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Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more !

 

Get the application on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Studio" by ErgSap on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Studio » and reach thousands of art-lovers !!

  

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

 

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Studio" by ErgSap on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Studio » and reach thousands of art-lovers !!

  

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

 

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more !

 

Get the application on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more !

 

Get the application on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

Pablo Picasso (/pɪˈkɑːsoʊ, -ˈkæsoʊ/; Spanish: [ˈpaβlo piˈkaso]; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces.Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work of the slightly older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were often paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.Picasso's work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, and his work in the mid-1920s often has characteristics of Surrealism. His later work often combines elements of his earlier styles.Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art.Picasso was baptized Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso,[1] a series of names honouring various saints and relatives.[9] Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother, respectively, as per Spanish law. Born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco (1838–1913) and María Picasso y López.[10] His mother was of one quarter Italian descent, from the territory of Genoa.[11] Though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would later on become an atheist.[12] Picasso's family was of middle-class background. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats.Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were "piz, piz", a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for "pencil".[13] From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was a traditional academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, and drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork.

The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. They stayed almost four years. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son's technique, an apocryphal story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting, though paintings by him exist from later years.In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, Conchita, died of diphtheria.[15] After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home.[16] Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, and the jury admitted him, at just 13. The student lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented a small room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings. The two argued frequently.Picasso's father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid's Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, the country's foremost art school.At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrolment. Madrid held many other attractions. The Prado housed paintings by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso especially admired the works of El Greco; elements such as his elongated limbs, arresting colours, and mystical visages are echoed in Picasso's later work.Picasso's training under his father began before 1890. His progress can be traced in the collection of early works now held by the Museu Picasso in Barcelona, which provides one of the most comprehensive records extant of any major artist's beginnings.[17] During 1893 the juvenile quality of his earliest work falls away, and by 1894 his career as a painter can be said to have begun.The academic realism apparent in the works of the mid-1890s is well displayed in The First Communion (1896), a large composition that depicts his sister, Lola. In the same year, at the age of 14, he painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa, a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called "without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole history of Spanish painting."In 1897, his realism began to show a Symbolist influence, for example, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non-naturalistic violet and green tones. What some call his Modernist period (1899–1900) followed. His exposure to the work of Rossetti, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch, combined with his admiration for favourite old masters such as El Greco, led Picasso to a personal version of modernism in his works of this period.Picasso made his first trip to Paris, then the art capital of Europe, in 1900. There, he met his first Parisian friend, journalist and poet Max Jacob, who helped Picasso learn the language and its literature. Soon they shared an apartment; Max slept at night while Picasso slept during the day and worked at night. These were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. Much of his work was burned to keep the small room warm. During the first five months of 1901, Picasso lived in Madrid, where he and his anarchist friend Francisco de Asís Soler founded the magazine Arte Joven (Young Art), which published five issues. Soler solicited articles and Picasso illustrated the journal, mostly contributing grim cartoons depicting and sympathizing with the state of the poor. The first issue was published on 31 March 1901, by which time the artist had started to sign his work Picasso; before he had signed Pablo Ruiz y Picasso.Picasso's Blue Period (1901–1904), characterized by sombre paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colours, began either in Spain in early 1901, or in Paris in the second half of the year.[22] Many paintings of gaunt mothers with children date from the Blue Period, during which Picasso divided his time between Barcelona and Paris. In his austere use of colour and sometimes doleful subject matter – prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects – Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas. Starting in autumn of 1901 he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas, culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie (1903), now in the Cleveland Museum of Art..Pablo Picasso, 1905, Au Lapin Agile (At the Lapin Agile) (Arlequin tenant un verre), oil on canvas, 99.1 × 100.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art

