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Henry Drummond Il Dono Supremo - Paulo Coelho

 

Di fronte all'Eternità

 

Sono giunto al termine di questo lunghissimo sermone.

Ma, prima di concludere,vorrei farvi una proposta: leggere questo passo della Prima Epistola ai Corinzi,almeno una volta alla settimana.

Seguendo questa pratica,un uomo cambiò completamente la propria vita.

Oppure potrete leggere l'epistola una volta al giorno,sopratutto le frasi che descrivono il modo di agire che si confà all'Amore.

 

“L'Amore è paziente,benigno...L'Amore non arde di gelosia.”

Mettete questi ingredienti nella vostra vita. E da quel momento,tutto ciò che farete diventerà Eterno.

Vale davvero la pena di spendere un po del proprio tempo per apprendere l'arte di Amare.

Nessun uomo diviene santo dormendo: è necessario pregare,meditare.

Allo stesso modo,ogni miglioramento- in qualsiasi ambito- richiede preparazione e diligenza.

Imponetevi di vivere una vita piena e corretta. Se volgerete lo sguardo al passato,vi accorgerete che i momenti più belli e più importanti della vostra esistenza sono stati quelli in cui era presente lo spirito dell'Amore.

 

Guardando al passato- ed evitando di soffermarci sui piaceri transitori della vita- possiamo renderci conto che i momenti più significativi della nostra esistenza sono stati quelli in cui abbiamo vissuto l'Amore,o durante i quali,magari nascostamente,abbiamo fatto qualcosa di buono per il prossimo.

Cose talvolta troppo stupide per essere raccontate ma che, per qualche frazione di secondo,ci hanno fatto provare la sensazione di essere immersi nell'Eternità.

 

Io ho già visto tutte le cose belle che Dio ha creato.

Ho già apprezzato quasi tutti i piaceri di cui un uomo può godere.

Eppure, volgendo lo sguardo al mio passato,rintraccio soltanto quattro o cinque momenti- assai brevi- nei quali sono riuscito a imitare,in maniera assai povera, l'Amore di Dio.

Ebbene,questi momenti giustificano appieno la mia vita. Tutto il resto è passeggero.

Ogni altro bene o virtù è soltanto un'illusione.

Questi piccoli atti di Amore – che forse nessuno ha notato,che nessuno conosce – legittimano la mia vita.

Perché l'Amore permane.

 

♥♥♥

 

I'm at the end of this long sermon.

But, before concluding, I would like to make a suggestion: read this passage from the First Epistle to the Corinthians, at least once a week.

Following this practice, a man completely changed his life.

Or you can read the epistle once a day, especially phrases that describe the course of action that suits Love.

 

"Love is patient, Love is benign ... does not burning with jealousy."

Put these ingredients in your life. And from that moment, everything you do will become eternal.

Is really worth to spend some of our time to learn the art of love.

No man becomes holy sleeping: it is necessary to pray, meditate.

Similarly, any improvement in any field-requires preparation and diligence.

Impose to yourself to live a life full and correct.

If you look in the past, you will find that the best and most important moments of your life were those in which was the spirit of Love.

Looking at the past-and avoiding dwell on the transient pleasures of life-we can see that the most significant moments of our existence were those in which we have lived Love, or during which, perhaps secretly, we've done something good for the next.

Things sometimes too stupid to be told but that, for some fraction of a second, they made us feel the sensation of being immersed in Eternity.

I've already seen all the good things that God has created.

I've appreciated all the pleasures that a man can enjoy.

Yet, turning to look at my past, I find only four or five times-very short-when I was able to imitate, in a very poor, the Love of God

Well, these moments fully justify my life. Everything else is temporary.

Any other good or virtue is only an illusion.

These small acts of Love - that maybe no one has noticed, that no one knows - legitimize my life.

Because the Love remains.

 

www.photosfromonhigh.com aerial photos Albany NY aerial photos photographer Upstate albanyphotos@yahoo.com 518-495-7983

 

Globalfoundries Saratoga County NY Globalfoundries Albany NY New York Convention Center aerial photos Mercer Development aerial photographer M W ... at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, NY, in ... Did GlobalFoundries just become an 800-pound Fab gorilla?

9/8/2009 by: Theo Valich - Get more from this author

   

ATIC [Advanced Technology Investment Company], technology investment group from the Government of Abu Dhabi, the majority owner of GlobalFoundries announced that the group is making a bid to acquire Chartered Semiconductor.

 

The move is not entirely unexpected, but rather a consequence of events that had nothing to do with semiconductor industry: Chartered Semiconductor is one of golden eggs in Singaporean's government investment arm [Temasek Holdings Pte], who is feeling the pain of global economy slowdown and the changes in companies owned by Temasek were obvious. As Singapore Airlines went through ownership change [now mostly owned by Temasek] the investment arm needed the cash to complete the transaction and Abu Dhabi's ATIC rode into town.

 

ATIC was interested in buying its competition, but when an opportunity like this arises, there isn't much you can do but to take it. The acquisition of Chartered Semi puts GlobalFoundries in a role of an 800-pound gorilla in the contract manufacturing space. First GlobalFoundries signed the deal to manufacture chips for a chip maker [STMicroelectronics], and now the GF owner is buying one of own largest competitors. In fact, until TSMC gets its SOI production up and running, GlobalFoundries is acquiring its second largest competitor in the SOI space [we take that ATIC does not want to buy IBM... for now].

 

In case you're unfamiliar with Chartered semiconductor manufacturing capabilities, the foundry owns six cleanrooms in a giant fab complex in Singapore, with production based on 200mm and 300mm wafers. Total output of the company is also very interesting:

 

Fab 2: 50,000 200mm WSM 600-350nm

Fab 3: 25,000 200mm WSM 350-180nm

Fab 3E: 34,000 200mm WSM in 250-180nm

Fab 5: 24,000 200mm WSM 350-180nm

Fab 6: 39,000 200mm WSM 180-110nm

Fab7: 45,000 300mm WSM 130-40nm [equal to 101,250 200mm wafers]

So, we have 172,000 WSM [wafer starts per month], or around 2,06 million 200mm wafers per year, plus an additional 540,000 300mm wafers. This manufacturing capacity is nothing short of impressive, even though the majority is in less competitive 200mm wafer space. If you would compare Chartered's Fab7 [300mm2 one] to GlobalFoundries' Fab1 complex in Dresden, you might be surprised at the differences in size, since Fab7 is massive: clean room space is as big as whole Module 2 [ex-Fab30/38] and half of Module 1 [ex-Fab36].

 

Yes, it is true that currently "only" 27,000 wafer starts can be in 40nm, but SOI capacity is quite impressive. Inside this advanced 300mm facility Chartered makes Microsoft's Xbox 360 CPUs, some AMD CPUs and some of IBM's Power chips.

 

Clean room space is also quite impressive - six facilities with a grand total of 773,640 square feet [71,871.15 m2]. If you compare that to current manufacturing facilities in Dresden, Module 1 [14,500 m2 - 156,000 sqft] and currently upgrading Module 2 [16,700 m2 - 180,000 sqft], you can see that GlobalFoundries wants to go from 336,000 sqft [31,214 m2] in 2009 to 1.38 million square feet [128,202 m2] of clean room space in 2012.

Divided by wafer size, GlobalFoundries in 2012 could look like this:

 

300mm2 - 120,000 wafer starts per month, 838,000 sqft [77,850 m2] Class 100 clean room

200mm2 - 172,000 wafer starts per month, 541,640 sqft [50,318 m2] Class 100 clean room

All in all, this is quite a significant jump in manufacturing space, as there aren't exactly many contract manufacturers who can or plan to annually output almost 1.5 million 300mm wafers in 2012-2013 frame. In fact, one could put a question that GlobalFoundries is doing this to attract the heavy weights, Microsoft, Sony, Nintendo - but Qualcomm and nVidia as well.

 

Over the past several months, we featured various articles on upcoming chips, but they all have one thing in common: they have to be built on 300mm wafers in order to be profitable. Qualcomm's quad-core ARM System-on-Chip is quite nice, but the company has to have 300mm wafers available to score a profit. Same thing with the 2010-2011 generation of nVidia's Tegra and Texas Instruments OMAP chips.

 

Thus, a foundry has to position itself aggressively and there is no doubt that this move puts GlobalFoundries on the map of TSMC and Intel challenger. While TSMC still has the overall lead in number of wafers it can produce, the numbers here show that GlobalFoundries is catching up and overtaking in 300mm wafer arena - a worrisome trend.

 

The clock isn't exactly stopping there - if we divide the wafers in SOI and non-SOI flavor, GlobalFoundries will be the largest SOI wafer maker, and with a move to optical interconnects starting in 2012-2013 there isn't exactly any doubt what's on the table. ATIC and AMD both want that GlobalFoundries change the semi playing field for good, and this acquisition only confirms that direction.

 

GlobalFoundries can freely disclose all of its plans and there isn't exactly a lot that other competitors can do but to launch massive FUD campaigns which again, would not stand due to engineering excellence shown by former AMD engineering teams, who saved Microsoft's bacon on Xbox 360 yields, for instance.

 

This move also solves one of major pains for GlobalFoundries exec team - no longer journalists and analysts need to ask "who are your customers?", because with the acquisition of Chartered Semi, that list grew by couple of dozen names, including Microsoft and IBM. You can expect that next GlobalFoundries event to feature numerous existing customers, even if they did not sign directly with GlobalFoundries, rather Chartered Semi.

 

ATIC's next move: Buying a wafer supplier?

We wonder what the next step for GlobalFoundries will be, but personally I would not bet against GF acquiring Soitec, as the largest SOI wafer vendor. Intel invested in the firm in 2007, when it became clear that the future chip interconnects [remember Intel Hybrid Silicon Laser demonstration on SOI wafers during IDF Fall 2006?] will require the use SOI wafers. AMD did not react at the time, but with over a trillion USD for investments alone, Abu Dhabi investment groups can easily flex their muscle and put everything they need under one roof.

   

© 2009 Bright Side Of News*, All rights reserved.

     

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Related articles:

Intel Lynnfield; Core i5 750 and Core i7 870 Evaluation by: Sean Kalinich

The Future of GlobalFoundries revealed by: Theo Valich

nVidia's 3D Glasses can be found for free by: Theo Valich

Qimonda's starts to dissolve, sell family jewlery [300mm and 200mm Fab] by: Thorsten Wolf

GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Is America Back in Tech? by: Toby Hudon

BSN* presents The Ultimate Workstation: Part I by: Nebojsa Novakovic

Is TSMC getting nervous about GlobalFoundries? by: Thomas Gordon

 

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Advanced Technology Investment Co., the Abu Dhabi company that owns the majority of GlobalFoundries, plans to acquire chip maker Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd.

 

The Singapore-based Chartered Semiconductor would become part of GlobalFoundries, a joint venture with ATIC and Advanced MicroDevices Inc. (NYSE: AMD).

 

GlobalFoundries is building a $4.2 billion manufacturing plant in Malta in Saratoga County. N.Y., about 25 miles north of Albany. It also has operations in Dresden, Germany.

 

It was unclear early Tuesday how the acquisition would affect the Malta operation.

 

ATIC would pay $3.9 billion in cash and debt for the acquisition, the companies said in a joint statement. The transaction is expected to close in late 2009, pending required government and shareholder approvals.

 

GlobalFoundries CEO Doug Grose would head up the combined operations. Chartered (Nasdaq: CHRT) CEO Chia Song Hwee would become chief operating officer and head the integration of both companies, according to the companies.

 

ATIC is a technology investment company wholly owned by the Abu Dhabi government. It owns 66 percent of GlobalFoundries; AMD owns the remaining 34 percent.

 

Singapore’s state-owned investment fund Temasek Holdings owns about 62 percent of Chartered’s shares. The chip maker produces chips for Xbox 360 games and other consoles.

 

“Chartered and GlobalFoundries will be able to draw on each other’s strengths to enable the next generation of semiconductor innovation, utilizing the value of both companies and the intellectual capital of thousands of skilled employees,” said Ibrahim Ajami, CEO of ATIC. GlobalFoundries’ plant in Malta is under construction. It’s expected to employ 1,5000 during the construction phase and 1,6000 permanent and ancillary jobs when it’s running at full capacity in 2010.

 

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The move follows an earlier investment in GlobalFoundries, a joint venture with AMD

John Ribeiro (IDG News Service) 08 September, 2009 06:01:00

Tags: processors, globalfoundries, ATIC, amd

 

Advanced Technology Investment Company (ATIC) of Abu Dhabi has signed a definitive agreement to acquire chip maker Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing of Singapore in a deal valued at S$5.6 billion (US$3.9 billion) in cash and debt, the companies said on Monday.

 

Chartered, a contract chip maker, will become part of GlobalFoundries, the chip manufacturing venture formed by ATIC and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).

 

The CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, will head up the combined operations, while Chartered CEO Chia Song Hwee will become chief operating officer and head the integration of the businesses, ATIC said in a statement.

 

The transaction is expected to close during the fourth quarter of this year. It will require approval by Chartered shareholders and government regulators.

 

ATIC is a technology investment company wholly owned by the government of Abu Dhabi.

 

The acquisition of Chartered will be its second major investment in the semiconductor industry after the deal with AMD.

 

GlobalFoundries has a manufacturing facility in Dresden, Germany, and another under construction in the state of New York.

 

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ATIC hopes to combine Chartered's customer relationships and capabilities in both 8-inch and 12-inch fabrication with GlobalFoundries' technology expertise, capacity, and global footprint.

 

Singapore state-owned investment fund Temasek Holdings, which owns about 62 percent of Chartered’s shares, fully supports the acquisition and has signed an irrevocable undertaking to vote in support of the transaction, the statement said.

 

Chartered also on Monday revised up its guidance for the third quarter of 2009.

 

The company increased its revenue forecast slightly and narrowed its loss forecast compared to guidance given in July, because of an incremental improvement in business.

  

Albany Nanotech Albany NY New York Aerial photos photographer SUNY University TAC Tour Andover Controls Dallas Boston Andover Massachusetts Texas Carrollton West crosby Road 75006 Scheider Electric BIOTECH EMPAC RPI TROY AMD advanced Micro Devices Malta

                   

www.photosfromonhigh.com Albany Nanotech Fuller Road Albany NY CEG Center for economic growth Tech Valley TAC Tour Andover Controls 1650 west Crosby Road Carrolton Texas Schneider electric 43-45 boulevard Franklin Roosevelt 92500 Rueil-Malmaison-France Key Bank AMD Advanced Micro devices Sunnyvale Ca. California aerial photos photographer Andover Massachusetts Ma. aerial photos Tepperman Ray associates Andover massachusetts Nanotech Clean Rooms

Albany Nanotech Albany Nanotech Albany Nanotech Albany nanotech Albany Nanotech Albany Nanotech AMD AMD AMD AMD AMD AMD Advanced Micro devices Advanced micro devices Advanced micro devices New York new york New york new York New York aerial photos architectural photos www.photosfromonhigh.com/sematech.htm The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the University at Albany is the first college in the world dedicated to research, development, education, and deployment in the emerging disciplines of nanoscience, nanoengineering, nanobioscience, and nanoeconomics. CNSE's Albany NanoTech Complex – a $4.5 billion megaplex that has attracted over 250 global corporate partners – is the most advanced research complex at any university in the world.

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Posted: May 28, 2009

Job fair to Help M+W Zander fill 40 project management positions in new chip facility

(Nanowerk News) The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering ("CNSE") of the University at Albany today announced plans to host a Job Fair to assist M+W Zander in building its project management team to support the construction of GlobalFoundries' computer chip manufacturing facility in Malta.

The Job Fair, to be held on Wednesday, June 10 from 5 to 8 p.m. at CNSE's Albany NanoTech Complex, will help recruit candidates for 40 high-tech design and construction management positions, including electrical and mechanical designers, engineers and estimators; construction and design project managers and coordinators; architectural project managers, planners and interns; and, accounting, purchasing, document control and administrative personnel. The positions carry salaries that range from $40,000 to more than $100,000 annually.

Officials from M+W Zander will be on hand to accept resumes and conduct initial interviews on site, with representatives of CNSE also providing assistance at the event. This marks the fifth high-tech job fair to be held at CNSE in just the past three years, with previous events in May 2006, January 2007, September 2007 and October 2008.

Candidates interested in attending and interviewing at the Job Fair are encouraged to pre-register online by visiting cnse.albany.edu/events/jobfair2009.html.

Assembly Majority Leader Ron Canestrari said, "That still another Job Fair is necessary to fill these high-tech positions is a great testament to the investments made in the rapidly growing nanotechnology sector in the Capital Region and New York State. I hope local residents will take full advantage of this opportunity to learn more about exciting careers in the nanotechnology industry."

Assemblyman John J. McEneny said, "The investments in nanotechnology are once again paying dividends in the form of exciting new high-tech career opportunities for residents of Albany and the Capital Region. It is an enormous source of pride to know that New York State is leading the worldwide nanotechnology revolution, which is creating new jobs and attracting new investments."

Rick Whitney, President and CEO of M+W Zander U.S. Operations said, "It is a pleasure to work in partnership with the UAlbany NanoCollege, the world leader in nanotechnology education, research and development, as M+W Zander builds its construction management team to support GlobalFoundries' world-class computer chip manufacturing facility at the Luther Forest Technology Campus. As a company that works on high-tech projects and facilities around the world, there is no question that the Capital Region and New York are recognized globally as the place to be for nanotechnology."

Dr. Alain E. Kaloyeros, Senior Vice President and Chief Executive Officer of CNSE, said, "With the vision, leadership and support of Speaker Silver, Assembly Majority Leader Canestrari, Assemblyman McEneny and the New York State Assembly, M+W Zander has become a valuable partner in building high-tech facilities that are critical to New York's global leadership in nanotechnology education, research and development, and economic outreach. The UAlbany NanoCollege is pleased to host this Job Fair, which will provide exciting career opportunities for local residents, and ensure that M+W Zander has a highly skilled management team in place to build GlobalFoundries' state-of-the-art computer chip manufacturing plant."

 

With headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany, M+W Zander is one of the world's foremost companies for the design and construction of high-tech buildings and cleanroom facilities for research and development, pilot manufacturing, manufacturing, and assembly and testing operations. M+W Zander's Northeastern U.S. headquarters is located at the Watervliet Arsenal, where it employs more than 250 people.

About M+W Zander

The M+W Zander Group offers its customers worldwide integrated life-cycle solutions for high-tech production plants and infrastructure complexes including all necessary service and modernization support. The customer base focuses primarily on leading electronics, photovoltaic, pharmaceutical, chemical, automobile and communication companies, as well as research institutes and universities. The company ranks among the market leaders in various market sectors which include semiconductors, photo-voltaics and pharmaceuticals. MWZ Group GmbH, Stuttgart, manages the global activities of the group as a holding company. The group has three main divisions based on Facility Solutions, Process Solutions and Product Solutions which together generated 2008 revenues of $2.32 billion with a workforce of approximately 4,500.

 

Source: CNSE

Comments

no3rdw says:

Did you take this photo? I did a photosimulation of the nanotech facility expansion based off this very same photo.

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Yes I did. Who supplied the photo to you? I don't remember anyone calling me about this. Only an architect firm in Albany. Let me know. Chris

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

no3rdw says:

Oops, sorry it took a while to get back to you - I just PM'd you about this :)

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Thanks Chris

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Too Much work to do to enter. Chris

Posted 28 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Thanks

Posted 27 months ago. ( permalink )

Donna62 says:

  

A great image, much admired by Donna62 --,

a "FIRST - THE EARTH!" member - www.flickr.com/groups/first-the-earth/

Posted 24 months ago. ( permalink )

 

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President Barack Obama Visits Luther Forest Technology Campus Malta Saratoga County New york GlobalFoundries Breaks Ground in Malta

GlobalFoundries held a groundbreaking ceremony for Fab 2 in Malta, N.Y. The foundry's goal is to have the first tool move in by October 2011, with qualification coming in early 2012 and commercial production by the second half of 2012. The event marks "a significant shift in momentum" for chip manufacturing in the United States, said Norm Armour, Fab 2 general manager.

David Lammers, News Editor -- Semiconductor International, 7/24/2009

As an Albany, N.Y., taxi driver ferried a visitor to the GlobalFoundries Fab 2 groundbreaking ceremony near the village of Malta, he said, "For three years they've been talking about this, but I never thought they would actually build it."

 

Planning began in June 2006, and it was this year on June 19 that GlobalFoundries began clearing portions of its 230-acre site, located ~24 miles from Albany and seven miles from Saratoga Springs. Fab 2 is expected to be making volume silicon by the second half of 2012, employing 1400 directly and an estimated 5000 indirect workers. The spinoff of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD, Sunnyvale, Calif.) has room for two additional modules at the site.

 

Fab 2 General Manager Norm Armour said he watched manufacturing shift from the United States to Asian foundries during his career at LSI Logic Corp., where he spent a decade managing LSI's fab in Gresham, Ore. "We are on the other side, trying to bring manufacturing back to a U.S. fab," Armour said. "It is a significant momentum shift."

 

That shift was supported by a $6B investment in GlobalFoundries by the Abu Dhabi Investment Co. (ATIC). The money will be spent to build Fab 2 at Malta, expected to cost $4.2B, as well as to expand and upgrade the GlobalFoundries Module 2 in Dresden, Germany. The state of New York is providing an estimated $1.2B in subsidies for Fab 2, and is investing additional funding to expand the University at Albany's nearby College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE). AMD contributed its existing manufacturing complex in Dresden as well as other assets, but no cash, providing AMD with access to a new fab without capital outlays.

   

GlobalFoundries Fab 2 will begin production in the second half of 2012.

  

Because the site is not space-constrained, Fab 2 will be a two-level building rather than three-level, said Tom Sonderman, vice president of manufacturing systems technology at GlobalFoundries. All of the wafer production will be on one floor, eliminating the need to move wafers-in-progress (WIP) up and down floors. A "zero footprint storage" approach will put some wafer stockers above the tools, he added. Implant will be located off of the main waffle slab, reducing construction costs, and maintenance shops will be on the upper production floor to further improve efficiencies.

 

Though its labor costs in both Dresden and Malta will be higher than at many Asian fabs, manufacturing innovations will make GlobalFoundries cost-competitive with Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan), according to Sonderman. GlobalFoundries is investing in the midst of a severe downturn, which also will reduce costs compared with the more expensive 24/7 construction schedules used when fabs are built in a hurry. Armour said it may take 18 months to build Fab 2, which is expected to have a 220,000 sq. ft. cleanroom with an option to expand cleanroom space to 300,000 sq. ft. The goal is to have the first tool move in by October 2011, with qualification coming in early 2012 and commercial production by the second half of 2012, a schedule that could be accelerated somewhat "depending on market conditions," Armour said.

