cuttings. Lucyinus, Houllet. Height 1-2 ft.: stem somewhat woody: Ivs. short-petioled, finely toothed: fls. rose, win- ter; hemispherical, with lanceolate segments recurved at the tips. R.H. 1868:290.-Said to be a hybrid of C. fastuosus and Siphocampylus betul(pformis, but seems to show little influence of the latter, which has longer petioles and peduncles, more coarsely toothed lvs., longer calyx-segments, and a yellow-tipped corolla. fastudsus, Scheidw. Lvs. peach-like, oblong, acute, bordered with glandular teeth, very glabrous, short- petioled: fls. rose-colored, winter ; calyx hemispherical, •ith 5 lanceolate, denticulate segments. Mex. R.H. 1853:18L W. M. Mex. B.R. 29:: L. H. and H. A. Siebrecht. CENTEOSfiMA (Greek, spurred-sfandard). Legu- mindsw. Butterfly Pea. Twining herbs (at least those in cult.), with pinnate, .3-7-foliolate lvs., and showy white or reddish fls in the axils. Fl. papiliona- ceous, the standard spurred on the back, the keel broad, and the style bearded at the apex. Species nearly 40 in tropical Amer. and 2 in U. S. Virginianum, Benth. Roughish, climbing, 2-6 ft.: Ifts. ovate to linear, shining, stipitate : fls. 1^ in the axil, 1 in. long, violet and splashed, showy: pod straight and long-pointed, 4-5 in. long. Md. S., in sandy lands. A.G. 13:649. —Int. to cult, many years ago, but again in- troduced in 1892 (as C. grundiflorum), and much adver- tised. It is a hardy and desirable perennial vine, bloom- ing the first season from seed. There is a white-fld. var. L. H. B. CENTUEY PLANT. Consult Agave. CEPHALANTHfiEA (Greek for head and anther). OrchidAcew, tribe Ifeittiew. About 10 species of small, temperate-region terrestrial orchids, allied to Epipactis, Pogonia, etc. Some of them are western N. American, and others are European. Sepals 3: petals small, ovate: lip saccate : lvs. (sometimes wanting) lanceolate or oblong: fls. mostly small (sometimes showy), in an open Bpike. The species are scarcely known in cult., but two Japanese species have been offered by importers. These are E. faloita, Blume, yellow, and E, erScta, Blume, white. CEPHALANTHUS (Greek, head and flower; fls. in heads). Subiacew. Button BusH. Shrubs with oppo- site or whorled, entire, stipulate lvs.: fls. small, tubu- lar, white or yellowish, 4-merous, with included stamens and long, exserted style, in globular heads: fr. dry, sepa- rating into 2 nutlets. Six species in Amer., Africa and Asia, of which only the one North American species is

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer01bail1

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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CANTUA CANTUA (from Canto, Peruvian name). Polemonih- ce(e. Ten species of South American flowering slirubs with very variable foliage and showy, tubular fls. of va- rious colors. C. buxifoUa is cult, out of doors in S. Calif., and is recommended in Europe as a coolhouse shrub. Probably no tenderer than Fuchsias. Prop, by cuttings. bnxifdiia, Lam. {G.depiiidens, Pers.). Much branched shrub, about 4 ft. high ; branches more or less downy: Ivs. very variable, generally oblong-obovate, acute, taper- ing at the base, entire or serrate, downy or glabrous : fls. 5-8, drooping vertically, in a kind of leafy, termi- nal corjTnb ; calyx pale, membranous, green-streaked, 5-toothed, a fourth shorter than the corolla tube; corolla long-funnel-shaped, the tube 2>2in. long, red, usually streaked ; limb of fringed, obcordate, crimson lobes : stamens included. Peru. B.M. 4.582. P.S. 7:650. R.H. 1858, p. 294. —One of the choicest of European green- house plants. Very liable to red spider in our climate. O. bicolor, Lem. Distinguished from the above by the entire Ivs., which are shorter, aboutlin.long, and the solitary fls., with a short, yellow tube, the limb not fringed. The fls. droop, but not vertically. Peru. B.M.4729. P.S. 4:343. Probably less de- sirable than the above. — C. pyrifblia, Pers. Lvs. generally broader and more toothed than in C. bicolor: fls. as many as 17, in an erect, terminal, compound corymb ; calyx red-tipped, nearly half as long as the yellow corolla tube ; corolla about l^in. long, with a white hmb : stamens long, exserted. Peru. B.M. 4386. P.S. 4:383. W. M. CAPE BULBS. Treated under Bulbs. CAPE CHEST- NUT is Caloden- druvi Gapensis. CAPE GOOSEBERRY is a J^hyaalis. CAPSICUM 241

 

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CAPE JESSAMINE. Gardenia, See CAPE PONDWEED. See Aponogeton. CAPER. See Capparis. For Caper-spurge,see Euphor- bia Latliyrus. CAPPARIS (Greek, caper). Caper-bush, or Caper Tree. Capparidiieem. Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower buds of C. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out of old walls, rocks, and rubbish in Mediterranean regions and India. Also rarely cult, as a greenhouse flowering shrub. The genus is large and polymorphic, and none of its relatives are familiar north. Prop, by cuttings in green- houses, and by seeds south. spindsa, Linn. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high : lvs. roundish or ovate, deciduous : fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading before noon; sepals 4; petals 4, oblong, clawed,wavy,white, IHin. long: stamens 40-50: filaments purple above, per- haps the chief beauty of the plant. B.M. 291.—What seems to be the long style with a short, un- opened stigma, is really the elon- 352. Capriola Dactylon. Nat. size. P^^d peduncle or torus topped by the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. W. M. CAPRIFOLIUM. See Lonicera. 16 CAFRtOLA (the wild goat, which feeds upon this grass). Graminem. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into finger-like branches. Spikelets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes 3, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. Ddctylon, Kuntze (Cynodon Dactylon, Pers.). Ber- muda Grass. Fig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping habit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-making, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a lawn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ -^ Kennedy. CAFSIGUM (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). Solandcece. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World.tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-6 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- liptical, entire, acuminate : fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3' corolla rotate, usually lobed; stamens 5, rarely or 7, with bluish anthers c hiscinglongitudinally;ova originally 2-3-loculed : a juiceless berry or pc extremely variable in foi and size, many-seeded, a with more or less pungen about the seeds and pe carp. Pig. 353. The fruit 1_ comes many-loculed and monstrous in cultivation. About 90 species have been named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper. A. Annual or biennial, dnnuum, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties in the United States readily find classifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear, c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoldes, Irish (C. conoldes, Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect:. fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%m.: fr. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about IJiin. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicnl^tom, Irish (C. fasciculdttim, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, round ornearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by Min. in diam., very acrid. This is the Red Cluster Pepper.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer02bail2

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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638 GEONOMA GEORGIA AA. Iivs. pinnate. B. Sasal Jeaf-segvients narrow; the upper oyies the broadest. *acaulis, Mart. Acaulescent : Ivs. long-petioled, 3-4 ft. high ; blade unequally pinnatisect, 22-25-nerved on each side ; basal segments 4 lines wide, spreading, the middle and upper erect-spreading at an acute angle, %-i in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil. BB. Sroad and narroiv seginents irregularly intermingled. c. Blade of leaf 6 ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPohli&na, Mart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequal, linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved and many-nerved -intermixed, 16-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil. 00. Blade 2-2}4 ft.: petiole 4 in. long. t^legans, Mart., var. robusta, Dr. Stem 6 ft. high, 3^ lines in diam.: segments rarely 3, usually 5-7, 1- nerved, 10-14 in. long, some 4 lines wide, intermixed with broader, many-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi- nate. Centra! Brazil. BBB. Leaf segments all alike {except the connivent apical ones). c. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfy. *Eiedeliina, H. Wendl. {G. gracilis, Lind. & Andr^). Habit of C'ocos Wcddelliana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above ; rachis triangular, bisulcate above : Ivs. spread- ing, drooping at the apes ; segments 10-12 in. long, about 9 lines wide, linear-acute, elegantly recurved, the , 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. I.H. 21:169. CO. Equidistant: petiole half as long as the lilade. Schottitoa, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, 1-lK in. thick : Ivs, recurved, spreading; petiole half or more than half as long as the blade ; segments about 35 on each side, 10-12 in. long, two-flfths in. wide, equidistant, linear or linear-lanceolate, very long acuminate. E. Brazil. The following are imperfectly described, but are in the trade : *G. irnperialis. Linden.â*6'. princeps. Linden.â*G. Fyria^r- fifinffl, Hort. Belongs under A. Oneof the smallest Ivs. measures 28in. longbylOin. at the broadest. Hasnot flowered yet, and the genus is thereforexmcertain, R,H, 1898, p, 262. G.C. HI. 2.'i:258. P.E. 10:886,â(J. SiJectdsa,Barb.-Eodr. Jaked G. Smith, W. H. Taplin and W. M. GEORGIA, HORTICULTURE IN. Pig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unique. Latitude and altitude combine to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is effected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tennessee line) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Intermediately may be found as varied a climate, and consequently as extended a range of horticultural pro- duction, as can be met with in a journey of a thousand miles due north and south, in a region of normal eleva- tion, such as the Mississippi valley. Measurably the geology of the state corresponds with its elevation and consequent climatology, and is not com- plex except in the extreme northwestern portion. Two formationsâthe tei-tiary and metamorphicâcover nine- tenths of its area. The Sealslands, and coast for a short distance inland, are alluvial or quarternary, and here the vegetation is of a subtropical characterâpalmet- toes and live-oaks on the islands and pines and ham- mock growth inland, together with the citrus, flg and olive families, where cultivated. Slightly beyond the tide-water limit begins the vast sweep of the pine forests, known locally as the "Wire- grass Region," which extends inland some 160 miles, on an average, covering nearly the whole of the tertiary for- mation. A range of low sand hills, about 300 feet high, extending diagonally across the state, separates the ter- tiary and metamorphic regions. At its base the land has attained an average altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea-beach, stretches the metamorphic region âthe red clay or cotton beltârising gradually toward the northwest until the Piedmont escarpment is reached â another low hill range on the southern side of and parallel to the Chattahoochee river valley. The height of this escarpment varies from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Be- yond this are the Appalachian foothills and then the

 

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Apple and cherry belt. Peach and grape belt. 900, Georgia, to showr horticultural regions. Pear and melon belt. â Fig and citrus belt. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In extreme northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general way toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet), interspersed, however, with a chaos of mountains and coves, with a complex tangle of geologi- cal formations, from lower Silurian to eocene. The prevailing natural growth of the tertiary is yel- low pineâthat of the metamorphic region hard woods, embracing nearly all of the North American species, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may be classified as follows : Horticultural Areas : Corresponding Geological Divisions. 1. Fig and Citrus Belt Quarternary Formation 2. Pear and Melon Belt Tertiary Formation 3. Peach and G-bape Belt Metamorphic Formation 4. Apple and Cherry Belt Tennessee Dip 1. The Fig and Citrus Belt. âIn this zone the citi-us family does not thrive indigenously, nor is it planted for commercial purposes. Yet oranges and lemons live and bear unprotected, though latterly subject to injury from frost. It is the home of the Ogeechee lime, and formerly both indigo and the olive flourished on the Sea Islands, but their culture has been for many years abandoned. Pigs grow to perfection. About the ports âespecially Savannah âheavy trucking is followed for the northern marketâchiefly potatoes, strawberries, cabbages, celery, tom.atoos, onions and peas.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches, and a synopsis of the vegetable kingdom

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer02bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954, ed; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869- joint ed

Subjects: Gardening -- Dictionaries; Plants -- North America encyclopedias

Publisher: New York, Doubleday, Page & Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

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CENTAUREA 11. montflna, Linn. Mountain Bluet. Perennial : sts. low, stolonit'erous, unbranched, 12-16 or rarely 20 in. high : Ivs. decurrent, the young ones silvery white, oval-lance-shaped : involucre of 4 or 5 rows of scales, blackciliate along the margins; fls. blue, the marginal ones 1 in. long, disc-fls. verv short, becoming purple. Europe. B. M. 77. Var. Alba^ Hort. Fls. white. Var. rbsea, Hort. Pis. rose-colored. Var. citrlna, DC. (var. sulphurea, Hort.). Disc-fls. brown, rays yellow. Ar- menia. B.M. 1175. CEPHALANTHUS 275 cc. stems cf, simple or branched.