The same mood pervades the well-known etching The Frugal Repast (1904),] which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. Blindness is a recurrent theme in Picasso's works of this period, also represented in The Blindman's Meal (1903, the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and in the portrait of Celestina (1903). Other works include Portrait of Soler and Portrait of Suzanne Bloch.The Rose Period (1904–1906)[25] is characterized by a lighter tone and style utilizing orange and pink colours, and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a bohemian artist who became his mistress, in Paris in 1904.[15] Olivier appears in many of his Rose Period paintings, many of which are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his increased exposure to French painting. The generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in this period is reminiscent of the 1899–1901 period (i.e. just prior to the Blue Period) and 1904 can be considered a transition year between the two periods.Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. When someone commented that Stein did not look like her portrait, Picasso replied, "She will".By 1905, Picasso became a favourite of American art collectors Leo and Gertrude Stein. Their older brother Michael Stein and his wife Sarah also became collectors of his work. Picasso painted portraits of both Gertrude Stein and her nephew Allan Stein. Gertrude Stein became Picasso's principal patron, acquiring his drawings and paintings and exhibiting them in her informal Salon at her home in Paris. At one of her gatherings in 1905, he met Henri Matisse, who was to become a lifelong friend and rival. The Steins introduced him to Claribel Cone and her sister Etta who were American art collectors; they also began to acquire Picasso and Matisse's paintings. Eventually Leo Stein moved to Italy. Michael and Sarah Stein became patrons of Matisse, while Gertrude Stein continued to collect Picasso.In 1907 Picasso joined an art gallery that had recently been opened in Paris by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. Kahnweiler was a German art historian and art collector who became one of the premier French art dealers of the 20th century. He was among the first champions of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and the Cubism that they jointly developed. Kahnweiler promoted burgeoning artists such as André Derain, Kees van Dongen, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Maurice de Vlaminck and several others who had come from all over the globe to live and work in Montparnasse at the time.Picasso's African-influenced Period (1907–1909) begins with his painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Picasso painted this composition in a style inspired by Iberian sculpture, but repainted the faces of the two figures on the right after being powerfully impressed by African artefacts he saw in June 1907 in the ethnographic museum at Palais du Trocadéro.[30] When he displayed the painting to acquaintances in his studio later that year, the nearly universal reaction was shock and revulsion; Matisse angrily dismissed the work as a hoax.[31] Picasso did not exhibit Le Demoiselles publicly until 1916.Other works from this period include Nude with Raised Arms (1907) and Three Women (1908). Formal ideas developed during this period lead directly into the Cubist period that follows.Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Picasso developed with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colours. Both artists took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time share many similarities.Synthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre of cubism, in which cut paper fragments – often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages – were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art. In Paris, Picasso entertained a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, poet Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Alfred Jarry, and Gertrude Stein. Apollinaire was arrested on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisa from the Louvre in 1911. Apollinaire pointed to his friend Picasso, who was also brought in for questioning, but both were later exonerated.Between 1915 and 1917, Picasso began a series of paintings depicting highly geometric and minimalist Cubist objects, consisting of either a pipe, a guitar or a glass, with an occasional element of collage. "Hard-edged square-cut diamonds", notes art historian John Richardson, "these gems do not always have upside or downside".[33][34] "We need a new name to designate them," wrote Picasso to Gertrude Stein: Maurice Raynal suggested "Crystal Cubism".[33][35] These "little gems" may have been produced by Picasso in response to critics who had claimed his defection from the movement, through his experimentation with classicism within the so-called return to order following the war.At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Picasso was living in Avignon. Braque and Derain were mobilized and Apollinaire joined the French artillery, while the Spaniard Juan Gris remained from the Cubist circle. During the war, Picasso was able to continue painting uninterrupted, unlike his French comrades. His paintings became more sombre and his life changed with dramatic consequences. Kahnweiler’s contract had terminated on his exile from France. At this point Picasso’s work would be taken on by the art dealer Léonce Rosenberg. After the loss of Eva Gouel, Picasso had an affair with Gaby Lespinasse. During the spring of 1916, Apollinaire returned from the front wounded. They renewed their friendship, but Picasso began to frequent new social circles.Towards the end of World War I, Picasso made a number of important relationships with figures associated with Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Among his friends during this period were Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo, Juan Gris, and others. In the summer of 1918, Picasso married Olga Khokhlova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Erik Satie's Parade, in Rome; they spent their honeymoon near Biarritz in the villa of glamorous Chilean art patron Eugenia Errázuriz.After returning from his honeymoon, and in desperate need of money, Picasso started his exclusive relationship with the French-Jewish art dealer Paul Rosenberg. As part of his first duties, Rosenberg agreed to rent the couple an apartment in Paris at his own expense, which was located next to his own house. This was the start of a deep brother-like friendship between two very different men, that would last until the outbreak of World War II.Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant to the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo Picasso,.who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khokhlova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. During the same period that Picasso collaborated with Diaghilev's troupe, he and Igor Stravinsky collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several drawings of the composer.In 1927 Picasso met 17-year-old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khokhlova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Khokhlova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khokhlova's death in 1955. Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Marie-Thérèse Walter and fathered a daughter with her, named Maya. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her, and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pablo_Picasso

