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The Top Ten Albums of 2016

 

I always miss a few great releases and you'll all have to forgive me. Though I listen to music constantly, I like to revisit old favorites as much as I like to discover new music. This is one woman's adventures into new music this year for the time being and I will always discover great albums after the fact inevitably. This year has been amazing because it's brought about so many female fronted bands in particular. I've often for some reason been more drawn to male vocals overall even though there are many female artists I love...perhaps I am changing or perhaps the female artists are changing. I did want to say something about the newest Nick Cave album, Skeleton Tree. It's definitely worth listening to and the documentary One More Time With Feeling is Devastating and powerful...but, I prefer the documentary to the album. I love some songs on the album though and I think if you have suffered a huge loss of life in your recent experiences, it might give you some solace. Other songs, I just couldn't connect with unfortunately at this point in my life. The great thing about music is that, as we grow and grieve, the music will be there to comfort us. And, even if all of the electricity goes out and we have nothing left, while we're eating that last can of beans at the end of the world, we'll still have the memory of those familiar comforting voices and the words we learned by heart.

 

1. Savages: Adore Life

 

Sometimes, you listen to an album, and it doesn't quite transfer in a live setting. Having seen Savages twice this year on tour, I can only adore life and this band's music more. Lead singer Jehnny Beth or Camille Berthomier is absolutely on fire on album and live. Every breath released isn't an exhalation but an exclamation of every cell in her strong agile frame. She's an absolutely emphatic vision and these tracks hit heavy but deliver the kind of sweet release that live up to a sort of promise to keep up a certain challenge in this day and age, making something creative, vital, and thrilling. If you are a fan of the band's previous release, Silence Yourself, you'll find this one picks up in many ways where that one left off but, in turn, also goes farther and delivers a more satisfying group of songs overall.

 

Watch official videos on youtube here: www.youtube.com/user/SAVAGESBANDLONDON

 

Band's website here: savagesband.com/

 

2. Jenny Hval: Blood Bitch

 

If you're familiar with Jenny Hval's work, I don't have to tell you she's a little strange. In fact, over time, you kind of expect the unexpected and each new release has you wondering what she'll do next. Even more bizarre is beholding her and her band in concert, which really strangles the tightrope of musical production and performance art. Hval comes to us from Norway, though, and they can be a little more creative there with even government support many times, which must be refreshing (we can live like this in America too and encourage our artists but it will take a great deal of work to get there). Hval is more than a curiosity...she's talented and she can somehow be meek and fierce at the same time. She creates something intangible yet at times also catchy and even farther with notes of vulnerability. There is guaranteed no other album this year that came out like this one and well worth repeated listens. She might be female vampire of sorts but she's much more like Line Landersson or Eli in the Swedish film Let the Right One In (Låt den rätte komma in) in that she's easy to fall in love with and want to keep in your life while you still have it.

 

Official site: jennyhval.com/

 

Female Vampire video: vimeo.com/170495827

  

3. Loscil: Monument Builders

  

Canada's Scott Morgan is the inspiration behind a number of amazing albums. The latest, Monument Builders is a careful and complex release that deserves to be taken note of. It reminds me at times of my feelings of despair at the end of the world and yet there is much solace to be find here. At other times, it possesses an emotional complexity that I find myself getting lost in and actually allows me more than any other album right now to give up on my internal monologue and actually come close to meditation. It's difficult not to have visions after hearing these captivating songs and seeing Loscil perform at Constellation in Chicago was one of this year's highlights in terms of live performances for me. The re-occurrent themes I am probably reading into it is the feeling of loss and recovery, of coping with a world half empty, despondent, and quite lost too...good to have a wordless wonder to express this when I don't quite have the words myself to express my own grief sometimes.

  

www.loscil.ca/

 

Loscil on Bandcamp: loscil.bandcamp.com/album/monument-builders

  

4. Katie Gately: Color

  

LA's Katie Gately is legit cool weird. A great deal of this sounds like a soundtrack to a quirky modern film that you'd want to watch over and over again. There's an incredible complexity and layering of sounds that really are an auditory treat in every way. Color is a good name for this as you will have visions of flashes of brightness each time you hear these tracks and the album itself is one ravishing adventure. Gately's brain must be amazing to be able to create such tracks!

 

Website: www.katiegately.com/

 

Soundcloud: soundcloud.com/katiegately

  

5. PJ Harvey: Hope Six Demolition Project

 

It's really reassuring that PJ Harvey can still manage to be a vital creative force in the universe who also is political and active in the overall art world. The Hope Six Demolition Project didn't reach me as much as White Chalk but it's a great deal more listenable to me than Let England Shake and it's still as important as an album. Hopefully, she will come back to Chicago soon enough!

  

pjharvey.net/

 

www.universal-music.de/pj-harvey/videos/detail/video:3927...

  

6. La Femme: Mystére

 

Oh France, you've done it again! La Femme is so wonderfully weird and somehow they make the strange catchy in a way that hasn't quite been done before. La Femme is a psychedelic wonder with zainy elements. It's also great fun to listen to in many ways. It definitely makes me feel quite exhilarated and the tempo and pacing overall is quite wonderful. Another spectacular element is the male/female vocals and the way it drives the melody aspects of the overall compositions. Get lost in the weirdness and you may never quite be the same.

 

Whole album on youtube here: www.youtube.com/watch?v=jTMSguDFlMI

 

Facebook site: www.facebook.com/lafemmeressort

  

7. Angel Olsen: My Woman

 

Angel Olsen may have moved away to the sunny West Coast but she'll always be a Chicagoan to me. There's something about her voice that incites an almost nostalgic homesickness in the pit of my stomach when I hear her songs. It's also a Sunday early afternoon drinking coffee and standing in the sunlight with your cat rolling around on your feet type of music. Maybe that's too specific...I digress... Though Angel Olsen has collaborated significantly with Bonnie Prince Billy/Will Oldham, she is really growing into her own career wise and My Woman marks her fourth release. She's fast becoming Jagjaguwar's top darling and will undoubtedly have a long career with her distinctive vocals especially. There's a lovely loneliness here in the way she sings that will both captivate you and make you want to listen to her forever. If someone ever tells you they don't understand how melancholia can sound beautiful, you can put on Angel Olsen as a starter.

 

angelolsen.com/

 

Angel Olsen videos: tinyurl.com/z6ge872

  

8. Le Berger: About Time

 

At first listen, if you aren't actively listening, this might seem just like a warm cascade of softness you can have on in the background but, the more you actively listen, the more you appreciate every aspect of the full sound as the cerebrally complex album this is. The only other way I can describe aspects of the feeling is that someone is playing the rim of a wine glass only the wine glass is really just this crazy planet we're all living in and all we can really do to respond is look up.

  

leberger.bandcamp.com/

 

9. Ty Segall: Emotional Mugger

 

Ty keeps getting weirder and weirder...more than ever, his sound is like an eclectic mix of psychedelic, classic rock, garage rock, and glam rock all combined into this fuzzy drenched package. Or, as my dad called it "Retro hard rock." It's a really intriguing sort of album and worth a listen for many fans of various genres..it has an appeal that I guess could even be considered the verge of something that is the sum of the whole and perhaps has evolved to be different and better than it's previous influences.

 

It's worth noting that both of Thee Oh Sees albums this year are also decent releases but they don't push the envelope as much in my opinion (still great to listen to, though) and the Cory Hansen album (from the lead singer of the band Wand) has been great from what I've heard. It should be waiting at my door when I arrive back home but I haven't heard it fully yet.

  

ty-segall.com/

  

10. Sophia Loizou: Singular

 

Singular is a really interesting release with layers of haunting noise that is also, at times, very calming and warm. It's a really creative work with engaging sounds but also a reassurance overall. Hailing from Bristol, England, Loizou creates soundscapes that have a touch of the postmodern and will seep into your subconscious to create some highly interesting dreams.

 

Website: www.sophialoizou.com/

 

Listen on Soundcloud: soundcloud.com/sophialoizou

 

11. Chook Race: Around the House

 

I'm crap at limits and these top ten lists are just too hard. Aussie's Chook Race has fantastic male/female melodies and an awesome garage rock sound that is catchy yet overall low key and filled with great engaging rhythms that recall the best of The Go-Betweens. Really recommended stuff!

 

chookrace.bandcamp.com/album/around-the-house

  

Other Highly Recommended releases:

 

Over the years, I have really gotten into drone (or I guess most people might think of it as varied levels of structure within layers of ambient music). It started with Brian Eno's Music For Airplanes and my interest grew after I married Cinchel, who is an amazing musician himself. Here's a couple more recommendations specifically to that genre for music I find really creative and progressing the genre in interesting ways.

 

Vapor Lanes: Hieratic Teen

 

vaporlanes.bandcamp.com/

 

Vuzh Music/C. Reider/Tarkatak: Azure Bell, Midnight Well: www.vuzhmusic.com/releases/azure.html

 

Chihei Hatakeyama: White Paddy Mountain: www.chihei.org/

 

Cinchel's bandcamp: cinchel.bandcamp.com/

 

**All photos are copyrighted. Please don't use without permission.**

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

 

 

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

 

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

 

 

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

 

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

 

A waxing crescent moon rises over the heavily restored Gur-e Amir (Tomb of the King) Mausoleum. The fluted, melon-shaped, azure dome is its trademark. The mausoleum was one of the inspirations for the Taj Mahal two centuries later (constructed 1632-1653).

 

Tamerlane (Timur the Lame; 1336-1405) and two sons and two grandsons are buried here. The mausoleum was originally erected in 1403-1404 after the sudden death of Tamerlane’s favorite grandson and proposed heir Mohammed Sultan. The other grandson buried here is Ulugh Beg (1394-1449) who ruled starting as a teenager in 1411.

 

Samarkand was probably founded in the 5th Century BCE. In 329 BCE it was conquered by 27-year-old Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE). Beginning in the 6th Century CE it became a central Silk Road trading point growing even more populous than it is today before its destruction in 1220 by the Mongols led by Ghengis Khan. In 1370 Tamerlane (Timur the Lame; 1336-1405) made Samarkand his capital which blossomed into an economic, cultural, and intellectual center. At the start of the 16th Century the Uzbek Shaybanids gained control of the region and moved the capital to Bukhara sending Samarkand into decline, culminating in virtual abandonment after a series of earthquakes in the 18th Century. Forced repopulation by the Emir of Bukhara began a recovery that greatly accelerated with the takeover by the Russians in 1868. In 1888 the Trans-Caspian railway linked Samarkand to the Russian Empire. Samarkand became the capital of the Uzbek SSR in 1925 but was replaced by Tashkent in 1930. In August 1991 Uzbekistan declared its independence.

 

Samarkand–Crossroads of Cultures became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001.

 

[The term ‘Silk Road’ was coined in 1877 by German geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen. The Silk Road contributed not only to the exchange of goods and technologies, but also to the mutual enrichment of cultures and traditions of different peoples. Direct maritime trade between Europe and the Far East ultimately supplanted the overland route.]

 

On Google Earth:

Gur-e Amir Mausoleum 39°38'55.91"N, 66°58'8.75"E

a href="http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designations/nnr/1006058.aspx" rel="nofollow">www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

 

a href="http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designations/nnr/1006058.aspx" rel="nofollow">www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

 

a href="http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designations/nnr/1006058.aspx" rel="nofollow">www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

 

a href="http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designations/nnr/1006058.aspx" rel="nofollow">www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

 

a href="http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designations/nnr/1006058.aspx" rel="nofollow">www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

a href="http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designations/nnr/1006058.aspx" rel="nofollow">www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats including unique limestone pavement, yew woodland, fen and reedbed.