 

Sonderman said construction begins at a time "of a lot of pent-up demand for advanced foundry capacity." Fab 2 will start at 28 nm technology, and then bring up a 22 nm SOI process for CPU production. GlobalFoundries will support AMD's manufacturing needs with the current 45 nm production, moving to 32 and 22 nm production. For foundry customers, however, most of the interest is at the half nodes, including 40 nm bulk technology immediately at Dresden and 28 nm high-k/metal gate technology late next year when 28 nm customer designs start to be accepted.

 

Sonderman said GlobalFoundries is accelerating its effort to support 40 nm bulk production, which he said comes as customers express concerns about yields at TSMC. "We definitely want to be a counterbalance to TSMC," Sonderman said, outlining plans to offer, by 2013, 600,000 wspy at Dresden and 400,000 wspy at Fab 2.

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Real estate, Tech Valley, Technology | 2 Comments

RPI spokesman joining GlobalFoundriesApril 2, 2009 at 10:25 am by Larry Rulison

Jason Gorss, the manager of media relations at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, will be joining GlobalFoundries later this month in a communications role.

 

Gorss (right) has been at RPI for several years now. He has a technical and scientific background that helps with his new role with the company, which is building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta called Fab 2 and owns two others in Dresden, Germany.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Jon Carvill said that Gorss’ role will be “more global in nature and focused on our technology.

 

“We will still look to add additional resources specific to Fab 2 in 2009,” Carvill said.

 

The company already has an office in Malta at the Saratoga Technology + Energy Park, which sits within the Luther Forest Technoogy Campus where GlobalFoundries is planning its factory on 222 acres. At least one former General Electric employee is now working there in a human resources position, and additional positions are expected to be filled in the coming months.

 

The new CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, is himself an RPI graduate.

 

The Times Union contacted Gorss this morning by e-mail and he confirmed he is taking the job.

 

“My experience at Rensselaer has given me the rare chance to work with incredibly brilliant people on a wide array of fascinating projects. I am going to miss my colleagues here, but I am excited about the new opportunity with GlobalFoundries,” Gorss said. “It is a perfect fit for someone with my background and interests. I am a technophile at heart, and this job will allow me to immerse myself in some of the most advanced technology on the planet.”05/15/2009 10:10 AM EDT)

  

MALTA, N.Y. — It's rare these days in the semiconductor industry to witness the unfolding of a project on a grand scale. Based on what has been proposed so far, the Global Foundries project backed by Advanced Micro Devices and its partner is precisely that.

 

"We want to be the first truly global semiconductor foundry," said Global Foundries CEO Global Doug Grose at a recent event here, where a ground-breaking ceremony will be held in July.

 

Global Foundries has committed up to $6 billion to develop a new fab to produce chips for AMD and new customers. AMD and partner, Abu Dhabi-backed Advanced Technology Investment Co. (ATIC). "This money is for a five- to seven-year stretch. Our investors [are] in this for the long haul," said Grose.

 

According to Jim McGregor, chief technology strategist at market researcher In-Stat, "Everything for the future depends on GlobalFoundries' ability to land new customers. Unfortunately, I can't predict that."

 

Jim Doran, senior vice president and general manager of AMD's Dresden, Germany, operation, said Global Foundries will use a Sunnyvale, Calif., facility for technology development and producing process design kits. The U.S. site also will be used for designing intellectual property and chip testing and validation.

 

Global Foundries also is engaged with neighbors here like the IBM Alliance on submicron research and development.

 

Global Foundries' 300-mm Fab 1 in Dresden includes a Module 1 used for 45-nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chips; Module 2 is used for 32-nm and beyond bulk CMOS process technology. Both modules are expected to operate at 25,000 monthly wafer starts at full capacity. Module 2 production will ramp up in late 2009.

  

The $4.5 billion Fab 2, a 300-mm manufacturing facility in Saratoga County, N.Y., is expected to come online in 2012 with 35,000 wafer starts per month at full capacity. Fab 2 is expected to create more than 1,400 jobs along with about 5,000 spin-off jobs.

    

Page 2: Global Foundries' big bet takes shape in upstate New York

  

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Global Foundries breaks ground on long-awaited NY fab.

 

The new 300-mm manufacturing facility is expected to bring 1,400 direct semiconductor manufacturing jobs and billions of dollars in economic development to upstate New York.

 

By Suzanne Deffree, Managing Editor, News -- Electronic News, 7/24/2009

Global Foundries today announced it officially broke ground on the construction of Fab 2, a new semiconductor manufacturing facility located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, NY.

 

The construction and ramp-up phases for the new $4.2 billion facility are expected to take approximately three years to complete, with volume production expected in 2012. According to the company, once Fab 2 is completed it will stand as the "most technologically advanced semiconductor manufacturing facility in the world" and the "largest leading-edge semiconductor foundry in the United States."

 

“As today’s chip designers push the boundaries on the next generation of products, there is a growing need for a new approach to design and manufacturing rooted in collaboration and innovation," Hector Ruiz, chairman of Global Foundries, said in a statement. "With Fab 2, Global Foundries moves the semiconductor industry away from the traditional model of isolated regional development and into an era of global hubs of manufacturing and technology expertise.”

 

The new facility is designed to manufacture microprocessors and logic products on 300-mm wafers, Global Foundries said, noting that initial production is expected to ramp at the 28-nm technology node and move to volume manufacturing on the 22-nm node. Fab 2 will work in conjunction with Global Foundries’ Fab 1 facility in Dresden, Germany.

   

Today's ground breaking was long awaited. Indeed, talk of the NY fab began in 2006, years before AMD spun out its manufacturing operations to form Global Foundries in October 2008. AMD saw significant support from the state during its decision and commitment process, including $1.2 billion in incentives. That largest private-public investment in the history of the state included grants, tax credits, and other New York City Empire Zone benefits. In accord with the investment, New York gave AMD a two-year window, from July 2007 to July 2009, to initiate the building of a new 300-mm wafer fabrication facility in Saratoga County, NY.

 

New York's significant support was not unwarranted. New York estimated that the plant will create approximately 1,400 new, direct semiconductor manufacturing jobs at full-scale production, providing an estimated annual payroll of more than $88 million to the upstate region. In addition, the project will create approximately 5,000 new, indirect jobs in the region, offering a sustained estimated total annual payroll of $290 million for all jobs, according to New York's estimates.

 

The state's universities also have several high-tech efforts in play that include AMD and its partners. Most recently, Intel, IBM, and Sematech backed an R&D joint venture with the University at Albany’s College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering center that is expected to add 475 jobs to New York.

 

“New York has worked with Global Foundries for three years to bring this [fab] project to fruition and I am pleased to say that with the groundbreaking of Fab 2, New York and Global Foundries take a lead role in delivering the type of economic growth needed to carry our nation toward sustainable growth,” said Governor David Paterson of New York in the Global Foundries statement. “This initiative not only provides our residents with a source for new jobs, but is integral in positioning New York as a future hub of innovation and an attractive destination for additional investment.”

 

AMD also showed its support at the ground breaking today. "This is an important opportunity to create thousands of jobs and strengthen US competiveness in the high-tech industry," said Dirk Meyer, president and CEO of AMD, in a company statement. “The multi-billion dollar investments in research and development and capacity expansion that Global Foundries is planning strengthen its position as a premier leading-edge semiconductor manufacturing foundry and make it the ideal AMD technology partner to help in bringing our innovative products to market.”

 

Link: www.edn.com/article/CA6672910.html

      

Location and plans:

m + w zander U.S. Operations, Inc. is designing and building the most advanced semiconductor manufacturing complex in the world for GLOBALFOUNDRIES. The Fab 2, Module 1 facility is to be located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in the Towns of Malta and Stillwater, Saratoga County, New York. The realization of this project will be the crowning achievement in the continued development of New York's Tech Valley as a pre-eminent location for technological breakthroughs not only in the field of semiconductors but in nanotechnology, bio-technology, pharmaceuticals and alternative energy as well.

 

m + w zander is proud to be a leader in this effort and shares this website in order to provide information and the excitement of constructing this most important project with the local and world-wide communities.

 

link: fab2construction.com/

           

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Last edited by Buyckske Ruben; December 6th, 2009 at 03:22 PM.

  

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December 6th, 2009, 03:27 PM #2

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Posts: 1,539 slideshow of construction site:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/aerial-...th/3460543532/

  

Global Foundries' Fab 2: (part 1)

  

all the 3 parts:

    

Link: www.anandtech.com/printarticle.aspx?i=3614

  

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December 13th, 2009, 01:52 PM #3

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Hector Ruiz, the chairman of GlobalFoundries said that the new chip plant is “by far the most significant high-tech investment made in this country in decades.” This plant will produce the most advanced computer chips in the world when it is completed.

      

Having been the construction project manager for AMD’s original Dresden-based fabrication facilities, Globalfoundries has awarded M+W Zander the full turnkey construction contract for Fab 2, currently being built at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, New York. A departure from pervious fab projects, M+W Zander is also responsible for the architectural aspects of the 4 building project. Previously, AMA Group, based in Italy had been the architectural firm responsible for this aspect of the work. The turnkey project is worth approximately €550 million to M+W Zander over the two-year construction schedule.

 

The Fab 2 complex is more than 130,000 square meters (1.45 million square feet), including a 28,000 square meters (300,000 square feet) Class 100 clean room. A ‘spine’ support building is also being built, along with administrative office building and a central utility building (CUB) along with service yards and small support buildings.

 

M+W Zander will also handle general contracting for all of the technical areas to include the manufacturing spaces, building utilities, central utility building and process systems.

LINK: www.fabtech.org/news/_a/mw_za...undries_fab_2/

   

OKT 2009:

          

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December 13th, 2009, 02:04 PM #4

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Impressions inside the fab:

    

Link: blogs.thenational.ae/beep_bee...abu-dhabi.html

        

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December 13th, 2009, 02:10 PM #5

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Posts: 1,539 YOUTUBE FILM about the concurrent Intel.

 

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Fab 32 - Intel's first high-volume 45nm chip factory:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FLBtQC0F0c

 

Very impressive!

  

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Category: GlobalFoundries

Customer-centricMay 3, 2009 at 6:00 am by Larry Rulison

 

Talking about customers, GlobalFoundries is making sure that it treats the customers that it does get the right way.

 

The 1.3 million-square-foot factory it will build in Saratoga County features a special entrance for customers, separate from the visitor entrance. Inside, customers will find a nearly half-acre of space devoted to designing chips for them. GlobalFoundries expects its customer base to grow beyond AMD to include graphics chips companies and those that produce chips used in handheld electronics.

  

Posted in GlobalFoundries | 1 Comment

GlobalFoundries site clearing should be soonApril 30, 2009 at 4:05 pm by Larry Rulison

Although the closing on the sale of 222 acres in Malta at the Luther Forest Technology Campus has been in the final stages now for the last couple of weeks, officials with GlobalFoundries Inc. said again today the deal could be done any day now.

 

The deal will also set in motion a number of events, including the awarding of the first contract to clear the site for a $4.2 billion computer chip factory.

 

In fact, right around the time the sale occurs, GlobalFoundries will send its official commitment letter to the state of New York, making it eligible for $650 million in cash incentives for chip fab construction and research and development activities.

 

Around the same time, GlobalFoundries will make the announcement that it has hired a general contractor. Although not official yet, it’s largely expected that M+W Zander, which built Albany NanoTech, will be given the nod. (more…)

 

Posted in Economic development, GlobalFoundries, Tech Valley, Technology | Add a comment

No Malta meeting for GlobalFoundriesApril 28, 2009 at 10:37 am by Larry Rulison

There will be no Malta Planning Board meeting tonight for GlobalFoundries, the company building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in the town.

 

The town planning board had posted an agenda for the meeting on the town’s Web site, but Town Planning Director Anthony Tozzi said today that the planning board has decided it doesn’t need to meet. It was scheduled to review temporary construction plans for the project.

 

GlobalFoundries is still wrapping up the purchase of 222 acres of land at Luther Forest, and closing is expected later this week or early next week. The planning board doesn’t need to make any approvals until after the closing of that deal, which is why the board decided not to meet.

 

The Malta Planning Board usually meets the third Tuesday of every month, but it has set aside the second and fourth Tuesday of every month for the GlobalFoundries project if needed.

 

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Government | Add a comment

AMD posts loss of $416 millionApril 21, 2009 at 4:55 pm by Larry Rulison

Advanced Micro Devices Inc., the only customer of GlobalFoundries Inc., the company building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta, posted a $416 million loss in the first quarter.

 

Sales totaled $1.177 billion.

 

AMD spun off GlobalFoundries earlier this year and included the results of GlobalFoundries in its consolidated results released today.

 

Those results say GlobalFoundries had sales of $283 million and an operating loss of $141 million.

 

The results also show AMD spent $44 million on the formation of GlobalFoundries during the past two quarters.

 

GlobalFoundries is expected to acquire 222 acres at the Luther Forest Technology Campus any day now and start construction of the chip fab this summer. The plant is expected to start full-scale manufacturing by 2012.

 

Posted in Advanced Micro Devices Inc., General, GlobalFoundries | Add a comment

Malta holding meeting on Luther ForestApril 20, 2009 at 11:48 am by Larry Rulison

The Malta Town Board will hold a workshop and special meeting tonight to make some minor changes to an agreement it has with the Luther Forest Technology Campus.

  

Aerial shows road construction at the Luther Forest site. (Times Union archive)

The meeting comes as it appears that the sale of 222 acres at Luther Forest to GlobalFoundries Inc. for a $4.2 billion computer chip factory could come any day now.

 

It’s unclear if the changes to the agreement with the town, technically a declaration of covenants, conditions and restrictions, are needed so the sale can take place.

 

Malta Supervisor Paul Sausville said this morning that he thought the sale might take place today and he didn’t think the changes – considered minor — had to occur for the sale to go through.

 

Sausville said the document deals with things such as who is responsible for interior roads, sidewalks and lights at the tech park.

 

He said Luther Forest and the town reached an agreement last week, but the town of Stillwater made some minor changes to its version on Thursday, and the two documents have to be identical. The park straddles both towns, although most of the land is located in Malta.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Travis Bullard said the Malta meeting is being held just to make minor revisions. He has said the land deal is imminent.

 

Posted in GlobalFoundries, Government | Add a comment

Luther Forest looking for consultantsApril 16, 2009 at 2:47 pm by Larry Rulison

The nonprofit group developing the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Malta is looking for real estate and construction consultants to provide their expertise as it develops the 1,414-acre business park.

 

Computer chip manufacturer GlobalFoudries Inc. is expected to be the first tenant, taking 222 acres. A deal by the Sunnyvale, Calif.-based firm to acquire the land is due any day now.

 

The Luther Forest Technology Campus Economic Development Corp. issued a request for proposals today for consultants it can use on an as-needed basis.

 

The RFPs are due back April 30. The review process will begin in early May, with selection to take place within a few weeks after that.

 

To see the RFP, click here.

 

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Real estate, Tech Valley, Technology | 2 Comments

RPI spokesman joining GlobalFoundriesApril 2, 2009 at 10:25 am by Larry Rulison

Jason Gorss, the manager of media relations at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, will be joining GlobalFoundries later this month in a communications role.

 

Gorss (right) has been at RPI for several years now. He has a technical and scientific background that helps with his new role with the company, which is building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta called Fab 2 and owns two others in Dresden, Germany.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Jon Carvill said that Gorss’ role will be “more global in nature and focused on our technology.

 

“We will still look to add additional resources specific to Fab 2 in 2009,” Carvill said.

 

The company already has an office in Malta at the Saratoga Technology + Energy Park, which sits within the Luther Forest Technoogy Campus where GlobalFoundries is planning its factory on 222 acres. At least one former General Electric employee is now working there in a human resources position, and additional positions are expected to be filled in the coming months.

 

The new CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, is himself an RPI graduate.

 

The Times Union contacted Gorss this morning by e-mail and he confirmed he is taking the job.

 

“My experience at Rensselaer has given me the rare chance to work with incredibly brilliant people on a wide array of fascinating projects. I am going to miss my colleagues here, but I am excited about the new opportunity with GlobalFoundries,” Gorss said. “It is a perfect fit for someone with my background and interests. I am a technophile at heart, and this job will allow me to immerse myself in some of the most advanced technology on the planet.”

 

Click here to access job opportunities with GlobalFoundries.

 

Posted in Education, GlobalFoundries | 1 Comment

New Fab2 renderings releasedMarch 24, 2009 at 7:41 pm by Larry Rulison

GlobalFoundries Inc. is going to show these new renderings (below) of Fab2 to the Malta Planning Board tonight.

 

GlobalFoundries is planning a $4.2 billion computer-chip factory in the Luther Forest Technology Campus, which sits on land in both Malta and the town of Stillwater.

 

The company is seeking a temporary construction permit tonight after getting approval to start moving soil and trees. That work could begin early next month.

         

Posted in Advanced Micro Devices Inc., GlobalFoundries | Add a comment

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The resources that are available to companies located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus are unparalleled. The Campus is located in the midst of New York’s Tech Valley, a 19-county region in eastern New York that spans from Montreal to New York City. Tech Valley contains more than 1,000 technology companies providing more than 50,000 jobs. Tech Valley companies have a combined economic impact of more than $5 billion and an annual payroll of $2 billion.

 

Located centrally in NY’s Tech Valley, the Luther Forest Technology Campus is the premier site for innovative, high tech companies. The Luther Forest Technology Campus has convenient access to major North American markets, close proximity to industry suppliers, leading universities, and major R&D partners.

  

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GLOBALFOUNDRIES

 

Photo credit: Banner image courtesy of University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering. Lower photo: Aerial view of University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering

            

28 Clinton Street Saratoga Springs, NY 12866 USA

  

went to the community open house at the Globalfoundries Fab2 construction site in Malta, New York this morning. Globalfoundries had a nice tent set up with hot coffee, cookies, donuts, etc. It was a good thing because it was raining pretty hard and the gravel parking lot had a lot of water on it. Globalfoundries and M + W Zander had people on-site to answer questions about the project. They had a few large pictures of the construction site inside the tent as well as artist conceptions of the completed building.

 

The actual construction site could be seen from outside the tent. I took a few of my own pictures that you can see below. Double click on any of the pictures to enlarge them. It is a pretty impressive site. You can’t see the construction site from any of the main roads in the area because it is a few miles deep into The Luther Forest. It is on Stone Break Road off of Route 9 in Malta. I doubt that you can get into the actual construction site except for events like this. (Google Maps can’t locate “Stone Break Road, Malta NY”, unless you include the zip code 12020, but Bing.com can find it without the zip code.)

 

By the time I arrived they had run out of “fact sheets” but I was told to check their website and the information would be updated by Tuesday, October 27th. You can find their website at Globalfoundries.com.

 

Hector Ruiz, the chairman of GlobalFoundries said that the new chip plant is “by far the most significant high-tech investment made in this country in decades.” This plant will produce the most advanced computer chips in the world when it is completed.

 

I wrote a previous article about the chip plant in March. You can read it here: Globalfoundries Chip Plant in Saratoga County New York.

  

The refreshment tent at the Globalfoundries Community Open House

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

The construction and eventual operation of this plant will be an economic boost to Saratoga Springs and the surrounding area for years to come. What do you think about the plant? Leave a comment or send me an email. Thanks.

  

Tags: bing.com, chip plant, fab2, GlobalFoundries, google maps, Hector Ruiz, luther forest, m + w zander, malta ny, saratoga springs

 

General, New York State | John Tedder | October 24, 2009 4:03 pm

 

One Response to “The Globalfoundries Chip Plant in Malta, New York”

Daniel Tagliento says:

October 31, 2009 at 1:50 pmThe local “newspapers” lack of in depth investigative reporting was not at all included in their articles!

What was the reason the entire working platform had to be ‘bulldozed’ flat and devoid of mature stands of trees and other fauna?

Waht is the landscaping of the buildings and parking areas supposed to ‘blend’ into the surrounding topography?

Does this ‘platforming’ necessiate storm water retention ponds?

 

At the completion and occupation of the complex will it be eye friendly?

Note: Parssiphany, New Jersy

Buiding Codes insist that Mega-National type complexes remain ‘hidden’ in park like setting closely resembling the natural forest thy found before construction. Ten Billion of many Corporate Headquarters in ten years were build and remain sucessful but accessible by two lane tree stands lined country lane like entrances with multi-storied parking structures and modest designed multi-storied offices etc, all this surrounded by lawns and fields!

For Your Information the Mayor, who had his hand opefor the entire process was found guilty of 23 or the 24 charges, his hand was returning to his pocket with money he should not have had procession of!

Back to the Chase:Tokyo Electron opening in Malta; part of first wave drawn by chip fab

 

SS.........I AN NOT ON FACEBOOK ......ANYONE WHO WANTS TO....... I WOULD ENCOURAGE YOU TO POST THIS WITH THE ACCOMPANYING ARTICLES ON FACEBOOK ........THESE NEED TO BE READ BY AS MANY PEOPLE AS POSSIBLE .........AS ALWAYS FEEL FREE TO POST ANY OF MY IMAGES AND THEIR ARTICLES ANYWHERE YOU LIKE .................BLOGS...FACEBOOK.....ANYWHERE ............AMERICANS ARE CONSTANTLY LIED TO BY MAINSTREAM MEDIA AND MANY ARE NEVER EXPOSED TO ANOTHER POINT OF VIEW .........IT'S IMPORTANT THAT THEY ARE .........

 

Communists Cheer On Obama’s Gun Grab

  

William F. Jasper

New American

Jan 25, 2013

 

It should come as no surprise that the Communist Party USA is on board with President Obama’s plan to attack Americans’ right to keep and bear arms as a means to “end gun violence.” A cardinal feature of communist regimes, like all dictatorships, is the prohibition of private ownership of arms, creating a monopoly of force in the hands of the State.

 

In a January 18 article, People’s World, an official publication of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA), declared that “the ability to live free from the fear or threat of gun violence is a fundamental democratic right — one that far supercedes any so-called personal gun rights allegedly contained in the Second Amendment.”

 

The article, entitled, “Fight to end gun violence is key to defending democracy,” written by People’s World labor and politics reporter Rick Nagin, claims that “the right-wing extremists opposing all efforts to curb gun violence are the same forces that rallied behind Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney, hoping to undermine every other democratic right as well as the living standards of workers and ordinary Americans.”

 

“It is for that reason,” declares Nagin, “as well as the need to protect public safety, that the same coalition of labor and its allies that worked so hard and effectively to re-elect President Barack Obama must now go all-out to back his common sense proposals for gun law reform.”