 

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Centaurea Amen cana(X h)- 12. dealbata, Willd. Perennial : sts. sub-erect, 8-24 in. high : Ivs. white-villous beneath, glabrous above, the lower ones 1-1% ft. long, pet- 1 - 1 led, pinnate, the obovate lobes ^ irsely cut-toothed or auricled at ^ III base; stem-lvs. sessile,pinnate, w ith oblong-lance lobes: fl.-head 'solitary, just above the uppermost leif : fls. red, those of the disc rosy or white : outer scales of the mvolucre with lanceolate tips, the middle rounded, deeply fringed, (.iliate. Asia I\linor, Persia. 13. atropurpiirea, Waldst. & Kit. (t calocfphiila, Willd.). Peren- ni-il : sts. erect, branched, about 2-3 ft. higii, the branches white- woollj' at the summit: Ivs. bipin- nate, lobes liriear-lanceolate, acumi- nate ; lowest Ivs. petioled, upper- most pinnatifld: fl.-heads without bracts ; invol. scales with fringed ciliate white lanceolate tips, the innermost ones rounded, scarious-margined : fls. black-purple. Hungary. 14. Babyl6nica, Linn. Silvery white perennial: sts. simple, stout, erect, (i-lO or 12 ft. high : Ivs. long, coria- ceous, strongly decurrent on the stem, the radical lyrate, the lower stem-lvs. oval or oblong-acute, entire or undu- late, the upper lance-acute : fla. yellow, the globular heads almost sessile in the axils of narrow bract-like Ivs.; ^i-K of the stem flower-bearing: involucre-scales with a short, recurved tip. Asia Minor, Syria. Gn.2,p.73: 8, p. 263. E. H. 18.59, pp. 540-1.-Tall, stout and striking P'*°'- Jared Cx. Smith and L. H. B. CENTAUEtDIUM. See Xanthismu. CENTRADfiNIA( Greek for f()o«ifaiid, alluding to the anther glands). Melastonuicea-. Four species in Mexico and Central Amer., grown in warmhouses for their showy-colored Ivs. and pretty fls. They are herbs or shrubs, with angled or winged branches, petiolate, opposite lanceolate or ovate-entire, ribbed ivs., and fls. with 4-lobed calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a 4-loculed ovary. The blossoms are pink or white, in axillary or terminal clusters. Prop, by cuttings. Very showy and desirable plants. Stems often colored. Centradenias like rich leaf-mold with sharp sand, and brisk heat. Give a light but shady position. Strong plants are much benefited by liquid manure, and such applications give better colors in both flowers and fruit. Monogr. by Cogniaux. DC, Monographiae Phanerogamarum, 7: 116. ^andifolia, Endl. Branches 4-winged : Ivs. ovate- lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, brilliant red beneath, long-pointed and curving at the end: cymes many-tid., shorter than the ivs., the fls. light rose, rotate, the petals very obtuse, the stamens unequal. B.M. 5228.— The plant grows 2 ft. high, and blooms in winter. Very showy. The cut branches hold their color a long time, making the plant useful for decorations. floribiinda. Planch. Branches obscurely angled, pu- bescent, red: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering below, 3- nerved, red-nerved below : fls. pink, in terminal pani- cles. l''.S. 5:453. —Smaller than C. grandifolia. inaequilaterilis, G. Don (C. roseo, Lindl.). Lvs. ovate- lanceolate, unequal-sided, entire, ciliate, reddish be- neath: fls pink, in terminalcorjnnbose racemes: dwarf. Mes. B.R. 29:20. L. H. B. and H. A. Siebeecht. CENTRANTHUS [ijreek, spurred flower), falerian- <)ce(r. A few annual and perennial herbs of the Medi- terranean region, with dense clusters of small red or white fls. terminating the branches, and opposite entire or cut lvs.: calyx cut into 5-15 narrow divisions, en- larging after flowering; corolla slender-tubed, 5-parted, spurred at the base; stamen 1: fls. with a pappus-like crest. Of easiest culture. riiber, DC. Red Valerian. Jupiter's Beakd. Per- ennial, 1-3 ft., smooth and glaucous, forming a compact and floriferous, bushy plant ; lvs. ovate to lanceolate, some of them toothed at base: fls. very numerous, deep crimson. —A very handsome old garden plant, too much neglected. It blooms all summer. Excellent for cut- ting. Increased by division; also by seeds. There is a white-fld. form (var. rillnis). macroslphon, Boiss. Annual, of easy culture in any good soil: 1-2 ft.; lvs. ovate, glaucous, toothed: fls. larger than in the last, red. Spain. —There are white- fld. (var. dlbus) and dwarf (var. ndnns) forms. Excel- lent for rockeries and borders; also good for lawn vases. L. H. B. CENTEOPdGON (Greek kentron. spur, and pogon, l)i_':ir<l, nfninig t<i the fringed stigma). Campanti- h}':<',r. ^VlMtut .'it; ti-ujiical Amer. sub-shrubs or shrubs, often .scaiideiit, witli alternate, mostly dentate Ivs., and long, tubular fls. wliich are violet, purple, red, or orange, and usually liornr singly on long peduncles: bracteoles very small or wanting. Warmhouse perennial, prop, by cuttings. Lucyanus, Houllet. Height 1-2 ft.: stem somewhat woody; lvs. short-petioled. finely toothed: fls. rose, win- ter; hemispherical, with hmct'olate segments recurved at the tips. E.H. 1868:2'.ill.~ Said to be a hybrid of C. fastiwsits and Siphocfimjiiihis helulwformis, but seems to show little influence of the latter, which has longer petioles and peduncles, more coarsely toothed lvs., longer calyx-segments, and a yellow-tipped corolla. fastudsus, Scheidw. Lvs. peach-like, oblong, acute, bordered with glandular teeth, very glabrous, short- petioled: fls. rose-colored, winter ; calyx hemispherical, with 5 lanceolate, denticulate segments. Mex. R.H. 1853:181. W. M. CENTROSfiMA (Greek, spiirred-standard). Legii- mindsw. Butterfly Pe.\. Twining herbs (at least those in cult.), with pinnate, 3-7-foIiolate lvs., and showy white or reddish fls in the axils. Fl. papiliona- ceoTis. the standard spurred on the back, the keel broad, and the style bearded at the apex. Species nearly 40 in tropical Amer. and 2 in V. S. Virginianum. Benth. Roughish, climbing, 2-6 ft.: Ifts. ovate to linear, shining, stipitate : fls. 1^ in the axil, 1 in. long, violet and splashed, showy: pod straight and long-pointed, 4-5 in. long. Md. S., in sandy lands. A.G. 13:649.-Int. to cult, many years ago, but again in- troduced in 1892 (as C. grandiflorum), and much adver- tised. It is a hardy and desirable perennial vine, bloom- ing the first season from seed. There is a white-fld. var. L. H. B. CENTURY PLANT. Consult Agave. CEPHALANTHfiRA (Greek for head and anther). ()rihid:'ti-iii. frilic Xcflttieie. About 10 species of small. tenipi'rati-ri'gicin tirrestrial orchids, allied to Epipactis, Pogonia, etc. Some of them are western N. American, ahd others are European. Sepals 3: petals small, ovate: lip saccate : Ivs. (sometimes wanting) lanceolate or oblong: fls. mostly small (sometimes showy), in an open spike. The species are scarcely known in cult., but two Japanese species have been offered by importers. These are E. falcata, Blume. yellow, and E. erScta, Blume, white. CEPHALANTHUS (Greek, Mad and flower: fls. in heads). liuhiileeie. Button Bush. Shrubs with oppo- site or whorled, entire, stipulate lvs.: fls. small, tuliu- lar, white or yellowish, 4-merous, with included stamens and long, exserted style, in globular heads: fr. dry, sepa- rating into 2 nutlets. Six species in Amer., Africa and Asia, of which only the one North American species is

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture : comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofame04bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening; Horticulture; Horticulture; Horticulture

Publisher: New York : Macmillan

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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atrococcum 92 VACCINIUM EE. Hacemes shorter. F. Corolla cylindric: fr. blue 1; FF. Corolla iim-shaped: fr. black 1 . Species cultivated chiefly for ornament. B. Plants low, 2-2 ft. high. c. Stems creeping, with branches erect, or as- cending. D. T/vs. small, shining 20. crasslfollum DD. Lvs.larger,pale orglaii- cescent 21. uliginosum ec. Stems erect: twigs red 22. erythrinum IB. Plants taller, S-SO ft. high. c. Foliage evergreen, rigid. .2'^. ovatum re. Foliage deciduous. D. Surface shining above, more or less pubescent beneath 24. DD. Surface paler above, glaucous beneath 25. DDD. Surface bright green both sides. (Here might be sought No. 5.) arboreum stamineum erytlirocarpon 1. Oxyc6ocuB, Linn. Small Cranberry. Cranberry •of the Old World. Slender creeping plants with short, filiform stems 4-10 in. long: Ivs. ovate acute or acumi- nate, H in. long, with revolute margins: pedicels 1-4, terminal: corolla deeply 4-parted, the lobes reflexed; anthers exserted, with very long terminal tubes: berry red, globose, H-/^ in. in diam., 4-loculed. Sphagnum swamps in subarctic and alpine regions. —Though smaller, its fruit is by many considered superior to that of the next. 2. macroc&Tpon, Ait. Larger American Cranberry. Stems slender, creeping, elongated (1-4 ft.), the flower- ing branches ascending: Ivs. oblong or oval, obtuse or retuse, %-H in. long, whitened beneath: pedicels sev- «ral, axillary and lateral: berry red or reddish, globose or pyriform, %-l in. long. N. America. B.M. 2586. Em. 2:456. See Cranberni.

 

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3. Vitis-IdsBa, Linn. Cowberry. Mountain Cran BERRY. Fosberry. Fig. 2629. Plants low (G-10 in.) Ivs. coriaceous, persistent, obovate or oval, ii-% in long, dark green and shining above, with blackish bristly points beneath: fls. in short, terminal racemes corolla white or rose-colored, 4-cIeft: berries dark red acid, rather bitter. Arctic regions, south to coast VACCINIUM New England, Minn, aud Brit. Col. B.B. 2:580. L.B.C. 7:61C(as var. major); ll:1023(var. miKor).-Thefruits, which are rather larger than currants, acid and some- what bitter when uncooked, are largely used in the more nortliern regions for tarts, jellies and preserves, or as a substitute for the common cranberry. According to Macoun, the fishermen's families along the Gasp^ coast and the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence gather the fruit of this species in large quantities for their own use and for sale, calling it "Low-bush Cranberry." Throughout the whole of northern Canada hunters and trappers, as well as the native Indians, have frequently to depend upon it for food. It is valuable for the shrub- bery border, where the strong contrast of the dark green foliage and the bright-colored persistent fruit is very striking. 4. parvifdlium, Smith. Shrub, 6-12 ft. high, strag- gling, with slender, green, sharply angled branches: Ivs. oblong or oval, obtuse, entire, dull or pule, H-H in. long: fls. solitary in the axils; corolla globular, nearly white; calyx 5-lobed: berries light red, rather dry. Northern Calif, to Alaska. —Offered by only one nurseryman. T. J. Howell, of Oregon, characterizes the fruit :is "of good flavor, excellent for tarts," while Gray says "rather dry, hardly edible." 5. erythrocirpon, Michx. Shrub, erect, divergently branching, 1-4 ft. high: Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, acumi- nate, serrate, thin, lK-3 in. long: pedicels solitary, axillary, bractless: corolla flesh - colored, K in. long, 4-cleft, revolute: berries globose, yi in. in diam., light red, turning to deep blue-black at full maturity, watery, slightly acid, scarcely edible. July. Higher AUegha- uies, Va. to Ga. B.M. 7413. 6. nitidum, Andr. A diffusely much branched shrub, with smooth branchlets: Ivs. thick, coriaceous, shining above, obovate or oblong: fls. in fascicles on short ra- cemes, the almost persistent bracts as well as the roundish or obtuse calyx-teeth reddish; corolla short- campanulate, 5-toothed: berry "somewhat pear-shaped, black." Fla. and Ga. —Near to or passing into T'. Myr- sinites. 7. Myrsinites, Lam. Low, evergreen shrub erect or decumbent: Ivs. exceedingly variable, K-1 in. long, en- tire or serrulate, sometimes denticulate, mostly shining above; bracts and calyx-teeth acute or acutish: berries "globose,blue." Sandy pine barrens N.Car.toFla.and La. B.M. 1550 (as K nitidum, var. decumbens).-The differ- ence between this species and the preceding is obscure. The chief points of distinction seem to be that V. Myrsi- nites has puberulent branchlets, prominently veined Ivs. and acute calyx-teeth and bracts, while V. nitidum has smooth branchlets, smaller and faintly veined Ivs., with obtuse or roundish calyx-teeth and bracts. Grown as a [lOt-plant in coolhouses in England under the name of r. Sprengelii. 8. vacillans, Kalm. Low Blueberry. Blue Hcckle beery. Erect, glabrous: Ivs. obovate or oval, entire or sparingly serrulate: fls. in rather loose clusters, gener- ally on leafless summits of twigs; corolla campanulate or cylindraceous, contracted at the mouth: berries large, blue, with much bloom, of excellent flavor, ripening with r. Canndense. Dry, sandy, or rocky places, N. Amer. B.B. 2:57!l. Em. 1:454. —One of the most com- mon species of the northern and central states, particu- larly west of the Alleghanies. The fls. are quite .showy, while the fruit is particularly valuable. 9. Myrtillus, Linn. Whortleberry. Bilberry. Low shrubs, glabrous: Ivs. ovate or oval, serrate, conspicu- ously veined, K-^ in. long: calyx almost entire: ber- ries black, nodding. Mountainous regions, N. Amer., Eu., Asia.—The most widely distributed species and very generally used as an article of diet and in the mak- ing of drinks, particularly in the Old World. It is from this species that the commbn name Whortleberry is de- rived. Not of special importance in America. 10. csespitdsum, Michx. Dwarf Bilberry. A dwarf tufted shrub, 3-12 in. high, nearly glabrous throughout: Ivs. obovate, obtuse or acutLsh, serrulate, shining on both sides: fls. solitary; corolla obovoid, pink or white, slightly 5-toothed (rarely 4-toothed): berries large, globose, blue with bloom, sweet. N. Amer. B.B. 2:576