  

Gait Barrows NNR

  

County: Lancashire

 

Main habitats: Limestone pavement, woodland, fen, limestone grassland.

  

Why visit: Lying in the heart of the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Gait Barrows is one of Britain's most important areas of limestone landscape.

 

It covers an intricate mosaic of limestone habitats that are home to a huge variety of rare and beautiful wildlife. From open rock, to damp fen, deep yew forest and even the tranquil Hawes Water there is much to see on a visit to Gait Barrows.

  

Please note: Although the nature trails and public footpaths are open to the public at all times, other parts of Gait Barrows are by permit only due to the sensitive nature of the site.

 

To request a permit, please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones, email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk or tel: 07747 852905 providing the email or postal address to which you would like the permit to be sent.

  

Lyme disease

  

Ticks are present on this reserve and Lyme disease is present in this area of the country. Visitors are advised to take adequate precautions such as covering arms and legs, and checking for bites after their visit.

  

Star species:

 

The lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest of all British wildflowers. Once thought to be extinct in the UK, this special plant has since been rediscovered and a national species recovery program has been launched. Gait Barrows is now home to a thriving population of reintroduced plants.

  

The Duke of Burgundy and high brown fritillary butterflies thrive in the woodland glades and clearings, which are carefully managed for their benefit. Look out for small orange and brown Duke of Burgundy in May and the larger high brown fritillary in July and August.

  

The woodlands and wetlands provide a home for large numbers of redwing and fieldfare arriving from Scandinavia in autumn to feed on the abundant yew berry crop. The restored reed beds of Hawes Water Moss are also home to marsh harrier, bittern and reed bunting.

  

Access: There are interpretation panels and waymarked trails through the reserve and a number of public footpaths. Leaflets are available to download from our website.

 

Hawes Water Trail is accessible for all, and disabled parking can be found at the eastern end of this trail. The Limestone Trail is Tramper-friendly but unfortunately slopes and steps on the Yew Trail make it inaccessible for trampers and wheelchairs.

 

To avoid disturbance to wildlife, dogs are not allowed away from the public footpaths and should be kept on a lead at all times. Much of the site is hazardous and care should be taken when leaving the paths. There is no access to Little Hawes Water or Hawes Water Moss as these areas are extremely hazardous.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: what makes it special

  

Gait Barrows NNR is a rich mosaic of limestone habitats and home to a multitude of fascinating wildlife.

  

Limestone pavement

  

The large areas of carboniferous limestone were shaped by glacial ice, rain and groundwater to form flat blocks (clints) and deep fissures (grikes). The shaded humid conditions in the deeper grikes are home to plants such as the hard shield fern, herb Robert, tutsan and the rare ridged buckler fern. These crevices are also home to a rare species of woodlouse, Armadillidium pictum.

 

The clints are home to a variety of plants, including rare plants such as Solomon’s seal, and the moss, Scorpidium turgescens. The mosses on these pavements also provide a home for a relic population of the narrow-mouthed whorl snail, where Gait Barrows is the only known limestone pavement site for this species in the world.

 

Ancient trees on the pavement are naturally dwarfed because of the dry conditions and their roots being restricted by the limestone. The ancient ash trees grow only a few millimetres a year and, despite their size may be many hundreds of years old.

  

Woodland

  

Much of the woodland at Gait Barrows was traditionally managed by coppicing for charcoal, firewood and timber. This activity has continued to create important habitats for invertebrates and birds, including black cap, garden warbler and woodcock.

 

The woodlands of Gait Barrows is one of the best sites in the country for fungi, with over 1,600 species being recorded, including yellow stagshorn and green-elf cup.

  

Hawes Water

  

Affectionately known as the ‘Gem of Silverdale’, Hawes Water provides inspiring views and some excellent wildlife-spotting opportunities. From the boardwalk you can enjoy the tranquillity of this landscape whilst watching out for the many birds that nest here every year. These include great crested grebe, little grebe and in spring sand martins and marsh harriers. Ospreys can be spotted diving into the lake for fish.

 

The purity of the water helps plants like the stoneworts and several species of fish such as rudd, European eels, ten-spined stickleback and the rare medicinal leech to thrive.

 

The rich soil around the edges of the lake support a variety of plants including bird's-eye primrose, the scented fragrant orchid and insectivorous common butterwort, with its small purple flowers dangling on long stalks. The green tiger beetle also nests in burrows in the loose lake-side soil.

  

Little Hawes Water

  

Hidden in the heart of the reserve this small lake is surrounded by alder woods and supports a large population of yellow water lilies. It is also a breeding site for brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonfly, and the azure damselfly.

  

Hawes Water Moss

  

South-east of Hawes Water, lies an extensive area fen and reedbed which grows in the waterlogged peat and marl sediments that have filled the lake. The reedbeds have been restored by Natural England to encourage rare marsh birds like marsh harriers to nest here every year. The reeds are also home to many types of insect, including the rare silky wainscot and silver hook moths.

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid

  

Lady’s-slipper orchid is the rarest British flower, having once been formally declared extinct in Britain in 1917. Several organizations have worked together within the Species Recovery Programme to restore lady’s-slipper orchid to the wild.

 

Many of these plants have been introduced to Gait Barrows with huge success. The reserve now boasts a growing population of lady’s-slipper orchid’s which can be seen flowering on the limestone every year in late spring-time.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: seasonal highlights

  

Gait Barrows offers a wonderful variety of landscape and wildlife all year round.

  

Spring

  

In early spring, the first flowers of stinking hellebore can be seen when walking along the Limestone Trail. Look out for sulphur coloured brimstone butterflies on sunny spring mornings. The high mewing call of buzzards can be heard in the skies above Gait Barrows.

  

Summer

  

Late spring and early summer bring the full glory of Gait Barrows to life. Enjoy the richness of butterfly life, including the rare high brown fritillary and revel in the rare flowers of the limestone pavements such as the angular Solomon’s-seal. You may also be lucky enough to see the male marsh harrier high in the sky over Hawes Water.

  

Autumn

  

In autumn, walk the Yew Trail and marvel at the gorgeous colours of the yews in the low afternoon sun, and be enthralled by the thousands of redwings and fieldfares which arrive in October to feast on the yew berry crop. Elusive hawfinches are also much easier to spot at this time of year. On the woodland border with the pastures, brown hawker and migrant hawker dragonflies can be seen hunting for late-flying insects. A trip to Hawes Water will be rewarded with views of the autumn-flowering grass-of-Parnassus.

  

Winter

  

In deepest winter, look out for signs of roe and fallow deer which have passed the same way in the depths of the frosty night. In late winter a trip to Hawes Water could be rewarded with sights of great crested grebes courting. These spectacular birds take part in an impressive courtship display which involves ‘walking on water!’

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: history

  

The landscape at Gait Barrows has been shaped over thousands of years by natural processes and human land use.

 

A significant proportion of the reserve is covered by limestone that was smoothed by glacial processes during the last ice age. Groundwater has weathered the pavement to create the characteristic features of a limestone pavement and nature has moved into fill all the niche habitats on offer.

 

At White Scar, in the centre of the reserve, low limestone cliffs can be seen looking much like a limestone pavement tipped on its side, with a bedding plane erupting vertically from the ground. These cliffs were once much more open and could clearly be seen from a long distance away as a glowing white landform. Natural England is now restoring open conditions at several points along the Scar to encourage plants like the rare spring sedge to flourish.

 

Before the site was declared a National Nature Reserve, limestone was quarried and taken away for rockery stone, leaving large exposed slabs of limestone. The remaining pavements are now protected and the naked scars of rock left by this activity are gradually being taken back by nature, with coverings of lichens and mosses, blue moor grass and wild flowers such as common rock-rose and bird’s-foot trefoil.

 

Hawes Water Basin, a deep trough in the limestone, was gouged out by glaciers in the last Ice Age and then filled with groundwater to create Hawes Water lake. In the past Hawes Water was more extensive, but now much of the basin is filled with layers of clay-like marl and fen peat.

 

Much of the ancient woodland has been managed for centuries by coppicing. This practice has given rise to the dense structure of these woodlands, which is ideal for much of its wildlife. In recent times, coppicing ceased in many British woodlands, however, at Gait Barrows coppicing continues for the sole benefit of the wildlife living here.

 

Gait Barrows was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1977, in celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. To mark this special occasion a cairn was erected in a particularly scenic spot on the limestone pavement. From this point you can enjoy views of the whole reserve.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

By cycle

  

The NNR is on the Lancashire Cycleway route 90external link, an offshoot of national route 6external link of the National Cycle Network.

 

There is a cycle rack in the car park. Please note that cycles are not permitted on the nature reserve.

  

By train

  

The nearest train stations are in Silverdaleexternal link and Arnsideexternal link. Both stations are served by TransPennine Expressexternal link and Northern Railexternal link.

  

By bus

  

Local bus services to the area from Carnforth and Lancaster are provided by Stagecoachexternal link.

  

By car

  

From the A6, turn off at Beetham and follow minor roads through the village of Slack Head. At the T-junction take a right turning onto Brackenthwaite Road and drive along the side of the reserve to find parking.

 

A small permit holder’s car park is available on the reserve, and alternative road-side parking can be found along Brackenthwaite Road.

  

On foot

  

There are several public footpaths leading from Yealand Redmayne, Silverdale and Arnside. Silverdale is at the northern end of the Lancashire Coastal Wayexternal link.

  

Facilities

  

The nearest toilets and refreshments can be found in local towns and villages.

  

www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/designatio...

  

Gait Barrows: want to get involved?

  

There are plenty of ways to get involved with the reserve.

  

Natural England holds a number of events and activities at Gait Barrows NNR each year. Past events have focused on moths, butterflies, fungi, trees and birds of the nature reserve. For details of current events please visit our North West events page or see posters at the nature reserve.

 

We have volunteer opportunities on National Nature Reserves throughout South Cumbria, including a weekly conservation work party at Gait Barrows which runs throughout the winter. Whether you have specialist skills you wish to use, or are looking for a chance to get some hands on experience, we’d love to hear from you.

 

Students and professionals are also invited to conduct studies on our National Nature Reserves. Please contact the Senior Reserve Manager to discuss and gain relevant permissions.

 

Further information

  

Please contact Senior Reserve Manager, Rob Petley-Jones on 077478 52905 or email rob.petley-jones@naturalengland.org.uk for more information or to request a site permit.

===========================================================

Download link:

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spanwidth min.: 52 cm

spanwidth max.: 57 cm

size min.: 29 cm

size max.: 32 cm

Breeding

incubation min.: 17 days

incubation max.: 19 days

fledging min.: 26 days

fledging max.: 29 days

broods 1

eggs min.: 3

eggs max.: 6

  

Physical characteristics

 

Large and colorful bird, being iridescent blue, black and chestnut. Roller without tail streamers, proportionately larger headed than most congeners, and in flight appears long-necked. Nominate race with head, neck amd underparts light blue, whitish around base of bill, and short, thin blackish eyestripe. Rufous brown upperparts, with back, rump and tail-coverts ultramarine blue. Wing coverts greenish-blue, marginal ones purple, primary coverts and bases of primaries azure-blue, remiges otherwise black. Tail greenish-blue with darker base, central feathers greyish. Race semenowi slightly paler than nominate.