 

The Communist Party’s “journalist” continued:

 

As Obama has charged, the extremists recklessly “gin up fear” that the government is coming to take away hunting rifles and personal weapons owned for legitimate self-defense. Led by the hate-mongering leadership of the National Rifle Association, they use a totally fraudulent and only very recent interpretation of the Second Amendment which they falsely claim as necessary for protecting every other freedom contained in the Bill of Rights.

 

However, gun rights advocates don’t need to “gin up fear” that President Obama’s “common sense” proposals will lead to even more onerous infringements than the current calls to ban or restrict so-called “assault weapons”; the gun control zealots have been quite emphatic about intending to severely restrict (and many have called for a total ban on) all privately owned firearms. A December 21 article for the Daily Kos is one of the candid admissions against interest by the Left that the real end goal is a total monopoly of gun ownership by the government. Entitled, “How to Ban Guns: A step by step, long term process,” the regular Daily Kos writer “Sporks” says:

 

The only way we can truly be safe and prevent further gun violence is to ban civilian ownership of all guns. That means everything. No pistols, no revolvers, no semiautomatic or automatic rifles. No bolt action. No breaking actions or falling blocks. Nothing. This is the only thing that we can possibly do to keep our children safe from both mass murder and common street violence.

 

The writer then outlines the piecemeal plan by which the federal government can begin with registration and end up with confiscation. The Daily Kos article also cites the need to delegitimize hunting as well. “We should also segway [sic] into an anti-hunting campaign, like those in the UK,” it says. “By making hunting expensive and unpopular, we can make the transition to a gun free society much less of a headache for us.”

 

Nagin surely must know that it is not merely groundless paranoia exploited by “extremists” inspiring fear that President Obama’s multi-part gun control plan is but the opening wedge in a new drive for ever-expanding federal restrictions and infringements of the Second Amendment. And Nagin surely is aware that his comrades ruling China, Cuba, North Korea, Russia, and other communist countries have never stopped at partial restrictions on private ownership of weapons.

 

As The New American reported recently, Communist China’s ruling mandarins, sounding very much like our own media commentators, have blasted the United States for our “rampant gun ownership.” A Chinese government report last year detailing alleged human rights violations in the United States declares:

 

The United States prioritizes the right to keep and bear arms over the protection of citizens’ lives and personal security and exercises lax firearm possession control, causing rampant gun ownership.

 

More recently, on December 14, 2012, the Beijing regime’s Xinhua news agency editorialized:

 

Twenty-eight innocent people, including 20 primary students, have been slaughtered in a mass shooting at an elementary school in the U.S. state of Connecticut. Their blood and tears demand no delay for the U.S. gun control.

 

“Action speaks louder than words,” concluded the Xinhua editorial. “If Obama wants to take practical measures to control guns, he has to make preparation for a protracted war and considerable political cost.”

 

Communist China, of course, is no paragon of virtue when it comes to liberty, safety, and human rights. Its total ban on private ownership of guns under Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) guaranteed that the Communist Party would have unchallenged power. And, as Professor R. J. Rummel has pointed out in his several published studies on democide (mass murder by governments): Power kills and absolute power kills absolutely. In the case of Communist China, the mass murder by the communist government under Mao was somewhere in the neighborhood of 38 million souls!

 

And China remains a rigidly controlled police state to this day, notwithstanding the limited market reforms that the Party has allowed for pragmatic purposes to obtain the capital and technology it needs to modernize. Only Party officials and the police and military (who must be members of, and be vetted by, the Communist Party) are allowed to possess weapons.

 

Mao’s comrades in Russia, Vladimir Lenin and Josef Stalin, likewise disarmed the civilian population before initiating mass murder. As did Adolf Hitler and every other “successful” mass-murdering tyrant throughout history. Vladimir Gladkov, a radio propagandist on Vladimir Putin’s “Voice of Russia” program, expressed disappointment on December 20 that the Sandy Hook mass shooting probably would not generate the support President Obama needs to implement his desired gun controls. “Unfortunately, there are grounds for very serious doubt that even after this terrible massacre, a ban on selling weapons will be introduced in the US,” said Gladkov.

 

Again, considering that rigid, absolute, centralized power is the essence of all totalitarian regimes, those regimes must, therefore, automatically strike down all checks and balances that would limit their central authority. It is not surprising that spokesmen for these totalitarian governments would endorse policies that give the government a monopoly on deadly force.

 

The American Founding Fathers, on the other hand, recognized that the armed private citizen is the ultimate check and balance against the centralized monopoly of force which invariably turns tyrannical and deadly. Nagin and People’s World, not surprisingly, side with communist tyrants and deride American commitment to our natural rights enshrined in our Constitution.

 

“The Second Amendment is obsolete and now has been twisted to threaten the basic safety and security of all Americans,” says Nagin. Nagin, according to the profile provided on Keywiki by Trevor Loudon, has been a member of the CPUSA for several decades and a writer for the People’s World and other communist publications since 1970. He is a member of the Newspaper Guild and the Communications Workers of America as well as a political coordinator for the AFL-CIO in Ohio. In 2012 he was the Democratic Leader in Cleveland Ward 14 and served on the County Democratic Party Executive Committee.

 

We recognize the totalitarian ideology and objectives of Nagin and other communist propagandists when they advocate disarming of civilians and a total monopoly of force in government. Many of the other people advocating the same gun control policies may not have those totalitarian objectives in mind — but by their support of these policies they would lead us down the same deadly path nonetheless.

 

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Gun Laws and the Fools of Chelm†

Jan 29, 2013 12:00 AM EST

The individual is not only best qualified to provide his own personal defense, he is the only one qualified to do so.

By David Mamet.

 

.Karl Marx summed up Communism as “from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.” This is a good, pithy saying, which, in practice, has succeeded in bringing, upon those under its sway, misery, poverty, rape, torture, slavery, and death.

 

‘In announcing his gun control proposals, President Obama said that he was not restricting Second Amendment rights, but allowing other constitutional rights to flourish.’

For the saying implies but does not name the effective agency of its supposed utopia. The agency is called “The State,” and the motto, fleshed out, for the benefit of the easily confused must read “The State will take from each according to his ability: the State will give to each according to his needs.” “Needs and abilities” are, of course, subjective. So the operative statement may be reduced to “the State shall take, the State shall give.”

All of us have had dealings with the State, and have found, to our chagrin, or, indeed, terror, that we were not dealing with well-meaning public servants or even with ideologues but with overworked, harried bureaucrats. These, as all bureaucrats, obtain and hold their jobs by complying with directions and suppressing the desire to employ initiative, compassion, or indeed, common sense. They are paid to follow orders.

Rule by bureaucrats and functionaries is an example of the first part of the Marxist equation: that the Government shall determine the individual’s abilities.

As rules by the Government are one-size-fits-all, any governmental determination of an individual’s abilities must be based on a bureaucratic assessment of the lowest possible denominator. The government, for example, has determined that black people (somehow) have fewer abilities than white people, and, so, must be given certain preferences. Anyone acquainted with both black and white people knows this assessment is not only absurd but monstrous. And yet it is the law.

 

President Obama, in his reelection campaign, referred frequently to the “needs” of himself and his opponent, alleging that each has more money than he “needs.”

But where in the Constitution is it written that the Government is in charge of determining “needs”? And note that the president did not say “I have more money than I need,” but “You and I have more than we need.” Who elected him to speak for another citizen?

It is not the constitutional prerogative of the Government to determine needs. One person may need (or want) more leisure, another more work; one more adventure, another more security, and so on. It is this diversity that makes a country, indeed a state, a city, a church, or a family, healthy. “One-size-fits-all,” and that size determined by the State has a name, and that name is “slavery.”

 

The Founding Fathers, far from being ideologues, were not even politicians. They were an assortment of businessmen, writers, teachers, planters; men, in short, who knew something of the world, which is to say, of Human Nature. Their struggle to draft a set of rules acceptable to each other was based on the assumption that we human beings, in the mass, are no damned good—that we are biddable, easily confused, and that we may easily be motivated by a Politician, which is to say, a huckster, mounting a soapbox and inflaming our passions.

The Constitution’s drafters did not require a wag to teach them that power corrupts: they had experienced it in the person of King George. The American secession was announced by reference to his abuses of power: “He has obstructed the administration of Justice … he has made Judges dependant on his will alone … He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws … He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass out people and to eat out their substance … imposed taxes upon us without our consent… [He has] fundamentally altered the forms of our government.”

 

Who threatens American society most: law-abiding citizens or criminals? (Matt Rourke/AP)

This is a chillingly familiar set of grievances; and its recrudescence was foreseen by the Founders. They realized that King George was not an individual case, but the inevitable outcome of unfettered power; that any person or group with the power to tax, to form laws, and to enforce them by arms will default to dictatorship, absent the constant unflagging scrutiny of the governed, and their severe untempered insistence upon compliance with law.

The Founders recognized that Government is quite literally a necessary evil, that there must be opposition, between its various branches, and between political parties, for these are the only ways to temper the individual’s greed for power and the electorates’ desires for peace by submission to coercion or blandishment.

 

Healthy government, as that based upon our Constitution, is strife. It awakens anxiety, passion, fervor, and, indeed, hatred and chicanery, both in pursuit of private gain and of public good. Those who promise to relieve us of the burden through their personal or ideological excellence, those who claim to hold the Magic Beans, are simply confidence men. Their emergence is inevitable, and our individual opposition to and rejection of them, as they emerge, must be blunt and sure; if they are arrogant, willful, duplicitous, or simply wrong, they must be replaced, else they will consolidate power, and use the treasury to buy votes, and deprive us of our liberties. It was to guard us against this inevitable decay of government that the Constitution was written. Its purpose was and is not to enthrone a Government superior to an imperfect and confused electorate, but to protect us from such a government.

 

Many are opposed to private ownership of firearms, and their opposition comes under several heads. Their specific objections are answerable retail, but a wholesale response is that the Second Amendment guarantees the right of the citizens to keep and bear arms. On a lower level of abstraction, there are more than 2 million instances a year of the armed citizen deterring or stopping armed criminals; a number four times that of all crimes involving firearms.

The Left loves a phantom statistic that a firearm in the hands of a citizen is X times more likely to cause accidental damage than to be used in the prevention of crime, but what is there about criminals that ensures that their gun use is accident-free? If, indeed, a firearm were more dangerous to its possessors than to potential aggressors, would it not make sense for the government to arm all criminals, and let them accidentally shoot themselves? Is this absurd? Yes, and yet the government, of course, is arming criminals.

Violence by firearms is most prevalent in big cities with the strictest gun laws. In Chicago and Washington, D.C., for example, it is only the criminals who have guns, the law-abiding populace having been disarmed, and so crime runs riot.

 

Cities of similar size in Texas, Florida, Arizona, and elsewhere, which leave the citizen the right to keep and bear arms, guaranteed in the Constitution, typically are much safer. More legal guns equal less crime. What criminal would be foolish enough to rob a gun store? But the government alleges that the citizen does not need this or that gun, number of guns, or amount of ammunition.

But President Obama, it seems, does.

 

He has just passed a bill that extends to him and his family protection, around the clock and for life, by the Secret Service. He, evidently, feels that he is best qualified to determine his needs, and, of course, he is. As I am best qualified to determine mine.

For it is, again, only the Marxists who assert that the government, which is to say the busy, corrupted, and hypocritical fools most elected officials are (have you ever had lunch with one?) should regulate gun ownership based on its assessment of needs.

 

Q. Who “needs” an assault rifle?

A. No one outside the military and the police. I concur.

An assault weapon is that which used to be called a “submachine gun.” That is, a handheld long gun that will fire continuously as long as the trigger is held down.

 

These have been illegal in private hands (barring those collectors who have passed the stringent scrutiny of the Federal Government) since 1934. Outside these few legal possessors, there are none in private hands. They may be found in the hands of criminals. But criminals, let us reflect, by definition, are those who will not abide by the laws. What purpose will passing more laws serve?

 

My grandmother came from Russian Poland, near the Polish city of Chelm. Chelm was celebrated, by the Ashkenazi Jews, as the place where the fools dwelt. And my grandmother loved to tell the traditional stories of Chelm.

Its residents, for example, once decided that there was no point in having the sun shine during the day, when it was light out—it would be better should it shine at night, when it was dark. Similarly, we modern Solons delight in passing gun laws that, in their entirety, amount to “making crime illegal.”

 

What possible purpose in declaring schools “gun-free zones”? Who bringing a gun, with evil intent, into a school would be deterred by the sign?

Ah, but perhaps one, legally carrying a gun, might bring it into the school.

 

If President Obama determines a need to defend his family, why can’t we defend our own?

Good.

We need more armed citizens in the schools.

 

Walk down Madison Avenue in New York. Many posh stores have, on view, or behind a two-way mirror, an armed guard. Walk into most any pawnshop, jewelry story, currency exchange, gold store in the country, and there will be an armed guard nearby. Why? As currency, jewelry, gold are precious. Who complains about the presence of these armed guards? And is this wealth more precious than our children?

 

Apparently it is: for the Left adduces arguments against armed presence in the school but not in the wristwatch stores. Q. How many accidental shootings occurred last year in jewelry stores, or on any premises with armed security guards?

Why not then, for the love of God, have an armed presence in the schools? It could be done at the cost of a pistol (several hundred dollars), and a few hours of training (that’s all the security guards get). Why not offer teachers, administrators, custodians, a small extra stipend for completing a firearms-safety course and carrying a concealed weapon to school? The arguments to the contrary escape me.

 

Why do I specify concealed carry? As if the weapons are concealed, any potential malefactor must assume that anyone on the premises he means to disrupt may be armed—a deterrent of even attempted violence.

Yes, but we should check all applicants for firearms for a criminal record?

Anyone applying to purchase a handgun has, since 1968, filled out a form certifying he is not a fugitive from justice, a convicted criminal, or mentally deficient. These forms, tens and tens of millions of them, rest, conceivably, somewhere in the vast repository. How are they checked? Are they checked? By what agency, with what monies? The country is broke. Do we actually want another agency staffed by bureaucrats for whom there is no funding?

 

The police do not exist to protect the individual. They exist to cordon off the crime scene and attempt to apprehend the criminal. We individuals are guaranteed by the Constitution the right to self-defense. This right is not the Government’s to “award” us. They have never been granted it.

The so-called assault weapons ban is a hoax. It is a political appeal to the ignorant. The guns it supposedly banned have been illegal (as above) for 78 years. Did the ban make them “more” illegal? The ban addresses only the appearance of weapons, not their operation.

 

Will increased cosmetic measures make anyone safer? They, like all efforts at disarmament, will put the citizenry more at risk. Disarmament rests on the assumption that all people are good, and, basically, want the same things.

But if all people were basically good, why would we, increasingly, pass more and more elaborate laws?

 

The individual is not only best qualified to provide his own personal defense, he is the only one qualified to do so: and his right to do so is guaranteed by the Constitution.

President Obama seems to understand the Constitution as a “set of suggestions.” I cannot endorse his performance in office, but he wins my respect for taking those steps he deems necessary to ensure the safety of his family. Why would he want to prohibit me from doing the same?

 

Properties of the number 13

The apostle James says the Minor directed the Church of Jerusalem during thirteen years.

The thirteen ecclesiastical titles of the sacerdotal hierarchy of the Roman Church.

The father of Job had thirteen children, according to visions' of Ann-Catherine Emmerick

.

The celebration of the Epiphany takes place the thirteenth day after the nativity of the Lord. The number 13 is called theophanicus for this reason.

We find often the number thirteen associated with the Blessed Virgin Mary. Her Assumption occurred a Friday 13, in August, at 3 o'clock of the evening, according to visions of Mary Agreda. However, according to revelations of Mary Jane Even in 1994, the Virgin would have died on August 13 and would have resuscitated two days later, that is to say on August 15 to be then received Body and Soul in the Sky. Also, the first and the last appearance of the Virgin Mary in Fatima occurred respectively on May 13 and on October 13, 1917 and it is on July 13, 1917 that the children of Fatima had their vision of the Hell, showing thus that the thirteen is also closely in relation to the suffering and to the death. Still today, in the end of time, the Virgin appears to some seers and clairvoyant only the 13 of each month. The 13th day of the month in the Christendom would be thus particularly dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Moreover several received particular messages tend to show it as it is the case of following messages. In one of messages given to a privileged soul of Quebec, Our-Lord recommended that the 13 of each month is in the honor of his Mother and established in each family. In another message given by the Virgin Mary to Sister Lucy of Fatima the 1st May 1987 for the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the day when she appeared her to Fatima on May 13, 1917, She asked her to celebrate the 13 of each month by songs and the praises in spirit of repair and of expiation. Remind also that it is on May 13, 1981 that occurred the attack of the Pope John-Paul II, in the Saint-Peter place. What saved him from the death, it is that he turned the head to look an engraving of Our-Lady of Fatima at the same moment where the ball of the gunner passed. The France, devoted to Mary since Louis XIII, celebrated her by processions.

According to visions of Maria Valtorta, during the descent of the Holy Spirit on apostles in prayer in the upper room (Cenacle), the Fire of the Holy Spirit, then in form of sphere very shining above the head of Mary, was shared in 13 very shining melodious flames to go down on the 12 apostles and the Virgin Mary.

The value of the letter M of Mary, center of the Latin alphabet, is 13. Likewise 13 words compose the invocation to the Virgin on the Miraculous Medal: O Mary, conceive without sin, pray for we who have recourse to you.

For believer, Friday 13 (of the month of nisan) is the day where the Christ is dead on the Cross; it is also a Friday 13, day placed under the sign of Venus, that Eve, tempted by the demon, made eat an apple to Adam, what entailed their expulsion of the terrestrial Paradise. God being indeed rested the seventh day of the Creation, first Saturday (Sabbath of the Jews) was this day. The next week there had therefore a Friday 13, day of the original sin, since they was redeemed an other Friday 13, that the death of the Christ. Particularly the Jewish Passover was the 14 of the month of nisan, and the Crucifixion took place the day before the Sabbath of Passover, therefore a Friday 13.

In the visions of Maria Valtorta, Jesus speaks about the thirteen veins of the humanity by which are distributed the divine graces, first by Himself, and then by His 12 apostles, choose by Him to represent the whole humanity and in which all the humanity is gathered in His 12 apostles.

Some authors tell that Jesus would be born in a year counting thirteen months. When Hebrews celebrated their first Passover, they abandoned the solar Egyptian calendar and adopted the lunar calendar. Thus, to maintain the correspondence between the month of Pescha and the beginning of the spring, they had to introduce all the three years approximately a thirteenth month into the year.

On the Miraculous Medal, the M of Mary surmounts the Holy Cross of Christ, this one being associated to the number 13. And the letter M is also 13th letter of the alphabet.

The 13th glorious mystery of the Saint Rosary refers directly to Pentecost.

According to the Rule in the Order of the Saint Saviour, given by the Christ to saint Brigitte of Sweden (who lived from 1303 to 1373), in the monastery, thirteen priests have to sing daily the mass and the office of the ecclesiastical year.

The Jewish Faith states thirteen articles that are called fundamental dogmas of the Judaism. They were formulated by Maimonid.

The Witnesses of Jehovah have 13 fundamental doctrines, without speaking their internal rules.

The bible is the inspired word of Jehovah

Jehovah is the only true God

Jesus-Christ is the fathered unique son of God

Satan is the "chief of this world"

The Kingdom of Jehovah and the Christ will replace all human governments and will be the only government of all the humanity

Since 1914 we live the "time of the end"

A only path leads to God, all the other religions are not approved by Jehovah

The death is a consequence of the sin of Adam

Only 144000 go to the sky

The others will live eternally on the earth under the Kingdom of Jehovah

Respect the authority of this world, if they don't hinder their works

Refuse the blood: transfusion and foodstuff

Do the will of Jehovah

 

The 13 is the number of skies for the Aztecs, and the hair of the Ancient of Days had thirteen buckles and his beard thirteen wicks. The ancient Mexico divided also the time in cycles of 52 years divided themselves in four periods of thirteen years. They had also a week of thirteen days. Thirteen was also, for the Aztecs, a time number, which represented the completion of the temporal series.

The sacred cord of Druids has thirteen segments.

The thirteen evil spirits according to the Cabal.

The thirteenth in a group appears in antiquity as the most powerful and the most sublime. For example, Ulysses, the thirteenth of his group, escapes the appetite devouring of the Cyclops.

For the superstitious ones, Fridays 13 are real nightmares: if that day there are 13 guests to the table, that precedes a death in the year (to be 13 to table would carry misfortune); to see a black cat Friday 13 carries misfortune; it is preferable not to exit that day, but in the opposite case, if one leaves by a door, it is always necessary to enter by the same door. The superstition of Friday 13 was also revivified in this era of the computer by some viruses introduced into the computer systems appearing only the day of Fridays 13. The fortune teller on the other hand predicts better the future on Friday 13. In France, as soon as there is a Friday 13 to the calendar, the National Lottery organizes a special drawing because some choose that day to bet the money. But for some, less credulous and more prone to the optimism, the number 13 is a lucky number on which they hope to make a success of what they do or to try their chance. For example, one of these succeeds to convince the British navy to dissipate fears of superstitious sailors who refused to go up a ship a Friday 13. It was indeed decided that they would proceed to the launching of a new ship on a Friday 13. This ship was baptized the H.M.S. Friday. It was controlled by the Friday Captain and took finally the sea a Friday 13. They never see again the ship and the crew.

For the Mayas, the time is divided into several cycles beginning with the birth of Venus. And the cycle in which we are would have begun August 13, 3114 before J.-C. and would end on December 22, 2012. According to them, this date corresponds to the fifth and last cycle of the Earth, what would end to the destruction of the world.

One tells that Philip II, king of Macedonian from 356 to 336 before J.-C., had the misfortune, during of a procession, to add his statue to those of the twelve major gods of the Greek mythology. He was assassinated few time after while he was going to combat against Persia.

Number in relation with the moon: it covers on the average thirteen degrees per day and there are thirteen lunations in the year.

The Creation would be divided into thirteen dimensions and levels: in the first dimension, there are 13 levels; in the second dimension, there are 12 levels; in the third dimension, there are 10 levels. And so on until the thirteenth dimension, which is the dimension of the portal, which is the Dimension of the Christ. And there, there is one level.

The Sumerian used a zodiac including 13 constellations and 26 main stars.

The shield of the old Slav divinity Prono was decorated with thirteen white points.

The thirteen cords of the harp in Japan.

The thirteen gates of the human body of the woman: 2 eyes, 2 ears, 2 nostrils, the mouth, 2 breasts, the navel, the anus, the urethra and the vagina.