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924000537757

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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1892 VACCINIUM VACCINIUM EE. Racemes shorter. F. Corolla cylitidric: fr. blue LS. corymbosum FF. CorolJn i(rn'sJi<ipi:'d: fr. hhich ID. atrococcum AA. iSj'ecies ruUivateil clilef'h/ for ornament. B. Pl<i)ds loiv, 1-2 fl. li'ujh. ;. snniU, .s]thiin</ '20. crassi£olium DD. Xr.s*. lanjcr,/!'! tc or ijloii- cescent '2]. uliginosum cc. Stems erect: tici</s n<J... .22. erytkrinum BB. Plants taller, S-20 ft. hiijl,. C. Foll'f'jc cv'-'n/rrr)!. ri;//tl. .2'.i. ovatum CC. Foliinje ijrrltinniis. D. Sttrf'ice slii Himi a hove, more or less piilxscmt beneaiJi 1^4. arboreum DD. Surface p a I e r a h o v e, glaacons beneath 25. stamineum DDD. Surface bright green hath si.U'H. {Here might he sought No. 5.) 5. erytbrocarpon 1. Oxyc6ccus, Linn. Small Cranberry. Craxbkrry of the (JId \\'ori<l. Slender creeping plantH with siidct, filiform stems 4-10 in. long: Ivs. ovate acnte or acumi- nate, M ill- long, with revolute margins: pedicels 1-4, terminal: corolla deeply 4-parted, the lobes reflexed; anthers exserted, with very long terminal tubes: berry red, globose, ^i~^z in. in diam., 4-loculed. Sphagnum swamps in subarctic ami alpine regions. —Though smaller, its fruit is by nu\ny considered superior to tluit of the next. 2. macrocArpon, Ait. Larger American Cranberry. Stems slender, creeping, elongated (1-4 ft.), the flower- ing branches ascending: Ivs. oblong or oval, obtuse or refuse, '-3-H in. long, whitened beneath; pedicels sev- eral, axillary and lateral: berry red or reddish, globose or pvrifnrm, ^-^-l in. long. N. Amn-iea. B.M'. 2586. Em. 2:456. See Cranherri/.

 

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2629- Cowberry or Mountain Cranberry—Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea {X Mbont ^;l. 3. Vitis-Idsea, Linn. Cowberry. Mountain Cran- berry. FoxBERRY. Fig. 2(i2!t. Plants low (6-10 in.): Ivs. coriaceous, persistent. ol)OYate or oval, 34-^ in. long, dark green and shining above, with blackisli bristly points beneath: fls. in short, terminal racentps; corolla white or rose-colored, 4-fieft: berries dark red", acid, rather bitter. Arctic regions, south to coast of New England, Minn, and Brit. Col. B.B. 2:580. L.B.C. 7:616 fas var. major); ll:U)23fvar. mrnor).—Thefruits, which are rather larger than currants, acid and some- what bitter when uncooked, are largely used in the more northern regions for tai'ts, jellies and preserves, or as a substitute for the common cranl)erry. According to Macoun, the fishermen's families along the Gasp(5 coast and the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence gather the fruit of this species in large quantities for their own use and for sale, calling it "Low-bush Cranlierry." Throughout the whole of northern Canada hunters and trappers, as well as the native Indians, have frequently to depend upon it for food. It is valuable for the shrub- bery border, where the strong contrast of the dark gnea foliage and the bright-colored persistent fruit is \ery striking. 4. parvif61ium, Smith. Shrub, G-12 ft. high, strag- gling, with slender, green, sharply angled branches: Ivs. oblong or oval, obtuse, entire, dull or pale, }4~-% in. long: fls. solitary in the axils; corolla globular, nearly white; calyx 5-lobed: berries light red, rather dry. Northern Calif, to Alaska. —Offered by only one nurseryman. T. J. Howell, of Oregon, characterizes the fruit as "of good flavor, excellent for tarts," while racts. Grown as a pot-plant in coolhouses in England under the name of I'. SprengeVii. 8. vacillans, Kalm. Low Blueberry. Blfe HrcKLE- BERRY. Erect, glabrous: Ivs. obovate or oval, entire or sparingly serrulate: fls. in rather loose clusters, gener- ally on leafless summits of twigs; corolla campanulate or cylindraceous, coiitracted at the mouth : berries large, blue, with much bloom, of excellent flavor, ripening with r. Canadi'nae. Dry, sandy, or rocky places, N. Amer. B.B. 2:579. Em. 1:454. —One of the most com- mon species of the northern and central states, particu- larly west of the Alleghanies. The Hs. are quite showy, while the fruit is particularly valuable. 9. Myrtillus, Linn. Whortleberry. Bilberry. Low shrubs, glabrous: Ivs. ovate or oval, serrate, conspicu- ously veined, K-% in. long: calyx almost entire: ber- ries black, nodding. Mountainous regions, N. Amer., Eu., Asia.—The most widely distributed species and very generally used as an article of diet ami in the mak- ing of drinks, particularly in the Old Worbl. It is from this species that the common name Whortleberrj' is de- rived. Not of special importance in America. 10. caespitdsura, iMirbx. Dwarf Bilberry. A dwarf tufted shrub, :!-12 in. high, nearly glabrous througliDuC: ivs. obovate, obtuse or acutish, serrulate, shining on both sides: fls. solitary; corolla obovoid, pink or white, slightly 5-tootlipd (rarely 4-toothed) : l)erries large, globose, blue with bloom, sweet. N. Amer. B.B. 2:576

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofam01bail

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869-

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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CANTUA CANTITA (from Cantu, Peruvian name). PolemoniA- ce(B. Ten species of South American flowering slinibs witli very variable foliage and showy, tubular fls. of va- rious colors. C. buxifolia is cult, out of doors in S.Calif., and is recommended in Europe as a coolhouse shrub. Probably no tenderer than Fuchsias. Prop, by cuttings. btmldlia, Lam. (('. d, i^f'mh us. Pers.). Much branched shrub, about i ft. lii^'h ; l.iaii.lns more or less downy: Ivs. very variable. ^-.iicriiHy -2in. long, red, usually streaked ; limb of fringed, obcordate, crimson lobes : stamens included. Peru. B.M. 4.582. P.S. 7:650. R.H. 1858, p. 294. —One of the choicest of European green- house plants. Very liable to red spider in our climate. C bicolor, hem. Distinguished from the above by the entire Ivs., which are shorter, abnut 1 in. long, and the solitary fls., with a short, yellow tube, tlie liiuli not fringed. The lis. droop, but not vertically. Peru. B.M. 47'.''J. F..'^. 4:343. Probably less de- sirable than the above.— <'. p^jrifolia, Pers. Lvs. generally broader and more toothed tlum in C. bicolor: fls. as many as 17, in an erect, terminal, compound corymb ; calyx red-tipped, nearly half as long as the yellow corolla tube : corolla about long, with a white limb : stamens long, exserted. Peru. "- "3.4:383. -nr. M. CAPE Treated Bidh.s. CAPSICUM 241

 

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CAPE GOOSEBEEEY CAPE PONDWEED. See Aponogeion. _ CAPEE. See Capparis. L'aper-spurge,see .BnpAor- hia Lathyms. CAPPAEIS (Greek, coper). Caper-bush, or Caper Tree. Cappariddcece. Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower buds of C. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out of old walls, rocks, and rubbish in Mediterranean regions and India. Also rarely cult, as a greenhouse flowering shrub. The genus is large and polymorphic, and none of its relatives are familiar north. Prop, by cuttings in green- and by seeds south. spindsa, Linn. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high : lvs. roundish or ovate, deciduous : fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading before noon; sepals 4; petals 4, oblong, clawed,wavy,white, IHin. long: stamens 40-50: filaments purple above, per- haps the chief beauty of the plant. B.M. 291.-What seems to be the long style with a short, un- opened stigma, is really the elon- 352. Capriola Dactylon. Nat. size. f^^^<^ ^to'^^^d^ by the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. CAPBIFOHUM. See Lonicera. CAFElOLA (the wild goat, which feeds upon this grass). Gramt)ie(F. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into flnger-like branches. Spikelets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes 3, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. D&ctylon, Kuntze {Ci/iiorloH Ddctylon. Pers.). Ber- muda Grass. Pig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping haliit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-makiug, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a l,iwn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ ^ jj^^^-^DV. CAFSICUH (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). Solandcew. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World.tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-ti ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- liptical, entire, acuminate: fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3's; corolla rotate, usually 5- lobed; stamens 5, rarely 6 or 7, with bluish anthers de- biscinglongitudinally ;ovary ] originally 2-3-loculed : fr. a juiceless beiTy or pod, extremely variable in form and size, many-seeded, and with more or less pungency about the seeds and peri- carp. Pig. 353. The fruit be- comes many-loculed and monstrous in cultivation. 353. Normal 2-loculed fruit o£ About 90 species have been Capsicum, in cross section. named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. Eept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper. A. Annual or hiennlal. innuum, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties in the United States readily find cla,ssifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear. c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoldes, Irish (C. conoldes. Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect; fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%in.: fr. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about IJiin. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicuiatum, Irish (C. fascicuUtnm, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, round or nearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by Min. in diam., very acrid. This is the Eed Cluster Pepper.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924074091772