 

Habitat

 

Warm and sunny lowlands, in open countryside with patches pine or oak woods with heathery clearings, orchards, mixed farmland, broad river valleys, and dissected plains with scattered thorny or leafy trees.

 

Other details

 

Coracias garrulus is a widespread summer visitor to southern and eastern Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (30%) overall.

This bird is breeding in north-western Africa, south and eastern Europe and western Asia, reaching Pakistan and Mongolia in the east. It winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of the European Union has undergone a strong decrease in numbers and a contraction of its distribution since the end of last century. Currently it is estimated at 5000-12000 breeding pairs. Since 1991 it has become extinct in Germany. The principal reasons of this decline are habitat degradation, agricultural intensification and increasing use of pesticides. In some countries the species is also persecuted

 

Feeding

 

Diet mainly invertebrates: beetles and other hard-bodied insects, and some small vertebrates. Exceptionally, fruits such as grapes and figs eaten. Many live scorpions taken, and species may be and accomplished scorpion predator. Several other prey items are distasteful: stink-grasshoppers and carabid, lampyrid and silphid beetles. Forages mostly from elevated perch, watching ground intently.

 

Conservation

 

Coracias garrulus occurs as two subspecies: the nominate breeds from Morocco, southwest and south-central Europe and Asia Minor east through northwest Iran to southwest Siberia (Russia); and semenowi, which breeds in Iraq and Iran (except northwest) east to Kashmir and north to Turkmenistan, south Kazakhstan and northwest China (west Sinkiang). The species overwinters in two distinct regions of Africa, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west to Congo and south to South Africa. It has a large global population, including an estimated 100,000-220,000 individuals in Europe (50-74% of the global breeding range). However, following a moderate decline during 1970-1990, the species has contined to decline by up to 25% across Europe during 1990-2000 (including in key populations in Turkey and European Russia). Overall European declines exceeded 30% in three generations (15 years). Populations in northern Europe have undergone severe declines (Estonia: 50-100 pairs in 1998 to no known breeding pairs in 2004, Latvia: several thousand to under 30 pairs in 2004, Lithuania: 1,000-2,000 pairs in 1970s to 20 pairs in 2004), and in Russia it has now disappeared from the northern part of its range. However, there is no evidence of any declines in Central Asia. Should these populations be shown to be declining, the species may warrant uplisting further to Vulnerable. Threats include persecution on migration in some Mediterranean countries and hundreds, perhaps thousands, are shot for food in Oman every spring. Use of pesticides reduces food availability, and the species is sensitive to changing farming and forestry practices. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

 

Breeding

 

Monogamous, solitary and territorial, with typical rolling and diving aerial display. Nest site an unlined cavity in a large tree, building, cliff or riverbank. 4-5 eggs, incubation by female, 17-19 days. Chick hatches naked and blind, has closed spiny feather sheaths by 13th day

 

Migration

 

An intercontinental migrant, almost entire world population wintering in Africa South of Sahara. In autumn has occurred in great abundance in Algeria and Morocco, though only small numbers winter in West Africa; strong passage up Nile Valley and on West coast of Red Sea, also across Ethiopia, and in October-December through East Africa, especially Rift Valley; weak passage through Arabia. Winters mainly in East & South West Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, North East Botswana and East Namibia; present in October-April/May in South Africa, where prone to flock, evidently still moving South in November-December, and seen in South West Cape Province only in December-February. Congregates in East Tanzania from late March, and in early April up to hundreds of thousands travel in North in narrow corridor along East coastal lowlands to North East Somalia, in one of continent's most spectacularly visible migrations, with thousands passing over a given locality in a few hours, e.g. 40,000-50,000 at Balad, Somalia, on single day in April. In Somalia, migrants fly 300-500 m above land, evenly spaced in column several Km wide, at ground speed of c. 48km/h; also common to abundant in Ethiopia in April. From Somalia birds emigrate at Cape Gardafui, with flocks seen from light aircraft arriving on Dhofar plain in South Oman, after sea crossing of 600 km, and many then cross a further 600 km of desert to reach Persian Gulf; singletons and loose flocks of 10-30 birds frequent in Oman from Mid-April to mid-May, often flying by day on broad front North or North East, or North West on Batinah coast. Recoveries of ringed birds suggest that they travel the 10,000 km from East Europe to Central Africa at c. 67 km/day, and return in spring 110 km/day.

 

spanwidth min.: 52 cm

spanwidth max.: 57 cm

size min.: 29 cm

size max.: 32 cm

Breeding

incubation min.: 17 days

incubation max.: 19 days

fledging min.: 26 days

fledging max.: 29 days

broods 1

eggs min.: 3

eggs max.: 6

 

Physical characteristics

 

Large and colorful bird, being iridescent blue, black and chestnut. Roller without tail streamers, proportionately larger headed than most congeners, and in flight appears long-necked. Nominate race with head, neck amd underparts light blue, whitish around base of bill, and short, thin blackish eyestripe. Rufous brown upperparts, with back, rump and tail-coverts ultramarine blue. Wing coverts greenish-blue, marginal ones purple, primary coverts and bases of primaries azure-blue, remiges otherwise black. Tail greenish-blue with darker base, central feathers greyish. Race semenowi slightly paler than nominate.

 

Habitat

 

Warm and sunny lowlands, in open countryside with patches pine or oak woods with heathery clearings, orchards, mixed farmland, broad river valleys, and dissected plains with scattered thorny or leafy trees.

 

Other details

 

Coracias garrulus is a widespread summer visitor to southern and eastern Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (30%) overall.

This bird is breeding in north-western Africa, south and eastern Europe and western Asia, reaching Pakistan and Mongolia in the east. It winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of the European Union has undergone a strong decrease in numbers and a contraction of its distribution since the end of last century. Currently it is estimated at 5000-12000 breeding pairs. Since 1991 it has become extinct in Germany. The principal reasons of this decline are habitat degradation, agricultural intensification and increasing use of pesticides. In some countries the species is also persecuted

 

Feeding

 

Diet mainly invertebrates: beetles and other hard-bodied insects, and some small vertebrates. Exceptionally, fruits such as grapes and figs eaten. Many live scorpions taken, and species may be and accomplished scorpion predator. Several other prey items are distasteful: stink-grasshoppers and carabid, lampyrid and silphid beetles. Forages mostly from elevated perch, watching ground intently.

 

Conservation

 

Coracias garrulus occurs as two subspecies: the nominate breeds from Morocco, southwest and south-central Europe and Asia Minor east through northwest Iran to southwest Siberia (Russia); and semenowi, which breeds in Iraq and Iran (except northwest) east to Kashmir and north to Turkmenistan, south Kazakhstan and northwest China (west Sinkiang). The species overwinters in two distinct regions of Africa, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west to Congo and south to South Africa. It has a large global population, including an estimated 100,000-220,000 individuals in Europe (50-74% of the global breeding range). However, following a moderate decline during 1970-1990, the species has contined to decline by up to 25% across Europe during 1990-2000 (including in key populations in Turkey and European Russia). Overall European declines exceeded 30% in three generations (15 years). Populations in northern Europe have undergone severe declines (Estonia: 50-100 pairs in 1998 to no known breeding pairs in 2004, Latvia: several thousand to under 30 pairs in 2004, Lithuania: 1,000-2,000 pairs in 1970s to 20 pairs in 2004), and in Russia it has now disappeared from the northern part of its range. However, there is no evidence of any declines in Central Asia. Should these populations be shown to be declining, the species may warrant uplisting further to Vulnerable. Threats include persecution on migration in some Mediterranean countries and hundreds, perhaps thousands, are shot for food in Oman every spring. Use of pesticides reduces food availability, and the species is sensitive to changing farming and forestry practices. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

 

Breeding

 

Monogamous, solitary and territorial, with typical rolling and diving aerial display. Nest site an unlined cavity in a large tree, building, cliff or riverbank. 4-5 eggs, incubation by female, 17-19 days. Chick hatches naked and blind, has closed spiny feather sheaths by 13th day

 

Migration

 

An intercontinental migrant, almost entire world population wintering in Africa South of Sahara. In autumn has occurred in great abundance in Algeria and Morocco, though only small numbers winter in West Africa; strong passage up Nile Valley and on West coast of Red Sea, also across Ethiopia, and in October-December through East Africa, especially Rift Valley; weak passage through Arabia. Winters mainly in East & South West Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, North East Botswana and East Namibia; present in October-April/May in South Africa, where prone to flock, evidently still moving South in November-December, and seen in South West Cape Province only in December-February. Congregates in East Tanzania from late March, and in early April up to hundreds of thousands travel in North in narrow corridor along East coastal lowlands to North East Somalia, in one of continent's most spectacularly visible migrations, with thousands passing over a given locality in a few hours, e.g. 40,000-50,000 at Balad, Somalia, on single day in April. In Somalia, migrants fly 300-500 m above land, evenly spaced in column several Km wide, at ground speed of c. 48km/h; also common to abundant in Ethiopia in April. From Somalia birds emigrate at Cape Gardafui, with flocks seen from light aircraft arriving on Dhofar plain in South Oman, after sea crossing of 600 km, and many then cross a further 600 km of desert to reach Persian Gulf; singletons and loose flocks of 10-30 birds frequent in Oman from Mid-April to mid-May, often flying by day on broad front North or North East, or North West on Batinah coast. Recoveries of ringed birds suggest that they travel the 10,000 km from East Europe to Central Africa at c. 67 km/day, and return in spring 110 km/day.

 

spanwidth min.: 52 cm

spanwidth max.: 57 cm

size min.: 29 cm

size max.: 32 cm

Breeding

incubation min.: 17 days

incubation max.: 19 days

fledging min.: 26 days

fledging max.: 29 days

broods 1

eggs min.: 3

eggs max.: 6

 

Physical characteristics

 

Large and colorful bird, being iridescent blue, black and chestnut. Roller without tail streamers, proportionately larger headed than most congeners, and in flight appears long-necked. Nominate race with head, neck amd underparts light blue, whitish around base of bill, and short, thin blackish eyestripe. Rufous brown upperparts, with back, rump and tail-coverts ultramarine blue. Wing coverts greenish-blue, marginal ones purple, primary coverts and bases of primaries azure-blue, remiges otherwise black. Tail greenish-blue with darker base, central feathers greyish. Race semenowi slightly paler than nominate.

 

Habitat

 

Warm and sunny lowlands, in open countryside with patches pine or oak woods with heathery clearings, orchards, mixed farmland, broad river valleys, and dissected plains with scattered thorny or leafy trees.

 

Other details

 

Coracias garrulus is a widespread summer visitor to southern and eastern Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (30%) overall.

This bird is breeding in north-western Africa, south and eastern Europe and western Asia, reaching Pakistan and Mongolia in the east. It winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of the European Union has undergone a strong decrease in numbers and a contraction of its distribution since the end of last century. Currently it is estimated at 5000-12000 breeding pairs. Since 1991 it has become extinct in Germany. The principal reasons of this decline are habitat degradation, agricultural intensification and increasing use of pesticides. In some countries the species is also persecuted

 

Feeding

 

Diet mainly invertebrates: beetles and other hard-bodied insects, and some small vertebrates. Exceptionally, fruits such as grapes and figs eaten. Many live scorpions taken, and species may be and accomplished scorpion predator. Several other prey items are distasteful: stink-grasshoppers and carabid, lampyrid and silphid beetles. Forages mostly from elevated perch, watching ground intently.