 

Crystal Cubism (French: Cubisme cristal or Cubisme de cristal) is a distilled form of Cubism consistent with a shift, between 1915 and 1916, towards a strong emphasis on flat surface activity and large overlapping geometric planes. The primacy of the underlying geometric structure, rooted in the abstract, controls practically all of the elements of the artwork.This range of styles of painting and sculpture, especially significant between 1917 and 1920 (also referred to as the Crystal Period, classical Cubism, pure Cubism, advanced Cubism, late Cubism, synthetic Cubism, or the second phase of Cubism), was practiced in varying degrees by a multitude of artists; particularly those under contract with the art dealer and collector Léonce Rosenberg—Henri Laurens, Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris and Jacques Lipchitz most noticeably of all. The tightening of the compositions, the clarity and sense of order reflected in these works, led to its being referred to by the French poet and art critic Maurice Raynal as 'crystal' Cubism.Considerations manifested by Cubists prior to the outset of World War I—such as the fourth dimension, dynamism of modern life, the occult, and Henri Bergson's concept of duration—had now been vacated, replaced by a purely formal frame of reference that proceeded from a cohesive stance toward art and life.As post-war reconstruction began, so too did a series of exhibitions at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie de L'Effort Moderne: order and the allegiance to the aesthetically pure remained the prevailing tendency. The collective phenomenon of Cubism once again—now in its advanced revisionist form—became part of a widely discussed development in French culture. Crystal Cubism was the culmination of a continuous narrowing of scope in the name of a return to order; based upon the observation of the artists relation to nature, rather than on the nature of reality itself.Crystal Cubism, and its associative rappel à l’ordre, has been linked with an inclination—by those who served the armed forces and by those who remained in the civilian sector—to escape the realities of the Great War, both during and directly following the conflict. The purifying of Cubism from 1914 through the mid-1920s, with its cohesive unity and voluntary constraints, has been linked to a much broader ideological transformation towards conservatism in both French society and French culture. In terms of the separation of culture and life, the Crystal Cubist period emerges as the most important in the history of Modernism.Cubism, from its inception, stems from the dissatisfaction with the idea of form that had been in practiced since the Renaissance.[4] This dissatisfaction had already been seen in the works of the Romanticist Eugene Delacroix, in the Realism of Gustave Courbet, in passing through the Symbolists, Les Nabis, the Impressionists and the Neo-Impressionists. Paul Cézanne was instrumental, as his work marked a shift from a more representational art form to one that was increasingly abstract, with a strong emphasis on the simplification of geometric structure. In a letter addressed to Émile Bernard dated 15 April 1904, Cézanne writes: "Interpret nature in terms of the cylinder, the sphere, the cone; put everything in perspective, so that each side of an object, of a plane, recedes toward a central point."Cézanne was preoccupied by the means of rendering volume and space, surface variations (or modulations) with overlapped shifting planes. Increasingly in his later works, Cézanne achieves a greater freedom. His work became bolder, more arbitrary, more dynamic and increasingly nonrepresentational. As his color planes acquired greater formal independence, defined objects and structures began to lose their identity.'Walpurgis Night, and The Angel that other master Alfred Kubin the Western Window (whose hero is the esoteric scholar John Dee). Picasso was also a member of this Order And it seems the same is true about Picasso, if we can trust the word of Marijo Ariens-Volker, who in her article "Alchemical, Kabbalistic, and Occult Symbolism in the Work of His Contemporaries (discussed in chapter 4), brings up several disturbing arguments. According to this researcher, Picasso, at the beginning of his stay in Paris, lived with his friend Ricardo Vines, who frequented the Librairie du Merveilleux, the general headquarters of the "independent group of esoteric studies" created by Papus. Among those closest to the painter at this time, we find André Salmon, who makes reference to Papus, the Martinists, and the Masons in several of his texts There were also Juan Gris an extremely assiduous Mason 38 Max Jacob, who considered kabbalah as his "life philosophy" and will be, before being expelled by Breton for impenitent Catholicism, frequently published in Littérature, and Guillaume Apollinaire who often spoke of Hermes Tres megistus and whose library held many books by Papus and other Martinists, as well as the official journals of the Order and even a document from the 1908 Spiritualist Congress. According to his grandson, Olivier Widmaier, Picasso was extremely well versed in the kabbalah, read the Zohar, and was a spiritualist his conversations with Brassai, Picasso admitted he had been a "member of an Order during his cubist period," probably the Martinist Order: some of the collages he made at this ime even bear signs that Ariens-Volker analyzes as allusions to the Martinist grade of unknown superior 40 210 Papus (whose "confused mysticism" would be denounced by Gérard Legrand in Médium in November 1953) claimed he had received Martinist initiation from the son of a close friend of Saint-Martin, but he also spent time with the "famous" theoretician of modern occultism, the "priest" (and Mason) Alphonse Louis Constant, alias Eliphas Levi 211 (Osiris is a black god," Breton writes in Arcanum 1 and was part of Helena Blavatsky and Colonel Henry Steel Olcott's Theosophical Society. He wanted to make the Martinist order which was connected with Christian illuminism-a mystical society, "a school of moral chivalry that would strive to develop the spirituality of its members by the study of the invisible world and its laws through the exercise of devotion and intellectual assistance, and by the creation in each spirit of a faith that would be more solid by being based on by Papus's son Phillipe d'Encausse.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_Cubism