Some advance that the Universe created is governed by thirteen fundamental constants of the physics which are amongst other the speed of the light, constants of Planck, Boltzmann and Eddington, the load of the proton, the mass of the proton and the electron to the rest, etc. But this is far to make the unanimity for all seekers and scientists.

In none of the most modern American buildings there is a 13th floor et bedroom number 13. They has also taken the practice to proscribe the number 13 of the numbering in some streets. No more 13 also for some airlines and to the automotive race departure.

It had been formed in Bordeaux, at the 19th century, a society of 13. These jolly fellows organized banquets Friday of each week and committed all their businesses a Friday. The feast of the society was celebrated 13th Friday of each year. Before sitting down at table, they never omitted to reverse the salt boxes.

To the historical viewpoint, there had: 13 primitive cantons in Switzerland, 13 States primitive in the USA, 13 Länder of the Federal German Republic.

The Apollo-13 capsule of the NASA is the only Apollo not to have succeeded to land on the Moon. This mission, which proceeded from the 11 to April 17, 1970, was already at midway of the Moon when an explosion occurred in an oxygen tank and paralyzed a part of instruments. The capsule had then to return on the Earth as soon as possible.

The relationship between the volume of the Earth and that of the Sun is approximately 13 times a power of 10, that is to say 1 / (13.01 x 10E5) to be precise.

The card deck includes 13 hearts, 13 spades, 13 squares, 13 clovers.

Weight of the soul in ounce.

Birthday of marriage: lace weddings.

 

**************

 

IL NUMERO KARMICO TREDICI

 

Il numero karmico Tredici rappresenta la morte, la strasformazione e la rinascita. Chi vive sotto l’infuenza del Tredici avrà la concreta possibilità di riparare o di completare ciò che nelle vite passate è rimasto incompiuto. Ostacolate in precedenti esperienze di vita da situazioni di malattia, ignoranza e/o schiavitù, le persone del Tredici potranno quindi agognare ad una vita migliore.

 

Questa aspettativa non si limita solamente all’individuo influenzato dal Tredici, ma coinvolge anche le persone che gli stanno vicine a cui trasmette questa grande capacità. Dato che, nell’ultima fase del suo percorso evolutivo il Tredici si troverà a dover affrontare diversi ostacoli, potrà cedere alla debolezza di abbandonare il cammino o di prendere deviazioni per rendere il percorso più semplice, eviando così proprio ciò che si era prefisso di fare sin dall’inizio. Il Tredici karmico simboleggia inoltre il bisogno innato di apprendere la disciplina e il modo giusto per superare qualsiasi tipo di difficoltà.

"Seppuku" - Lorenzo Tosti

11 layers

13 colori:

•CLASH: Nero, Grigio Alcatraz, Grigio Milano, Grigio Cenere, Grigio Beretta, Bianco

•MTN94: Rojo Burdeos, Rojo Clandestino, Rojo Vivo, Rojo Sangre, Rojo Claro, Rojo fiebre, Verde Era.

146cm x 54cm x 40cm(katana) su legno mdf

Ringraziamento speciale a Vectta per la sua disponibilità.

 

Il Seppuku è un antichissimo rituale suicida appartenente alla cultura del Sollevante.

La traduzione letterale del termine Seppuku è "taglio dello stomaco": veniva eseguito, secondo una prassi rigidamente codificata, come espiazione di una colpa commessa o come mezzo per sfuggire ad una morte disonorevole per mano dei nemici.

Un elemento fondamentale per la comprensione di questo rituale è il seguente: si riteneva che lo stomaco fosse la sede dell'anima, e pertanto il significato simbolico era quello di mostrare agli astanti la propria anima priva di colpe, in tutta la sua purezza.

L'arma usata per questa pratica poteva essere il tantō (coltello), anche se più spesso, soprattutto sul campo di battaglia, la scelta ricadeva sul wakizashi, detto anche guardiano dell'onore, la seconda lama (più corta della katana) che era portata di diritto dai soli samurai.

Il suicida assumeva la classica posizione giapponese detta seiza, cioè in ginocchio con le punte dei piedi a far presa sul terreno; ciò aveva la funzione di evitare che, conclusosi il rituale, il corpo cadesse all’indietro: un’eventualità paragonabile ad una morte disonorevole.

Al momento fatidico il soggetto fendeva il proprio ventre con un taglio da sinistra verso destra e poi verso l'alto.

Sebbene il gesto del seppuku fosse un atto volontario e compiuto dal suicida, una figura fondamentale era quella del kaishakunin, il "decapitatore". Una volta eseguita l'incisione nell'addome, il kaishakunin decapitava il suicida con un colpo netto, per fare in modo che il dolore non sfigurasse il volto dell’amico. La decapitazione (kaishaku) richiedeva eccezionale abilità e infatti il kaishakunin era l'amico più abile nell’utilizzo della spada.

Proprio l'intervento del kaishakunin e la conseguente decapitazione costituiscono la differenza essenziale tra il Seppuku e il ben più noto Harakiri (rituale privo di questi elementi): differenza formale, ma non ignorabile, dal momento che in Giappone la forma è considerata tanto importante quanto la sostanza.

Questa pratica secolare fu celebrata, fra gli altri, dallo scrittore giapponese di fama internazionale Yukio Mishima nel non lontano 1970.

Con il nome di Jigai, il Seppuku era previsto, nella tradizione della casta dei samurai, anche per le donne; in questo caso, tuttavia, il taglio non avveniva al ventre bensì alla gola attraverso la recisione dell’arteria carotidea.

 

Il rito sacro del Seppuku è apparentemente considerabile un gesto colmo di follia o insensatezza. Per noi occidentali, in effetti, entrare nella forma mentis di un giapponese è un’operazione alquanto complessa, ancora più se l’argomento in questione è l’onore, di cui abbiamo una concezione totalmente differente. Ho volutamente realizzato il mio lavoro in modo tale da renderlo somigliante ad un rito Seppuku, sebbene fossi consapevole della contraddizione di fondo nel farlo praticare ad una donna (poiché come scritto sopra, una donna può solo compiere Jigai). Ciò per un semplice distacco dal paradigma sessista su cui, a mio personale avviso, si fonda la cultura giapponese.

_______________________________

 

Stencil with installation made by Animus.

The finished work will be only visible in May when I can install some cherry blossom.

11 layers

13 colors:

•CLASH: Nero, Grigio Alcatraz, Grigio Milano, Grigio Cenere, Grigio Beretta, Bianco

•MTN94: Rojo Burdeos, Rojo Clandestino, Rojo Vivo, Rojo Sangre, Rojo Claro, Rojo fiebre, Verde Era.

146cm x 54cm x 40cm(katana) on mdf

Special thanks to Vectta for his disponibility.

 

Seppuku is an ancient suicide ritual belonging to the Japanese culture.

The translation of the term Seppuku is “cutting of the stomach” and this ritual was used in the past to expiate a fault or as a way to escape from a dishonourable death by the hand of enemies.

To proper understand this ritual you have to keep in mind that Japaneses used to believe the stomach was the seat of the soul, so the symbolic meaning of this act was giving a proof of the purity of the soul by literally showing it to the bystanders.

The object used for the ritual could be the “tantō” (knife), but usually the choice used to fall on the “wakizashi”, also known as the guardian of the honour, that was the second blade (shorter than the katana) that only samurais could detain.

The suicide was assuming the classic Japanese position called seiza: he had to be on his knees with the toes to take hold on the ground to avoid -when the ritual was ended- that the body could fall backwards: a contingency comparable to a dishonourable death.

At the fateful moment, the suicide split through his stomach with a cutting from left to right and then upwards.

Although the seppuku was a voluntary act made by the suicide, an important figure was the “kaishakunin”, the "beheading”. After the incision on the abdomen was done, the kaishakunin beheaded the suicide with a shot to don’t allow the pain to disfigure the face of his friend.

The beheading (kaishaku) was requiring exceptional skill and in fact the kaishakunin was the friend with more skills with the sword.

The presence of a kaishakunin represents the essential difference between the more well known Harakiri (ritual devoid of these elements) and Seppuku: a formal difference, but not ignorable, because in Japan the form is considered as important as the substance.

This age-old practice was celebrated, among others, by the internationally renowned Japanese writer Yukio Mishima in 1970.

By the name of “Jigai” we mean a version of the Seppuku for women samurai; however women didn’t use to cut the stomach but their throat.

 

The sacred ritual of Seppuku is apparently considerable a mad or insane gesture: for us Westerners, in fact, going thorough the mindset of a Japanese is extremely complex, even more if the topic in question is the honour.

I did my work with the meaning of making it look like the rite of Seppuku, although I was aware of the basic contradiction of let it made by a woman (because, as noted above, a woman can only make Jigai). I did this because I refuse the sexist paradigm on which, in my personal opinion, is based in Japanese culture.

 

Thanks Mark for the corrections!

 

AVAILABLE ON: www.etsy.com/shop/LorenzoTostiStencils

The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

 

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

 

• • • • •

 

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

 

History

 

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

 

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

 

Sixteen years after Bussey's death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "...the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs ... either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

 

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

 

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

Status

 

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of $7,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

 

Location

 

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

 

Hours

 

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor's Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

 

Area

 

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

 

Climate

 

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July's mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January's is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

 

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

 

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

 

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

 

Collections policy

 

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

 

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

 

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

 

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

 

Research

 

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum's education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history. Current Research Initiatives

 

Plant Records

 

Plant records are maintained on a computerized database, BG-BASE 6.8 (BG-Base Inc.), which was initiated in 1985 at the request of the Arnold Arboretum and the Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). A computerized mapping program (based on AutoCAD (Autodesk)) is linked to BG-BASE, and each accession is recorded on a series of maps at a scale of 1-inch (25 mm) to 20 feet (1:240) or 1-inch (25 mm) to 10 feet (1:120). A computer-driven embosser generates records labels. All accessioned plants in the collections are labeled with accession number, botanical name, and cultivar name (when appropriate), source information, common name, and map location. Trunk and/or display labels are also hung on many accessions and include botanical and common names and nativity. Stake labels are used to identify plants located in the Leventritt Garden and Chinese Path.

 

Grounds Maintenance

 

The grounds staff consists of the superintendent and assistant superintendent, three arborists, and ten horticultural technologists. A service garage is adjacent to the Hunnewell Building, where offices and locker rooms are located. During the summer months ten horticultural interns supplement the grounds staff. A wide array of vehicles and modern equipment, including an aerial lift truck and a John Deere backhoe and front loader, are used in grounds maintenance. Permanent grounds staff, excluding the superintendents, are members of AFL/CIO Local 615, Service Employees International Union (SEIU).

 

Nursery and Greenhouse Facilities

 

The Dana Greenhouses, located at 1050 Centre Street (with a mailing address of 125 Arborway), were completed in 1962. They comprise four service greenhouses totaling 3,744 square feet (348 m²), the headhouse with offices, cold rooms, storage areas, and a classroom. Staffing at the greenhouse includes the manager of greenhouses and nurseries, the plant propagator, two assistants, and, during the summer months, two horticultural interns. Adjacent to the greenhouse is a shade house of 3,150 square feet (293 m²), a 12,600 cubic foot (357 m³) cold storage facility, and three irrigated, inground nurseries totaling approximately one and one-half acres (6,000 m²). Also located in the greenhouse complex is the bonsai pavilion, where the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection is displayed from the middle of April to the end of October. During the winter months the bonsai are held in the cold storage unit at temperatures slightly above freezing.

 

Isabella Welles Hunnewell Internship Program

 

The living collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a paid summer internship program [2] that combines hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Intern trainees will be accepted for 12- to 24-week appointments. Ten interns will work with the grounds maintenance department and two in the Dana Greenhouses.

 

As part of the training program, interns participate in mandatory instructional sessions and field trips in order to develop a broader sense of the Arboretum’s horticultural practices as well as those of other institutions. Sessions and field trips are led by Arnold staff members and embrace an open question and answer format encouraging all to participate. Interns often bring experience and knowledge that everyone, including staff, benefits from. It is a competitive-free learning environment.

 

Horticultural Apprenticeship

 

The Arboretum created the horticultural apprenticeship program in 1997 to provide hands-on experience in all aspects of the development, curation, and maintenance of the Arboretum's living collections to individuals interested in pursuing a career in an arboretum or botanical garden.

 

The Living Collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a summer internship program[4] that combines practical hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Fourteen Interns/Horticultural Trainees are accepted for twelve to twenty-four week appointments. Interns receive the majority of their training in one of three departments: Grounds Maintenance, Nursery and Greenhouse, or Plant Records.

 

Lilac Sunday

 

The second Sunday in May every year is "Lilac Sunday". This is the only day of the year that picnicing is allowed. In 2008, on the 100th anniversary of Lilac Sunday, the Arboretum website touted:

 

Of the thousands of flowering plants in the Arboretum, only one, the lilac, is singled out each year for a daylong celebration. On Lilac Sunday, garden enthusiasts from all over New England gather at the Arboretum to picnic, watch Morris dancing, and tour the lilac collection. On the day of the event, which takes place rain or shine, the Arboretum is open as usual from dawn to dusk.[5]

 

Associated Collections

 

The Arboretum's herbarium in Jamaica Plain holds specimens of cultivated plants that relate to the living collections (ca. 160,000). The Jamaica Plain herbarium, horticultural library, archives, and photographs are maintained in the Hunnewell building at 125 Arborway; however, the main portions of the herbarium and library collections are housed in Cambridge on the campus of Harvard University, at 22 Divinity Avenue.

 

Publications

 

The inventory of living collections is updated periodically and made available to sister botanical gardens and arboreta on request; it is also available on the Arboretum’s website (searchable inventory). Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of the Arnold Arboretum, frequently publishes articles relating to the living collections. A Reunion of Trees[6] by Stephen A. Spongberg (curator emeritus) recounts the history of the introduction of many of the exotic species included in the Arobretum’s collections. New England Natives[7] written by horticultural research archivist Sheila Connor describes many of the trees and shrubs of the New England flora and the ways New Englanders have used them since prehistoric times. Science in the Pleasure Ground[8] by Ida Hay (former curatorial associate) constitutes an institutional biography of the Arboretum.

 

Institutional Collaborations

 

The Arboretum maintains an institutional membership in the American Public Garden Association (APGA) and the International Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Additionally, members of the staff are associated with many national and international botanical and horticultural organizations. The Arboretum is also a cooperating institution with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), and as an active member of the North American Plant Collections Consortium (NAPCC), it is committed to broadening and maintaining its holdings of: Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Syringa, and Tsuga for the purposes of plant conservation, evaluation, and research. The Arboretum is also a member of the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC).

 

See also

 

Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, donated by businessman and ambassador Larz Anderson

The Case Estates of the Arnold Arboretum

List of botanical gardens in the United States

North American Plant Collections Consortium

Adams-Nervine_Asylum

 

External links

 

Arnold Arboretum Official Website

Arnold Arboretum Visitor Information

Harvard University Herbaria

American Public Gardens Association (APGA)

Flora of China

Virtual Information Access (VIA) Catalog of visual resources at Harvard University.

Garden and Forest A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888–1897)

Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

 

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

 

• • • • •

 

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

 

History

 

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

 

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

 

Sixteen years after Bussey's death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "...the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs ... either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

 

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

 

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

Status

 

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of $7,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

 

Location

 

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

 

Hours

 

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor's Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

 

Area

 

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

 

Climate

 

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July's mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January's is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

 

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

 

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

 

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

 

Collections policy

 

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

 

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

 

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

 

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

 

Research

 

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum's education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history. Current Research Initiatives

 

Plant Records

 

Plant records are maintained on a computerized database, BG-BASE 6.8 (BG-Base Inc.), which was initiated in 1985 at the request of the Arnold Arboretum and the Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). A computerized mapping program (based on AutoCAD (Autodesk)) is linked to BG-BASE, and each accession is recorded on a series of maps at a scale of 1-inch (25 mm) to 20 feet (1:240) or 1-inch (25 mm) to 10 feet (1:120). A computer-driven embosser generates records labels. All accessioned plants in the collections are labeled with accession number, botanical name, and cultivar name (when appropriate), source information, common name, and map location. Trunk and/or display labels are also hung on many accessions and include botanical and common names and nativity. Stake labels are used to identify plants located in the Leventritt Garden and Chinese Path.

 

Grounds Maintenance

 

The grounds staff consists of the superintendent and assistant superintendent, three arborists, and ten horticultural technologists. A service garage is adjacent to the Hunnewell Building, where offices and locker rooms are located. During the summer months ten horticultural interns supplement the grounds staff. A wide array of vehicles and modern equipment, including an aerial lift truck and a John Deere backhoe and front loader, are used in grounds maintenance. Permanent grounds staff, excluding the superintendents, are members of AFL/CIO Local 615, Service Employees International Union (SEIU).

 

Nursery and Greenhouse Facilities

 

The Dana Greenhouses, located at 1050 Centre Street (with a mailing address of 125 Arborway), were completed in 1962. They comprise four service greenhouses totaling 3,744 square feet (348 m²), the headhouse with offices, cold rooms, storage areas, and a classroom. Staffing at the greenhouse includes the manager of greenhouses and nurseries, the plant propagator, two assistants, and, during the summer months, two horticultural interns. Adjacent to the greenhouse is a shade house of 3,150 square feet (293 m²), a 12,600 cubic foot (357 m³) cold storage facility, and three irrigated, inground nurseries totaling approximately one and one-half acres (6,000 m²). Also located in the greenhouse complex is the bonsai pavilion, where the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection is displayed from the middle of April to the end of October. During the winter months the bonsai are held in the cold storage unit at temperatures slightly above freezing.

 

Isabella Welles Hunnewell Internship Program

 

The living collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a paid summer internship program [2] that combines hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Intern trainees will be accepted for 12- to 24-week appointments. Ten interns will work with the grounds maintenance department and two in the Dana Greenhouses.

 

As part of the training program, interns participate in mandatory instructional sessions and field trips in order to develop a broader sense of the Arboretum’s horticultural practices as well as those of other institutions. Sessions and field trips are led by Arnold staff members and embrace an open question and answer format encouraging all to participate. Interns often bring experience and knowledge that everyone, including staff, benefits from. It is a competitive-free learning environment.

 

Horticultural Apprenticeship

 

The Arboretum created the horticultural apprenticeship program in 1997 to provide hands-on experience in all aspects of the development, curation, and maintenance of the Arboretum's living collections to individuals interested in pursuing a career in an arboretum or botanical garden.

 

The Living Collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a summer internship program[4] that combines practical hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Fourteen Interns/Horticultural Trainees are accepted for twelve to twenty-four week appointments. Interns receive the majority of their training in one of three departments: Grounds Maintenance, Nursery and Greenhouse, or Plant Records.

 

Lilac Sunday

 

The second Sunday in May every year is "Lilac Sunday". This is the only day of the year that picnicing is allowed. In 2008, on the 100th anniversary of Lilac Sunday, the Arboretum website touted:

 

Of the thousands of flowering plants in the Arboretum, only one, the lilac, is singled out each year for a daylong celebration. On Lilac Sunday, garden enthusiasts from all over New England gather at the Arboretum to picnic, watch Morris dancing, and tour the lilac collection. On the day of the event, which takes place rain or shine, the Arboretum is open as usual from dawn to dusk.[5]

 

Associated Collections

 

The Arboretum's herbarium in Jamaica Plain holds specimens of cultivated plants that relate to the living collections (ca. 160,000). The Jamaica Plain herbarium, horticultural library, archives, and photographs are maintained in the Hunnewell building at 125 Arborway; however, the main portions of the herbarium and library collections are housed in Cambridge on the campus of Harvard University, at 22 Divinity Avenue.

 

Publications

 

The inventory of living collections is updated periodically and made available to sister botanical gardens and arboreta on request; it is also available on the Arboretum’s website (searchable inventory). Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of the Arnold Arboretum, frequently publishes articles relating to the living collections. A Reunion of Trees[6] by Stephen A. Spongberg (curator emeritus) recounts the history of the introduction of many of the exotic species included in the Arobretum’s collections. New England Natives[7] written by horticultural research archivist Sheila Connor describes many of the trees and shrubs of the New England flora and the ways New Englanders have used them since prehistoric times. Science in the Pleasure Ground[8] by Ida Hay (former curatorial associate) constitutes an institutional biography of the Arboretum.

 

Institutional Collaborations

 

The Arboretum maintains an institutional membership in the American Public Garden Association (APGA) and the International Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Additionally, members of the staff are associated with many national and international botanical and horticultural organizations. The Arboretum is also a cooperating institution with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), and as an active member of the North American Plant Collections Consortium (NAPCC), it is committed to broadening and maintaining its holdings of: Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Syringa, and Tsuga for the purposes of plant conservation, evaluation, and research. The Arboretum is also a member of the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC).

 

See also

 

Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, donated by businessman and ambassador Larz Anderson

The Case Estates of the Arnold Arboretum

List of botanical gardens in the United States

North American Plant Collections Consortium

Adams-Nervine_Asylum

 

External links

 

Arnold Arboretum Official Website

Arnold Arboretum Visitor Information

Harvard University Herbaria

American Public Gardens Association (APGA)

Flora of China

Virtual Information Access (VIA) Catalog of visual resources at Harvard University.

Garden and Forest A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888–1897)

Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

Feb. 21, 2017. Boston, MA.

Our Money, Our Communities Rally and March from Bank of America, 100 Federal St in Boston to Santander Bank Headquarters.

Bank worker unions are the norm in other countries around the world (and the US is the only country where Santander workers aren’t unionized). Santander workers present their petition to management in Boston making them the first workers at a major US bank to try to unionize.

Jack Smith writes:

“The U.S. bank workers have three demands. The first is greater wages and greater share of the profits, and the second is stable, full-time jobs. Crisp uniforms and polished storefronts aside, bank tellers are solidly low-wage employees — and wages have only taken a downturn over the past decade; as of May 2015, the median annual wage for a bank teller was $26,410.

The third demand isn’t just about protecting workers or shoring up their jobs — it’s about stopping predatory banking practices that pit bank workers against their own communities.”

This third demand is especially important here in New England, as evidenced by a recent report documents Santander’s discriminatory lending practices, which have had a particularly damaging impact in Massachusetts. Worker input could help to change those practices, as it did in the case of Wells Fargo last year.

Committee for Better Banks is a group of bank workers and consumers dedicated to improving the financial services industry for everyone by stopping foreclosures, displacement, and bank worker abuse.

Sponsored by: Committee for Better Banks, Massachusetts Jobs with Justice, Right to the City, City Life/Vida Urbana, Massachusetts Alliance against Predatory Lending, United for a Fair Economy, Massachusetts AFL-CIO, Communications Workers of America.