 

Conservation

 

Coracias garrulus occurs as two subspecies: the nominate breeds from Morocco, southwest and south-central Europe and Asia Minor east through northwest Iran to southwest Siberia (Russia); and semenowi, which breeds in Iraq and Iran (except northwest) east to Kashmir and north to Turkmenistan, south Kazakhstan and northwest China (west Sinkiang). The species overwinters in two distinct regions of Africa, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west to Congo and south to South Africa. It has a large global population, including an estimated 100,000-220,000 individuals in Europe (50-74% of the global breeding range). However, following a moderate decline during 1970-1990, the species has contined to decline by up to 25% across Europe during 1990-2000 (including in key populations in Turkey and European Russia). Overall European declines exceeded 30% in three generations (15 years). Populations in northern Europe have undergone severe declines (Estonia: 50-100 pairs in 1998 to no known breeding pairs in 2004, Latvia: several thousand to under 30 pairs in 2004, Lithuania: 1,000-2,000 pairs in 1970s to 20 pairs in 2004), and in Russia it has now disappeared from the northern part of its range. However, there is no evidence of any declines in Central Asia. Should these populations be shown to be declining, the species may warrant uplisting further to Vulnerable. Threats include persecution on migration in some Mediterranean countries and hundreds, perhaps thousands, are shot for food in Oman every spring. Use of pesticides reduces food availability, and the species is sensitive to changing farming and forestry practices. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

 

Breeding

 

Monogamous, solitary and territorial, with typical rolling and diving aerial display. Nest site an unlined cavity in a large tree, building, cliff or riverbank. 4-5 eggs, incubation by female, 17-19 days. Chick hatches naked and blind, has closed spiny feather sheaths by 13th day

 

Migration

 

An intercontinental migrant, almost entire world population wintering in Africa South of Sahara. In autumn has occurred in great abundance in Algeria and Morocco, though only small numbers winter in West Africa; strong passage up Nile Valley and on West coast of Red Sea, also across Ethiopia, and in October-December through East Africa, especially Rift Valley; weak passage through Arabia. Winters mainly in East & South West Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, North East Botswana and East Namibia; present in October-April/May in South Africa, where prone to flock, evidently still moving South in November-December, and seen in South West Cape Province only in December-February. Congregates in East Tanzania from late March, and in early April up to hundreds of thousands travel in North in narrow corridor along East coastal lowlands to North East Somalia, in one of continent's most spectacularly visible migrations, with thousands passing over a given locality in a few hours, e.g. 40,000-50,000 at Balad, Somalia, on single day in April. In Somalia, migrants fly 300-500 m above land, evenly spaced in column several Km wide, at ground speed of c. 48km/h; also common to abundant in Ethiopia in April. From Somalia birds emigrate at Cape Gardafui, with flocks seen from light aircraft arriving on Dhofar plain in South Oman, after sea crossing of 600 km, and many then cross a further 600 km of desert to reach Persian Gulf; singletons and loose flocks of 10-30 birds frequent in Oman from Mid-April to mid-May, often flying by day on broad front North or North East, or North West on Batinah coast. Recoveries of ringed birds suggest that they travel the 10,000 km from East Europe to Central Africa at c. 67 km/day, and return in spring 110 km/day.

 

spanwidth min.: 52 cm

spanwidth max.: 57 cm

size min.: 29 cm

size max.: 32 cm

Breeding

incubation min.: 17 days

incubation max.: 19 days

fledging min.: 26 days

fledging max.: 29 days

broods 1

eggs min.: 3

eggs max.: 6

  

Physical characteristics

 

Large and colorful bird, being iridescent blue, black and chestnut. Roller without tail streamers, proportionately larger headed than most congeners, and in flight appears long-necked. Nominate race with head, neck amd underparts light blue, whitish around base of bill, and short, thin blackish eyestripe. Rufous brown upperparts, with back, rump and tail-coverts ultramarine blue. Wing coverts greenish-blue, marginal ones purple, primary coverts and bases of primaries azure-blue, remiges otherwise black. Tail greenish-blue with darker base, central feathers greyish. Race semenowi slightly paler than nominate.

 

Habitat

 

Warm and sunny lowlands, in open countryside with patches pine or oak woods with heathery clearings, orchards, mixed farmland, broad river valleys, and dissected plains with scattered thorny or leafy trees.

 

Other details

 

Coracias garrulus is a widespread summer visitor to southern and eastern Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (30%) overall.

This bird is breeding in north-western Africa, south and eastern Europe and western Asia, reaching Pakistan and Mongolia in the east. It winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of the European Union has undergone a strong decrease in numbers and a contraction of its distribution since the end of last century. Currently it is estimated at 5000-12000 breeding pairs. Since 1991 it has become extinct in Germany. The principal reasons of this decline are habitat degradation, agricultural intensification and increasing use of pesticides. In some countries the species is also persecuted

 

Feeding

 

Diet mainly invertebrates: beetles and other hard-bodied insects, and some small vertebrates. Exceptionally, fruits such as grapes and figs eaten. Many live scorpions taken, and species may be and accomplished scorpion predator. Several other prey items are distasteful: stink-grasshoppers and carabid, lampyrid and silphid beetles. Forages mostly from elevated perch, watching ground intently.

 

Conservation

 

Coracias garrulus occurs as two subspecies: the nominate breeds from Morocco, southwest and south-central Europe and Asia Minor east through northwest Iran to southwest Siberia (Russia); and semenowi, which breeds in Iraq and Iran (except northwest) east to Kashmir and north to Turkmenistan, south Kazakhstan and northwest China (west Sinkiang). The species overwinters in two distinct regions of Africa, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west to Congo and south to South Africa. It has a large global population, including an estimated 100,000-220,000 individuals in Europe (50-74% of the global breeding range). However, following a moderate decline during 1970-1990, the species has contined to decline by up to 25% across Europe during 1990-2000 (including in key populations in Turkey and European Russia). Overall European declines exceeded 30% in three generations (15 years). Populations in northern Europe have undergone severe declines (Estonia: 50-100 pairs in 1998 to no known breeding pairs in 2004, Latvia: several thousand to under 30 pairs in 2004, Lithuania: 1,000-2,000 pairs in 1970s to 20 pairs in 2004), and in Russia it has now disappeared from the northern part of its range. However, there is no evidence of any declines in Central Asia. Should these populations be shown to be declining, the species may warrant uplisting further to Vulnerable. Threats include persecution on migration in some Mediterranean countries and hundreds, perhaps thousands, are shot for food in Oman every spring. Use of pesticides reduces food availability, and the species is sensitive to changing farming and forestry practices. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

 

Breeding

 

Monogamous, solitary and territorial, with typical rolling and diving aerial display. Nest site an unlined cavity in a large tree, building, cliff or riverbank. 4-5 eggs, incubation by female, 17-19 days. Chick hatches naked and blind, has closed spiny feather sheaths by 13th day

 

Migration

 

An intercontinental migrant, almost entire world population wintering in Africa South of Sahara. In autumn has occurred in great abundance in Algeria and Morocco, though only small numbers winter in West Africa; strong passage up Nile Valley and on West coast of Red Sea, also across Ethiopia, and in October-December through East Africa, especially Rift Valley; weak passage through Arabia. Winters mainly in East & South West Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, North East Botswana and East Namibia; present in October-April/May in South Africa, where prone to flock, evidently still moving South in November-December, and seen in South West Cape Province only in December-February. Congregates in East Tanzania from late March, and in early April up to hundreds of thousands travel in North in narrow corridor along East coastal lowlands to North East Somalia, in one of continent's most spectacularly visible migrations, with thousands passing over a given locality in a few hours, e.g. 40,000-50,000 at Balad, Somalia, on single day in April. In Somalia, migrants fly 300-500 m above land, evenly spaced in column several Km wide, at ground speed of c. 48km/h; also common to abundant in Ethiopia in April. From Somalia birds emigrate at Cape Gardafui, with flocks seen from light aircraft arriving on Dhofar plain in South Oman, after sea crossing of 600 km, and many then cross a further 600 km of desert to reach Persian Gulf; singletons and loose flocks of 10-30 birds frequent in Oman from Mid-April to mid-May, often flying by day on broad front North or North East, or North West on Batinah coast. Recoveries of ringed birds suggest that they travel the 10,000 km from East Europe to Central Africa at c. 67 km/day, and return in spring 110 km/day.

 

spanwidth min.: 52 cm

spanwidth max.: 57 cm

size min.: 29 cm

size max.: 32 cm

Breeding

incubation min.: 17 days

incubation max.: 19 days

fledging min.: 26 days

fledging max.: 29 days

broods 1

eggs min.: 3

eggs max.: 6

  

Physical characteristics

 

Large and colorful bird, being iridescent blue, black and chestnut. Roller without tail streamers, proportionately larger headed than most congeners, and in flight appears long-necked. Nominate race with head, neck amd underparts light blue, whitish around base of bill, and short, thin blackish eyestripe. Rufous brown upperparts, with back, rump and tail-coverts ultramarine blue. Wing coverts greenish-blue, marginal ones purple, primary coverts and bases of primaries azure-blue, remiges otherwise black. Tail greenish-blue with darker base, central feathers greyish. Race semenowi slightly paler than nominate.

 

Habitat

 

Warm and sunny lowlands, in open countryside with patches pine or oak woods with heathery clearings, orchards, mixed farmland, broad river valleys, and dissected plains with scattered thorny or leafy trees.

 

Other details

 

Coracias garrulus is a widespread summer visitor to southern and eastern Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (30%) overall.

This bird is breeding in north-western Africa, south and eastern Europe and western Asia, reaching Pakistan and Mongolia in the east. It winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of the European Union has undergone a strong decrease in numbers and a contraction of its distribution since the end of last century. Currently it is estimated at 5000-12000 breeding pairs. Since 1991 it has become extinct in Germany. The principal reasons of this decline are habitat degradation, agricultural intensification and increasing use of pesticides. In some countries the species is also persecuted

 

Feeding

 

Diet mainly invertebrates: beetles and other hard-bodied insects, and some small vertebrates. Exceptionally, fruits such as grapes and figs eaten. Many live scorpions taken, and species may be and accomplished scorpion predator. Several other prey items are distasteful: stink-grasshoppers and carabid, lampyrid and silphid beetles. Forages mostly from elevated perch, watching ground intently.