 

T

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Studio" by ErgSap on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Studio » and reach thousands of art-lovers !!

  

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

 

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more !

 

Get the application on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art museum & art gallery Android application, a huge collection of artworks for artists and art-lovers to discover thousands of famous masterpieces at a glance and at your fingertips !

 

Awesome views, details of high resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings from multiple artists with smart features such as search with multiple queries, suggestions for a given artwork, time travel in Art and several related informations.

 

See ErgsArt application in Google Play Store (play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...) or in Amazon Android appstore (www.amazon.com/ErgsArt-Greatest-Artworks-your-fingertips/...).

 

Our facebook page : facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Twitter : @ergsart

 

Blog : www.ergsap.com

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art museum & art gallery Android application, a huge collection of artworks for artists and art-lovers to discover thousands of famous masterpieces at a glance and at your fingertips !

 

Awesome views, details of high resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings from multiple artists with smart features such as search with multiple queries, suggestions for a given artwork, time travel in Art and several related informations.

 

See ErgsArt application in Google Play Store (play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...) or in Amazon Android appstore (www.amazon.com/ErgsArt-Greatest-Artworks-your-fingertips/...).

 

Our facebook page : facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Twitter : @ergsart

 

Blog : www.ergsap.com

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

The Dutch Masters and The Golden Age of Painting

 

Dutch Golden Age painting

from Wikipedia

 

Johannes Vermeer, The Milkmaid (1658–1660)

 

The Meagre Company, an Amsterdam militia group portrait or schutterstuk by Frans Hals and Pieter Codde (1633-37)

 

The Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history generally spanning the 17th century,[1] during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.