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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ANGR-ECUM ANISE 67 from nearthe base of the st.; fls. large, green and white, placed alternately back to back ; sepals and petals spreading, green ; labellum whitish, round, thickish ; spur green. Valuable ; grows to enormous proportions. Madagascar. B.M. 4761. B.R. 1522. L. 236. Var. vlrens, Hort. {A. vlrens, Lindl.). Fls. smaller ; labellum tinged with green. B.M. 5170. Oakes Ames. ANGTTLdA (dedicated to Don Francisco de Angulo). Orcli iddcew,tTihe Vdndew. Pseudobulbs rathertall (when old), spinose at the summits with the remnants of leaf veins : leaf-blades 1-2 ft. long, prominently nerved, as in Acineta, Stanhopea and Lycaste : fls. large, sub- globular, on erect scapes : habit similar to Lycaste, which is a member of the same sub-tribe. The Anguloas grow imder shade of trees in leaf-mold. Some growers find that they do well when placed under vines. They are coolhouse orchids, but require a moderate rise in temperature during the growing season. Oakes Ames. Anguloa is a very interesting genus of cool orchids that thrive well in an ordinary greenhouse temperature, in which a minimum of 50° can be maintained. They are natives of the Andes of Colombia and Peru. The popular name of "Boat Orchid" somewhat suggests their shape and general appearance, the lip, being delicately hinged at its base, allowing this organ to oscillate when shaken, A. Clowesii is the best known as well as the most decorative species, its color being clear yel- low. A. Bucheri is similar in structure, but the fls. are chocolate-brown, with a decided aromatic fragrance, resembling Anise. There is also a white variety of A. Clowesii, but it is very rare in cultivation, as are all of the white forms of well known orchids, this making them very valuable commercially. A.uniflora is also a pretty plant, with white flowers, spotted with pink. Pot culture is best, as they require similar treatment to I/ijcaste Skinneri. y,. O. Orpet. uniildra, Ruiz & Pavon. {A.virgin&lis,'B.OTi.). Pseu- dobulbs about 6 in.high( sometimes considerably higher): leaf-blades l%-2 ft. long, lanceolate : fls. whitish, some- times spotted within, or the labellum streaked with rose. Colombia. G. C. III. 19: 423. A. F. 6: 607. —There is a white-fld. var. CISwesii, Lindl. Larger in every way than the above: fls. lemon-yellow, labellum tending toward white, mar- bled with orange. Colombia. Buckeri, Lindl. Smaller than A. Clowesii: fls. yel- low, spotted with crimson. A variety has been flgured with the crimson or red color predominant {va,T. sangiiin- «a, A.F. 6:607). Colombia. ehiimea, Nicholson. Simi- lar to A. Clowesii,hut sepals and petals pure white and lip spotted pink. New Gra- nada. Oakes Ames. as wide at base, the upper surface variously fissured, even to the edges, presenting an irregular warty appear- ance : fls. central, about 1 in. long and broad, shading from whitish to rose. On limestone hills in the "Great Bend" region of the Rio Grande in Texas, and extending into Mexico. I.H. 16, p. 73, and flg. Kotchiibeyi, Lem. (^1. sulcdtnm, Salm-Dyck). This appears as a trade name, but the form is very uncertain, as no type seems to be in existence. According to the description, it is very much like the preceding species, except that the upper surface of the tubercle is not ir- regularly fissured, but is smooth, at least at the edges, except for the central furrow. B. Upper surface of tubercle not grooved. prism&ticum, Lem. The fiat top 3-8 in. across: tuber- cles imbricate, but squarrose-spreading, sharply triangu- lar-pyramidal and very acute, with a sharp, cartilaginous tip, which usually disappears with age and leaves the older tubercles blunt or retuse, %-l in. long and about as wide at base, the upper surface almost plane and smooth, except that it is more or less pulverulent, and often bears a small tomentose tuft just behind the claw- like tip: fls.rose color. Mts.ofMex.—Resembles an Aloe. John M.Coulter. ANIGOZANTHTJS {Greek, ej-panded-flower). Hasmo- dordeecB. Eight or 10 species of Australian greenhouse or half-hardy perennials, with greenish, yellow or purple fls. and sword-like Ivs., cult, in Europe, but unknown to the Amer. trade. ANISACANTHUS {Greek, unequal acanthus). Acan- thAcece. A genus of six species of Mexican and Ameri- can shrubs, with mostly lanceolate, entire, petioled Ivs., and loosely spicate or scattered red fls. an inch or more long ; corolla lobes 4 ; stamens 2, equaling or exceed- ing the corolla lobes. Wrlghtii, Gray. Height, 2-4 ft.: Ivs. 1-2 in. long, ob- long- or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate. S. and W. Tex. —Once sold by John Saul, Washington, DC. ANHALdNIlTM (name of no significance). Cact&cece. Top-shaped succulent des- ert plants, mostly buried in the ground, the flat aerial portion covered with angular tubercles hearing no spines. A genus of 4 or 5 species, strictly Mexican, except that a single species {A.Engel- manni) crosses the Rio Grande into Texas. It is referred to MamUlaria by some. For A. WilUamsii and A. Jjewinii, see under ^chinocactus, section Jjophophora. For culture, see Cactus. A. Upper surface ofluhercle witJi a broad and deep wool- bearing longitudinal groove, which widens below. fingelmanm, Lem. {A. fissiir&tum, Engelm.). Living Rock. The flat tubercle-covered top 2-5 in. across, taper- ing below into a thick root: tubercles imbricated and appressed, triangular in outline, }i-l in. long and about

 

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Informal disposition of annuals,— a mass against a background. (See Annuals, p. 68.) Anise, UmbelUferce. An aromatic condimental and medicinal herb {Pimpinilla Anisum, Linn.) of the Ori- ent. It is an annual, and is easily grown from seeds in any warm and mellow soil. The seeds are commonly sown where the plants are to stand. The seeds are used in medicine and in cookery, and for flavoring liquors. They yield a highly perfumed essential oU. They are mostly grown in Mediterranean countries. The leaves are also used as seasoning and garnishing. The plant reaches a height of 2 ft., bears twice-pinnate Ivs. and small yel- lowish white fls. in large, loose umbels. The seeds are oblong and curved, ribbed on the convex side, grayish.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer04bail4

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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1892 VACCINIUJVI VACCINIUM EE. Racemes shorter. F. Corolla cylindric: fr. blue 18. corymliosuin FF, Corolla urn-shaped: fr. black 19. atrococcum AA. Species cultivated cJiiefly for ornament. B. Plants low, 1-2 ft, high. c. Stems creeping, witJi branches erect, or as- cending. D. Lvs. small, shining 20. crassiiolium DD. Xjvs.larger,paleorgla'U- cescent 21. uliginosum 00. Stems erect: twigs red 22. erythrinum BB. Plants taller, 2-20 ft. high. 0. Foliage evergreen, rigid. .2"^. ovatum CO. Foliage deciduous. D. Surface shining above, more or less pubescent beneath 24. arboreum DD. Surface paler above, glaucous beneath 25. stamineum DDD. Surface bright green both sides. {Here might besought No. 5.) 5. erythrocarpon 1. Oxycficcus, Linn. Small, Ceanberkt. Crasberrt of the Old World. Slender creeping plants with short, filiform stems 4-10 in. long: lvs. ovate acute or acumi- nate, % in. long, with revolute margins: pedicels 1-4, terminal: corolla deeply 4-parted, the lobes reflexed; anthers exserted, with very long terminal tubes: berry red, globose, 34-/^ in. in diam., 4-loculed. Sphagnum swamps in subarctic and alpine regions. —Though smaller, its fruit is by many considered superior to that of the next. 2. macrocirpon, Ait. Larger American Cranberry. Stems slender, creeping, elongated (1—4 ft.), the flower- ing branches ascending: lvs. oblong or oval, obtuse or retuse, Yz-Y^ in. long, whitened beneath: pedicels sev- eral, axillary and lateral: berry red or reddish, globose or pyriform, H-1 in. long. N. America. B.M. 2586. Em. 2:456. See Cranberrif.

 

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2629. Cowberry or Mountain Cranberry — Vaccinium Vitis-Idasa (X about %). 3. Vitis-Idaea, Linn. Cowberry. Mountain Cran- berry. PoxBERRY. Pig. 2629. Plants low (6-10 in.): lvs. coriaceous, persistent, obovate or oval, }/i-% in. long, dark green and shining above, with blackish bristly points beneath: fls. in short, terminal racemes; corolla white or rose-colored, 4-cleft: berries dark red, acid, rather bitter. Arctic regions, south to coast of New England, Minn, and Brit. Col. B.B. 2:580. L.B.C. 7:616(as var. major); ll:1023(var. jHiMor). —Thefruits, which are rather larger than currants, acid and some- what bitter when uncooked, are largely used in the more nortliern regions for tarts, jellies and preserves, or as a substitute for the common cranberry. According to Macoun, the fishermen's families along the Gasp6 coast and the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence gather the fruit of this species in large quantities for their own use and for sale, calling it "Low-bush Cranberry." Throughout the whole of northern Canada hunters and trappers, as well as the native Indians, have frec^uently to depend upon it for food. It is valuable for the shrub- bery border, where the strong contrast of the dark green foliage and the bright-colored persistent fruit is very striking. 4. parvifolium, Smith. Shrub, 6-12 ft. high, strag- gling, with slender, green, sharply angled branches: lvs. oblong or oval, obtuse, entire, dull or pale, K-% in. long: fls. solitary in the axils; corolla globular, nearly wliite; calyx 5-lobed: berries light red, rather dry. "Northern Calif, to Alaska.— Offered by only one nurseryman. T. J. Howell, of Oregon, characterizes the fruit as "of good flavor, excellent for tarts," while Gray says "rather dry, hardly edible." 5. erythrocirpon, Michx. Shrub, erect, divergently branching, 1-4 ft. high: lvs. oblong-lanceolate, acumi- nate, serrate, thin, 1^-3 in. long: pedicels solitary, axillary, bractless: corolla flesh-colored, K in. long, 4-cleft, revolute: berries globose, % in. in diam., light red, turning to deep blue-black at full maturity, watery, slightly acid, scarcely edible. July. Higher Allegha- nies, Va. to Ga. B.M. 7413. 6. nitidum, Andr. A diffusely much branched shrub, with smooth branchlets: lvs. thick, coriaceous, shining above, obovate or oblong: fls. in fascicles on short ra- cemes, the almost persistent bracts as well as the roundish or obtuse calyx-teeth reddish; corolla short- campannlate, 5-toothed: berry "somew^hat pear-shaped, black." Pla. and Ga. —Near to or passing into V. Myr- sinites. 7. Myrsinites, Lam. Low, evergreen shrub erect or decumbent: lvs. exceediiii,'ly variable, }i-l in. long, en- tire or serrulate, sometinn:-s denticulate, mostly shining above; bracts and calyx-teeth acute or acutish: berries "globose, blue." Sandy pine barrens N.Car.to Fla.and La. B.M. 1550 (as F. nitidum., var. decumbens}. — The differ- ence between this species and the preceding is obscure. The chief points of distinction seem to be that V. Myrsi- nites has puberulent branchlets, prominently veined lvs. and acute calyx-teeth and bracts, while V. nitidum has smooth branchlets, smaller and faintly veined lvs., with obtuse or roundish calyx-teeth and bracts. Grown as a pot-plant in coolhouses in England under the name of V. Sprengelii. 8. vacillans, Ealm. Low Blueberry. Blue Huckle- berry. Erect, glabrous: lvs. obovate or oval, entire or sparingly serrulate: fls. in rather loose clusters, gener- ally on leafless summits of twigs; corolla campanulate or cylindraceous, contracted at the mouth : berries large, blue, with much bloom, of excellent flavor, ripening with V. Canadense. Dry, sandy, or rocky places, N. Amer. B.B. 2:579. Em. 1:454. —One of the most com- mon species of the northern and central states, particu- larly west of the Alleghanies. The fls. are quite showy, while the fruit is particularly valuable. .9. Myrtillus, Linn. Whortleberry. Bilberry. Low shrubs, glabrous: lvs. ovate or oval, serrate, conspicu- ously veined, yi-% in. long: calyx almost entire: ber- ries black, nodding. Mountainous regions, N. Amer., En., Asia.—The most widely distributed species and very generally used as an article of diet and in the mak- ing of drinks, particularly in the Old World. It is from this species tliat the common name Whortleberry is de- rived. Not of special importance in America. 10. csespitdsum, Michx. Dwarf Bilberry. A dwarf tufted shrub, 3-12 in. high, nearly glalirous throughout: lvs. obovate, obtuse or acutish, serrulate, shining on both sides: fls. solitary; corolla obovoid, pink or white, slightly 5-tootlied (rarely 4-toothed): berries large, globose, blue with bloom, sweet. N. Amer. B.B. 2:576

  

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Title: An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions : from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian

Identifier: ed2illustratedflo02brit

Year: 1913 (1910s)

Authors: Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1859-1934; Brown, Addison, 1830-1913

Subjects: Botany

Publisher: New York : Scribner

Contributing Library: Robarts - University of Toronto

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

  