 

Conservation

 

Coracias garrulus occurs as two subspecies: the nominate breeds from Morocco, southwest and south-central Europe and Asia Minor east through northwest Iran to southwest Siberia (Russia); and semenowi, which breeds in Iraq and Iran (except northwest) east to Kashmir and north to Turkmenistan, south Kazakhstan and northwest China (west Sinkiang). The species overwinters in two distinct regions of Africa, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west to Congo and south to South Africa. It has a large global population, including an estimated 100,000-220,000 individuals in Europe (50-74% of the global breeding range). However, following a moderate decline during 1970-1990, the species has contined to decline by up to 25% across Europe during 1990-2000 (including in key populations in Turkey and European Russia). Overall European declines exceeded 30% in three generations (15 years). Populations in northern Europe have undergone severe declines (Estonia: 50-100 pairs in 1998 to no known breeding pairs in 2004, Latvia: several thousand to under 30 pairs in 2004, Lithuania: 1,000-2,000 pairs in 1970s to 20 pairs in 2004), and in Russia it has now disappeared from the northern part of its range. However, there is no evidence of any declines in Central Asia. Should these populations be shown to be declining, the species may warrant uplisting further to Vulnerable. Threats include persecution on migration in some Mediterranean countries and hundreds, perhaps thousands, are shot for food in Oman every spring. Use of pesticides reduces food availability, and the species is sensitive to changing farming and forestry practices. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

 

Breeding

 

Monogamous, solitary and territorial, with typical rolling and diving aerial display. Nest site an unlined cavity in a large tree, building, cliff or riverbank. 4-5 eggs, incubation by female, 17-19 days. Chick hatches naked and blind, has closed spiny feather sheaths by 13th day

 

Migration

 

An intercontinental migrant, almost entire world population wintering in Africa South of Sahara. In autumn has occurred in great abundance in Algeria and Morocco, though only small numbers winter in West Africa; strong passage up Nile Valley and on West coast of Red Sea, also across Ethiopia, and in October-December through East Africa, especially Rift Valley; weak passage through Arabia. Winters mainly in East & South West Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, North East Botswana and East Namibia; present in October-April/May in South Africa, where prone to flock, evidently still moving South in November-December, and seen in South West Cape Province only in December-February. Congregates in East Tanzania from late March, and in early April up to hundreds of thousands travel in North in narrow corridor along East coastal lowlands to North East Somalia, in one of continent's most spectacularly visible migrations, with thousands passing over a given locality in a few hours, e.g. 40,000-50,000 at Balad, Somalia, on single day in April. In Somalia, migrants fly 300-500 m above land, evenly spaced in column several Km wide, at ground speed of c. 48km/h; also common to abundant in Ethiopia in April. From Somalia birds emigrate at Cape Gardafui, with flocks seen from light aircraft arriving on Dhofar plain in South Oman, after sea crossing of 600 km, and many then cross a further 600 km of desert to reach Persian Gulf; singletons and loose flocks of 10-30 birds frequent in Oman from Mid-April to mid-May, often flying by day on broad front North or North East, or North West on Batinah coast. Recoveries of ringed birds suggest that they travel the 10,000 km from East Europe to Central Africa at c. 67 km/day, and return in spring 110 km/day.

 

spanwidth min.: 52 cm

spanwidth max.: 57 cm

size min.: 29 cm

size max.: 32 cm

Breeding

incubation min.: 17 days

incubation max.: 19 days

fledging min.: 26 days

fledging max.: 29 days

broods 1

eggs min.: 3

eggs max.: 6

  

Physical characteristics

 

Large and colorful bird, being iridescent blue, black and chestnut. Roller without tail streamers, proportionately larger headed than most congeners, and in flight appears long-necked. Nominate race with head, neck amd underparts light blue, whitish around base of bill, and short, thin blackish eyestripe. Rufous brown upperparts, with back, rump and tail-coverts ultramarine blue. Wing coverts greenish-blue, marginal ones purple, primary coverts and bases of primaries azure-blue, remiges otherwise black. Tail greenish-blue with darker base, central feathers greyish. Race semenowi slightly paler than nominate.

 

Habitat

 

Warm and sunny lowlands, in open countryside with patches pine or oak woods with heathery clearings, orchards, mixed farmland, broad river valleys, and dissected plains with scattered thorny or leafy trees.

 

Other details

 

Coracias garrulus is a widespread summer visitor to southern and eastern Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (30%) overall.

This bird is breeding in north-western Africa, south and eastern Europe and western Asia, reaching Pakistan and Mongolia in the east. It winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of the European Union has undergone a strong decrease in numbers and a contraction of its distribution since the end of last century. Currently it is estimated at 5000-12000 breeding pairs. Since 1991 it has become extinct in Germany. The principal reasons of this decline are habitat degradation, agricultural intensification and increasing use of pesticides. In some countries the species is also persecuted

 

Feeding

 

Diet mainly invertebrates: beetles and other hard-bodied insects, and some small vertebrates. Exceptionally, fruits such as grapes and figs eaten. Many live scorpions taken, and species may be and accomplished scorpion predator. Several other prey items are distasteful: stink-grasshoppers and carabid, lampyrid and silphid beetles. Forages mostly from elevated perch, watching ground intently.

 

Conservation

 

Coracias garrulus occurs as two subspecies: the nominate breeds from Morocco, southwest and south-central Europe and Asia Minor east through northwest Iran to southwest Siberia (Russia); and semenowi, which breeds in Iraq and Iran (except northwest) east to Kashmir and north to Turkmenistan, south Kazakhstan and northwest China (west Sinkiang). The species overwinters in two distinct regions of Africa, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west to Congo and south to South Africa. It has a large global population, including an estimated 100,000-220,000 individuals in Europe (50-74% of the global breeding range). However, following a moderate decline during 1970-1990, the species has contined to decline by up to 25% across Europe during 1990-2000 (including in key populations in Turkey and European Russia). Overall European declines exceeded 30% in three generations (15 years). Populations in northern Europe have undergone severe declines (Estonia: 50-100 pairs in 1998 to no known breeding pairs in 2004, Latvia: several thousand to under 30 pairs in 2004, Lithuania: 1,000-2,000 pairs in 1970s to 20 pairs in 2004), and in Russia it has now disappeared from the northern part of its range. However, there is no evidence of any declines in Central Asia. Should these populations be shown to be declining, the species may warrant uplisting further to Vulnerable. Threats include persecution on migration in some Mediterranean countries and hundreds, perhaps thousands, are shot for food in Oman every spring. Use of pesticides reduces food availability, and the species is sensitive to changing farming and forestry practices. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

 

Breeding

 

Monogamous, solitary and territorial, with typical rolling and diving aerial display. Nest site an unlined cavity in a large tree, building, cliff or riverbank. 4-5 eggs, incubation by female, 17-19 days. Chick hatches naked and blind, has closed spiny feather sheaths by 13th day

 

Migration

 

An intercontinental migrant, almost entire world population wintering in Africa South of Sahara. In autumn has occurred in great abundance in Algeria and Morocco, though only small numbers winter in West Africa; strong passage up Nile Valley and on West coast of Red Sea, also across Ethiopia, and in October-December through East Africa, especially Rift Valley; weak passage through Arabia. Winters mainly in East & South West Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, North East Botswana and East Namibia; present in October-April/May in South Africa, where prone to flock, evidently still moving South in November-December, and seen in South West Cape Province only in December-February. Congregates in East Tanzania from late March, and in early April up to hundreds of thousands travel in North in narrow corridor along East coastal lowlands to North East Somalia, in one of continent's most spectacularly visible migrations, with thousands passing over a given locality in a few hours, e.g. 40,000-50,000 at Balad, Somalia, on single day in April. In Somalia, migrants fly 300-500 m above land, evenly spaced in column several Km wide, at ground speed of c. 48km/h; also common to abundant in Ethiopia in April. From Somalia birds emigrate at Cape Gardafui, with flocks seen from light aircraft arriving on Dhofar plain in South Oman, after sea crossing of 600 km, and many then cross a further 600 km of desert to reach Persian Gulf; singletons and loose flocks of 10-30 birds frequent in Oman from Mid-April to mid-May, often flying by day on broad front North or North East, or North West on Batinah coast. Recoveries of ringed birds suggest that they travel the 10,000 km from East Europe to Central Africa at c. 67 km/day, and return in spring 110 km/day.

 

spanwidth min.: 52 cm

spanwidth max.: 57 cm

size min.: 29 cm

size max.: 32 cm

Breeding

incubation min.: 17 days

incubation max.: 19 days

fledging min.: 26 days

fledging max.: 29 days

broods 1

eggs min.: 3

eggs max.: 6

  

Physical characteristics

 

Large and colorful bird, being iridescent blue, black and chestnut. Roller without tail streamers, proportionately larger headed than most congeners, and in flight appears long-necked. Nominate race with head, neck amd underparts light blue, whitish around base of bill, and short, thin blackish eyestripe. Rufous brown upperparts, with back, rump and tail-coverts ultramarine blue. Wing coverts greenish-blue, marginal ones purple, primary coverts and bases of primaries azure-blue, remiges otherwise black. Tail greenish-blue with darker base, central feathers greyish. Race semenowi slightly paler than nominate.

 

Habitat

 

Warm and sunny lowlands, in open countryside with patches pine or oak woods with heathery clearings, orchards, mixed farmland, broad river valleys, and dissected plains with scattered thorny or leafy trees.

 

Other details

 

Coracias garrulus is a widespread summer visitor to southern and eastern Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (30%) overall.

This bird is breeding in north-western Africa, south and eastern Europe and western Asia, reaching Pakistan and Mongolia in the east. It winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of the European Union has undergone a strong decrease in numbers and a contraction of its distribution since the end of last century. Currently it is estimated at 5000-12000 breeding pairs. Since 1991 it has become extinct in Germany. The principal reasons of this decline are habitat degradation, agricultural intensification and increasing use of pesticides. In some countries the species is also persecuted

 

Feeding

 

Diet mainly invertebrates: beetles and other hard-bodied insects, and some small vertebrates. Exceptionally, fruits such as grapes and figs eaten. Many live scorpions taken, and species may be and accomplished scorpion predator. Several other prey items are distasteful: stink-grasshoppers and carabid, lampyrid and silphid beetles. Forages mostly from elevated perch, watching ground intently.

 

Conservation

 

Coracias garrulus occurs as two subspecies: the nominate breeds from Morocco, southwest and south-central Europe and Asia Minor east through northwest Iran to southwest Siberia (Russia); and semenowi, which breeds in Iraq and Iran (except northwest) east to Kashmir and north to Turkmenistan, south Kazakhstan and northwest China (west Sinkiang). The species overwinters in two distinct regions of Africa, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west to Congo and south to South Africa. It has a large global population, including an estimated 100,000-220,000 individuals in Europe (50-74% of the global breeding range). However, following a moderate decline during 1970-1990, the species has contined to decline by up to 25% across Europe during 1990-2000 (including in key populations in Turkey and European Russia). Overall European declines exceeded 30% in three generations (15 years). Populations in northern Europe have undergone severe declines (Estonia: 50-100 pairs in 1998 to no known breeding pairs in 2004, Latvia: several thousand to under 30 pairs in 2004, Lithuania: 1,000-2,000 pairs in 1970s to 20 pairs in 2004), and in Russia it has now disappeared from the northern part of its range. However, there is no evidence of any declines in Central Asia. Should these populations be shown to be declining, the species may warrant uplisting further to Vulnerable. Threats include persecution on migration in some Mediterranean countries and hundreds, perhaps thousands, are shot for food in Oman every spring. Use of pesticides reduces food availability, and the species is sensitive to changing farming and forestry practices. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

 

Breeding

 

Monogamous, solitary and territorial, with typical rolling and diving aerial display. Nest site an unlined cavity in a large tree, building, cliff or riverbank. 4-5 eggs, incubation by female, 17-19 days. Chick hatches naked and blind, has closed spiny feather sheaths by 13th day

 

Migration

 

An intercontinental migrant, almost entire world population wintering in Africa South of Sahara. In autumn has occurred in great abundance in Algeria and Morocco, though only small numbers winter in West Africa; strong passage up Nile Valley and on West coast of Red Sea, also across Ethiopia, and in October-December through East Africa, especially Rift Valley; weak passage through Arabia. Winters mainly in East & South West Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, North East Botswana and East Namibia; present in October-April/May in South Africa, where prone to flock, evidently still moving South in November-December, and seen in South West Cape Province only in December-February. Congregates in East Tanzania from late March, and in early April up to hundreds of thousands travel in North in narrow corridor along East coastal lowlands to North East Somalia, in one of continent's most spectacularly visible migrations, with thousands passing over a given locality in a few hours, e.g. 40,000-50,000 at Balad, Somalia, on single day in April. In Somalia, migrants fly 300-500 m above land, evenly spaced in column several Km wide, at ground speed of c. 48km/h; also common to abundant in Ethiopia in April. From Somalia birds emigrate at Cape Gardafui, with flocks seen from light aircraft arriving on Dhofar plain in South Oman, after sea crossing of 600 km, and many then cross a further 600 km of desert to reach Persian Gulf; singletons and loose flocks of 10-30 birds frequent in Oman from Mid-April to mid-May, often flying by day on broad front North or North East, or North West on Batinah coast. Recoveries of ringed birds suggest that they travel the 10,000 km from East Europe to Central Africa at c. 67 km/day, and return in spring 110 km/day.