 

The new Dutch Republic was the most prosperous nation in Europe, and led European trade, science, and art. The northern Netherlandish provinces that made up the new state had traditionally been less important artistic centres than cities in Flanders in the south, and the upheavals and large-scale transfers of population of the war, and the sharp break with the old monarchist and Catholic cultural traditions, meant that Dutch art needed to reinvent itself entirely, a task in which it was very largely successful.

 

Although Dutch painting of the Golden Age comes in the general European period of Baroque painting, and often shows many of its characteristics, most lacks the idealization and love of splendour typical of much Baroque work, including that of neighbouring Flanders. Most work, including that for which the period is best known, reflects the traditions of detailed realism inherited from Early Netherlandish painting.

 

A distinctive feature of the period is the proliferation of distinct genres of paintings, with the majority of artists producing the bulk of their work within one of these. The full development of this specialization is seen from the late 1620s, and the period from then until the French invasion of 1672 is the core of Golden Age painting.

 

Contents

 

1 Types of painting

2 The art world

3 History painting

4 Portraits

5 Scenes of everyday life

6 Landscapes and cityscapes

7 Maritime painting

8 Still lifes

9 Foreign lands

10 Subsequent reputation

11 See also

12 Notes

13 References

14 Further reading

15 External links

 

Types of painting

Frans Hals' tronie, with the later title Gypsy Girl. 1628–30. Oil on wood, 58 cm × 52 cm (23 in × 20 in). The tronie includes elements of portraiture, genre painting, and sometimes history painting.

 

A distinctive feature of the period, compared to earlier European painting, was the small amount of religious painting. Dutch Calvinism forbade religious painting in churches, and though biblical subjects were acceptable in private homes, relatively few were produced. The other traditional classes of history and portrait painting were present, but the period is more notable for a huge variety of other genres, sub-divided into numerous specialized categories, such as scenes of peasant life, landscapes, townscapes, landscapes with animals, maritime paintings, flower paintings and still lifes of various types. The development of many of these types of painting was decisively influenced by 17th-century Dutch artists.

 

The widely held theory of the "hierarchy of genres" in painting, whereby some types were regarded as more prestigious than others, led many painters to want to produce history painting. However this was the hardest to sell, as even Rembrandt found. Many were forced to produce portraits or genre scenes, which sold much more easily. In descending order of status the categories in the hierarchy were:

 

history painting, including allegories and popular religious subjects.

Portrait painting, including the tronie

genre painting or scenes of everyday life

landscape, including seascapes, battlescenes, cityscapes, and ruins (landscapists were the "common footmen in the Army of Art" according to Samuel van Hoogstraten.[2])

still life

 

Paulus Potter, The Bull (1647); 3.4 metres wide. An unusually monumental animal painting that challenges the hierarchy of genres.

 

The Dutch concentrated heavily on the "lower" categories, but by no means rejected the concept of the hierarchy.[3] Most paintings were relatively small – the only common type of really large paintings were group portraits. Painting directly onto walls hardly existed; when a wall-space in a public building needed decorating fitted framed canvas was normally used. For the extra precision possible on a hard surface many painters continued to use wooden panels, some time after the rest of Western Europe had abandoned them; some used copper plates, usually recycling plates from printmaking. In turn the number of surviving Golden Age paintings was reduced by them being overpainted with new works by artists throughout the 18th and 19th century – poor ones were usually cheaper than a new canvas, stretcher and frame.

 

There was very little Dutch sculpture during the period; it is mostly found in tomb monuments and attached to public buildings, and small sculptures for houses are a noticeable gap, their place taken by silverware and ceramics. Painted delftware tiles were very cheap and common, if rarely of really high quality, but silver, especially in the auricular style, led Europe. With this exception, the best artistic efforts were concentrated on painting and printmaking.

The art world

Dirck Hals, genre scene of Gentlemen Smoking and Playing Backgammon in an Interior. Note the paintings on the wall of what appears to be a tavern; also here.