:copyright: 2017 Marilyn Humphries

 

June 8, 2013

The Totalitarian Left is Back

By James Lewis

  

The New York Times is the fountainhead of the Leftist propaganda machine in the United States. It is therefore significant that its Editorial Board, stocked with Boomer radicals, has just made a fundamental admission against interest. In reaction to Obama's massive and systematic abuse of executive power, the NYT editorialized that

Mr. Obama is proving the truism that the executive branch will use any power it is given and very likely abuse it. That is one reason we have long argued that the Patriot Act, enacted in the heat of fear after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks by members of Congress who mostly had not even read it, was reckless in its assignment of unnecessary and overbroad surveillance powers.

 

But this is of course a lie. Nothing in the Patriot Act authorizes the government-wide abuse of power by the IRS, EPA, FBI, DOJ, and other agencies with the coercive powers against Americans and foreigners. The fault is not in the Patriot Act, but in Obama's Chicago-style one-party machine style of governance. And rather than defending our freedoms, the leftist media colluded with abuse of power until after the election of 2012. The New York Times is the biggest gear in the Obama Machine and they know it.

 

Contrary to the last desperate defense spun by the Times, the Bush Administration never abused the press immunities of reporters; it never used the IRS to initiate hostile investigations of its domestic political enemies, no matter how poisonous and hateful those enemies became; it did not peddle the massive transnationalist fraud of global warming through the EPA; it did not aggress against private corporations as a routine practice; it did not blackmail medical corporations to fund its piratical takeover of 1/7 of the American economy just to benefit its own political clout; it did not practice billion-dollar corruption for its favorite corporate cronies; it did not abuse the coercive powers of the Department of Justice in pursuit of a racialist revenge agenda; it did not indulge in daily White House lies the way Mr. Obama does; and it did not try to establish a Chicago political machine at the Federal level.

Moreover, Republicans never publicly wish for one-party rule in the United States, the way prominent Democrats do so often. They do not engage in monopolistic media collusion, as exposed by the under-covered Journolist scandal. Republicans never engage in the vicious high-tech mob lynching of good and decent human beings, the way the radical Left has done so many times, from Justice Clarence Thomas to the racialist outcry against Hillary and Bill Clinton at the Democratic Convention of 2008.

 

Since the Boomer Left conducted its concealed Long March through the Institutions of the 1970s and 80s to conquer the organs of propaganda in the United States and Europe, the radical left has pursued a near-totalitarian agenda. The result has been a gradual coup d'etat that is visible in the one-party reign of Europe's new appointive ruling class, retaining only the outer mask of electoral legitimacy. In America we have seen the same concealed coup through the regular abuse of racial, gender, ideological, and sexualist preferences in hiring and promotion in government, education, and media. The result is not totalitarian in the killing sense, not yet -- but it is totalitarian in spirit, because its aim is total control over the lives of a free people.

 

The New York Times hides this reality to cover up its own complicity in the radical Long March through the Institutions, the most important operating manual for the Boomer Left next to Alinsky's Rules for Radicals. It was "Pinch" Sulzberger, after all, who introduced ideological hiring and editorial corruption of a formerly decent (though leftist and politicized) newspaper. Pinch is a Boomer radical, and he brought in his own kind to bring the standards of reporting at the Times to its lowest level in modern history. Faithful readers of the Times are either abandoning it in droves or are clinging to it in a pure act of faith that has no basis in adult reality.

The totalitarian left is not new in American life, and we have survived previous outbreaks of this plague. That does not mean we will survive the current assault, however, since, like the HIV virus, each outbreak learns from the mistakes of the previous one.

Before Joe McCarthy there was Josef Stalin, and the McCarthyist campaign against Communist infiltration makes no sense without understanding the threat of Stalin. FDR's advisor Harry Hopkins is now known to have hopped into a KGB car driving around Washington, and FDR himself surrendered much of Europe to Stalin's Soviet Empire at Yalta, against Churchill's urgent advice. The Manhattan Project was penetrated by Soviet agents, including German physicist Klaus Fuchs, who stole nuclear secrets and went back to East Germany in triumph to become a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Fuchs' nuclear espionage was hardly disguised. He was given a medal for it. Even the left admits today that the Rosenbergs and the Cambridge spies in Britain were Soviet agents. France was even worse, if anything. West Germany's governments were penetrated by East German spies. Vladimir Putin was the Soviet KGB head in East Germany.

Call that Chapter 1 of the totalitarian left in America. It did much harm, but the country survived.

 

After FDR died, the American public rebelled against Stalinist penetration of American institutions, especially after the Soviets exploded nuclear devices based on plans stolen from the Manhattan Project. Anti-communism drove the Stalinist left out of public life, and gave room to mainstream liberals to flourish. The liberal AFL-CIO drove out Stalinists, and Ronald Reagan (an FDR Democrat) came face to face with Stalinists in Hollywood when he was president of the Screen Actors' Guild. That experience shaped the rest of his life.

Chapter 2 of the new totalitarian left came to a head in 1968, both here and in Europe, when a new generation of totalitarians staged a comeback. This is hardly a secret anymore. Bill Ayers was one of them: "Kill your parents" being one of his contributions to the lexicon of political philosophy. Saul Alinsky provided the working manual, Rules for Radicals, which guides this administration more than the Constitution. Like the Stalin generation, New Left totalitarians want a one-party system -- it could be called the Democratic Party, since "democracy" is also a lie for the Left.

 

Since radical leftists -- the Stalinists of yore -- like to celebrate their victories. The New York Times nowadays celebrates the passing of yet another good old Stalinist whenever one kicks the bucket. As for the New Left totalitarians, they were the Sixties radicals who received decades of worship from our radicalized media.

Barack H. Obama is a lifelong product of the radical left, beginning with his communist mother, his Kenyan biological father, and his Hawaiian mentor, Frank Marshall Davis, the race hater and porn writer, who was the Communist Party representative in Hawaii. Frank Davis lived in rage against whites, particularly Americans. Obama picked up much of the same racialist biases. Barry Soetoro lived in the heated aftermath of the Indonesian Civil War, where Muslims, Communists, and the military slaughtered each other by the hundreds of thousands.

Obama looks foreign to Americans because ideologically he is foreign. Marxism is a product of European imperialism of the 19th century, updated by Lenin, Stalin, Mao and all the rest. It is a wacky totalitarian dream; it is not an American set of beliefs; it is profoundly alien to American values.

 

The Sixties Left gained power using its semi-secret March Through the Institutions, as prescribed by Italian Communist ideologue Antonio Gramsci. In the U.S., the radical left was able to drive a stake through the Equal Protection clause, first for black people, then for women, gays, Muslim "victims," and coming soon, for illegal immigrants. The newly-privileged rulers instantly created a corrupt spoils system, in which only they were given crucial jobs in education, media, and government. That racial leftist spoils system still rules the United States, which is why we are in the fix we see today.

We even know who runs the party line propaganda machine, through the "Journolist" leaks, which saw the UK Guardian (home of the totalitarian left in the UK) sitting at the same electronic table with the New York Times, the Washington Post, and all the other degraded journolistas. Hundreds of times Rush Limbaugh has played the identical words coming from different sock puppets at NBC, CBS, ABC, and the other imitation media. Those identical words are no accident. They are the same because the source and control mechanism is the same. Europe is run by the same gang. The UK Guardianista who sits at the Journolist table coordinates the socialist party line with Der Spiegel and Liberation, and with all the little media outlets that peddle the EUSSR Party Line.

 

The radical left is now in power in both America and Europe, and whenever they get a chance they act as totalitarians. The single euro currency and the global warming fraud were produced by the same radical ruling class. In America the racial spoils system is used to divide and conquer the country by race, gender, sexual habits, and all the rest. The Supreme Court has surrendered equal rights before the law. The Court claims it is a temporary relief to make up for slavery and Jim Crow. But the totalitarian left will never give up the giant axe it can now wield to cut down the Constitution. There will never be a solution to "racism" as defined by the left because there will never be an end to its lust for power.

The totalitarian left is reflected in Obama's purposeful abuse of the IRS, the FBI (in spying on journalists), the National Security Council (in making secret alliances with the Muslim Brotherhood and Al Qaida), the EPA (in conniving in massive "global warming" extortion). Obama believes in a Democrat Machine to govern the United States, just the way it runs Chicago.

 

Obama has nothing but contempt for the democratic opposition, and shows it every chance he gets. When Obama was asked whether Congress should not even be consulted after the US-NATO assault on Libya, his reply was to laugh. He does not hide his contempt for the Constitution and for electoral democracy. It now appears that the Bamster has never won an election without leaking legally secret information about his opponents, either sealed divorce records, or, as now seems likely, sealed IRS information about Romney donors.

What the country is facing today is therefore not some accidental mistakes made by a well-intentioned U.S. administration. We are facing a totalitarian ideology driven from the top.

The Stalin time was bad. The Obama time is bad. American democracy recovered from the Stalin period. Will we recover from Obama?

Nobody knows the answer today.

  

Read more: www.americanthinker.com/2013/06/the_totalitarian_left_is_...

Follow us: @AmericanThinker on Twitter | AmericanThinker on Facebook

Feb. 21, 2017. Boston, MA.

Our Money, Our Communities Rally and March from Bank of America, 100 Federal St in Boston to Santander Bank Headquarters.

Bank worker unions are the norm in other countries around the world (and the US is the only country where Santander workers arenât unionized). Santander workers present their petition to management in Boston making them the first workers at a major US bank to try to unionize.

Jack Smith writes:

âThe U.S. bank workers have three demands. The first is greater wages and greater share of the profits, and the second is stable, full-time jobs. Crisp uniforms and polished storefronts aside, bank tellers are solidly low-wage employees â and wages have only taken a downturn over the past decade; as of May 2015, the median annual wage for a bank teller was $26,410.

The third demand isnât just about protecting workers or shoring up their jobs â itâs about stopping predatory banking practices that pit bank workers against their own communities.â

This third demand is especially important here in New England, as evidenced by a recent report documents Santanderâs discriminatory lending practices, which have had a particularly damaging impact in Massachusetts. Worker input could help to change those practices, as it did in the case of Wells Fargo last year.

Committee for Better Banks is a group of bank workers and consumers dedicated to improving the financial services industry for everyone by stopping foreclosures, displacement, and bank worker abuse.

Sponsored by: Committee for Better Banks, Massachusetts Jobs with Justice, Right to the City, City Life/Vida Urbana, Massachusetts Alliance against Predatory Lending, United for a Fair Economy, Massachusetts AFL-CIO, Communications Workers of America.

Â:copyright: 2017 Marilyn Humphries

The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

 

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

 

• • • • •

 

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

 

History

 

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

 

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

 

Sixteen years after Bussey's death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "...the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs ... either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

 

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

 

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

Status

 

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of $7,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

 

Location

 

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

 

Hours

 

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor's Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

 

Area

 

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

 

Climate

 

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July's mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January's is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

 

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

 

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

 

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

 

Collections policy

 

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

 

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

 

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

 

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

 

Research

 

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum's education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history. Current Research Initiatives

 

Plant Records

 

Plant records are maintained on a computerized database, BG-BASE 6.8 (BG-Base Inc.), which was initiated in 1985 at the request of the Arnold Arboretum and the Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). A computerized mapping program (based on AutoCAD (Autodesk)) is linked to BG-BASE, and each accession is recorded on a series of maps at a scale of 1-inch (25 mm) to 20 feet (1:240) or 1-inch (25 mm) to 10 feet (1:120). A computer-driven embosser generates records labels. All accessioned plants in the collections are labeled with accession number, botanical name, and cultivar name (when appropriate), source information, common name, and map location. Trunk and/or display labels are also hung on many accessions and include botanical and common names and nativity. Stake labels are used to identify plants located in the Leventritt Garden and Chinese Path.

 

Grounds Maintenance

 

The grounds staff consists of the superintendent and assistant superintendent, three arborists, and ten horticultural technologists. A service garage is adjacent to the Hunnewell Building, where offices and locker rooms are located. During the summer months ten horticultural interns supplement the grounds staff. A wide array of vehicles and modern equipment, including an aerial lift truck and a John Deere backhoe and front loader, are used in grounds maintenance. Permanent grounds staff, excluding the superintendents, are members of AFL/CIO Local 615, Service Employees International Union (SEIU).

 

Nursery and Greenhouse Facilities

 

The Dana Greenhouses, located at 1050 Centre Street (with a mailing address of 125 Arborway), were completed in 1962. They comprise four service greenhouses totaling 3,744 square feet (348 m²), the headhouse with offices, cold rooms, storage areas, and a classroom. Staffing at the greenhouse includes the manager of greenhouses and nurseries, the plant propagator, two assistants, and, during the summer months, two horticultural interns. Adjacent to the greenhouse is a shade house of 3,150 square feet (293 m²), a 12,600 cubic foot (357 m³) cold storage facility, and three irrigated, inground nurseries totaling approximately one and one-half acres (6,000 m²). Also located in the greenhouse complex is the bonsai pavilion, where the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection is displayed from the middle of April to the end of October. During the winter months the bonsai are held in the cold storage unit at temperatures slightly above freezing.

 

Isabella Welles Hunnewell Internship Program

 

The living collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a paid summer internship program [2] that combines hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Intern trainees will be accepted for 12- to 24-week appointments. Ten interns will work with the grounds maintenance department and two in the Dana Greenhouses.

 

As part of the training program, interns participate in mandatory instructional sessions and field trips in order to develop a broader sense of the Arboretum’s horticultural practices as well as those of other institutions. Sessions and field trips are led by Arnold staff members and embrace an open question and answer format encouraging all to participate. Interns often bring experience and knowledge that everyone, including staff, benefits from. It is a competitive-free learning environment.

 

Horticultural Apprenticeship

 

The Arboretum created the horticultural apprenticeship program in 1997 to provide hands-on experience in all aspects of the development, curation, and maintenance of the Arboretum's living collections to individuals interested in pursuing a career in an arboretum or botanical garden.

 

The Living Collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a summer internship program[4] that combines practical hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Fourteen Interns/Horticultural Trainees are accepted for twelve to twenty-four week appointments. Interns receive the majority of their training in one of three departments: Grounds Maintenance, Nursery and Greenhouse, or Plant Records.

 

Lilac Sunday

 

The second Sunday in May every year is "Lilac Sunday". This is the only day of the year that picnicing is allowed. In 2008, on the 100th anniversary of Lilac Sunday, the Arboretum website touted:

 

Of the thousands of flowering plants in the Arboretum, only one, the lilac, is singled out each year for a daylong celebration. On Lilac Sunday, garden enthusiasts from all over New England gather at the Arboretum to picnic, watch Morris dancing, and tour the lilac collection. On the day of the event, which takes place rain or shine, the Arboretum is open as usual from dawn to dusk.[5]

 

Associated Collections

 

The Arboretum's herbarium in Jamaica Plain holds specimens of cultivated plants that relate to the living collections (ca. 160,000). The Jamaica Plain herbarium, horticultural library, archives, and photographs are maintained in the Hunnewell building at 125 Arborway; however, the main portions of the herbarium and library collections are housed in Cambridge on the campus of Harvard University, at 22 Divinity Avenue.

 

Publications

 

The inventory of living collections is updated periodically and made available to sister botanical gardens and arboreta on request; it is also available on the Arboretum’s website (searchable inventory). Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of the Arnold Arboretum, frequently publishes articles relating to the living collections. A Reunion of Trees[6] by Stephen A. Spongberg (curator emeritus) recounts the history of the introduction of many of the exotic species included in the Arobretum’s collections. New England Natives[7] written by horticultural research archivist Sheila Connor describes many of the trees and shrubs of the New England flora and the ways New Englanders have used them since prehistoric times. Science in the Pleasure Ground[8] by Ida Hay (former curatorial associate) constitutes an institutional biography of the Arboretum.

 

Institutional Collaborations

 

The Arboretum maintains an institutional membership in the American Public Garden Association (APGA) and the International Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Additionally, members of the staff are associated with many national and international botanical and horticultural organizations. The Arboretum is also a cooperating institution with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), and as an active member of the North American Plant Collections Consortium (NAPCC), it is committed to broadening and maintaining its holdings of: Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Syringa, and Tsuga for the purposes of plant conservation, evaluation, and research. The Arboretum is also a member of the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC).

 

See also

 

Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, donated by businessman and ambassador Larz Anderson

The Case Estates of the Arnold Arboretum

List of botanical gardens in the United States

North American Plant Collections Consortium

Adams-Nervine_Asylum

 

External links

 

Arnold Arboretum Official Website

Arnold Arboretum Visitor Information

Harvard University Herbaria

American Public Gardens Association (APGA)

Flora of China

Virtual Information Access (VIA) Catalog of visual resources at Harvard University.

Garden and Forest A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888–1897)

Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

Feb. 21, 2017. Boston, MA.

Our Money, Our Communities Rally and March from Bank of America, 100 Federal St in Boston to Santander Bank Headquarters.

Bank worker unions are the norm in other countries around the world (and the US is the only country where Santander workers arenât unionized). Santander workers present their petition to management in Boston making them the first workers at a major US bank to try to unionize.

Jack Smith writes:

âThe U.S. bank workers have three demands. The first is greater wages and greater share of the profits, and the second is stable, full-time jobs. Crisp uniforms and polished storefronts aside, bank tellers are solidly low-wage employees â and wages have only taken a downturn over the past decade; as of May 2015, the median annual wage for a bank teller was $26,410.

The third demand isnât just about protecting workers or shoring up their jobs â itâs about stopping predatory banking practices that pit bank workers against their own communities.â

This third demand is especially important here in New England, as evidenced by a recent report documents Santanderâs discriminatory lending practices, which have had a particularly damaging impact in Massachusetts. Worker input could help to change those practices, as it did in the case of Wells Fargo last year.

Committee for Better Banks is a group of bank workers and consumers dedicated to improving the financial services industry for everyone by stopping foreclosures, displacement, and bank worker abuse.

Sponsored by: Committee for Better Banks, Massachusetts Jobs with Justice, Right to the City, City Life/Vida Urbana, Massachusetts Alliance against Predatory Lending, United for a Fair Economy, Massachusetts AFL-CIO, Communications Workers of America.

Â:copyright: 2017 Marilyn Humphries

I all there over 19,930Hits on this Photo this day July 14 2017.

 

www.fiftyyearfight.org

 

www.rsc.org/images/CIIE_Thalidomide_tcm18-223647.mp3

 

THALIDOMIDE survivors picketed a major medical conference yesterday to demand organisers sever their links with pharmaceutical firm Grünenthal, which produced the drug.

 

www.contergan.grunenthal.info/grt-ctg/GRT-CTG/Die_Fakten/...

 

History

Thalidomide was created by Grünenthal in 1953 and was used in the late 1950s and early 1960s as a "wonder drug" to treat morning sickness, headaches, coughs, insomnia and colds. Thalidomide was marketed in the UK under the name Distaval in 1958, and advertisements emphasized the drug's complete safety, using phrases such as “non-toxic” and “no known toxicity”.

However, in 1961 an Australian doctor, William McBride, wrote to the Lancet after noticing an increase in deformed babies being born at his hospital – all to mothers who had taken Thalidomide.

Between 1958 and 1962 tens of thousands of women throughout Europe found that the baby they were carrying unaccountably miscarried, or, worse, after they gave birth were told it was stillborn. Thousands more discovered that their babies had severe birth defects, missing arms, legs, or with severe reductions to these limbs, or even worse, damage to their internal organs, brain, heart, kidneys, intestines, genitals, etc. During 1962 record keepers began to count all of the children living who were born damaged by the drug. The only complete records are of those who survived long enough to participate in the national compensation schemes, which were established in Germany, Britain, Japan, Sweden and Australia in the 1970s. The difficulty in uncovering the full toll of the disaster begins with the unknown numbers of miscarriages and stillbirths (possibly up to ten times the number of live births), and the widespread practice of infanticide.

The Thalidomide injuries did not stop once the babies were born. At the age of fifty, the Thalidomide Trust’s records show that around half of all survivors are coping with chronic pain – mainly from muscles and joints (musculo-skeletal pain), largely as a result of the challenges of living with missing or damaged limbs. For many, their bodies are deteriorating far faster than able-bodied people. Several have been told words to the effect “your body is getting the problems of someone in their seventies”, which at forty to fifty years of age is not good news. At least a quarter are coping with developing neurological problems, tingling, numbness, and pain in their affected limbs. This means that a person may be holding a cup, for instance, and the next thing they know is it has fallen to the floor and broken, because of the numbness in their hand. For these survivors, the disaster is still slowly unfolding in their day-to-day lives.

Grünenthal scientists were not only negligent in failing to withdraw the drug when reports of problems came in, or for failing to test it according to the standards of the time, but more than most companies they were very well placed to anticipate the possibility that Thalidomide would cause birth defects.

Grünenthal initially denied claims that the drug hadn’t been extensively tested according to the standards of the time, but once the scandal became undeniable, they sought to deflect blame and limit damage.

In 1961 Thalidomide was eventually withdrawn after being found to be a teratogan - a cause of birth defects. 12 years later, the UK company Distillers Biochemicals Limited (now Diageo) – which was responsible for distributing the drug in the UK – reached a compensation settlement following a legal battle by the families of those affected.

Based on incomplete medical evidence and unrealistic expectations of Thalidomide survivors future needs this settlement has turned out to be at an inadequate level. With all Thalidomide survivors in the UK now over the age of 50, it is no longer sufficient to deal with their rising cost of living, and the dramatic deterioration of their health.

To this day, Grünenthal have never accepted responsibility for the suffering caused by Thalidomide. On September 1st 2012, The Grünenthal Group released a statement containing an apology, stating that it "regrets" the consequences of the drug, which led to babies being born without limbs during the 1950s and 1960s. Although the statement was welcomed by some Thalidomide survivors, it is still not an acceptance of responsibility. They just want to live a comfortable life, and that means Grünenthal should be held accountable and pay for their mistake financially.

  

Spanish

Historia

La talidomida fue creado por Grünenthal en 1953 y fue utilizado a finales de 1950 y principios de 1960 como una "droga milagrosa" para el tratamiento de las náuseas, dolores de cabeza, tos, insomnio y resfriados. La talidomida fue comercializada en el Reino Unido bajo el nombre Distaval en 1958, y destacó los anuncios de seguridad completa del medicamento, utilizando frases como "no tóxico" y "no hay toxicidad conocida".

Sin embargo, en 1961 un médico australiano, William McBride, escribió a la revista The Lancet después de notar un aumento en los bebés que nacen deformes en su hospital - todo a las madres que habían tomado Talidomida.