 

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Title: The Victoria history of the county of Lancaster;

Identifier: cu31924088434620

Year: 1906 (1900s)

Authors: Farrer, William, 1861-1924, ed; Brownbill, J. , joint ed

Subjects: Natural history

Publisher: London [Constable]

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book

 

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

  

Text Appearing Before Image:

and in 1578 was sheriff of the county.1 A pedigree was recorded in 1567.^ He died in 1590 holding among other estates the manors of Penwortham, Farington, Howickand Long- ton, the grange of Penwortham with the demesnes, fishings and turbaries there, various messuages, lands, water-mill, windmill, rents, fisheries in Ribble and Asland, &c., in Penwortham, Middle forth, Howick, Longton, Hawe, Hutton and Leyland ; the manors and lands being held of the queen in chief by the fortieth part of a knight's fee, and the grange with its ap- purtenances, including the advowsons of the rectory of North Meols and vicarage of twentieth part of a knight's fee.* in Staffordshire to his eldest son, Penwortham on his second son Richard Fleetwood, who in 1582 married Margery daughter of Thomas Leigh of Egginton in Derbyshire.'' Richard Fleetwood in 1599 purchased from the Crown the rectories of Penwortham and Leyland, of which he already held the patronage.^ Richard's eldest son Edward died before his father, having married a daughter of Sir William Norris of Speke. This gave the father great offence on religious grounds, and by his will he strictly ordered that the wardship of his Evesham Abbky. Azure a ch.i'ui in cheve- ron padlocked tit one end and ringed at the other betzveen three mitres all argent, Leyland, by the Leaving his lands he in 1568 settled

 

Text Appearing After Image:

Fleetwood. Per pale nehuly azure and or six martlets counterchanged. PENWORTHAM heirs, Edward's children, should 'by no ways or means' come into the hands of Sir William Norris ' or any other who is not conformable to the laws ecclesiastical now established.'^ In 1625 he made provision for his wife Margery, and died in April 1626, being succeeded by his grandson John, aged fifteen, son of Edward.' John Fleetwood at first took the king's side in the Civil War, sending men and arms, but he does not appear to have served personally.* His estates were sequestered by the Parliament, and in 1647 he com- pounded for them, paying a fine of ^617 3/. i^d.'> He died in February 1656-7,1" and was succeeded by his son Edward," who, being childless, settled his manors and lands on Arthur Fleetwood of Westminster and his male issue, with remainders to other Fleet- woods.'^ Henry, the son of Arthur, who succeeded Edward Fleetwood in 1704, had no children, and after his death in 1746 the estates were found to be burdened with a debt of ^^ 16,000, while the rents were under £800 ; it was therefore resolved to sell the estates, a Private Act of Parliament being obtained in 1748 by Henry's trustees and repre- sentatives.'* John Aspinall" purchased them in 1749, and in 1752 sold most of the Penwortham lands to James Barton of Ormskirk,'^ by whose representatives they were sold to Colonel Rawstorne of Hutton.'^ They have since descended with Hutton. The Fleetwoods made their residence in the old Priory buildings. The later house called The Hall, but at present known as Penwortham Priory, is a picturesque modern brick building of two stories with gables and muUioned windows, erected in 1832 on part of the site of the Priory buildings.''' Albert Bussel granted 4 oxgangs of land in Pen- wortham to Gerald de Clayton, who was to act as It is remarkable that nothing is said in these grants as to the maintenance of divine worship in Penwortham Church. * P.R.O. List, 73. " yisit. (Chet. Soc), 59. The origin of the family is obscure, but at this time it had several prominent members ; see the account of Heskin. ^ Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. rv, no. 34 ; the fortieth part of a knight's fee was added to the service due by the patent of Elizabeth. * Ibid. There is a full account of the family in the introduction to Peniuortham J i iory, pp. lii-lxix. John Fleetwood was buried at Penwortham, but his monument is in EUaston Church, Staffs.; ibid. p. Iviii. An abstract of his will is printed. * Pat. 42 Eliz. pt. xxvii. It appears that a twenty-one years' lease of the rectory had been granted to Thomas Fleetwood in 1586 ; Pat. 28 Eliz. pt. iii. ^ His will, dated 1626, is printed in Wills (Chet. Soc, new ser.), ii, 194-6 ; his son Edward's (1615) in the same volume, 183. Papers relating to the disputes between Sir W. Norris and R. Fleetwood are among the Norris D. (B.IVl.). A pedigree, signed by Henry Fleetwood, son of Richard, was recorded in 1613 ; Visit, (Chet, Soc), 122. For notes on the arms and the family see iV. and Q. (Ser. 10), vi, 264 ; vii, 303. ^ Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxv, no. 22. "The tenure of all the manors, rectories, &c., together is stated as the tenth part of a knight's fee. John Fleetwood paid ;^I3 Ss. %d. as composition on refusing knighthood in 1631 ; Misc. (Rec Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 214. ^ He was appointed one of the com- missioners of array in December 1642 ; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc), 67. After the defeat at Whalley in April 1643 Lord Derby stayed for the night at Fleet- wood's house at Penwortham ; War in Lanes. (Chet. Soc), 34. ' Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), ii, 321-3. An addi- tional fine of j^24 was levied on account of an omission in the statement of his lands. 1" Pentvortham Priory, pp. Ixv-lxvii. He desired his heir to provide a preacher for Penwortham Church, 'endowed with learning and understanding and of a good life and conversation,' and to pay him not less than £^o a year. ^1 A pedigree was recorded in 1664 5 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc), no. '2 Penwortham Priory, p. Ixviii ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 197, m. 66. The deforciants were Edward Fleetwood and Knightley Purefoy. Arthur Fleetwood was the son ox Dr. James Fleetwood, provost of King's College, Cambridge, 1660, and Bishop of Worcester from 1675 till his death in 1683, who was grandson of Thomas Fleetwood of the Vaehe, brother of the 59 first John Fleetwood of Penwortham. The bishop's hatchment was in Pen- wortham Church ; an account of his life i6 in Diet. Nat. Bwg. ^^21 Geo. II, cap. 14. The Act con- tains particulars of settlements, &c., and provides for the proper distribution of any surplus from the proceeds of the sale. Henry's heirs were the representatives of his sisters Barbara and Honora ; the former's only child, Barbara Goring, married Walter Chetwynd of Grendon j while Honora married â Hinton of Atherstone. ^â * For pedigree see Whitaker, Whalley^ ii, 107. ^^ In a fine of August 1752, respecting the manors of Howick ana Farington, the churches of Penwortham and Longton, and a fourth part of the manor of Long- ton, the deforciants were John Aspinall and Caroline his wife, the plaintiffs being James Barton and another ; Pal. of Lane. Feet of F. bdle. 349, m, 98. No * manor' of Penwortham is named, but lands, &c., there were included. 1^ In a recovery of the manors of Farington and Howick and various lands in 1806 James Barton was vouchee and Lawrence Rawstorne one of the demand- ants ; Pal. of Lane. Assizes, 46 Geo. Ill, ^â '^- . . ^ " There are two illustrations m Twy- cross' Lanes. Mansions, i, 48. Whitaker [Richmondshire, ii, 428), writing shortly before 1823, describes the old building

  

Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

spanwidth min.: 52 cm

spanwidth max.: 57 cm

size min.: 29 cm

size max.: 32 cm

Breeding

incubation min.: 17 days

incubation max.: 19 days

fledging min.: 26 days

fledging max.: 29 days

broods 1

eggs min.: 3

eggs max.: 6

  

Physical characteristics

 

Large and colorful bird, being iridescent blue, black and chestnut. Roller without tail streamers, proportionately larger headed than most congeners, and in flight appears long-necked. Nominate race with head, neck amd underparts light blue, whitish around base of bill, and short, thin blackish eyestripe. Rufous brown upperparts, with back, rump and tail-coverts ultramarine blue. Wing coverts greenish-blue, marginal ones purple, primary coverts and bases of primaries azure-blue, remiges otherwise black. Tail greenish-blue with darker base, central feathers greyish. Race semenowi slightly paler than nominate.

 

Habitat

 

Warm and sunny lowlands, in open countryside with patches pine or oak woods with heathery clearings, orchards, mixed farmland, broad river valleys, and dissected plains with scattered thorny or leafy trees.

 

Other details

 

Coracias garrulus is a widespread summer visitor to southern and eastern Europe, which constitutes >50% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is relatively small (30%) overall.

This bird is breeding in north-western Africa, south and eastern Europe and western Asia, reaching Pakistan and Mongolia in the east. It winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of the European Union has undergone a strong decrease in numbers and a contraction of its distribution since the end of last century. Currently it is estimated at 5000-12000 breeding pairs. Since 1991 it has become extinct in Germany. The principal reasons of this decline are habitat degradation, agricultural intensification and increasing use of pesticides. In some countries the species is also persecuted

 

Feeding

 

Diet mainly invertebrates: beetles and other hard-bodied insects, and some small vertebrates. Exceptionally, fruits such as grapes and figs eaten. Many live scorpions taken, and species may be and accomplished scorpion predator. Several other prey items are distasteful: stink-grasshoppers and carabid, lampyrid and silphid beetles. Forages mostly from elevated perch, watching ground intently.