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I. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. fruited Mallow. Fig. 2867. Maha caroliniana L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753- Modiola miiltifida Moench, Meth. 620. 1791. Modiola caroliniana G. Don, Gen. Hist. PI. i: 466. 1831. Annual or biennial, more or less pubescent, freely branching; stems slender, 6'-i8' long. Leaves nearly orbicular in outline, i'-2i' wide, petioled, pedate!y3-5-cleft, the lobes dentate or incised; leaves sometimes simply dentate; flowers axillary, solitary, j"-j" broad; peduncles at length elongated, slender; petals obovate; fruit depressed-orbicular, the carpels hispid-aristate along the back. In low grounds, Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, and in Central and South America and the West Indies. The same species apparently occurs in South Africa. Summer. 10. KOSTELETZKYA Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 130. pi. 70. it Perennial, scabrous or pubescent herbs or shrubs, with hastate or angular leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels several, linear. Calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft. Stamen-column entire, or s-toothed at the summit, anther-bearing below for nearly its entire length. Ovary 5-celled, the cells l-ovuled; style-branches of the same number, stigmatic at the capitate summits. Capsule depressed, 5-angled. Seeds reni- form, ascending. [Named in honor of V. F, Kosteletzky, a botanist of Bohemia.] About 8 species, natives of warm and temperate .•Vmerica. In addition to the following, another occurs in the southwestern United States. Type species: Kostcletzkya haslata Presl. I. Kosteletzkya virgmica (L.) A. Gray. Virginia Kosteletzkya. Fig. 2868. Hibiscus I'irginicus L. Sp. PI. 697. 1753. K. lirginica A. Gray, Gen. 2: 80. t. 132. 1849. K. virginica var. althaeifolia Chapm. Fl. S. States 57- i860. A', althaeifolia A. Gray; S. Wats. Bibl. Index 136. 1878. Perennial, erect, b^-anching, 2°-4° high, more or less stellate-pubescent and scabrous. Leaves ovate, or hastate, truncate or cordate at the base. 2-5' long, unequally dentate and often 3-lobed below, sometimes with an additional lobe or two at the middle, acute, velvety or pubescent; flow- ers pink, ii'-2J' broad, in loose terminal leafy panicles; bractlets of the involucels 8-9, linear, shorter than the lanceolate acute calyx-seginents; capsule hispid-pubescent. In salt or brackish marshes, southeastern Mew York to Florida and Louisiana. Bermuda: Cuba. Aug. II. HIBISCUS L. Sp. PI. 693. 1753. Herbs, shrubs, or in tropical regions even small trees, with dentate or lobed leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate, mostly campanulate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels numer- ous, narrow. Calyx s-cleft or 5-toothed. Column of stamens truncate or 5-toothed at the apex, anther-bearing below along much of its length. Ovary s-celled, the cells 3-several- ovuled; style-branches 5, stigmatic at the capitate summit. Capsule 5-valved. Seeds reni- form. [An ancient name, used by Dioscorides for the Marsh Mallow.] .^bout 180 species, widely distributed in warm and temperate countries. In addition to the following, about 14 others occur in the southern and western United States. Type species : Hibiscus Trionum L.

 

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924000537732

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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638 GEONOMA AA. Lcs. phtnaie. B. Basal leaf-segments narrov; the upper ones ih- broadest. *acaulis, Mart. Acaulescent : Ivs. long-petioled, 3-4 ft. high ; blade uneq-ually pinnatisect, 22-25-nerYed on each side ; basal .segments 4 Hues -wide, spreading, the middle and upper erect-spreading at an acute angle, ^-4 in. wide, the apical very wide. Central Brazil. EB. Broad and narrow segments irregidiirlif Interiii inijted. c. Blade of leaf 6 ft. long : petiole 1 ft. long. tPohlitaa, Mart. Stem 12-15 ft. high, slender, densely ringed, columnar or reedy : segments very unequal, linear-lanceolate, falcate-acuminate, few-nerved and many-nerved intermixed, lG-20 in. long. Trop. Brazil. cc. Blade 2-Syi ft.: petiole 4 in. long. t^legaus. Mart., var. robusta, Dr. Stem (J ft. high. :i-4 lines in diani.: segments rarely 3, usually 5-7, 1- nerved, 10-14 in. long, some 4 lines wide, intermixed with broader, m,any-nerved ones, all long, falcate-acumi- nate. Central Brazil. BBB. Leaf segnunils all alil;e (except the connivent apical ones). c. Alternate, remote, linear, scurfij. *Eiedeliina, H. Wendl. (ff. gracilis, Lind. & Andre). Habit of Cocos Weddetliana, the whole plant sparsely covered with caducous, brown, shining scales : petiole slender, 1% ft. or more long, terete below, flattened above : rachis triangular, bisulcate above : Ivs. spread- ing, drooping at the apex ; segments 10-12 in. long, about 9 lines wide, linear-acute, elegantly recurved, the 2 terminal ones connivent. Brazil. I.H. 21:169. cc. Eeptidistant: petiole half as long as the blade. Schottiana, Mart. Stem 9-15 ft. high, \-l}i in. thick : Ivs. recurved, spreading; petiole half or more than half as long as the blade ; segments about .35 on eaeli side, 10-12 in. long, two-fifths in. wide, equidistant, linear or linear-lanceolate, very long acuminate. E. Brazil. The following .^â re imperfectly descri1>ecl, but are in the trade : *(?. imperialis. Linden.â*(?. princeps, Ijinden.â*Cr. Fynecr- tidna,Kort. Belongs under A. Oneof thesmallestlvs. measures 28 in. long by 10 in. at tlie broadest. Hasnot flowered yet, and the genus is therefore uncertain. R.H. 1898, p. 202. G.C. III. 23:258. F.E. 10:886. â(J. siJccwsa, Barb.-Rodr. Jaeed Ct. Smith, W. H. Taplin and W. M. GEORGIA, HOETICULTTJRE IN, Fig. 900. The cli- matology of Georgia is unique. Latitude and altitude combine to exaggerate the four and one-half degrees covered by the state from south to north into at least ten, thereby embracing an extraordinary range of cli- mate. In something less than 300 miles a transition is eflfected from a subtropical to an almost boreal vege- tation. Proceeding northwestwardly from the coast, the coun- try rises gradually until it culminates in the Blue Ridge, the highest peaks of which (in Towns county, on the Tennessee line) stand a little more than 5,000 feet high. Intermediately may be found as varied a climate, and consequently as extended a range of horticultural pro- duction, as can bo met with in a journey of a thousand miles due liortb and south, in a region of normal eleva- tion, such as the Mississippi valley. Measurably the geology of the state corresponds with its elevation and consequent climatology, and is not com- plex except in the extreme northwestern portion. Two formations âthe tertiary and metamorphicâcover nine- tenths of its area. The Sealslands, andcoastforashort distance inLand, are alluvial or quarternary, and here the vegetation is of a subtropical character â]}almet- toes and live-oaks on the islands and pines and ham- mock growth inland, together with the citrus, tig and olive families, where cultivated. Sliglitly beyond the tide-w.ater limit begins the vast sweep of the pine forests, known locally as the "Wire- grass Region," which extends inland some 100 miles, on an average, covering nearly the whi>le of the tertiary for- mation. A range of low s.and hills, about 300 feet high, extending diagonally across the state, separates the ter- GEOEGIA tiary and metamorphic regions. At its base the land has attained an average altitude of less than 200 feet. From the summit of this ridge or terrace, formerly the primordial sea-beach, stretches the metamorphic region â the red clay or cotton beltârising gradually toward the nortliwest until the Piedmont escarpment is reached â another low hill range on the southern side of and parallel to the Chattahoochee river valley. The height of this escarpment varies from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Be- yond this ai-e tin- Ap])alacliian foothills and then the

 

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Pear and melon belt. Fig and citrus belt. 900. Georeia, to show horticultural reeions. mountains, in very irregular formation, their spurs ra- diating in all directions. In extreme northwest Georgia the surface dips in a general way toward the Tennessee river valley (eleva- tion 700 feet), interspersed, however, with a chaos of mountains and coves, with a complex tangle of geologi- cal formations, from lower Silurian to eocene. The prevailing natural growth of the tertiary is yel- low pine âthat of the metamorphic region hard woods, embracing nearly all of the North American species, oak and hickory predominating. All this has been a necessary preface to a division of the state into separate horticultural areas, which cor- respond in the main with its geological features, and may be classified as follows ; Horticultural Areas : Currespondimj Geological Divisions. 1. Fio ANO CiTEUS Belt Quarternary Formation 2. Pear anu Melon Belt Tertiary Form,itioii 3. Pbaoh anii (4RArE Belt Met:imorphic Formation 4. Apple A.N'ii CUERRT Belt Tennessee Dip 1. The Fill and Citrus Belt.-In this zone the citrus family does not thrive indigenously, nor is it planted for commercial purposes. Yet oranges and lemons live and bear unprotected, though latterly sub.iect to iu.iury from frost. It is the h(Oue of the Ogeechee lime, and formerly l)oth indigo and the olive fl<.urisbed on the Sea Islands, but their culture has been for nuiny years abandoned. Figs grow to perfection. About the ports-especially Savannah-heavy trucking is fidlowed for the northern market âidiieflypotatoes, strawberries, cabbages, celery, tomatOf-s. onions and peas.

  

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Title: An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions : from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian

Identifier: ed2illustratedflo02brit

Year: 1913 (1910s)

Authors: Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1859-1934; Brown, Addison, 1830-1913

Subjects: Botany

Publisher: New York : Scribner

Contributing Library: Robarts - University of Toronto

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

  

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Cenus 9. MALLOW FAMILY, Bristly-

 

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I. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. fruited Mallow. Fig. 2867. Maha caroliniana L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753- Modiola miiltifida Moench, Meth. 620. 1791. Modiola caroliniana G. Don, Gen. Hist. PI. i: 466. 1831. Annual or biennial, more or less pubescent, freely branching; stems slender, 6'-i8' long. Leaves nearly orbicular in outline, i'-2i' wide, petioled, pedate!y3-5-cleft, the lobes dentate or incised; leaves sometimes simply dentate; flowers axillary, solitary, j"-j" broad; peduncles at length elongated, slender; petals obovate; fruit depressed-orbicular, the carpels hispid-aristate along the back. In low grounds, Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, and in Central and South America and the West Indies. The same species apparently occurs in South Africa. Summer. 10. KOSTELETZKYA Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 130. pi. 70. it Perennial, scabrous or pubescent herbs or shrubs, with hastate or angular leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels several, linear. Calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft. Stamen-column entire, or s-toothed at the summit, anther-bearing below for nearly its entire length. Ovary 5-celled, the cells l-ovuled; style-branches of the same number, stigmatic at the capitate summits. Capsule depressed, 5-angled. Seeds reni- form, ascending. [Named in honor of V. F, Kosteletzky, a botanist of Bohemia.] About 8 species, natives of warm and temperate .•Vmerica. In addition to the following, another occurs in the southwestern United States. Type species: Kostcletzkya haslata Presl. I. Kosteletzkya virgmica (L.) A. Gray. Virginia Kosteletzkya. Fig. 2868. Hibiscus I'irginicus L. Sp. PI. 697. 1753. K. lirginica A. Gray, Gen. 2: 80. t. 132. 1849. K. virginica var. althaeifolia Chapm. Fl. S. States 57- i860. A', althaeifolia A. Gray; S. Wats. Bibl. Index 136. 1878. Perennial, erect, b^-anching, 2°-4° high, more or less stellate-pubescent and scabrous. Leaves ovate, or hastate, truncate or cordate at the base. 2-5' long, unequally dentate and often 3-lobed below, sometimes with an additional lobe or two at the middle, acute, velvety or pubescent; flow- ers pink, ii'-2J' broad, in loose terminal leafy panicles; bractlets of the involucels 8-9, linear, shorter than the lanceolate acute calyx-seginents; capsule hispid-pubescent. In salt or brackish marshes, southeastern Mew York to Florida and Louisiana. Bermuda: Cuba. Aug. II. HIBISCUS L. Sp. PI. 693. 1753. Herbs, shrubs, or in tropical regions even small trees, with dentate or lobed leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate, mostly campanulate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels numer- ous, narrow. Calyx s-cleft or 5-toothed. Column of stamens truncate or 5-toothed at the apex, anther-bearing below along much of its length. Ovary s-celled, the cells 3-several- ovuled; style-branches 5, stigmatic at the capitate summit. Capsule 5-valved. Seeds reni- form. [An ancient name, used by Dioscorides for the Marsh Mallow.] .^bout 180 species, widely distributed in warm and temperate countries. In addition to the following, about 14 others occur in the southern and western United States. Type species : Hibiscus Trionum L.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer01bail1