Entre 1958 y 1962, decenas de miles de mujeres de toda Europa descubrieron que el bebé que llevaban inexplicablemente abortado, o, peor aún, después de dar a luz se les dijo que estaba muerto. Miles de personas descubrieron que sus bebés nacieron con defectos congénitos graves, los brazos, las piernas, que faltan o con reducciones severas a estos miembros, o peor aún, el daño a sus órganos internos, cerebro, corazón, riñones, intestinos, genitales, etc Durante 1962 guardianes de los registros empezó a contar toda la vida los niños que nacieron dañado por la droga. Los únicos registros completos son de los que sobrevivieron lo suficiente como para participar en los sistemas nacionales de indemnización, que se establecieron en Alemania, Gran Bretaña, Japón, Suecia y Australia en la década de 1970. La dificultad para descubrir el número de víctimas del desastre comienza con los números desconocidos de abortos involuntarios y mortinatos (posiblemente hasta diez veces el número de nacidos vivos), y la práctica generalizada del infanticidio.

Las lesiones de la talidomida no se detuvo una vez que los bebés nacieron. A la edad de cincuenta años, los registros de la confianza talidomida muestran que cerca de la mitad de todos los sobrevivientes están lidiando con el dolor crónico - principalmente de músculos y articulaciones (dolor musculoesquelético), en gran parte como resultado de los desafíos de vivir con la falta o ramas dañadas. Para muchos, sus cuerpos se deterioran mucho más rápido que las personas sanas. Algunos han dicho palabras en el sentido de "su cuerpo está recibiendo los problemas de alguien en los setenta", que a los cuarenta o cincuenta años de edad no es una buena noticia. Al menos una cuarta están lidiando con el desarrollo de problemas neurológicos, hormigueo, entumecimiento y dolor en las extremidades afectadas. Esto significa que una persona puede ser la celebración de una taza, por ejemplo, y lo siguiente que sé es que ha caído al suelo y se rompe, debido a la sensación de adormecimiento en la mano. Para estos sobrevivientes, el desastre está siendo poco a poco se desarrolla en su día a día.

Grünenthal científicos no sólo fueron negligentes al no haber retirado la droga cuando los informes de problemas de vino, o por no probarlo de acuerdo a los estándares de la época, pero más que la mayoría de las empresas que estaban muy bien situados para prever la posibilidad de que la talidomida haría causar defectos de nacimiento.

Grünenthal inicialmente negó las acusaciones de que el medicamento no ha sido ampliamente probado de acuerdo con los estándares de la época, pero una vez que el escándalo se hizo innegable, trataron de desviar la culpa y limitar el daño.

En 1961, la talidomida fue finalmente retirada después de haber sido encontrado para ser un teratogan - una de las causas de los defectos congénitos. 12 años después, el Reino Unido, Distillers Company Limited (ahora Bioquímicos Diageo) - encargada de la distribución de la droga en el Reino Unido - llegó a un acuerdo de compensación después de una batalla legal por las familias de los afectados.

Sobre la base de evidencia incompleta médica y expectativas poco realistas de la talidomida futuro sobrevivientes necesita esta solución ha resultado ser en un nivel adecuado. Con todos los sobrevivientes de la talidomida en el Reino Unido ahora más de 50 años de edad, ya no es suficiente para hacer frente a su creciente costo de vida, y el dramático deterioro de su salud.

A día de hoy, Grünenthal nunca ha aceptado la responsabilidad por el sufrimiento causado por la talidomida. El 1 de septiembre de 2012, el Grupo Grünenthal emitió una declaración que contenga una disculpa, diciendo que "lamenta" las consecuencias de la droga, lo que llevó a los bebés que nacen sin extremidades durante los años 1950 y 1960. Aunque la declaración fue bien recibida por algunos sobrevivientes de la talidomida, no es todavía una aceptación de responsabilidad. Ellos sólo quieren vivir una vida cómoda, y eso quiere decir Grünenthal deben rendir cuentas y pagar por su error financieramente.

 

Italian

 

Storia

La talidomide è stato creato da Grünenthal nel 1953 ed è stato utilizzato alla fine del 1950 e 1960 come un "farmaco miracoloso" per curare la malattia di mattina, mal di testa, tosse, insonnia e raffreddori. La talidomide è stato commercializzato nel Regno Unito con il nome di Distaval nel 1958, e la pubblicità ha sottolineato sicurezza del farmaco, con frasi come "non tossico" e "nessuna tossicità conosciuto".

Tuttavia, nel 1961 un medico australiano, William McBride, ha scritto al Lancet dopo aver notato un aumento delle nascite di bimbi malformati essendo nati a suo ospedale - tutti da madri che avevano assunto talidomide.

Tra il 1958 e il 1962 decine di migliaia di donne in tutta Europa ha scoperto che il bambino che portavano inspiegabilmente abortito, o, peggio, dopo che ha dato alla luce hanno detto che era morto. Altre migliaia hanno scoperto che i loro bambini hanno gravi difetti di nascita, braccia, gambe, mancanti o con gravi riduzioni a queste arti, o peggio ancora, danni ai loro organi interni, cervello, cuore, reni, intestino, genitali, ecc Nel 1962 custodi record cominciò a contare tutta la vita i bambini che sono nati danneggiati dal farmaco. Le uniche registrazioni complete sono di coloro che sono sopravvissuti abbastanza a lungo per partecipare ai sistemi di indennizzo nazionali, che sono stati stabiliti in Germania, Gran Bretagna, Giappone, Svezia e Australia nel 1970. La difficoltà nello scoprire il bilancio del disastro inizia con i numeri sconosciuti di aborti spontanei e nati morti (forse fino a dieci volte il numero di nati vivi), e la pratica diffusa di infanticidio.

Le lesioni Talidomide non si è fermata una volta che i bambini sono nati. All'età di 50, del Trust talidomide i tabulati mostrano che circa la metà di tutti i sopravvissuti stanno affrontando con dolore cronico - principalmente da muscoli e le articolazioni (il dolore muscoloscheletrico), soprattutto a causa delle sfide della vita con mancanti o arti danneggiati. Per molti, i loro corpi si stanno deteriorando molto più veloce di persone abili. Molti hanno detto parole per l'effetto "il tuo corpo è sempre il problema di qualcuno nei loro anni settanta", che a 40-50 anni di età non è una buona notizia. Almeno un quarto stanno affrontando con lo sviluppo di problemi neurologici, formicolio, intorpidimento e dolore a carico degli arti colpiti. Ciò significa che una persona può essere in possesso di un tazza, per esempio, e la prossima cosa che so è che è caduto a terra e rotto, a causa del torpore in mano. Per questi sopravvissuti, il disastro è ancora lentamente svolgendo nel loro giorno per giorno la vita.

Grünenthal scienziati non erano solo negligenza nel non ritirare il farmaco quando i report di problemi è venuto in, o per non aver testarlo secondo gli standard del tempo, ma più che la maggior parte delle aziende erano molto ben disposti ad anticipare la possibilità che Thalidomide avrebbe causare difetti di nascita.

Grünenthal inizialmente smentito che il farmaco non era stato ampiamente testati secondo gli standard del tempo, ma una volta che lo scandalo è diventata innegabile, hanno cercato di deviare la colpa e di limitare i danni.

Nel 1961 talidomide è stata infine ritirata dopo essere stato trovato per essere un teratogan - una causa di difetti di nascita. 12 anni dopo, i Distillers Company Limited, Regno Unito Biochemicals (ora Diageo) - incaricata di distribuire il farmaco nel Regno Unito - ha raggiunto un accordo di compensazione a seguito di una battaglia legale da parte delle famiglie delle persone colpite.

Sulla base di prove mediche incomplete e le aspettative non realistiche del futuro Thalidomide sopravvissuti ha bisogno di questa soluzione si è rivelata essere ad un livello insufficiente. Con tutti i sopravvissuti Talidomide nel Regno Unito ora di età superiore ai 50 anni, non è più sufficiente per affrontare la loro crescente costo della vita, e il drammatico deterioramento della loro salute.

Fino ad oggi, la Grünenthal non hanno mai accettato la responsabilità per la sofferenza causata dal talidomide. Il 1 ° settembre 2012, il Gruppo Grünenthal ha rilasciato una dichiarazione che contiene delle scuse, affermando che esso "deplora" le conseguenze della droga, che ha portato a bambini nati senza arti nel corso del 1950 e 1960. Anche se la dichiarazione è stata accolta da alcuni sopravvissuti talidomide, non è ancora una assunzione di responsabilità. Vogliono solo vivere una vita comoda, e questo significa che Grünenthal dovrebbero essere ritenuti responsabili e pagare per il loro errore finanziario.

  

More History

 

www.flickr.com/photos/duckwalk/sets/72157615944260359/

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thalidomide

 

www.thalidomide.ca/many-faces-of-thalidomide/

 

1.2.4 Thalidomide

In 1946, the West German soap and cosmetic company of Dalli-Werke, Maurer, and Wirtz formed a new pharmaceutical subsidiary named Chemie Griinenthal. In 1956 Griinenthal test marketed a combination product called Grippex containing thalidomide in Hamburg. This product was indicated for the treatment of respiratory infections.

In 1957 thalidomide tablets were marketed in West Germany under the trade mark Contcrgan. Griinenlhal also sold thalidomide combination products with aspirin {acetylsalieylie acid), phenacetin, quinine, aminopyrine. bacitracin, dihyd rose rep tomycin. and secobarbitone on the West German market for a variety of conditions including colds, coughs, nervousness, migraine, and asthma (Sjostrom & Nilsson 1972).

Other companies acquired marketing or distribution rights for thalidomide products from Griinenthal. Distillers (Biochcmieals) Ltd in the L'K sold it as Distaval. In Canada, Frank W.Horncr marketed it as Talimol and the William S. Mcrrcll Co. as Kevadon. The marketing publicity for the thalidomide products gave special emphasis to its claims to complete atoxicity—since it showed a lack

of acute toxicity by single do.se injection. In 1959. in a letter which Sjostrom and Nilsson document, Griinenthal claimed that with 'prolonged medication the drug's effectivenesss is not impaired by unwanted side-effects',

From August 1959. reports in West Germany and elsewhere started to flow in to the Griinenthal company of peripheral neuropathy in patients paresthesia and numbness in the toes, feet, and ankles, spreading later to the fingers. After some time the patients experienced severe muscular pains and cramps, weakness of the limbs, and ataxia. Other toxic effects on the central nervous system included twitching of the facial muscles, muscle trembling, speech difficulties, and double vision. In the UK Florence (1960) described four cases of thalidomide polyneuritis, and this was the first description in the medical literature. By May 1961 the UK licensees had reported 73 90 cases of polyneuritis.

In October I960 Drs Koserowr and Pfeiffer in Munich showed infants with a new gross deformation (phocomelia sealed limbs) to a paediatric congress.

In November 1961 a meeting of West German paediatricians in Dusseldorf had noted a dramatic increase in the incidence of phocomelia. and Dr. Widukind Lenz suggested that this was due to the intake of a new drug.

In May 1961 Dr. William McBride of Sydney saw his first case of phocomelia. hi October he saw other cases, and he published his observations in December 1961 in ihc Lancet.

  

Spanish

Historia

1.2.4 Talidomida

En 1946, la compañía de cosmética y jabón de Alemania Occidental de Dalli-Werke, Maurer y Wirtz formó una nueva filial farmacéutica llamada Chemie Griinenthal. En 1956, la prueba Griinenthal comercializó un producto de combinación llamado Grippex que contenía talidomida en Hamburgo. Este producto fue indicado para el tratamiento de infecciones respiratorias.

En 1957, los comprimidos de talidomida se comercializaron en Alemania Occidental con la marca Contcrgan. Griinenlhal también vendió productos de combinación de talidomida con ácido acetilsalicílico (aspirin), fenacetina, quinina, aminopirina. Bacitracina, dihid rosa rep tomycin. Y secobarbitona en el mercado de Alemania Occidental para una variedad de condiciones incluyendo resfriados, tos, nerviosismo, migraña y asma (Sjostrom & Nilsson 1972).

Otras empresas adquirieron derechos de comercialización o distribución para los productos de talidomida de Griinenthal. Distillers (Biochcmieals) Ltd en el L'K lo vendió como Distaval. En Canadá, Frank W. Horner lo comercializó como Talimol y el William S. Mcrrcll Co. como Kevadon. La publicidad de comercialización de los productos de la talidomida dio énfasis especial a sus afirmaciones de completar la toxicidad, ya que mostró una falta

De toxicidad aguda por una sola inyección. En 1959, en una carta que Sjostrom y Nilsson documentan, Griinenthal afirmó que con "la medicación prolongada la eficacia del fármaco no se ve afectada por efectos secundarios no deseados",

A partir de agosto de 1959, los informes en Alemania Occidental y en otros lugares comenzaron a fluir hacia la compañía Griinenthal de neuropatía periférica en pacientes parestesias y entumecimiento en los dedos de los pies, pies y tobillos, extendiéndose más tarde a los dedos. Después de algún tiempo los pacientes experimentaron dolores musculares severos y calambres, debilidad de los miembros y ataxia. Otros efectos tóxicos en el sistema nervioso central incluyeron espasmos de los músculos faciales, temblores musculares, dificultades del habla y visión doble. En el Reino Unido, Florencia (1960) describió cuatro casos de polineuritis de talidomida, y esta fue la primera descripción en la literatura médica. En mayo de 1961, los licenciados británicos habían notificado 73 90 casos de polineuritis.

En octubre de 1960, los doctores Koserowr y Pfeiffer en Munich mostraron a los bebés una nueva deformación macroscópica (fótomelia sellada en las extremidades) en un congreso pediátrico.

En noviembre de 1961, una reunión de pediatras de Alemania Occidental en Dusseldorf había observado un aumento dramático en la incidencia de la focomelia. Y el Dr. Widukind Lenz sugirió que esto se debía a la ingesta de un nuevo fármaco.

En mayo de 1961 el Dr. William McBride de Sydney vio su primer caso de focomelia. En octubre vio otros casos y publicó sus observaciones en diciembre de 1961 en Lancet.

The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

 

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

 

• • • • •

 

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

 

History

 

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

 

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

 

Sixteen years after Bussey's death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "...the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs ... either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

 

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

 

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

Status

 

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of $7,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

 

Location

 

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

 

Hours

 

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor's Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

 

Area

 

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

 

Climate

 

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July's mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January's is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

 

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

 

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

 

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

 

Collections policy

 

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

 

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

 

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

 

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

 

Research

 

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum's education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history. Current Research Initiatives

 

Plant Records

 

Plant records are maintained on a computerized database, BG-BASE 6.8 (BG-Base Inc.), which was initiated in 1985 at the request of the Arnold Arboretum and the Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). A computerized mapping program (based on AutoCAD (Autodesk)) is linked to BG-BASE, and each accession is recorded on a series of maps at a scale of 1-inch (25 mm) to 20 feet (1:240) or 1-inch (25 mm) to 10 feet (1:120). A computer-driven embosser generates records labels. All accessioned plants in the collections are labeled with accession number, botanical name, and cultivar name (when appropriate), source information, common name, and map location. Trunk and/or display labels are also hung on many accessions and include botanical and common names and nativity. Stake labels are used to identify plants located in the Leventritt Garden and Chinese Path.

 

Grounds Maintenance

 

The grounds staff consists of the superintendent and assistant superintendent, three arborists, and ten horticultural technologists. A service garage is adjacent to the Hunnewell Building, where offices and locker rooms are located. During the summer months ten horticultural interns supplement the grounds staff. A wide array of vehicles and modern equipment, including an aerial lift truck and a John Deere backhoe and front loader, are used in grounds maintenance. Permanent grounds staff, excluding the superintendents, are members of AFL/CIO Local 615, Service Employees International Union (SEIU).

 

Nursery and Greenhouse Facilities

 

The Dana Greenhouses, located at 1050 Centre Street (with a mailing address of 125 Arborway), were completed in 1962. They comprise four service greenhouses totaling 3,744 square feet (348 m²), the headhouse with offices, cold rooms, storage areas, and a classroom. Staffing at the greenhouse includes the manager of greenhouses and nurseries, the plant propagator, two assistants, and, during the summer months, two horticultural interns. Adjacent to the greenhouse is a shade house of 3,150 square feet (293 m²), a 12,600 cubic foot (357 m³) cold storage facility, and three irrigated, inground nurseries totaling approximately one and one-half acres (6,000 m²). Also located in the greenhouse complex is the bonsai pavilion, where the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection is displayed from the middle of April to the end of October. During the winter months the bonsai are held in the cold storage unit at temperatures slightly above freezing.

 

Isabella Welles Hunnewell Internship Program

 

The living collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a paid summer internship program [2] that combines hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Intern trainees will be accepted for 12- to 24-week appointments. Ten interns will work with the grounds maintenance department and two in the Dana Greenhouses.

 

As part of the training program, interns participate in mandatory instructional sessions and field trips in order to develop a broader sense of the Arboretum’s horticultural practices as well as those of other institutions. Sessions and field trips are led by Arnold staff members and embrace an open question and answer format encouraging all to participate. Interns often bring experience and knowledge that everyone, including staff, benefits from. It is a competitive-free learning environment.

 

Horticultural Apprenticeship

 

The Arboretum created the horticultural apprenticeship program in 1997 to provide hands-on experience in all aspects of the development, curation, and maintenance of the Arboretum's living collections to individuals interested in pursuing a career in an arboretum or botanical garden.

 

The Living Collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a summer internship program[4] that combines practical hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Fourteen Interns/Horticultural Trainees are accepted for twelve to twenty-four week appointments. Interns receive the majority of their training in one of three departments: Grounds Maintenance, Nursery and Greenhouse, or Plant Records.

 

Lilac Sunday

 

The second Sunday in May every year is "Lilac Sunday". This is the only day of the year that picnicing is allowed. In 2008, on the 100th anniversary of Lilac Sunday, the Arboretum website touted:

 

Of the thousands of flowering plants in the Arboretum, only one, the lilac, is singled out each year for a daylong celebration. On Lilac Sunday, garden enthusiasts from all over New England gather at the Arboretum to picnic, watch Morris dancing, and tour the lilac collection. On the day of the event, which takes place rain or shine, the Arboretum is open as usual from dawn to dusk.[5]

 

Associated Collections

 

The Arboretum's herbarium in Jamaica Plain holds specimens of cultivated plants that relate to the living collections (ca. 160,000). The Jamaica Plain herbarium, horticultural library, archives, and photographs are maintained in the Hunnewell building at 125 Arborway; however, the main portions of the herbarium and library collections are housed in Cambridge on the campus of Harvard University, at 22 Divinity Avenue.

 

Publications

 

The inventory of living collections is updated periodically and made available to sister botanical gardens and arboreta on request; it is also available on the Arboretum’s website (searchable inventory). Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of the Arnold Arboretum, frequently publishes articles relating to the living collections. A Reunion of Trees[6] by Stephen A. Spongberg (curator emeritus) recounts the history of the introduction of many of the exotic species included in the Arobretum’s collections. New England Natives[7] written by horticultural research archivist Sheila Connor describes many of the trees and shrubs of the New England flora and the ways New Englanders have used them since prehistoric times. Science in the Pleasure Ground[8] by Ida Hay (former curatorial associate) constitutes an institutional biography of the Arboretum.

 

Institutional Collaborations

 

The Arboretum maintains an institutional membership in the American Public Garden Association (APGA) and the International Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Additionally, members of the staff are associated with many national and international botanical and horticultural organizations. The Arboretum is also a cooperating institution with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), and as an active member of the North American Plant Collections Consortium (NAPCC), it is committed to broadening and maintaining its holdings of: Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Syringa, and Tsuga for the purposes of plant conservation, evaluation, and research. The Arboretum is also a member of the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC).

 

See also

 

Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, donated by businessman and ambassador Larz Anderson

The Case Estates of the Arnold Arboretum

List of botanical gardens in the United States

North American Plant Collections Consortium

Adams-Nervine_Asylum

 

External links

 

Arnold Arboretum Official Website

Arnold Arboretum Visitor Information

Harvard University Herbaria

American Public Gardens Association (APGA)

Flora of China

Virtual Information Access (VIA) Catalog of visual resources at Harvard University.

Garden and Forest A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888–1897)

Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

 

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

 

• • • • •

 

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

 

History

 

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

 

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

 

Sixteen years after Bussey's death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "...the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs ... either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

 

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

 

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

Status

 

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of $7,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

 

Location

 

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

 

Hours

 

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor's Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

 

Area

 

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

 

Climate

 

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July's mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January's is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

 

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

 

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

 

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

 

Collections policy

 

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

 

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

 

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

 

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

 

Research

 

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum's education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history. Current Research Initiatives

 

Plant Records

 

Plant records are maintained on a computerized database, BG-BASE 6.8 (BG-Base Inc.), which was initiated in 1985 at the request of the Arnold Arboretum and the Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). A computerized mapping program (based on AutoCAD (Autodesk)) is linked to BG-BASE, and each accession is recorded on a series of maps at a scale of 1-inch (25 mm) to 20 feet (1:240) or 1-inch (25 mm) to 10 feet (1:120). A computer-driven embosser generates records labels. All accessioned plants in the collections are labeled with accession number, botanical name, and cultivar name (when appropriate), source information, common name, and map location. Trunk and/or display labels are also hung on many accessions and include botanical and common names and nativity. Stake labels are used to identify plants located in the Leventritt Garden and Chinese Path.

 

Grounds Maintenance

 

The grounds staff consists of the superintendent and assistant superintendent, three arborists, and ten horticultural technologists. A service garage is adjacent to the Hunnewell Building, where offices and locker rooms are located. During the summer months ten horticultural interns supplement the grounds staff. A wide array of vehicles and modern equipment, including an aerial lift truck and a John Deere backhoe and front loader, are used in grounds maintenance. Permanent grounds staff, excluding the superintendents, are members of AFL/CIO Local 615, Service Employees International Union (SEIU).

 

Nursery and Greenhouse Facilities

 

The Dana Greenhouses, located at 1050 Centre Street (with a mailing address of 125 Arborway), were completed in 1962. They comprise four service greenhouses totaling 3,744 square feet (348 m²), the headhouse with offices, cold rooms, storage areas, and a classroom. Staffing at the greenhouse includes the manager of greenhouses and nurseries, the plant propagator, two assistants, and, during the summer months, two horticultural interns. Adjacent to the greenhouse is a shade house of 3,150 square feet (293 m²), a 12,600 cubic foot (357 m³) cold storage facility, and three irrigated, inground nurseries totaling approximately one and one-half acres (6,000 m²). Also located in the greenhouse complex is the bonsai pavilion, where the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection is displayed from the middle of April to the end of October. During the winter months the bonsai are held in the cold storage unit at temperatures slightly above freezing.