 

Conservation

 

Coracias garrulus occurs as two subspecies: the nominate breeds from Morocco, southwest and south-central Europe and Asia Minor east through northwest Iran to southwest Siberia (Russia); and semenowi, which breeds in Iraq and Iran (except northwest) east to Kashmir and north to Turkmenistan, south Kazakhstan and northwest China (west Sinkiang). The species overwinters in two distinct regions of Africa, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west to Congo and south to South Africa. It has a large global population, including an estimated 100,000-220,000 individuals in Europe (50-74% of the global breeding range). However, following a moderate decline during 1970-1990, the species has contined to decline by up to 25% across Europe during 1990-2000 (including in key populations in Turkey and European Russia). Overall European declines exceeded 30% in three generations (15 years). Populations in northern Europe have undergone severe declines (Estonia: 50-100 pairs in 1998 to no known breeding pairs in 2004, Latvia: several thousand to under 30 pairs in 2004, Lithuania: 1,000-2,000 pairs in 1970s to 20 pairs in 2004), and in Russia it has now disappeared from the northern part of its range. However, there is no evidence of any declines in Central Asia. Should these populations be shown to be declining, the species may warrant uplisting further to Vulnerable. Threats include persecution on migration in some Mediterranean countries and hundreds, perhaps thousands, are shot for food in Oman every spring. Use of pesticides reduces food availability, and the species is sensitive to changing farming and forestry practices. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

 

Breeding

 

Monogamous, solitary and territorial, with typical rolling and diving aerial display. Nest site an unlined cavity in a large tree, building, cliff or riverbank. 4-5 eggs, incubation by female, 17-19 days. Chick hatches naked and blind, has closed spiny feather sheaths by 13th day

 

Migration

 

An intercontinental migrant, almost entire world population wintering in Africa South of Sahara. In autumn has occurred in great abundance in Algeria and Morocco, though only small numbers winter in West Africa; strong passage up Nile Valley and on West coast of Red Sea, also across Ethiopia, and in October-December through East Africa, especially Rift Valley; weak passage through Arabia. Winters mainly in East & South West Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, North East Botswana and East Namibia; present in October-April/May in South Africa, where prone to flock, evidently still moving South in November-December, and seen in South West Cape Province only in December-February. Congregates in East Tanzania from late March, and in early April up to hundreds of thousands travel in North in narrow corridor along East coastal lowlands to North East Somalia, in one of continent's most spectacularly visible migrations, with thousands passing over a given locality in a few hours, e.g. 40,000-50,000 at Balad, Somalia, on single day in April. In Somalia, migrants fly 300-500 m above land, evenly spaced in column several Km wide, at ground speed of c. 48km/h; also common to abundant in Ethiopia in April. From Somalia birds emigrate at Cape Gardafui, with flocks seen from light aircraft arriving on Dhofar plain in South Oman, after sea crossing of 600 km, and many then cross a further 600 km of desert to reach Persian Gulf; singletons and loose flocks of 10-30 birds frequent in Oman from Mid-April to mid-May, often flying by day on broad front North or North East, or North West on Batinah coast. Recoveries of ringed birds suggest that they travel the 10,000 km from East Europe to Central Africa at c. 67 km/day, and return in spring 110 km/day.

 

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Virtual machines. Test Microsoft Edge and versions of IE6 through IE11 using

free virtual machines you download and manage locally.14 фев 2011, Windows Virtual PC — это новейшая технология виртуализации, созданная

корпорацией Майкрософт. Ее можно использовать дляWindows Virtual PC is a virtualization program for Microsoft Windows. In July

2006 Microsoft, . to appear as if running directly on the host, sharing the native

desktop and Start Menu of Windows 7 as well as participating in file type

associations., Users of other editions of Windows 7 are not eligible to download

and use it.6 May 2015, Broadly speaking, a virtual machine (VM) is a sandbox that tricks one operating

system into running, Go to Microsofts site to get the Windows 10 ISO., Click

Show Description to return to the hard drive file-type selection.3 Jan 2016, Microsoft Virtual Machine Converter can be used to convert non-MS, CMDLet

reference is here: download.microsoft.com/download/9/1/31 Dec 2014, Why We Hate Recommending Software Downloads To Our Readers, a really

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Microsoft, Also download the Windows 98 Virtual Machine and unpack it

anywhere you like:, setup.rar (26.50 MB, 53491 views); File Type: rar29 Jul 2015, Accept VDI (VirtualBox Disk Image) as the hard drive file type., Microsoft says

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VM ok but I got stuck when trying to boot into the ISO to start the3 Dec 2012, Using a program called VirtualBox and the evaluation version of Windows 8, 8

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22 Feb 2011, Windows Server 2008 R2 builds on the award-winning foundation of Windows

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The number of users unlimited cheap cloud storage

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Cloud Storage Light

Cloud Storage Light is a cloud storage using Microsoft Azure, to the low cost and high reliability of storage provides a convenient function for the enterprise. First demo site please check the function.

 

Low cost

Cloud Storage Light is 1GB per 2.45 yen - is a low-cost cloud storage services using Azure Storage (storage service) called. Occupancy is also unlimited, additional cost is used many people, and you do not need.

 

High reliability

For Cloud Storage Light is you are using Azure Storage, you can simply use the high reliability of the Azure Storage. Stored in Azure Storage data is copied to three separate storage is.

 

Convenient enterprise features

Cloud Storage Light upload of files, including the download, full-text search function, authentication, authorization control, such as a mail reception function provides the necessary features for the enterprise have been. To take advantage of these features to accommodate a variety of usage scenarios. In addition, collaboration with Skype and Lync, also offers push-type information notification function.

   

Use scenario

•Storage as a file server in the enterprise

•Storage of BCP measures (disaster recovery)

•Storage for collaboration with business partners

•Alternate storage of Exchange of the Public folder

 

Demo

Demo site you can experience the actual operation in. Please experience using the account for the following demonstration.

Name: demo

Password: demo1

 

Introduction procedure

Cloud Storage Light is introduced into the Microsoft Azure. Step-by-step installation procedure has been prepared. It is possible to introduce a Cloud Storage Light to customers on the Microsoft Azure this document to the original. It should be noted, has published the current ß version.

 

Application fee

•Cost is needed separately for the actual deployment in the cloud services and data transfer on the Azure in addition to Azure Storage of Cloud Storage Light. For example, the cost per month in the case of use in 100 people the cloud storage of 100GB is the following calculation will be about 2500 yen / month. It is a calculation of 25 yen per capita.

•Storage usage charge ¥ 2.45 / GB / month x 100GB ? 245 yen

•Cloud services XS ¥ 2.17 / hour x 1 month ? 1,613 yen

•Transfer fee 19.38 yen / GBx30GB ? 600 yen (100 people 10MB byte transfer every day: 100X10MBx30_nichi = 30GB)

•Storage transaction 0.51 yen / 100,000 x 3,000,000 ? 15 yen (10 transaction X30_nichi per 100 people to operate 100 times every day)

 

It should be noted that the calculation of the costs of the August 26, 2014 Azure fee Chart have been calculated in reference to. Since this cost calculation should not be considered to ensure that it can operate in this cost in the reference information, please acknowledge beforehand.

 

Contact Us

Inquiries about Cloud Storage Light is thank you to the following people.

 

SAP Business One is designed exclusively to meet the needs of small and midsize businesses and for subsidiaries of large enterprises. SAP Business One is an integrated, affordable business management application.

 

Urmia Lake,West Azerbaijan Province,Iran :copyright: Vafa Nematzadeh.All rights reserved.Thank you very much for your visits,likes,faves and comments here. Lake Urmia : Lake Urmia (Persian: Daryache-ye Orumiye,Azerbaijani Urmu gölü,Kurdish Wermy,Armenian: Կապուտան ծով,Kaputan ts'ov; ancient name: Lake Matiene) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran near Iran's border with Turkey.The lake is between the provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan in Iran,and west of the southern portion of the Caspian Sea.At its full size, it is the largest lake in the Middle East and the sixth largest saltwater lake on earth with a surface area of approximately 5,200 km² (2,000 mile²),140 km (87 mi) length,55 km (34 mi) width, and 16 m (52 ft) depth. Lake Urmia along with its approximately 102 islands are protected as a national park by the Iranian Department of Environment. History : One of the early mentions of Lake Urmia is from the Assyrian records from 9th century BCE.There,in the records of Shalmaneser III (reign 858–824 BCE),two names are mentioned in the area of Lake Urmia:Parsuwash (i.e., the Persians) and Matai (i.e., the Mitanni).It is not completely clear whether these referred to places or tribes or what their relationship was to the subsequent list of personal names and "kings".But Matais were Medes and linguistically the name Parsuwash matches the Old Persian word pārsa,an Achaemenid ethnolinguistic designation. "Lake Matianus" (Latin: Lacus Matianus) is an old name for Lake Urmia.It was the center of the Mannaean Kingdom,a potential Mannaean settlement,represented by the ruin mound of Hasanlu,was on the south side of Lake Matianus.Mannae was overrun by the people who were called Matiani or Matieni,an Iranian people variously identified as Scythian,Saka,Sarmatian,or Cimmerian.It is not clear whether the lake took its name from the people or the people from the lake,but the country came to be called Matiene or Matiane. The lake is named after the provincial capital city of Urmia,originally a Syriac name meaning city of water.In the early 1930s,it was called Lake Rezaiyeh after Reza Shah Pahlavi,but after the Iranian Revolution in the late 1970s,the lake was renamed Urmia.Its ancient Persian name was Chichast (meaning, "glittering"–a reference to the glittering mineral particles suspended in the lake water and found along its shores).In medieval times it came to be known as Lake Kabuda (Kabodan),from the word for "azure" in Persian, or 'կապույտ' ("Kapuyt/Gabuyd") in Armenian. Chemistry : The main cations in the lake water include Na+, K+, Ca2+, Li+ and Mg2+, while Cl–, SO42–, HCO3– are the main anions.The Na+ and Cl– concentration is roughly four times the concentration of natural seawater.Sodium ions are at slightly higher concentration in the south compared to the north of the lake,which could result from the shallower depth in the south,and a higher net evaporation rate. The lake is divided into north and south,separated by a causeway in which a 1,500 m gap provides little exchange of water between the two parts.Due to drought and increased demands for agricultural water in the lake's basin,the salinity of the lake has risen to more than 300 g/litre during recent years,and large areas of the lake bed have been desiccated. Ecology : Lake Urmia is home to some 212 species of birds 41 reptiles,7 amphibians,and 27 species of mammals,including the Iranian yellow deer.It is an internationally registered protected area as both a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and a Ramsar site.The Iranian Dept.of Environment has designated most of the lake as a "National Park". The recent drought has significantly decreased the annual amount of water the lake receives.This in turn has increased the salinity of the lake's water,lowering the lake viability as home to thousands of migratory birds including the large flamingo populations.The salinity has particularly increased in the half of the lake north of the causeway. The lake is marked by more than a hundred small,rocky islands,which serve as stopover points during the migrations of several wild birds including flamingos, pelicans,spoonbills,ibises,storks,shelducks,avocets,stilts and gulls. By virtue of its high salinity,the lake no longer sustains any fish species. Nonetheless,Lake Urmia is considered a significant natural habitat of Artemia, which serve as food source for the migratory birds such as flamingos.In early 2013, the then-head of the Iranian Artemia Research Center was quoted that Artemia Urmiana had gone extinct due to the drastic increases in salinity. However this assessment has been contradicted. The lake is a major barrier between two of the most important cities in West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan provinces,Urmia and Tabriz.A project to build a highway across the lake was initiated in the 1970s but was abandoned after the Iranian Revolution of 1979,having finished a 15 km causeway with an unbridged gap.The project was revived in the early 2000s,and was completed in November 2008 with the opening of the 1.5 km Urmia Lake Bridge across the remaining gap. The highly saline environment is already heavily rusting the steel on the bridge despite anti-corrosion treatment.Experts have warned that the construction of the causeway and bridge,together with a series of ecological factors,will eventually lead to the drying up of the lake,turning it into a salt marsh which will directly affect the climate of the region.Lake Urmia has been shrinking for a long time,with an annual evaporation rate of 0.6m to 1m (24 to 39 inches).Although measures are now being taken to reverse the trend the lake has shrunk by 60% and could disappear entirely.Only 5% of the lake's water remains. Bridge construction over Lake Urmia in 2005 On August 2, 2012, Mohammad-Javad Mohammadizadeh,the head of Iran's Environment Protection Organization,announced that Armenia has agreed on transferring water from Armenia to counter the critical fall in Lake Urmia's water levels, remarking that "hot weather and a lack of precipitation have brought the lake to its lowest water levels ever recorded".He added that recovery plans for the lake include the transfer of water from Eastern Azerbaijan Province.Previously,Iranian authorities had announced a plan to transfer water from the Aras River,which borders Iran and Azerbaijan; the 950-billion-toman plan was abandoned due to Azerbaijan's objections. In July 2014,Iran President Hassan Rouhani approved plans for a 14 trillion rial program (over $500 million) in the first year of a recovery plan.The money is supposed to be used for water management,reducing farmer's water use,and environmental restoration.Several months earlier,in March 2014,Iran's Department of Environment and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) issued a plan to save the lake and the nearby wetland,which called for spending $225 million in the first year and $1.3 billion overall for restoration. Palaeoecology : A palynological investigation on long cores from Lake Urmia has revealed a nearly 200 kyr record of vegetation and lake level changes.The vegetation has changed from the Artemisia / grass steppes during the glacial / stadial periods to oak-juniper steppe-forests during the interglacial/interstadial periods.The lake seems to have had a complex hydrological history and its water levels have greatly fluctuated in the geological history.Very high lake levels have been suggested for some time intervals during the two last glacial periods as well as during both the Last Interglacial as well as the Holocene.Lowest lake levels have occurred during the last glacial periods. Islands : Lake Urmia has 102 islands.Their names are as follows : Aram, Arash, Ardeshir, Arezu, Ashk, Ashk-Sar, Ashku, Atash, Azar, Azin, Bahram, Bard, Bardak, Bardin, Bastvar, Bon, Bon-Ashk, Borz, Borzin, Borzu, Chak-Tappeh, Cheshmeh-Kenar, Dey, Espir, Espirak, Espiro, Garivak, Giv, Golgun, Gordeh, Gorz, Iran-Nezhad, Jodarreh, Jovin, Jowzar, Kabudan, Kafchehnok, Kakayi-e Bala, Kakayi-ye Miyaneh, Kakayi-e Pain, Kalsang, Kam, Kaman, Kameh, Kariveh, Karkas, Kaveh, Kazem-Dashi, Kenarak, Khersak, Kuchek-Tappeh, Magh, Mahdis, Mahvar, Markid, Mehr, Mehran, Mehrdad, Meshkin, Meydan, Miyaneh, Nadid, Nahan, Nahid, Nahoft, Nakhoda, Navi, Naviyan, Omid, Panah, Penhan, Pishva, Sahran, Samani, Sangan, Sangu, Sarijeh, Sepid, Shabdiz, Shahi (Eslami), Shahin, Shamshiran, Shur-Tappeh, Shush-Tappeh, Siyavash, Siyah-Sang, Siyah-Tappeh, Sorkh, Sorush, Tak, Takht, Takhtan, Tanjeh, Tanjak, Tashbal, Tir, Tus, Zagh, Zar-Kaman, Zarkanak, Zar-Tappeh, Zirabeh. The lake's second largest island,Shahi Island,is the burial place of Hulagu Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan and the sacker of Baghdad.In 1967,the Iranian Department of Environment sent a team of scientists to study the ecology of Shahi Island.Various results of the study which included the breeding habits of brine shrimp were published by Javad Hashemi in the scientific journal,Iranian Scientific Sokhan. Basin rivers : Aji Chay Alamlou River Barandouz River Gadar River Ghaie River Leylan River Mahabad River Nazlou River Rozeh River Shahar River Simineh River Zarrineh River Zola River Environmental rallies : From March 2010,a series of protests and rallies in Iranian Azerbaijan demanded action to save Lake Urmia : On 2 April 2010 and 2011,and after several callings from Tractor Sazi F.C.'s fans in stadiums and internet sites,protest demanding that the government take action to save Lake Urmia was held in Tabriz,Urmia,on the lake beach,and on top of the lake bridge.As a result,dozens of people were arrested by security forces. In August 2011,after the Iranian parliament dropped two emergency cases for reviving the lake,a number of soccer fans at Tabriz derby (soccer match between Tractor Sazi F.C. and Shahrdari Tabriz F.C.) were arrested for shouting slogans in favor of protecting the lake.Later that same week,Iranian Azerbaijanians scheduled a protest against the parliament move.Despite the capture of more than 20 activists by security forces the day before the protest,numerous people attended the event in Urmia and a number of clashes with police were reported. On 3 September 2011,Iranian Azerbaijanians demonstrated for second week in a row to protect Lake Urmia.The protests in Tabriz and Urmia reportedly followed parliament's rejection of rescue plan,and security forces used violence to break up environmental rallies as protesters demanded action to save Lake Urmia,and according to West Azerbaijan's governor,at least 60 supporters of the lake were arrested just in Urmia and dozens in Tabriz because,according to an Iranian official,they had not applied for a permit to organize a demonstration.As the protests in Tabriz and other Iranian Azerbaijan cities,Azerbaijanians resident in Turkey called for the preservation of saltwater Lake Urmia through a peaceful protest that included pouring salt and lying on the street in front of the Iranian Embassy in Ankara. In popular culture : Lake Urmia was the setting of the fictional Iranian film The White Meadows (2009), which featured fantastic-looking lands adjacent to a salt sea. via 500px ift.tt/1LZCk45