 

Foreigners remarked on the enormous quantities of art produced, and the large fairs where many paintings were sold – it has been roughly estimated that over 1.3 million Dutch pictures were painted in the 20 years after 1640 alone.[4] The volume of production meant that prices were fairly low, except for the best known artists; as in most subsequent periods there was a steep price gradient for more fashionable artists.[5] Those without a strong contemporary reputation or fallen out of fashion, including many now considered among the greatest of the period, such as Vermeer, Frans Hals and Rembrandt in his last years, had considerable problems earning a living, and died poor; many artists had other jobs, or abandoned art entirely.[6] In particular the French invasion of 1672 (the Rampjaar, or "year of disaster"), brought a severe depression to the art market, which never quite returned to earlier heights.[7]

 

The distribution of pictures was very wide: "yea many tymes, blacksmithes, cobblers etts., will have some picture or other by their Forge and in their stalle. Such is the generall Notion, enclination and delight that these Countrie Native have to Painting" reported an English traveller in 1640.[8] There were for virtually the first time many professional art dealers, several also significant artists, like Vermeer and his father, Jan van Goyen and Willem Kalf. Rembrandt's dealer Hendrick van Uylenburgh and his son Gerrit were among the most important. Landscapes were the easiest uncommissioned works to sell, and their painters were the "common footmen in the Army of Art" according to Samuel van Hoogstraten[9]

The Haarlem Painter's Guild in 1675, by Jan de Bray, whose self-portrait is the second from the left

 

The technical quality of Dutch artists was generally very high, still mostly following the old medieval system of training by apprenticeship with a master. Typically workshops were smaller than in Flanders or Italy, with only one or two apprentices at a time, the number often being restricted by guild regulations. The turmoil of the early years of the Republic, with displaced artists from the South moving north and the loss of traditional markets in the court and church, led to a resurgence of artists guilds, often still called the Guild of Saint Luke. In many cases these involved the artists extricating themselves from medieval groupings where they shared a guild with several other trades, such as housepainting. Several new guilds were established in the period: Amsterdam in 1579, Haarlem in 1590, and Gouda, Rotterdam, Utrecht and Delft between 1609 and 1611.[10] The Leiden authorities distrusted guilds and did not allow one until 1648.[11]

 

Later in the century it began to become clear to all involved that the old idea of a guild controlling both training and sales no long worked well, and gradually the guilds were replaced with academies, often only concerned with the training of artists. The Hague, with the court, was an early example, where artists split into two groups in 1656 with the founding of the Confrerie Pictura. With the obvious exception of portraits, many more Dutch paintings were done "speculatively" without a specific commission than was then the case in other countries – one of many ways in which the Dutch art market showed the future.[12]

 

There were many dynasties of artists, and many married the daughters of their masters or other artists. Many artists came from well-off families, who paid fees for their apprenticeships, and they often married into property. Rembrandt and Jan Steen were both enrolled at the University of Leiden for a while. Several cities had distinct styles and specialities by subject, but Amsterdam was the largest artistic centre, because of its great wealth.[13] Cities such as Haarlem and Utrecht were more important in the first half of the century, with Leiden and other cities emerging after 1648, and above all Amsterdam, which increasingly drew to it artists from the rest of the Netherlands, as well as Flanders and Germany.[14]

Aert de Gelder, Self-portrait as Zeuxis (1685)

 

Dutch artists were strikingly less concerned about artistic theory than those of many nations, and less given to discussing their art; it appears that there was also much less interest in artistic theory in general intellectual circles and among the wider public than was by then common in Italy.[15] As nearly all commissions and sales were private, and between bourgeois individuals whose accounts have not been preserved, these are also less well documented than elsewhere. But Dutch art was a source of national pride, and the major biographers are crucial sources of information. These are Karel van Mander (Het Schilderboeck, 1604), who essentially covers the previous century, and Arnold Houbraken (De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen – "The Great Theatre of Dutch Painters", 1718–21). Both followed, and indeed exceeded, Vasari in including a great number of short lives of artists – over 500 in Houbraken's case – and both are considered generally accurate on factual matters.