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954 ed; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869, joint author

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York [etc. ] The Macmillan company

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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CAPE JESSAMINE. Gardenia, See CAPE PONDWEED. See Aponogeton. CAPER. See Capparis. For Caper-spurge,see Euphor- bia Latliyrus. CAPPARIS (Greek, caper). Caper-bush, or Caper Tree. Capparidiieem. Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower buds of C. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out of old walls, rocks, and rubbish in Mediterranean regions and India. Also rarely cult, as a greenhouse flowering shrub. The genus is large and polymorphic, and none of its relatives are familiar north. Prop, by cuttings in green- houses, and by seeds south. spindsa, Linn. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high : lvs. roundish or ovate, deciduous : fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading before noon; sepals 4; petals 4, oblong, clawed,wavy,white, IHin. long: stamens 40-50: filaments purple above, per- haps the chief beauty of the plant. B.M. 291.—What seems to be the long style with a short, un- opened stigma, is really the elon- 352. Capriola Dactylon. Nat. size. P^^d peduncle or torus topped by the pistil, which has no style and a minute stigma. W. M. CAPRIFOLIUM. See Lonicera. 16 CAFRtOLA (the wild goat, which feeds upon this grass). Graminem. Low, creeping perennials, with short, flat leaves and slender spikes, which spread out at the apex into finger-like branches. Spikelets 1-fld., awnless, sessile, in two rows along one side of a slender, continuous axis. Glumes 3, the first 2 narrow, keeled, usually acute, empty; the third or floral glume broader and usually a little longer than the empty ones. Species 4. One distributed throughout the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. Ddctylon, Kuntze (Cynodon Dactylon, Pers.). Ber- muda Grass. Fig. 352. A widely dispersed grass, with a creeping habit of growth, extending rapidly over the surface of the ground and rooting at the joints. Used extensively in the south for lawn-making, where Ken- tucky blue grass and the bent grasses cannot be success- fully grown. Except in the far south, however, it is not a desirable lawn grass, as it quickly turns brown upon the approach of cold weather, and is rather late in be- coming green in the spring. A variety known as St. Lucie Grass is regarded as a more desirable form for lawns than the species. Experiments made in central Michi- gan by Beal seem to show that Bermuda Grass is val- uable to mix with June grass for a lawn where the soil is rather thin, the June grass occupying the soil from early spring until hot, dry weather, when the Ber- muda covers the ground. In the cool autumn, June grass appears again at the surface. p_ -^ Kennedy. CAFSIGUM (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). Solandcece. Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper. Herbs or shrubs, originally from trop. Amer., but escaped from cultivation in Old World.tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. Stem branchy, 1-6 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate or subel- liptical, entire, acuminate : fls. white or greenish white, rarely violaceous, solitary or sometimes in 2's or 3' corolla rotate, usually lobed; stamens 5, rarely or 7, with bluish anthers c hiscinglongitudinally;ova originally 2-3-loculed : a juiceless berry or pc extremely variable in foi and size, many-seeded, a with more or less pungen about the seeds and pe carp. Pig. 353. The fruit 1_ comes many-loculed and monstrous in cultivation. About 90 species have been named, most of which are now considered forms of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For culture, see Pepper. A. Annual or biennial, dnnuum, Linn. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in warmer latitudes often treated as biennials. All of the leading commer- cial varieties in the United States readily find classifica- tion within the types or botanical varieties. The species has never been found wild. B. Fruit oblong-linear, c. Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. Var. conoldes, Irish (C. conoldes, Miller). Suffrutes- cent: lvs. numerous, rather small, 2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles slender, straight, erect:. fls. small; calyx obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; corolla greenish white, spreading, %-%m.: fr. erect, sub- conical or oblong cylindrical, about IJiin. long or less, usually shorter than the peduncles and mostly borne above the lvs., very acrid. Coral Gem, Tabasco. Var. fascicnl^tom, Irish (C. fasciculdttim, Sturt.). Stem herbaceous, round ornearly so: branches few: lvs. clustered or crowded in bunches about the summit, ellip- tical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, slender, about 3 in. long by Min. in diam., very acrid. This is the Red Cluster Pepper.

 

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353. Normal 2-loculed fruit of Capsicum, in cross section.

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924000537732

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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LYONOTHAiMNUS LYONOTHAMNUS {Lyon's xhrub : named for W. S. LyoQ, wbo sent specimens to Asa Uray from Santa Cata- lina Island, California). SasifriKjdvew. A monotypic genus contined to the islands of tlje Santa Barbara cbannel, and represented by two forms, —i, floribundas as described by Gray, and L. uaplenifolius as described by Greene. Tbese forms <liffer only in the structure of the Ivs., as tlie species is dimorpbic. Locally the tree is known as ironwood. It is rather plentiful in Santa Cruz Island, attaining 40 ami 50 ft. in height. It is less frequent and more dvA'arfed in other islands of the group. Fls. hermaphrodite; calyx 1-3-bracteoled ; tube hemi- spherical; lobes.o; disk lanate; petals 5, orbicidate, im- bricate in the bud; stamens 15, inserted witli the petals on the margin of the disk: carpels 2, free: ovules i: stigma subcapitate. floribiindus, Gray. Lvs. opposite, lanceolate, petiolate, subenlire, oleander-shaped : lis. white, very numerous in a large, tiattish, terminal cyme. —Highly praised for out- (loorculture and for pots. The clusters are 4-5 in. across. The form aspIeniioUus has pinmite lvs. with pinnae cut to the rib. P Fkanceschi. LTSICHiTUM (Greek, a loose or free eloak: probably referring to the spathe). Also written L}fsicJiiion. ArcLeeep. A genus of one species, a plant resembling the skunk cabbage, offered in 1892 by Oregon dealers. Nearly stemless swamp herb with large lvs. from a thick, horizontal rootstock; spathe sheathing at base, with a broad colored lamina or none, at first enveloping the cylindrical spadix, which becomes long-exserted upon a stout peduncle: fls. perfect, crowding and cover- ing the spadix ; perianth 4-lobed ; stamens 4 : ovary 2-celIed, 2-ovuIed: ovules horizontal, orthotropous. Camtscliatcense, Schott. Lvs. 1-21^ ft. long, 3-10 in. wide, oblong-lanceolate. ]Mav,June. E. Siberia, Japan, Ore., Calif. LTSILOMA is a small leguminous genus allied to Acacia, but not in cultivation. They are tender trees and shrubs,with flowers in heads or in cylindrical spikes. The pods are straight and flat, and the valves open away from the persistent sutures. Some of these plants are often called Acacias. Thus A. Acapulcensis ^ i^. Acapnlcensis, Benth.; A. divaric;ita^//. Scliiedeana, Benth.; A. latisiliqua^/^. hitisilitjita, Benth. LYSIMACHIA (probably after King Lysimachus). Prhnifh'teece. Loose-strife. Found in temperate and subtropical regions of all parts of the world. Erect or creeping leafy herbs, with opposite or whorled, entire, usually black-punctate lvs., spicate, racemose or soli- tary fls., a rotate, 5-parted corolla with an equal number of slightly monadelphous stamens opposite the lobes, a 1-loculed capsule, and many seeds on a central placenta. Only a few in cultivation, and these all perennials. They differ from related genera in the absence of staminodia between the stamens, which are usually slightly united. A. Flowers ijellow. B. Stem ereepi)tff : Irs. round-ovate, obtuse. nummuliria, Linn. Money-wort. Creeping Charlie. Creeping Jenny. Glabrous, forming large patches: lvs. opposite, rarely cordate, petiolate, }i-\ in. long: fls. 8-12 lines broad; sepals cordate or lanceolate, acute, half as long as the 5 oval, sparingly dark-dotted corolla lobes; filaments glandular. June-Aug. Europe: also natural- ized extensively in the eastern U. S. R.H. 1891. p. .H03. B.B. 2:589. —Very useful for rustic vases and baskets, also for carpeting ground in shady places. Var. aitrea, Hort. Lvs. all or in part bright yellow. BB. Stem erect: lvs. lanceolate, acute. <'. Plant glabrous or nearly so : fls. i^-0 lines broad. stricta, Soland. Simple or branched, glabrous, 8 in. to 2 ft. high; Ivs. opposite, lance-linear, acute at both ends, glaucous beneath, scarcely veiny, 1-3 in long: fls. 3-5 lines broad, very numerous, in a distinct, elon- gated, terminal raceme; pedicels .3-9 lines long, slender; corolla lobes elliptical, streaked with purple; filaments LYSIMACHIA 961 glandular. Common on nioist ground in the eastern U.S. B.M.lOi {as Jj.bnlbilera). U. 141. B.B.2:588.- Often bears bulblets in the leaf-axils after flowering. quadrifdilia, Linn. Usually simple, sometimes slightly pubescent, 1-3 ft. high: Ivs. verticillate, in 3's-4'a, rarely some opposite, lanceolate, oblong or ovate, acute, 1-4 in. long, green beneath, veiny: fls. axillary, 3-0 lines broad, on very slender pedicels, which are }'^-i% in. long; calyx and corolla as in the last. Dry soil, eastern U.S. D. 139. B.B. 2:588. CO. Plant densely pttbescevl: fls. 9-1:1 lines broad. vulgaris, Linn. Common Yellow Loosestrife. Tall and erect, 2-3 ft. high, and stout; branched above, downy, especially on the stem: lvs. verticillate, in 3's-4's, ovate-

 

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1342. Lythrum Salicaria (X !i;). (Seer-D62.) lanceolate or lance-oval, acute at both ends, nearly ses- sile: fls. in the upper axils, or densely paniculate at the summit; calyx often red-margined; corolla large, the lobes broad, glabrous. Europe, Asia. R. H. 1891, p. 303. —Quite showy when grown in clumps.

  

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Title: An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions, from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian

Identifier: cu31924024548525

Year: 1913 (1910s)

Authors: Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1859-1934; Brown, Addison, 1830-1913

Subjects: Botany; Botany

Publisher: New York, Scribner

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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Genus 9. MALLOW FAMILY,

 

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I. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. Bristly- fruited Mallow. Fig. 2867. Malva caroliniana L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753. Modiola multifida Moench, Meth. 620. 1791. Modiola caroliniana G. Don, Gen. Hist. PI. i: 466. 1831. Annual or biennial, more or less pubescent, freely branching; stems slender, 6'-i8' long. Leaves nearly orbicular in outline, ¥-2i' wide, petioled, pedately 3-s-cleft, the lobes dentate or incised; leaves sometimes simply dentate; flowers axillary, solitary, 3"-S" broad; peduncles at length elongated, slender; petals obovate; fruit depressed-orbicular, the carpels hispid-aristate along the back. In low grounds, Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, and in Central and South America and the West Indies. The same species apparently occurs in South Africa. Summer. 10. KOSTELETZKYA Presl, Rel. Haenk.T: 130. 'pi. 70. 1836. Perennial, scabrous or pubescent herbs or shrubs, with hastate or angular leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels several, linear. Calyx S-toothed or 5-cleft. Stamen-column entire, or S-toothed at the summit, anther-bearing below for nearly its entire length. Ovary s-celled, the cells l-ovuled; style-branches of the same number, stigmatic at the capitate summits. Capsule depressed, 5-angled. Seeds reni- form, ascending. [Named in honor of V. F, Kosteletzky, a botanist of Bohemia.] About 8 species, natives of warm and temperate America. In addition to the foU'owing, another occurs in the southwestern United States. Type species; Kosteletzkya hastata Presl. I. Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) A. Gray. Virginia Kosteletzkya. Fig. 2868. Hibiscus z'irginicus L. Sp. PI. 697. 1753. K. virginica A. Gray, Gen. 2 : 80. t. 132. 1849. K. virginica var. althaeifolia Chapm, Fl. S. States 57- i860. K. althaeifolia A. Gray; S. Wats. Bibl. Index 136. 1878. Perennial, erect, branching, 2°-a° high, more or less stellate-pubescent and scabrous. Leaves ovate, or hastate, truncate or cordate at the base, 2'-s' long, unequally dentate and often 3-Iobed below, sometimes with an additional lobe or two at the middle, acute, velvety or pubescent; flow- ers pink, iV-iV broad, in loose terminal leafy panicles; bractlets of the involucels 8-g, linear, shorter than the lanceolate acute calyx-segments; capsule hispid-pubescent. In salt or brackish marshes, southeastern New York to Florida and Louisiana. Bermuda; Cuba. Aug. II. HIBISCUS L. Sp. PL 693. 1753. Herbs, shrubs, or in tropical regions even small trees, with dentate or lobed leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate, mostly campanulate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels numer- ous, narrow. Calyx S-cleft or 5-toothed. Column of stamens truncate or S-toothed at the apex, anther-bearing below along much of its length. Ovary 5-ceIled, the cells 3-several- ovuled; style-branches S, stigmatic at the capitate summit. Capsule S-valved. Seeds reni- form. [An ancient name, used by Dioscorides for the Marsh Mallow.] About 180 species, widely distributed in warm and temperate countries. In addition to the following, about 14 others occur in the southern and western United States. Type species: Hibiscus Trionum L.