SQL Server is Microsoft's flagship product database and has been used for over a decade. Microsoft SQL Server 2016 delivers a complete high-end database solution - a comprehensive hybrid cloud database solution with built-in support for real-time business analysis that can meet the growing needs of both medium and large enterprises . You can use SQL Server 2016 to build, implement, and manage solutions that can be hosted either on site or in the cloud. Note that from this write, SQL Server 2016 still in CTP. Unlike previous versions of SQL Server, this version does not directly target Azure support. On the contrary, the software giant now wants to have a common code base for the site and the databases are hosted on the Azure cloud. If you remember, SQL Server 2014 has provided a platform for the hybrid cloud, which is available to build, deploy, and manage your databases residing both on-premises and in the cloud. So what's up? Some of the new features and improvements in this version of SQL Server are: Data security always encrypted has always been an important issue. SQL Server 2016 comes with the always-encoded function that when enabled, protects your data in the SQL Server database by using encryption. In using this function, access to encrypted sensitive data can only be performed by the application as the data stored in the SQL Server 2016 database access. The application that the encryption key can have access to Data - this encryption key (it is a master key stored in your system) is never passed to SQL Server. Note that the process is performed by encrypting and decrypting data in the database driver level and the database owner or DBA does not have access to unencrypted data at all. In order to improve performance, only sensitive data is encrypted. Non-sensitive columns, which is the primary key, unencrypted. Additionally, SQL Server 2016 supports two encryption methods - deterministic and random. While in the old one you can get the same value when you encrypt the multiple times sensitive data in the past, you will get different values ​​every time you encrypt your sensitive data. Both strategies have advantages and disadvantages, however. Always The Always On feature (first introduced in SQL Server 2012) has been enhanced to facilitate high availability and disaster recovery. Distributed Transaction Coordinator (DTC) support and load balancing round is introduced in SQL Server 2016. Native JSON JSON support is one of the widely used standardized data these days. SQL Server 2016 supports JSON import and export. Support for JSON analysis and storage is built into SQL Server 2016. Extensible database When the extensible database (also known as DB) is enabled for one or more tables in your local database, SQL Server 2016 can dynamically store data securely on your SQL Server database Local database on the Azure SQL database hosted in the cloud. Therefore, this version of SQL Server allows a seamless migration of your data to Microsoft without Azure any downtime. Improvements in Hekaton The In-Memory OLTP engine that was introduced in SQL Server 2014 helps you do when tables in memory and then perform I / O operations against them in memory for lower latency and better performance. Note that hekaton is another name for the In-Memory OLTP engine in SQL Server. Running I / O operations against these tables in memory cause faster reading and writing as you can read your request and write to the memory reads much faster compared to the disk and writes. Support for Database Analysis with R Integration SQL Server 2016 supports advanced analysis to facilitate a deeper understanding of your data. This is the first release of Microsoft's flagship database to an integrated support for Revolution R for statistical analysis of your data.

Microsoft announced an update to its Azure cloud computing platform today. This update includes the launch of a couple of new features for developers who want to run large-scale, compute-intensive applications on the platform, as well as new features for Azure Site Recovery that will...

 

www.baindaily.com/microsoft-azure-makes-migrating-from-aw...

SQL Server is Microsoft's flagship product database and has been used for over a decade. Microsoft SQL Server 2016 delivers a complete high-end database solution - a comprehensive hybrid cloud database solution with built-in support for real-time business analysis that can meet the growing needs of both medium and large enterprises . You can use SQL Server 2016 to build, implement, and manage solutions that can be hosted either on site or in the cloud. Note that from this write, SQL Server 2016 still in CTP. Unlike previous versions of SQL Server, this version does not directly target Azure support. On the contrary, the software giant now wants to have a common code base for the site and the databases are hosted on the Azure cloud. If you remember, SQL Server 2014 has provided a platform for the hybrid cloud, which is available to build, deploy, and manage your databases residing both on-premises and in the cloud. So what's up? Some of the new features and improvements in this version of SQL Server are: Data security always encrypted has always been an important issue. SQL Server 2016 comes with the always-encoded function that when enabled, protects your data in the SQL Server database by using encryption. In using this function, access to encrypted sensitive data can only be performed by the application as the data stored in the SQL Server 2016 database access. The application that the encryption key can have access to Data - this encryption key (it is a master key stored in your system) is never passed to SQL Server. Note that the process is performed by encrypting and decrypting data in the database driver level and the database owner or DBA does not have access to unencrypted data at all. In order to improve performance, only sensitive data is encrypted. Non-sensitive columns, which is the primary key, unencrypted. Additionally, SQL Server 2016 supports two encryption methods - deterministic and random. While in the old one you can get the same value when you encrypt the multiple times sensitive data in the past, you will get different values ​​every time you encrypt your sensitive data. Both strategies have advantages and disadvantages, however. Always The Always On feature (first introduced in SQL Server 2012) has been enhanced to facilitate high availability and disaster recovery. Distributed Transaction Coordinator (DTC) support and load balancing round is introduced in SQL Server 2016. Native JSON JSON support is one of the widely used standardized data these days. SQL Server 2016 supports JSON import and export. Support for JSON analysis and storage is built into SQL Server 2016. Extensible database When the extensible database (also known as DB) is enabled for one or more tables in your local database, SQL Server 2016 can dynamically store data securely on your SQL Server database Local database on the Azure SQL database hosted in the cloud. Therefore, this version of SQL Server allows a seamless migration of your data to Microsoft without Azure any downtime. Improvements in Hekaton The In-Memory OLTP engine that was introduced in SQL Server 2014 helps you do when tables in memory and then perform I / O operations against them in memory for lower latency and better performance. Note that hekaton is another name for the In-Memory OLTP engine in SQL Server. Running I / O operations against these tables in memory cause faster reading and writing as you can read your request and write to the memory reads much faster compared to the disk and writes. Support for Database Analysis with R Integration SQL Server 2016 supports advanced analysis to facilitate a deeper understanding of your data. This is the first release of Microsoft's flagship database to an integrated support for Revolution R for statistical analysis of your data.

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Learn how the Microsoft Enterprise Agreement offers the best value to customers

deploying a common IT platform, Benefits; How it works; Enterprise Enrollment;

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Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS) supports, servers for

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Azure RMS will be available via the Microsoft Enterprise Volume License

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