 

Isabella Welles Hunnewell Internship Program

 

The living collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a paid summer internship program [2] that combines hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Intern trainees will be accepted for 12- to 24-week appointments. Ten interns will work with the grounds maintenance department and two in the Dana Greenhouses.

 

As part of the training program, interns participate in mandatory instructional sessions and field trips in order to develop a broader sense of the Arboretum’s horticultural practices as well as those of other institutions. Sessions and field trips are led by Arnold staff members and embrace an open question and answer format encouraging all to participate. Interns often bring experience and knowledge that everyone, including staff, benefits from. It is a competitive-free learning environment.

 

Horticultural Apprenticeship

 

The Arboretum created the horticultural apprenticeship program in 1997 to provide hands-on experience in all aspects of the development, curation, and maintenance of the Arboretum's living collections to individuals interested in pursuing a career in an arboretum or botanical garden.

 

The Living Collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a summer internship program[4] that combines practical hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Fourteen Interns/Horticultural Trainees are accepted for twelve to twenty-four week appointments. Interns receive the majority of their training in one of three departments: Grounds Maintenance, Nursery and Greenhouse, or Plant Records.

 

Lilac Sunday

 

The second Sunday in May every year is "Lilac Sunday". This is the only day of the year that picnicing is allowed. In 2008, on the 100th anniversary of Lilac Sunday, the Arboretum website touted:

 

Of the thousands of flowering plants in the Arboretum, only one, the lilac, is singled out each year for a daylong celebration. On Lilac Sunday, garden enthusiasts from all over New England gather at the Arboretum to picnic, watch Morris dancing, and tour the lilac collection. On the day of the event, which takes place rain or shine, the Arboretum is open as usual from dawn to dusk.[5]

 

Associated Collections

 

The Arboretum's herbarium in Jamaica Plain holds specimens of cultivated plants that relate to the living collections (ca. 160,000). The Jamaica Plain herbarium, horticultural library, archives, and photographs are maintained in the Hunnewell building at 125 Arborway; however, the main portions of the herbarium and library collections are housed in Cambridge on the campus of Harvard University, at 22 Divinity Avenue.

 

Publications

 

The inventory of living collections is updated periodically and made available to sister botanical gardens and arboreta on request; it is also available on the Arboretum’s website (searchable inventory). Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of the Arnold Arboretum, frequently publishes articles relating to the living collections. A Reunion of Trees[6] by Stephen A. Spongberg (curator emeritus) recounts the history of the introduction of many of the exotic species included in the Arobretum’s collections. New England Natives[7] written by horticultural research archivist Sheila Connor describes many of the trees and shrubs of the New England flora and the ways New Englanders have used them since prehistoric times. Science in the Pleasure Ground[8] by Ida Hay (former curatorial associate) constitutes an institutional biography of the Arboretum.

 

Institutional Collaborations

 

The Arboretum maintains an institutional membership in the American Public Garden Association (APGA) and the International Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Additionally, members of the staff are associated with many national and international botanical and horticultural organizations. The Arboretum is also a cooperating institution with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), and as an active member of the North American Plant Collections Consortium (NAPCC), it is committed to broadening and maintaining its holdings of: Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Syringa, and Tsuga for the purposes of plant conservation, evaluation, and research. The Arboretum is also a member of the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC).

 

See also

 

Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, donated by businessman and ambassador Larz Anderson

The Case Estates of the Arnold Arboretum

List of botanical gardens in the United States

North American Plant Collections Consortium

Adams-Nervine_Asylum

 

External links

 

Arnold Arboretum Official Website

Arnold Arboretum Visitor Information

Harvard University Herbaria

American Public Gardens Association (APGA)

Flora of China

Virtual Information Access (VIA) Catalog of visual resources at Harvard University.

Garden and Forest A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888–1897)

Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

History

 

Thalidomide was created by Grünenthal in 1953 and was used in the late 1950s and early 1960s as a "wonder drug" to treat morning sickness, headaches, coughs, insomnia and colds. Thalidomide was marketed in the UK under the name Distaval in 1958, and advertisements emphasized the drug's complete safety, using phrases such as “non-toxic” and “no known toxicity”.

However, in 1961 an Australian doctor, William McBride, wrote to the Lancet after noticing an increase in deformed babies being born at his hospital – all to mothers who had taken Thalidomide.

Between 1958 and 1962 tens of thousands of women throughout Europe found that the baby they were carrying unaccountably miscarried, or, worse, after they gave birth were told it was stillborn. Thousands more discovered that their babies had severe birth defects, missing arms, legs, or with severe reductions to these limbs, or even worse, damage to their internal organs, brain, heart, kidneys, intestines, genitals, etc. During 1962 record keepers began to count all of the children living who were born damaged by the drug. The only complete records are of those who survived long enough to participate in the national compensation schemes, which were established in Germany, Britain, Japan, Sweden and Australia in the 1970s. The difficulty in uncovering the full toll of the disaster begins with the unknown numbers of miscarriages and stillbirths (possibly up to ten times the number of live births), and the widespread practice of infanticide.

The Thalidomide injuries did not stop once the babies were born. At the age of fifty, the Thalidomide Trust’s records show that around half of all survivors are coping with chronic pain – mainly from muscles and joints (musculo-skeletal pain), largely as a result of the challenges of living with missing or damaged limbs. For many, their bodies are deteriorating far faster than able-bodied people. Several have been told words to the effect “your body is getting the problems of someone in their seventies”, which at forty to fifty years of age is not good news. At least a quarter are coping with developing neurological problems, tingling, numbness, and pain in their affected limbs. This means that a person may be holding a cup, for instance, and the next thing they know is it has fallen to the floor and broken, because of the numbness in their hand. For these survivors, the disaster is still slowly unfolding in their day-to-day lives.

Grünenthal scientists were not only negligent in failing to withdraw the drug when reports of problems came in, or for failing to test it according to the standards of the time, but more than most companies they were very well placed to anticipate the possibility that Thalidomide would cause birth defects.

Grünenthal initially denied claims that the drug hadn’t been extensively tested according to the standards of the time, but once the scandal became undeniable, they sought to deflect blame and limit damage.

In 1961 Thalidomide was eventually withdrawn after being found to be a teratogan - a cause of birth defects. 12 years later, the UK company Distillers Biochemicals Limited (now Diageo) – which was responsible for distributing the drug in the UK – reached a compensation settlement following a legal battle by the families of those affected.

Based on incomplete medical evidence and unrealistic expectations of Thalidomide survivors future needs this settlement has turned out to be at an inadequate level. With all Thalidomide survivors in the UK now over the age of 50, it is no longer sufficient to deal with their rising cost of living, and the dramatic deterioration of their health.

To this day, Grünenthal have never accepted responsibility for the suffering caused by Thalidomide. On September 1st 2012, The Grünenthal Group released a statement containing an apology, stating that it "regrets" the consequences of the drug, which led to babies being born without limbs during the 1950s and 1960s. Although the statement was welcomed by some Thalidomide survivors, it is still not an acceptance of responsibility. They just want to live a comfortable life, and that means Grünenthal should be held accountable and pay for their mistake financially.

 

Spanish

Historia

La talidomida fue creado por Grünenthal en 1953 y fue utilizado a finales de 1950 y principios de 1960 como una "droga milagrosa" para el tratamiento de las náuseas, dolores de cabeza, tos, insomnio y resfriados. La talidomida fue comercializada en el Reino Unido bajo el nombre Distaval en 1958, y destacó los anuncios de seguridad completa del medicamento, utilizando frases como "no tóxico" y "no hay toxicidad conocida".

Sin embargo, en 1961 un médico australiano, William McBride, escribió a la revista The Lancet después de notar un aumento en los bebés que nacen deformes en su hospital - todo a las madres que habían tomado Talidomida.

Entre 1958 y 1962, decenas de miles de mujeres de toda Europa descubrieron que el bebé que llevaban inexplicablemente abortado, o, peor aún, después de dar a luz se les dijo que estaba muerto. Miles de personas descubrieron que sus bebés nacieron con defectos congénitos graves, los brazos, las piernas, que faltan o con reducciones severas a estos miembros, o peor aún, el daño a sus órganos internos, cerebro, corazón, riñones, intestinos, genitales, etc Durante 1962 guardianes de los registros empezó a contar toda la vida los niños que nacieron dañado por la droga. Los únicos registros completos son de los que sobrevivieron lo suficiente como para participar en los sistemas nacionales de indemnización, que se establecieron en Alemania, Gran Bretaña, Japón, Suecia y Australia en la década de 1970. La dificultad para descubrir el número de víctimas del desastre comienza con los números desconocidos de abortos involuntarios y mortinatos (posiblemente hasta diez veces el número de nacidos vivos), y la práctica generalizada del infanticidio.

Las lesiones de la talidomida no se detuvo una vez que los bebés nacieron. A la edad de cincuenta años, los registros de la confianza talidomida muestran que cerca de la mitad de todos los sobrevivientes están lidiando con el dolor crónico - principalmente de músculos y articulaciones (dolor musculoesquelético), en gran parte como resultado de los desafíos de vivir con la falta o ramas dañadas. Para muchos, sus cuerpos se deterioran mucho más rápido que las personas sanas. Algunos han dicho palabras en el sentido de "su cuerpo está recibiendo los problemas de alguien en los setenta", que a los cuarenta o cincuenta años de edad no es una buena noticia. Al menos una cuarta están lidiando con el desarrollo de problemas neurológicos, hormigueo, entumecimiento y dolor en las extremidades afectadas. Esto significa que una persona puede ser la celebración de una taza, por ejemplo, y lo siguiente que sé es que ha caído al suelo y se rompe, debido a la sensación de adormecimiento en la mano. Para estos sobrevivientes, el desastre está siendo poco a poco se desarrolla en su día a día.

Grünenthal científicos no sólo fueron negligentes al no haber retirado la droga cuando los informes de problemas de vino, o por no probarlo de acuerdo a los estándares de la época, pero más que la mayoría de las empresas que estaban muy bien situados para prever la posibilidad de que la talidomida haría causar defectos de nacimiento.

Grünenthal inicialmente negó las acusaciones de que el medicamento no ha sido ampliamente probado de acuerdo con los estándares de la época, pero una vez que el escándalo se hizo innegable, trataron de desviar la culpa y limitar el daño.

En 1961, la talidomida fue finalmente retirada después de haber sido encontrado para ser un teratogan - una de las causas de los defectos congénitos. 12 años después, el Reino Unido, Distillers Company Limited (ahora Bioquímicos Diageo) - encargada de la distribución de la droga en el Reino Unido - llegó a un acuerdo de compensación después de una batalla legal por las familias de los afectados.

Sobre la base de evidencia incompleta médica y expectativas poco realistas de la talidomida futuro sobrevivientes necesita esta solución ha resultado ser en un nivel adecuado. Con todos los sobrevivientes de la talidomida en el Reino Unido ahora más de 50 años de edad, ya no es suficiente para hacer frente a su creciente costo de vida, y el dramático deterioro de su salud.

A día de hoy, Grünenthal nunca ha aceptado la responsabilidad por el sufrimiento causado por la talidomida. El 1 de septiembre de 2012, el Grupo Grünenthal emitió una declaración que contenga una disculpa, diciendo que "lamenta" las consecuencias de la droga, lo que llevó a los bebés que nacen sin extremidades durante los años 1950 y 1960. Aunque la declaración fue bien recibida por algunos sobrevivientes de la talidomida, no es todavía una aceptación de responsabilidad. Ellos sólo quieren vivir una vida cómoda, y eso quiere decir Grünenthal deben rendir cuentas y pagar por su error financieramente.

 

Italian

Storia

La talidomide è stato creato da Grünenthal nel 1953 ed è stato utilizzato alla fine del 1950 e 1960 come un "farmaco miracoloso" per curare la malattia di mattina, mal di testa, tosse, insonnia e raffreddori. La talidomide è stato commercializzato nel Regno Unito con il nome di Distaval nel 1958, e la pubblicità ha sottolineato sicurezza del farmaco, con frasi come "non tossico" e "nessuna tossicità conosciuto".

Tuttavia, nel 1961 un medico australiano, William McBride, ha scritto al Lancet dopo aver notato un aumento delle nascite di bimbi malformati essendo nati a suo ospedale - tutti da madri che avevano assunto talidomide.

Tra il 1958 e il 1962 decine di migliaia di donne in tutta Europa ha scoperto che il bambino che portavano inspiegabilmente abortito, o, peggio, dopo che ha dato alla luce hanno detto che era morto. Altre migliaia hanno scoperto che i loro bambini hanno gravi difetti di nascita, braccia, gambe, mancanti o con gravi riduzioni a queste arti, o peggio ancora, danni ai loro organi interni, cervello, cuore, reni, intestino, genitali, ecc Nel 1962 custodi record cominciò a contare tutta la vita i bambini che sono nati danneggiati dal farmaco. Le uniche registrazioni complete sono di coloro che sono sopravvissuti abbastanza a lungo per partecipare ai sistemi di indennizzo nazionali, che sono stati stabiliti in Germania, Gran Bretagna, Giappone, Svezia e Australia nel 1970. La difficoltà nello scoprire il bilancio del disastro inizia con i numeri sconosciuti di aborti spontanei e nati morti (forse fino a dieci volte il numero di nati vivi), e la pratica diffusa di infanticidio.

Le lesioni Talidomide non si è fermata una volta che i bambini sono nati. All'età di 50, del Trust talidomide i tabulati mostrano che circa la metà di tutti i sopravvissuti stanno affrontando con dolore cronico - principalmente da muscoli e le articolazioni (il dolore muscoloscheletrico), soprattutto a causa delle sfide della vita con mancanti o arti danneggiati. Per molti, i loro corpi si stanno deteriorando molto più veloce di persone abili. Molti hanno detto parole per l'effetto "il tuo corpo è sempre il problema di qualcuno nei loro anni settanta", che a 40-50 anni di età non è una buona notizia. Almeno un quarto stanno affrontando con lo sviluppo di problemi neurologici, formicolio, intorpidimento e dolore a carico degli arti colpiti. Ciò significa che una persona può essere in possesso di un tazza, per esempio, e la prossima cosa che so è che è caduto a terra e rotto, a causa del torpore in mano. Per questi sopravvissuti, il disastro è ancora lentamente svolgendo nel loro giorno per giorno la vita.

Grünenthal scienziati non erano solo negligenza nel non ritirare il farmaco quando i report di problemi è venuto in, o per non aver testarlo secondo gli standard del tempo, ma più che la maggior parte delle aziende erano molto ben disposti ad anticipare la possibilità che Thalidomide avrebbe causare difetti di nascita.

Grünenthal inizialmente smentito che il farmaco non era stato ampiamente testati secondo gli standard del tempo, ma una volta che lo scandalo è diventata innegabile, hanno cercato di deviare la colpa e di limitare i danni.

Nel 1961 talidomide è stata infine ritirata dopo essere stato trovato per essere un teratogan - una causa di difetti di nascita. 12 anni dopo, i Distillers Company Limited, Regno Unito Biochemicals (ora Diageo) - incaricata di distribuire il farmaco nel Regno Unito - ha raggiunto un accordo di compensazione a seguito di una battaglia legale da parte delle famiglie delle persone colpite.

Sulla base di prove mediche incomplete e le aspettative non realistiche del futuro Thalidomide sopravvissuti ha bisogno di questa soluzione si è rivelata essere ad un livello insufficiente. Con tutti i sopravvissuti Talidomide nel Regno Unito ora di età superiore ai 50 anni, non è più sufficiente per affrontare la loro crescente costo della vita, e il drammatico deterioramento della loro salute.

Fino ad oggi, la Grünenthal non hanno mai accettato la responsabilità per la sofferenza causata dal talidomide. Il 1 ° settembre 2012, il Gruppo Grünenthal ha rilasciato una dichiarazione che contiene delle scuse, affermando che esso "deplora" le conseguenze della droga, che ha portato a bambini nati senza arti nel corso del 1950 e 1960. Anche se la dichiarazione è stata accolta da alcuni sopravvissuti talidomide, non è ancora una assunzione di responsabilità. Vogliono solo vivere una vita comoda, e questo significa che Grünenthal dovrebbero essere ritenuti responsabili e pagare per il loro errore finanziario.

  

Japanese

 

サリドマイドは1953年にGrünenthalによって作成されたとつわり、頭痛、咳、不眠や風邪を治療するための「特効薬」として、1950年代後半から1960年代初頭に使用された。サリドマイドは1958年に名称Distavalの下に英国で販売された、と広告はそのような「非毒性」と「知られていない毒性」などのフレーズを使用して、薬剤の完全な安全性を強調した。

サリドマイドを取っていた母親にすべて - しかし、1961年にオーストラリアの医師、ウィリアム·マクブライドは、彼の病院で生まれた赤ちゃん変形の増加に気付いた後、Lancet誌に手紙を書いた。

1958と1962の間で十ヨーロッパ全土の女性の何千人もの彼らは誕生それは死産だったと言われたた後に、彼らがどういうわけか運んでいた赤ちゃんが、悪化し流産し、またはことがわかった。もっと自分の赤ちゃんは1962レコードキーパーの間に脚、またはなど彼らの内臓、脳、心臓、腎臓、腸、生殖器、これらの手足、またはさらに悪いことに、ダメージに深刻な減少を伴う重度の先天性欠損、不足している武器を持っていたことを発見した何千も薬剤によって損傷生まれた生きたすべての子を数えるようになった。唯一の完全な記録は、1970年代にドイツ、イギリス、日本、スウェーデン、オーストラリアで設立された国家補償方式、に参加するのに十分な長生き残った人々のである。災害を完全に通行料を暴くの難しさは、流産や死産の未知数(おそらく生児出生の10倍の数まで)、および嬰児の広範な練習から始まる。

赤ちゃんが生まれた後にサリドマイドの怪我は停止しませんでした。主に筋肉や関節(筋骨格痛)から、大部分が欠落しているか損傷し手足と共に生きるの挑戦の結果として - 50歳の時、サリドマイドトラストの記録は、すべての生存者の約半数が慢性疼痛に対処していることを示している。多くの人にとって、自分の体は健常人よりもはるかに速く悪化している。いくつかは、年齢の四〇から五〇歳で良いニュースではない、「あなたの体は70代の誰かの問題を得ている」旨の言葉を言われている。少なくとも、四半期には、彼らの影響を受けた四肢の発達神経学的な問題、うずき、しびれ、痛みに対処されています。これは、人が、たとえば、カップを保持することができ、彼らが知っている次の事は、それが原因で彼らの手のしびれのため、床に落ちたし、壊れていることを意味します。これらの生存者のために、災害はまだゆっくりと彼らの日々の生活の中で展開されている。

Grünenthalの科学者は問題の報告が入ってきたときだけでなく、薬剤を撤回することができないで怠慢だったか、失敗するのは時間の基準に従ってそれをテストするための、より多くの企業よりも、彼らは非常によく可能性を予想するために置かれたサリドマイドだろうと先天性欠損症を引き起こす。

Grünenthalは当初、薬物が広く、時間の基準に従ってテストされていなかったの主張を否定したが、スキャンダルは否定できないとなったら、それらを非難し、限界ダメージを偏向しようとした。

先天性欠損症の原因は - 1961年にサリドマイドは、最終的にteratoganであることが判明された後に撤回された。 12年後、英国の会社ラーズ·バイオケミカルズ·リミテッド(現ディアジオ) - 英国で薬物を分配するための責任があった - 被災者の家族による法廷闘争以下の補償和解に達した。

この和解は、不十分なレベルであることが判明した不完全な医学的証拠とサリドマイド生存者の将来の非現実的な期待に基づいている必要がありますベース。英国内のすべてのサリドマイドの生存者で、今50歳以上、それはもはや彼らの生活費の上昇、そして自分の健康の劇的な悪化に対処するのに十分ではありません。

この日に、Grünenthalはサリドマイドによって引き起こされる苦しみの責任を受け入れたことがありません。 9月1日2012年、Grünenthalグループは、赤ちゃんへ導いたそれを "後悔"薬の影響は、1950年代と1960年代に手足ずに生まれていることを示す、謝罪を含む声明を発表した。文はいくつかのサリドマイド生存者に歓迎されたものの、それはまだ責任の受け入れではありません。彼らはただ、快適な生活をしたい、それがGrünenthalが責任を負うと財政的に自分の過ちのために支払うべきであることを意味します。

 