  

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Title: Gray's new manual of botany. A handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

Identifier: cu31924090296785

Year: 1908 (1900s)

Authors: Gray, Asa, 1810-1888; Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln, 1864-1935; Fernald, Merritt Lyndon, 1873-1950

Subjects: Botany

Publisher: New York, American Book Co

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

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752 EUBIACEAE (MADDER EAJriLY) 1. C. occidentalis L. Smooth ; leaves petioled, essentially glalirous, ovate or lanceolate-oblong, pointed, opposite or whorled in threes, with sliort interveii- ing stipules. — Swamps and along streams, s. w. N. B. to w. Ont., and southw. July, Aug. —Usually a shrub with us, rarely arborescent and 5 or 6 m. high. (Mex., W. I.) •Var. pubfiscens Raf. Branchlets and at least the lower surfaces of the leaves soft-pubescent. —111. to Ga., La., and Tex. 8. houst6nia l. Calyx 4-lobed, persistent; the lobes in fruit distant. Corolla usually much longer than the calyx-lobes, the lobes valvate in the bud. Anthers linear or oblong. Style 1 ; stigmas 2. Ovary 2-celled. Pod top-shaped, globular, or didymous, thin, its summit or upper half free from and projecting beyond the tube of the calyx, loculicidal across the top. Seeds 4-20 in each cell, pitted. — Small herbs, with short entire stipules connecting the petioles or narrowed bases of the leaves, and cymose or solitary and peduncled flowers ; these dimorphous, in some individuals with exserted anthers and short included style; in others the anthers included and the style long, the stigmas therefore protruding. (Named for Dr. William Houston, an English botanist, who collected in tropi- cal America.) * Small and delicate, vernal-flowering; peduncles i-flowered; corolla salver- form; upper half of the broad and somewhat 2-lobed pod free ; seeds globu- lar, with a very deep round cavity occupyiny the inner face. t- Perennial by delicate filiform creeping rootstocks or creeping stems; pedun- cles filiform, 2-5 cm. long. '/ 1. H. caeriilea L. (Butets, Innocence.) Glabrous; stems erect, slender, sparingly branched from the base, 0.5-2 dm. high; leaves oblong-spatulate, 6-9 mm. long ; peduncle filifonn, erect; corolla light blue, pale lilac or nearly white, with a yellowish eye, the straight slender long-exserted tube much longer than its lobes or than those of the calyx. — Moist and grassy places, N. S. to Ga., w. to Ont., Wise, and Ala.; producing from early spring to midsummer its delicate little iiowers. Var. Faxonbrum Pease & Moore. Corolla white, with a prominent yellow eye, the tube shorter, gradually expanding to the limb. — Alpine regions. White Mts., N. H. 2. H. serpyllifblia Michx. Like the preceding species, but the filiform stems prostrate, extensively creeping and rooting; leaves orbicular to ovate, 4-9 mm. long; corolla rather larger, and deep violet-blue. — Along streamlets and on mts., Pa. to Tenn. and S. C. -I- 1- Winter-annuals, branching chiefly from the base ; root simple; peduncles much shorter. 3. H. patens Ell. Stems 2 cm. to at length 1 dm. high, with ascending branches and erect peduncles ; leaves spatu- late to ovate ; corolla much smaller than that of no. 1, violet-blue or purplish without yellowish eye, the tube longer than its lobes, twice the length of the calyx-lobes. {S. minor Britton.) — Dry or sandy soil, Va. to 111. and Mo., s. to Ga. and Tex. Fis. 913. 4. H. minima Beck. More difiuse, commonly scabrous; stems at length much branched and spreading, 2-10 cm. high; lowest leaves ovate or spatulate, the upper oblong 913 H patens "'' "e^rly linear; earlier peduncles elongated and spreading in fruit, the later ones short; tube of the purplish corolla not longer than its lobes or the ample calyx-lobes (3 mm. long).—Dry hill^ s. e. la. to Tex. Mar.-May.

 

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Title: Bergens Museums skrifter

Identifier: bergensmuseumssk1190914berg

Year: 1878 (1870s)

Authors: Bergens Museum

Subjects: Science

Publisher: [Bergen, Norway : s. n. ]

Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Smithsonian Libraries

  

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List of Spontaneous Vascular Plants, hitherto observert in Cyprns. 29 Fl. (irieut. V. 695: I'cjst in Mt-iu. Herli. I'.oiss. IHilil. no, IH, Hist, alirt'v. pluiit. I'yr.-n. suiijil. 146 (1818); I'arlnt. in IK'. P. nigra ArnoM, Reise n. Mariazell, 8 (1785); Aschers. u. (iraebn. Syn. I, 21.3. P. Laririo Poiret, Encycl. V, .S39 (18(14); Biiiss. Fl. orient V. 6H6; Kotsi'hy, (]ypern, 214: Hartmann, Willrt. Cypern, 172. snb.sp. P. Pallasiana Lamb. Dese. Pin. ed. 2. I, 11 (1828); Aschers. unrt (iraebn. Syn. I. 214. P. Lnrido 8 Cmaiiiann Enrtl. Syn. Conif. 178 (1847). P. L. rnr. mientnlis Kotschy in scbert. pi. Cypri (1862). _ P. Cmaniana (laurtry. Recherehes, 199 (1895). saltern p. p. P. Lancio Post in Mém. Herb. Boiss. no. 18. K") (1900). Mairé-e-jzo,-. In the central part of the Troodos-mountains, about Cliionisti-a, this is the most important forcst- trec, often attaining to majestctical dimonsions. It is also indicated by Kotschy (Cypern p. 1121 for the mountains about Makhaeras, but as neither Haktm.\xn (Wiihl. Gyp. 173) nor the author have observed it so far east, I behove that Kot.schy has confunded it with P. Iinttia Ten.—Abovo Prodromo (.TH i)o5). P. halepeusis Jlill. (nwl. rtirt. ert. 8 (17B8), s. 1.. Aschers. unrt (iraebn. Syn. 1. 217. P. mantima Lamb. I'in. eil. 1, 10 (1803): Sibth. et Smith, Prortr. 11, 247; Poech, Enuni. plant, (.'ypr. 12; Kotschy, Cypern, 214; nee Lam., nee Jlill. Ileu/.o;. The typical form of P. ludepensis is common in the lover regions of Cyprus, constituting an im- portant part of the forests, in the northern as well as the southern parts of the island. This is the only species of Pinus. which Sibthokp has observed on the island. The highest locality, from where I possess a specimen, is the mountains of Lavramis (near the top, ca. 900 m. above the sea) in the Tylliria (.IH 80.5). 1 have also specimens from Salamis (JH 4fi8) and Alethriko (JH 205). In the superior regions it is replaced by subsp. P. brutia Ten. Fl. Neap. 1. 72 (1811); Boiss. 100; Aschers. et Graebn. Synops. I. 218. 7'. pi/>eiiaica Lapeyr. I'rortr. XVI, 2, 384. Although this tree appears to be widely di- stiibuted over the island, it is not mentioned as occurring hero either by Kotschy. Boissier or Sintenis. It was first time indicated for the island in 18GS by Par- LATORE, 1. c, Avho had examined a specimen collected by Labillaruiéke. I found it common in the middler regions of the Troodos-mountains, ascending almost to the summits of Kionia and Paputsa (JH 1112 and 1142), ca. 1550 m. above the sea. According to Post it also grows on the Kyrenia-mountains. Cednis libanotica Link, Hanrth. II. 480 (1831). C'. Libatii Lawson, Man. 380 (1836); Boiss. Fl. orient V. 6t>9. Finns Ctdnis L. Sp. pi. ert. 1. 1001 (1753). subsp. C. brevifolia nov. comb. C. Libnni var. brevi- folia .1. It. Hook, in .Journ. Linn. Soc. XVIL 518 (1880); Boiss. Fl. urient.. 1. c; Beissner, Handb. Xartelholzk.. 300. fig. 75. C. LMni Post in Mém. Herb. Boiss no. 18, 100(1900). K£6po;. A ('. Ubcmoticd typica differt foliis multo brcvioribus (plerumque 5—6, rarius ad 8 mm. longis), glaucis, strobilis cylindrico-oblongiSj niinoribus (ca. 7 cm. longis et 4 cm. crassis), ex impressione apicali in urn bon em bre v em obtusam protractis. The characters distinguishing the Cyprian cedar may seem to be rather insignificant, but still they have appeared to be fully constant and hereditary. I have had occasion to see hundreds of trees of ditTerent age, growing^iu free nature, all exhibiting the same characters without any transitions to the typical Lebanon-cedar. The numerous young seedlings, which I have examined in the forest of Irka Steiatsa. (luite resemble their parents, and thus prove the heredity

 

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7. ('one of CeiJriis libanotica subsj). brevifolia frum Irka Steratsa C/i). a. Part of the Cone ('/„).

  

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Title: The vegetation of the Siberian-Mongolian frontiers (the Sayansk region)

Identifier: cu31924001742760

Year: 1921 (1920s)

Authors: Printz, Henrik, 1888-

Subjects: Botany; Botany

Publisher: [Trondhjem] K. Norske Videnskabers Selskab

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

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var. genuina Trautv. Enum. PI. Song. (1860—68) no. 396; Wolf, 1. c. p. 162;K]im.i. 1. c. The specimens collected arc especially disLinguished by having the leaves 5- lo 8- pinnate, with very approximate pinnae. The upper pinnae are largest, and decrease in size down the rachis. The incisions of the pinnae nearly reach the vein; the segments are linear, very fine and narrow, 0,5—1 mm. broad, with distinctly Fccurved margins, and subobtuse summits. The leaves are densely white-pubescent on both sides. Of common occurrence on the dry Devonian sandstone cliffs on the Abakan Steppe. In full flower in the second half of June. Distribution: Eastern Russia (Perm, Orenburg), Siberia to Trans Baikal, central Asia, the Caucasus, and Armenia? Potentilla soongorica Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 244; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 301; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 42; Wolf, Monogr. Gatt. Potentilla p. 159. P. miilticaulis Bunge in Mem. Acad. Sc. St. Petersb. II (1831) p. 99 p. p. P. sericea ^ multi- caulis Lehm. Revis. Potent, p. 34. Scattered on the steppes between Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk, where I have taken it in full flower at the beginning of June. Besides the typical species, agreeing perfectly with Bunge's authentic specimens, I have collected, on the steppes on the Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk, some specimens diffe- ring in various respects, and which I enter as: var. glandulosa nov. var. [Tab. VII, Fig. 3.] Caudex crassiis, validus, lignosus residuis foliorum vetustorum obtectus. Caules numerosi, tenues, graciles, subadscendentes, multiflori, pilis longis, albis, pateniibuspuree vestiti. Folia radicalia breviter petiolata, ambitu oblonge obovata, 3-^fjuga. Foliola oblonge obovata fissa, laciniae aequilaiae, 0,5-2 mm. - saepissime 1-1,5 mm. - latae,apicesub- obtusae et marginibus distincte revolutis, siibtus albo-tomentosae, glandulisflavis, minutis, numerosis praeditae, supra virides, pilis sparsis vestitae. Stipii- laesuffuscae, membranaceae, lanceolatae, apice acu- minatae in lacinias longas, fdiformes fissae. Flores numerosi, 12-H mm. diametro. Sepala dense io- mentosa et glandulosa, externa quasi spatulata vel clavata, apice late rotundata, interna fere triangularia, acuminata, externis longiora. Pelala ftava obovata velcordata, antice leviter emarginata. Stamina et carpella ut in specie tgpica. In the shape of the leaves this variety differs distinctly from the typical P. soon- gorica, especially so in the narrower, linear, rather approximate segments of the leaflets, moreover, in having the under sides of the leaves densely white-felted and with distinct-

 

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Fig. 94. Potentilla soongorica Bunge var. glandulosa nov. var (+/i). Flower seen from below. 283

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches, and a synopsis of the vegetable kingdom

Identifier: cyclopediaofamer03bail

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954, ed; Miller, Wilhelm, 1869- joint ed

Subjects: Gardening -- Dictionaries; Plants -- North America encyclopedias

Publisher: New York, Doubleday, Page & Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

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1325 LuD nus parv floi 18. mutabills, Sweet. Stem erect, branched, somewhat woody, 5 ft. tall: lfts. 7-9, lanceolate, obtuse, hairy lie- low and somewhat glaucous: fls. large, somewhat ver- ticillate, fragrant; standard white mixed with blue, becoming blue with a large yellow mark in the center; wings and keel white. June-Aug. Mts. of S. America. S.B.P.G. 130. B.M. 2682.-Attractive species, erect and branching but half-hardy.

 

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1326 Lupi somewhat fleshy, smooth above, silky below and on margins: fls. in pyramidal racemes, alternate; standard orbicular, deep blue with a white spot in the center di- vided by a longitudinal fold: pod linear-oblong, silky. Spring. Texas. B.M. 34(i7. — Spreadingspecies of merit. 20. ninus, Dougl. Stem slender, J^-1 ft., often branching from the base, hairy: lfts. ,5-7, linear to ob- lauceolate pointed, pubescent both sides, stalks 1-3 times longer: fls. in elongated, loose racemes, verticil- late on slender stalks, large, white, pointed with clear blue, edged with deeper blue; wings bluish, hiding white- brownish keel: pod hairy. June, July. Calif. S.B.P.G. 11.257. B. R. 20:1705. —This species and its varieties are very floriferous, giving a fine effect in masses and in the border. Var. albus, Hort., white, tinged with lilac. Var. albo-coccineus, Hort. A very compact va- riety, the lower half of the spike rosy red, the upper white; forms compact tufts and is called a superior variety. L. angustlfbUus, Linn., witli Ijlue fls., is much grown in Eu. as a fodder plant and for plowing under: anniial. Native to the Mediterranean region. The following are garden hybrids of unknown origin. They mostly have variegated fls. and are common in cult.: L. atrn- viotdceus. Perennial. 2 ft. high. Fls. dark violet, striped with white and yellow.— L, ccelestinits. Annual, 2 ft. high. Fls. light blue.—Z/. Dunnetti. Fls. lilac-purple, gold and white. Ac- cording to Voss, this is the s.ime as the kinds known to the trade as superbus. insignis (Vilmorin. not Dippe), tricolor ele- gans, and superbus Dunnetti. There is also a double form.—i. hybridus. Probably mixed kinds.—I/, pwfiescens, Benth. Per- ennial or subshi-ubby, the pubescence short spreading hardly silky in tlie new parts: lfts. 7-9, oblong-lanceolate, acute, shorter than tlie petiole, pubescent on both sides: fls. loosely arranged almost in whorls: pedicels shorter than tlie calyx: pod hirsute, 4-6-seeded. The above is from the original de- scription. Bentham neglects to state the color of the lis., but an allied species has blue fls. Mottet must be in error in call- ing this ,^n annual. Mex., Central Amer,, Colombia.—i. «ri- color. See L. Dunnetti. j^ Phelps Wyman. LYCASTE (fanciful name). OrcliirlAcea'. This genus contains about 30 species, all natives of ,S. Amer., Mexico and the AVest Indies. The flowers are freely produced and remain in good condition on the plant for several weeks. They are normally borne singly on erect or sul>- erect bracted scapes, but sometimes twin-flowered stalks occur. Pseudobulbs ovate or oblong-ovate, bearing 1- several plicate leaves at the summit, and sheathing leaves from the base: sepals sub-similar, spreading, the lateral pair united with the base of the column and form- ing a spur-like chin or mentum; petals smaller, project- ing forward, with the tips often recurved ; labellum 3-lobed,the lateral lobes erect, middle lobe ascending or recurved, with a fleshy, tongue-like callus on the disk: pollinia 4. In Lycaste the scape arises from the very young leafy axis, which does not develop until several months later. The scape, therefore, appears from the base of the bulb. Among the species, L. Skinnen is a favorite orchid with growers. The species of Lycaste

  

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Title: Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants sold in the United States and Canada, together with geographical and biographical sketches

Identifier: cu31924000537732

Year: 1900 (1900s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954; Miller, Wilhelm, b. 1869

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, Macmillan

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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1325. Lupinus parviflorus. IS. mutabilis, Sweet. Stem erect, branched, somewhat woody, 5 ft. tall: lfts. 7-9, lanceolate, obtuse, hairy be- low and somewhat glaucous: tls. large, somewhat ver- ticillate, fragrant; standard white mixed with blue, becoming blue with a large yellow mark in the center; wings and keel w-hite. .Jnne-Aug. Jits, of S. America. S.B.P.ii. 130. B.M. 2082.-Attractive species, erect and branching but halt-hardy. Var. Cruckshanksii, Hook. ( /,. On Oray). Els. large, fragrant, while, the rose, becoming violet. B.M. 3(150. 19. subcarndsus, Hook. Stem 8-10 in. high, ascending silky pubescent: lfts. 5-7, obovate-lanceolate obtuse

 

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1326. Lupinus luteus. somewhat fleshy, smooth above, silky below and on margins: fls. in pyramidal racemes, alternate; standard orbicular, deep blue with a white spot in the center di- vided by a longitudinal fold: pod linear-oblonfr, silky. Spring. Texas. B.M. 34G7. — Spreadingspecies of merit. 20. n^nus, Dougl. Stem slender, ^{~X ft., often branching from the base, hairy: Iftw. 5-7, linear to ob- lanceolate pointed, pubescent both sides, stalks l-:i times longer: lis. in elongated, loose racemes, verticil- late on slender stalks, large, white, pointetl with clear blue, edge<l with deeper blue; wings bluish, hiding wliite- brownish keel: pod hairy. June, July. ('alif. S^B.P.G. 11.237, B. R. 20:1705. —This species and its varieties are very Horiferous, giving a fine effect in mas^ses and in the border. Var. ^Ibus, Hort., wliite, tinged with lilac. Var. albo-coccineus, Hort. A very compact va- riety, the lower halt of the spike rosy red, the iipper white; forms compact tufts and is called a superior variety. L. r(n<jiis(ifnlh(s, Liini., with blue fls;., is min^-h thrown in En, ;is a t'uiiiU'v i.);int and for plowing under: annu^d. Native to tlie MedlToTrrinean region. The foliowing are y;irden hybrids of unknown origin. They mostly have variegated tls. and are common in r-ult.: L. atm- riolaccus. Perennial, IJ ft. high. Fl;^. (hirk violet, striped with white and yellow.— L. Cipfestinus. Annual, 2 ft. high. Fls. light h)ue. —//. Diuniclti,. Fls. lilar'-ymrple, gold and wliite. Ac- cording to Voss, this is the same as the kind.s known to the trude as snpert)us, insignis (Vilmorin, not Dipxie), tri'.-Ldor ele- gans, and superbns Dunnetti. There is also a double form.—i. hybn-dus. Prohahly nnxed 'kindf^. — L. puWscens, Bentli. Per- ennial or suhslii-uhliy, the pubescence short spreading hardly silky in the new parts: lfts. 7-9, olilongdan'-eolate, acute, sliorter tlian the petiole, pubescent on Itoth sides: tls. loosely arranged almost in whorls; pedicels shorter than the calyx: pod hirsute, 4-fi-seecle(l. Tlie above is from the original de- scription. Bentham neglects to state the color of the fls., but an allied species has tilne fis. ^Mnttet must he in error in c;dl- ing this an annual, ^b'x.. Central Ami-n-., <.'ulnMilii;[. —L, tri- color. See L. Dunnetti. j,^ Phei-PS Wym-vn LYCASTE (fanciful name). Orrhi'Jnrm . q'his genus contains about 30 species, all nativ(.',s of S. Arner., Mexico and the West Indies. The flowers are freely produced and remain in good condition on the plant for several weeks. Tliey are normally borne singly on erect or sub- erect bracted scapes, but sometimes twin-tiowered stalks occur. Pseudobull)S ovate or oblong-ovate, bearing 1- several plicate leaves at the summit, and sheathing leaves f mm the base: sepals sub-similar, spreading, the lateral pair united with thet^ase of the column and form- ing a spur-like chin or mentuiu; petals smaller, project- ing forward, with the tips often recurved ; labellum ;"i-lobed, the lateral lobes erect, middle lobe ascending or recurved, with a fleshy, tongue-like callus on the disk: pollinia 4. In Lycaste the scape arises from the very young leafy axis, which does not develop until several months later. The scape, therefore, appears from the base of the bulb. Among the species, L. Ski}nieri is a favorite orchid wifh growers. The species of Lycaste

  

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Title: An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions, from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian

Identifier: cu31924024548525

Year: 1913 (1910s)

Authors: Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1859-1934; Brown, Addison, 1830-1913

Subjects: Botany; Botany

Publisher: New York, Scribner

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

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I. Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don. Bristly- fruited Mallow. Fig. 2867. Malva caroliniana L. Sp. PI. 688. 1753. Modiola multifida Moench, Meth. 620. 1791. Modiola caroliniana G. Don, Gen. Hist. PI. i: 466. 1831. Annual or biennial, more or less pubescent, freely branching; stems slender, 6'-i8' long. Leaves nearly orbicular in outline, ¥-2i' wide, petioled, pedately 3-s-cleft, the lobes dentate or incised; leaves sometimes simply dentate; flowers axillary, solitary, 3"-S" broad; peduncles at length elongated, slender; petals obovate; fruit depressed-orbicular, the carpels hispid-aristate along the back. In low grounds, Virginia to Florida, west to Texas, and in Central and South America and the West Indies. The same species apparently occurs in South Africa. Summer. 10. KOSTELETZKYA Presl, Rel. Haenk.T: 130. 'pi. 70. 1836. Perennial, scabrous or pubescent herbs or shrubs, with hastate or angular leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels several, linear. Calyx S-toothed or 5-cleft. Stamen-column entire, or S-toothed at the summit, anther-bearing below for nearly its entire length. Ovary s-celled, the cells l-ovuled; style-branches of the same number, stigmatic at the capitate summits. Capsule depressed, 5-angled. Seeds reni- form, ascending. [Named in honor of V. F, Kosteletzky, a botanist of Bohemia.] About 8 species, natives of warm and temperate America. In addition to the foU'owing, another occurs in the southwestern United States. Type species; Kosteletzkya hastata Presl. I. Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) A. Gray. Virginia Kosteletzkya. Fig. 2868. Hibiscus z'irginicus L. Sp. PI. 697. 1753. K. virginica A. Gray, Gen. 2 : 80. t. 132. 1849. K. virginica var. althaeifolia Chapm, Fl. S. States 57- i860. K. althaeifolia A. Gray; S. Wats. Bibl. Index 136. 1878. Perennial, erect, branching, 2°-a° high, more or less stellate-pubescent and scabrous. Leaves ovate, or hastate, truncate or cordate at the base, 2'-s' long, unequally dentate and often 3-Iobed below, sometimes with an additional lobe or two at the middle, acute, velvety or pubescent; flow- ers pink, iV-iV broad, in loose terminal leafy panicles; bractlets of the involucels 8-g, linear, shorter than the lanceolate acute calyx-segments; capsule hispid-pubescent. In salt or brackish marshes, southeastern New York to Florida and Louisiana. Bermuda; Cuba. Aug. II. HIBISCUS L. Sp. PL 693. 1753. Herbs, shrubs, or in tropical regions even small trees, with dentate or lobed leaves, and showy, axillary or paniculate, mostly campanulate flowers. Bractlets of the involucels numer- ous, narrow. Calyx S-cleft or 5-toothed. Column of stamens truncate or S-toothed at the apex, anther-bearing below along much of its length. Ovary 5-ceIled, the cells 3-several- ovuled; style-branches S, stigmatic at the capitate summit. Capsule S-valved. Seeds reni- form. [An ancient name, used by Dioscorides for the Marsh Mallow.] About 180 species, widely distributed in warm and temperate countries. In addition to the following, about 14 others occur in the southern and western United States. Type species: Hibiscus Trionum L.

 

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