Saridomaido wa 1953-nen ni Grünenthal ni yotte sakusei sa reta to tsuwari, zutsū, seki, fumin ya kaze o chiryō suru tame no `tokkōyaku' to shite, 1950-nendai kōhan kara 1960-nendai shotō ni shiyō sa reta. Saridomaido wa 1958-nen ni meishō Distaval no shita ni Igirisu de hanbai sa reta, to kōkoku wa sono yō na `hi dokusei' to `shira rete inai dokusei' nado no furēzu o shiyō shite, yakuzai no kanzen'na anzen-sei o kyōchō shita. Saridomaido o totte ita hahaoya ni subete - shikashi, 1961-nen ni ōsutoraria no ishi, U~Iriamu· makuburaido wa, kare no byōin de umareta akachan henkei no zōka ni kidzuita nochi, ransetto-shi ni tegami o kaita. 1958 To 1962 no ma de jū yōroppa zendo no josei no nan sen-ri mo no karera wa tanjō soreha shizandatta to iwa retata nochi ni, karera ga dō iu wake ka hakonde ita akachan ga, akka shi ryūzan shi, matawa koto ga wakatta. Motto jibun no akachan wa 1962 rekōdokīpā no ma ni ashi, matawa nado karera no naizō, nō, shinzō, jinzō, chō, seishokki, korera no teashi, matawa saraniwaruikoto ni, damēji ni shinkokuna genshō o tomonau jūdo no senten-sei kesson, fusoku shite iru buki o motte ita koto o hakken shita nan sen mo yakuzai ni yotte sonshō umareta ikita subete no ko o kazoeru yō ni natta. Yuiitsu no kanzen'na kiroku wa, 1970-nendai ni Doitsu, Igirisu, Nihon, suu~ēden, ōsutoraria de setsuritsu sa reta kokka hoshō hōshiki, ni sanka suru no ni jūbun'na naga ikinokotta hitobito nodearu. Saigai o kanzen ni tsūkō-ryō o abaku no muzukashi-sa wa, ryūzan ya shizan no michisū (osoraku nama-ji shussei no 10-bai no kazu made), oyobi midorigo no kōhan'na renshū kara hajimaru. Akachan ga umareta nochi ni Saridomaido no kega wa teishi shimasendeshita. Omoni kin'niku ya kansetsu (suji kokkaku-tsū) kara, daibubun ga ketsuraku shite iru ka sonshō shi teashi to tomoniikiru no chōsen no kekka to shite - 50-sai no toki, saridomaidotorasuto no kiroku wa, subete no seizon-sha no yaku hansū ga mansei tōtsū ni taisho shite iru koto o shimeshite iru. Ōku no hito ni totte, jibun no karada wa kenjō hito yori mo haruka ni hayaku akka shite iru. Ikutsu ka wa, nenrei no shi rei kara go rei-saide yoi nyūsude wanai, `anata no karada wa 70-dai no dareka no mondai o ete iru' mune no kotoba o iwa rete iru. Sukunakutomo, shihanki ni wa, karera no eikyō o uketa shishi no hattatsu shinkeigakutekina mondai, uzuki, shibire, itami ni taisho sa rete imasu. Kore wa, hito ga, tatoeba, kappu o hoji suru koto ga deki, karera ga shitte iru tsugi no koto wa, sore ga gen'in de karera no te no shibire no tame, yuka ni ochitashi, kowarete iru koto o imi shimasu. Korera no seizon-sha no tame ni, saigai wa mada yukkuri to karera no hibi no seikatsu no naka de tenkai sa rete iru. Grünenthal no kagaku-sha wa mondai no hōkoku ga haitte kita toki dakedenaku, yakuzai o tekkai suru koto ga dekinaide taimandatta ka, shippai suru no wa jikan no kijun ni shitagatte sore o tesuto suru tame no, yori ōku no kigyō yori mo, karera wa hijō ni yoku kanōsei o yosō suru tame ni oka reta Saridomaidodarou to senten-sei kesson-shō o hikiokosu. Grünenthal wa tōsho, yakubutsu ga hiroku, jikan no kijun ni shitagatte tesuto sa rete inakatta no shuchō o hitei shitaga, sukyandaru wa hiteidekinai to nattara, sorera o hinan shi, genkai damēji o henkō shiyou to shita. Senten-sei kesson-shō no gen'in wa - 1961-nen ni Saridomaido wa, saishūtekini teratogandearu koto ga hanmei sa reta nochi ni tekkai sa reta. 12-Nen-go, Igirisu no kaisha rāzu· baiokemikaruzu· rimiteddo (gen diajio) - Igirisu de yakubutsu o bunpai suru tame no sekinin ga atta - hisai-sha no kazoku ni yoru hōtei tōsō ika no hoshō wakai ni tasshita. Kono wakai wa, fujūbun'na reberudearu koto ga hanmei shita fukanzen'na igaku-teki shōko to Saridomaido seizon-sha no shōrai no higenjitsutekina kitai ni motodzuite iru hitsuyō ga arimasu bēsu. Igirisu-nai no subete no Saridomaido no seizon-sha de, ima 50-sai ijō, sore wa mohaya karera no seikatsu-hi no jōshō, soshite jibun no kenkō no gekitekina akka ni taisho suru no ni jūbunde wa arimasen. Kono Ni~Tsu ni, Grünenthal wa Saridomaido ni yotte hikiokosa reru kurushimi no sekinin o ukeireta koto ga arimasen. 9 Tsuki 1-nichi 2012-nen, Grünenthal gurūpu wa, akachan e michibiita sore o" kōkai"-yaku no eikyō wa, 1950-nendai to 1960-nendai ni teashizu ni umarete iru koto o shimesu, shazai o fukumu seimei o happyō shita. Bun wa ikutsu ka no Saridomaido seizon-sha ni kangei sa reta mono no, sore wa mada sekinin no ukeirede wa arimasen. Karera wa tada, kaitekina seikatsu o shitai, sore ga Grünenthal ga sekininwoou to zaisei-teki ni jibun no ayamachi no tame ni shiharaubekidearu koto o imi shimasu.

  

Welsh

 

Thalidomid ei greu gan Grünenthal ym 1953 ac fe'i defnyddiwyd yn y 1950au hwyr a'r 1960au cynnar fel "cyffur rhyfeddod" i drin salwch bore, cur pen, peswch, anhunedd ac annwyd. Thalidomid ei farchnata yn y DU o dan yr enw Distaval ym 1958, a hysbysebion yn pwysleisio diogelwch cyflawn y cyffur, gan ddefnyddio ymadroddion megis "heb fod yn wenwynig" a "dim gwenwyndra hysbys".

Fodd bynnag, yn 1961 meddyg Awstralia, William McBride, ysgrifennodd at y Lancet ar ôl sylwi cynnydd mewn babanod deformed cael eu geni yn ei ysbyty - i gyd i famau a oedd wedi cymryd Thalidomide.

Rhwng 1958 a 1962 degau o filoedd o ferched ledled Ewrop gwelwyd bod y baban eu bod yn cario miscarried anesboniadwy, neu, yn waeth, ar ôl iddynt roi genedigaeth Dywedwyd wrthym ei fod yn farw-anedig. Mae miloedd mwy darganfod bod gan eu babanod namau geni difrifol, breichiau goll, coesau, neu gyda gostyngiadau difrifol i aelodau hyn, neu hyd yn oed yn waeth, difrod i'w organau mewnol, yr ymennydd, y galon, yr arennau, coluddion, organau cenhedlu, ac ati Yn ystod 1962 geidwaid record dechreuodd i gyfrif pob un o'r plant sy'n byw a anwyd niweidio gan y cyffur. Yr unig cofnodion cyflawn yn y rhai a oroesodd yn ddigon hir i gymryd rhan yn y cynlluniau iawndal cenedlaethol, a sefydlwyd yn yr Almaen, Prydain, Japan, Sweden ac Awstralia yn y 1970au. Yr anhawster mewn datgelu y doll llawn y drychineb yn dechrau gyda nifer anhysbys o gamesgor a marw-enedigaethau (o bosibl hyd at ddeg gwaith y nifer o enedigaethau byw), ac mae'r arfer cyffredin o babanladdiad.

Nid oedd yr anafiadau Thalidomide oedd yn rhoi'r gorau unwaith y bydd y babanod eu geni. Ar hanner cant oed, cofnodion yr Ymddiriedolaeth Thalidomid yn dangos bod tua hanner yr holl goroeswyr yn ymdopi â phoen cronig - yn bennaf o gyhyrau a chymalau (poen cyhyrysgerbydol), yn bennaf o ganlyniad i heriau o fyw gyda aelodau goll neu wedi'u difrodi. I lawer, mae eu cyrff yn dirywio yn llawer gyflymach na phobl abl. Mae nifer wedi cael gwybod y geiriau i'r perwyl "eich corff yn cael y problemau y bydd rhywun yn eu saithdegau", a oedd yn 40-50 mlwydd oed nad yw newyddion da. Mae o leiaf chwarter yn ymdopi â datblygu problemau niwrolegol, pinnau bach, diffyg teimlad, a phoen yn eu coesau yr effeithir arnynt. Mae hyn yn golygu y gall person gael ei dal cwpan, er enghraifft, a'r peth nesaf eu bod yn gwybod ei fod wedi disgyn i'r llawr ac yn torri, oherwydd y diffyg teimlad yn eu llaw. Ar gyfer goroeswyr hyn, mae'r drychineb yn dal yn datblygu yn araf yn eu bywydau o ddydd i ddydd.

Gwyddonwyr Grünenthal oedd nid yn unig yn esgeulus wrth fethu i dynnu'r cyffur pan ddaeth adroddiadau am broblemau mewn, neu am fethu i brofi ei fod yn ôl y safonau ar y pryd, ond yn fwy na'r rhan fwyaf o gwmnïau eu bod mewn sefyllfa dda iawn i ragweld y posibilrwydd y byddai Thalidomide achosi namau geni.

Grünenthal i ddechrau gwadu honiadau nad oedd y cyffur wedi cael ei brofi'n helaeth yn ôl y safonau ar y pryd, ond unwaith y bydd y sgandal daeth yn ddiymwad, maent yn ceisio symud y bai a therfyn difrod.

Ym 1961 Thalidomide ei dynnu'n ôl yn y pen draw ar ôl ei gael i fod yn teratogan - un o achosion o namau geni. 12 mlynedd yn ddiweddarach, mae'r DU Distillers Biochemicals cwmni Limited (Diageo erbyn hyn) - a oedd yn gyfrifol am ddosbarthu'r cyffur yn y DU - cyrraedd setliad iawndal yn dilyn brwydr gyfreithiol gan deuluoedd y rhai yr effeithir arnynt.

Yn seiliedig ar dystiolaeth feddygol anghyflawn a disgwyliadau afrealistig o oroeswyr Thalidomide anghenion y dyfodol setliad hwn wedi troi allan i fod ar lefel annigonol. Gyda'r holl goroeswyr Thalidomid yn y DU bellach dros 50 oed, ei bod yn ddigonol i ddelio â'u cynnydd mewn costau byw, ac mae'r dirywiad dramatig ar eu hiechyd mwyach.

Hyd heddiw, erioed Grünenthal wedi derbyn cyfrifoldeb am y dioddefaint a achosir gan Thalidomide. Ar 1 Medi 2012, rhyddhawyd y Grŵp Grünenthal datganiad sy'n cynnwys ymddiheuriad, gan ddweud ei fod yn "difaru" y canlyniadau y cyffur, a arweiniodd at fabanod yn cael eu geni heb aelodau yn ystod y 1950au a'r 1960au. Er bod y datganiad yn ei groesawu gan rai goroeswyr Thalidomid, nid yw'n dal i fod yn derbyn cyfrifoldeb. Maent yn unig yn awyddus i fyw bywyd cyfforddus, ac mae hynny'n golygu y dylai Grünenthal fod yn atebol ac yn talu am eu camgymeriad yn ariannol.

The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

 

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

 

• • • • •

 

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

 

History

 

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

 

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

 

Sixteen years after Bussey's death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "...the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs ... either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

 

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

 

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

Status

 

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of $7,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

 

Location

 

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

 

Hours

 

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor's Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

 

Area

 

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

 

Climate

 

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July's mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January's is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

 

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

 

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

 

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

 

Collections policy

 

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

 

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

 

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

 

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

 

Research

 

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum's education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history. Current Research Initiatives

 

Plant Records

 

Plant records are maintained on a computerized database, BG-BASE 6.8 (BG-Base Inc.), which was initiated in 1985 at the request of the Arnold Arboretum and the Threatened Plants Unit (TPU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). A computerized mapping program (based on AutoCAD (Autodesk)) is linked to BG-BASE, and each accession is recorded on a series of maps at a scale of 1-inch (25 mm) to 20 feet (1:240) or 1-inch (25 mm) to 10 feet (1:120). A computer-driven embosser generates records labels. All accessioned plants in the collections are labeled with accession number, botanical name, and cultivar name (when appropriate), source information, common name, and map location. Trunk and/or display labels are also hung on many accessions and include botanical and common names and nativity. Stake labels are used to identify plants located in the Leventritt Garden and Chinese Path.

 

Grounds Maintenance

 

The grounds staff consists of the superintendent and assistant superintendent, three arborists, and ten horticultural technologists. A service garage is adjacent to the Hunnewell Building, where offices and locker rooms are located. During the summer months ten horticultural interns supplement the grounds staff. A wide array of vehicles and modern equipment, including an aerial lift truck and a John Deere backhoe and front loader, are used in grounds maintenance. Permanent grounds staff, excluding the superintendents, are members of AFL/CIO Local 615, Service Employees International Union (SEIU).

 

Nursery and Greenhouse Facilities

 

The Dana Greenhouses, located at 1050 Centre Street (with a mailing address of 125 Arborway), were completed in 1962. They comprise four service greenhouses totaling 3,744 square feet (348 m²), the headhouse with offices, cold rooms, storage areas, and a classroom. Staffing at the greenhouse includes the manager of greenhouses and nurseries, the plant propagator, two assistants, and, during the summer months, two horticultural interns. Adjacent to the greenhouse is a shade house of 3,150 square feet (293 m²), a 12,600 cubic foot (357 m³) cold storage facility, and three irrigated, inground nurseries totaling approximately one and one-half acres (6,000 m²). Also located in the greenhouse complex is the bonsai pavilion, where the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection is displayed from the middle of April to the end of October. During the winter months the bonsai are held in the cold storage unit at temperatures slightly above freezing.

 

Isabella Welles Hunnewell Internship Program

 

The living collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a paid summer internship program [2] that combines hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Intern trainees will be accepted for 12- to 24-week appointments. Ten interns will work with the grounds maintenance department and two in the Dana Greenhouses.

 

As part of the training program, interns participate in mandatory instructional sessions and field trips in order to develop a broader sense of the Arboretum’s horticultural practices as well as those of other institutions. Sessions and field trips are led by Arnold staff members and embrace an open question and answer format encouraging all to participate. Interns often bring experience and knowledge that everyone, including staff, benefits from. It is a competitive-free learning environment.

 

Horticultural Apprenticeship

 

The Arboretum created the horticultural apprenticeship program in 1997 to provide hands-on experience in all aspects of the development, curation, and maintenance of the Arboretum's living collections to individuals interested in pursuing a career in an arboretum or botanical garden.

 

The Living Collections department of the Arnold Arboretum offers a summer internship program[4] that combines practical hands-on training in horticulture with educational courses. Fourteen Interns/Horticultural Trainees are accepted for twelve to twenty-four week appointments. Interns receive the majority of their training in one of three departments: Grounds Maintenance, Nursery and Greenhouse, or Plant Records.

 

Lilac Sunday

 

The second Sunday in May every year is "Lilac Sunday". This is the only day of the year that picnicing is allowed. In 2008, on the 100th anniversary of Lilac Sunday, the Arboretum website touted:

 

Of the thousands of flowering plants in the Arboretum, only one, the lilac, is singled out each year for a daylong celebration. On Lilac Sunday, garden enthusiasts from all over New England gather at the Arboretum to picnic, watch Morris dancing, and tour the lilac collection. On the day of the event, which takes place rain or shine, the Arboretum is open as usual from dawn to dusk.[5]

 

Associated Collections

 

The Arboretum's herbarium in Jamaica Plain holds specimens of cultivated plants that relate to the living collections (ca. 160,000). The Jamaica Plain herbarium, horticultural library, archives, and photographs are maintained in the Hunnewell building at 125 Arborway; however, the main portions of the herbarium and library collections are housed in Cambridge on the campus of Harvard University, at 22 Divinity Avenue.

 

Publications

 

The inventory of living collections is updated periodically and made available to sister botanical gardens and arboreta on request; it is also available on the Arboretum’s website (searchable inventory). Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of the Arnold Arboretum, frequently publishes articles relating to the living collections. A Reunion of Trees[6] by Stephen A. Spongberg (curator emeritus) recounts the history of the introduction of many of the exotic species included in the Arobretum’s collections. New England Natives[7] written by horticultural research archivist Sheila Connor describes many of the trees and shrubs of the New England flora and the ways New Englanders have used them since prehistoric times. Science in the Pleasure Ground[8] by Ida Hay (former curatorial associate) constitutes an institutional biography of the Arboretum.

 

Institutional Collaborations

 

The Arboretum maintains an institutional membership in the American Public Garden Association (APGA) and the International Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Additionally, members of the staff are associated with many national and international botanical and horticultural organizations. The Arboretum is also a cooperating institution with the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), and as an active member of the North American Plant Collections Consortium (NAPCC), it is committed to broadening and maintaining its holdings of: Acer, Carya, Fagus, Stewartia, Syringa, and Tsuga for the purposes of plant conservation, evaluation, and research. The Arboretum is also a member of the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC).

 

See also

 

Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, donated by businessman and ambassador Larz Anderson

The Case Estates of the Arnold Arboretum

List of botanical gardens in the United States

North American Plant Collections Consortium

Adams-Nervine_Asylum

 

External links

 

Arnold Arboretum Official Website

Arnold Arboretum Visitor Information

Harvard University Herbaria

American Public Gardens Association (APGA)

Flora of China

Virtual Information Access (VIA) Catalog of visual resources at Harvard University.

Garden and Forest A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888–1897)

Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

Some of these pictures of the hawk are pretty blurry, but heck, I'm just pleased I was this close to it at all: the bird startled my son & I by flying within an arm's length of us before landing on a low branch and looking around on a couple of low branches for a few minutes, before it finally got sick of me chasing it around with the camera and flew away. Awesome. :-)

 

The Arboretum has an interactive map on their web site. This map is found at the Arborway Gate.

 

Pasting from Wikipedia: Arnold Arboretum:

 

• • • • •

 

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.

 

History

 

The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold (1781–1868).

 

In 1842, Benjamin Bussey (1757–1842), a prosperous Boston merchant and scientific farmer, donated his country estate Woodland Hill and a part of his fortune to Harvard University "for instruction in agriculture, horticulture, and related subjects". Bussey had inherited land from fellow patriot Eleazer Weld in 1800 and further enlarged his large estate between 1806 and 1837 by acquiring and consolidating various farms that had been established as early as the seventeenth century. Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for an undergraduate school of agriculture.

 

Sixteen years after Bussey's death, James Arnold, a New Bedford, Massachusetts whaling merchant, specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for "...the promotion of Agricultural, or Horticultural improvements". In 1872, when the trustees of the will of James Arnold transferred his estate to Harvard University, Arnold’s gift was combined with 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the former Bussey estate to create the Arnold Arboretum. In the deed of trust between the Arnold trustees and the College, income from Arnold’s legacy was to be used for establishing, developing and maintaining an arboretum to be known as the Arnold Arboretum which "shall contain, as far as practicable, all the trees [and] shrubs ... either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury". The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of woody plants through research and to disseminate this knowledge through education.

 

Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution in 1872.[2] Together with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted he developed the road and pathway system and delineated the collection areas by family and genus, following the then current and widely accepted classification system of Bentham and Hooker. The Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H. Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the landscape design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and chief propagator and superintendent Jackson Thornton Johnson.[3] Today the Arboretum occupies 265 acres (107 hectares) of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections, however, are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract. The Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and it is a Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site) and a National Historic Landmark.

 

Robert E. Cook is the seventh and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum. He is also the Director of the Harvard University Herbaria located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

Status

 

The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University. The land, however, was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called "Emerald Necklace". Under the agreement with the City, Harvard University was given a thousand-year lease on the property, and the University, as trustee, is directly responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the Arboretum; the City retains responsibility for water fountains, benches, roads, boundaries, and policing. The annual operating budget of $7,350,644 (fiscal year 2003) is largely derived from endowment, which is also managed by the University, and all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors.

 

Location

 

The main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station and by bus (#39) to the Monument in Jamaica Plain. The Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points.

 

Hours

 

The grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year. The Visitor's Center in the Hunnewell Building, 125 Arborway, is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m.–4 p.m.; Saturdays 10 a.m.–4 p.m.; Sundays 12 p.m.–4 PM. The Visitor’s Center is closed on holidays. The Library, located in the Hunnewell Building, is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.. The Library is closed on Sundays and holidays. Stacks are closed and the collection does not circulate.

 

Area

 

Two hundred and sixty-five acres (107 hectares) in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts, located at 42°19′N 71°5′W / 42.317°N 71.083°W / 42.317; -71.083, with altitudes ranging from 46 feet (15 m) in the meadow across the drive from the Hunnewell Building to 240 feet (79 m) at the top of Peters Hill.

 

Climate

 

Average yearly rainfall is 43.63 inches (1,102 mm); average snowfall, 40.2 inches (102 centimeters). Monthly mean temperature is 51.5 °F (10.8 °C); July's mean temperature is 73.5 °F (23 °C); January's is 29.6 °F (-1.3 °C). The Arboretum is located in USDA hardiness zone 6 (0 to −10 °F, −18 to −23 °C).

 

Collections (as of September 14, 2007)

 

At present, the living collections include 15,441 individual plants (including nursery holdings) belonging to 10,216 accessions representing 4,099 taxa; with particular emphasis on the ligneous species of North America and eastern Asia. Historic collections include the plant introductions from eastern Asia made by Charles Sprague Sargent, Ernest Henry Wilson, William Purdom, Joseph Hers, and Joseph Rock. Recent introductions from Asia have resulted from the 1977 Arnold Arboretum Expedition to Japan and Korea, the 1980 Sino-American Botanical Expedition to western Hubei Province, and more recent expeditions to China and Taiwan.

 

Comprehensive collections are maintained and augmented for most genera, and genera that have received particular emphasis include: Acer, Fagus, Carya, Forsythia, Taxodium, Pinus, Metasequoia, Lonicera, Magnolia, Malus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Syringa, Paulownia, Albizia, Ilex, Gleditsia and Tsuga. Other comprehensive collections include the Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants, the collection of conifers and dwarf conifers, and the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection. Approximately 500 accessions are processed annually.

 

Collections policy

 

The mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase our knowledge of the evolution and biology of woody plants. Historically, this research has investigated the global distribution and evolutionary history of trees, shrubs and vines, with particular emphasis on the disjunct species of East Asia and North America. Today this work continues through molecular studies of the evolution and biogeography of the floras of temperate Asia, North America and Europe.

 

Research activities include molecular studies of gene evolution, investigations of plant-water relations, and the monitoring of plant phenology, vegetation succession, nutrient cycling and other factors that inform studies of environmental change. Applied work in horticulture uses the collections for studies in plant propagation, plant introduction, and environmental management. This diversity of scientific investigation is founded in a continuing commitment to acquire, grow, and document the recognized species and infraspecific taxa of ligneous plants of the Northern Hemisphere that are able to withstand the climate of the Arboretum’s 265-acre (1.07 km2) Jamaica Plain/Roslindale site.

 

As a primary resource for research in plant biology, the Arboretum’s living collections are actively developed, curated, and managed to support scientific investigation and study. To this end, acquisition policies place priority on obtaining plants that are genetically representative of documented wild populations. For each taxon, the Arnold Arboretum aspires to grow multiple accessions of known wild provenance in order to represent significant variation that may occur across the geographic range of the species. Accessions of garden or cultivated provenance are also acquired as governed by the collections policies herein.

 

For all specimens, full documentation of both provenance and history within the collection is a critical priority. Curatorial procedures provide for complete and accurate records for each accession, and document original provenance, locations in the collections, and changes in botanical identity. Herbarium specimens, DNA materials, and digital images are gathered for the collection and maintained in Arboretum data systems and the herbarium at the Roslindale site.

 

Research

 

Research on plant pathology and integrated pest management for maintenance of the living collections is constantly ongoing. Herbarium-based research focuses on the systematics and biodiversity of both temperate and tropical Asian forests, as well as the ecology and potential for sustainable use of their resources. The Arboretum's education programs offer school groups and the general public a wide range of lectures, courses, and walks focusing on the ecology and cultivation of plants. Its quarterly magazine, Arnoldia, provides in-depth information on horticulture, botany, and garden history.