 

The German artist Joachim von Sandrart (1606–1688) had worked for periods in Holland, and his Deutsche Akademie in the same format covers many Dutch artists he knew. Houbraken's master, and Rembrandt's pupil, was Samuel van Hoogstraten (1627–1678), whose Zichtbare wereld and Inleyding tot de Hooge Schoole der Schilderkonst (1678) contain more critical than biographical information, and are among the most important treatises on painting of the period. Like other Dutch works on the theory of art, they expound many commonplaces of Renaissance theory and do not entirely reflect contemporary Dutch art, still often concentrating on history painting.[16]

History painting

Jacob van Loo, Danaë (compare Rembrandt's treatment)

 

This category comprises not only paintings that depicted historical events of the past, but also paintings that showed biblical, mythological, literary and allegorical scenes. Recent historical events essentially fell out of the category, and were treated in a realist fashion, as the appropriate combination of portraits with marine, townscape or landscape subjects.[17] Large dramatic historical or Biblical scenes were produced less frequently than in other countries, as there was no local market for church art, and few large aristocratic Baroque houses to fill. More than that, the Protestant population of major cities had been exposed to some remarkably hypocritical uses of Mannerist allegory in unsuccessful Habsburg propaganda during the Dutch Revolt, which had produced a strong reaction towards realism and a distrust of grandiose visual rhetoric.[18] History painting was now a "minority art", although to an extent this was redressed by a relatively keen interest in print versions of history subjects[19]

 

More than in other types of painting, Dutch history painters continued to be influenced by Italian painting. Prints and copies of Italian masterpieces circulated and suggested certain compositional schemes. The growing Dutch skill in the depiction of light was brought to bear on styles derived from Italy, notably that of Caravaggio. Some Dutch painters also travelled to Italy, though this was less common than with their Flemish contemporaries, as can be seen from the membership of the Bentvueghels club in Rome.[12]

Utrecht Caravaggism: Dirck van Baburen, Christ crowned with thorns, 1623, for a convent in Utrecht, not a market available in most of Holland.

 

In the early part of the century many Northern Mannerist artists with styles formed in the previous century continued to work, until the 1630s in the cases of Abraham Bloemaert and Joachim Wtewael.[20] Many history paintings were small in scale, with the German painter (based in Rome) Adam Elsheimer as much an influence as Caravaggio (both died in 1610) on Dutch painters like Pieter Lastman, Rembrandt's master, and Jan and Jacob Pynas. Compared to Baroque history painting from other countries, they shared the Dutch emphasis on realism, and narrative directness, and are sometimes known as the "Pre-Rembrandtists", as Rembrandt's early paintings were in this style.[21]

 

Utrecht Caravaggism describes a group of artists who produced both history painting and generally large genre scenes in an Italian-influenced style, often making heavy use of chiaroscuro. Utrecht, before the revolt the most important city in the new Dutch territory, was an unusual Dutch city, still about 40% Catholic in the mid-century, even more among the elite groups, who included many rural nobility and gentry with town houses there.[22] The leading artists were Hendrick ter Brugghen, Gerard van Honthorst and Dirck van Baburen, and the school was active about 1630, although van Honthorst continued until the 1650s as a successful court painter to the English, Dutch and Danish courts in a more classical style.[23]

 

Rembrandt began as a history painter before finding financial success as a portraitist, and he never relinguished his ambitions in this area. A great number of his etchings are of narrative religious scenes, and the story of his last history commission, The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (1661) illustrates both his commitment to the form and the difficulties he had in finding an audience.[24] Several artists, many his pupils, attempted with some success to continue his very personal style; Govaert Flinck was the most successful. Gerard de Lairesse (1640–1711) was another of these, before falling under heavy influence from French classicism, and becoming its leading Dutch proponent as both artist and theoretician.[25]

 

Nudity was effectively the preserve of the history painter, although many portraitists dressed up their occasional nudes (nearly always female) with a classical title, as Rembrandt did. For all their uninhibited suggestiveness, genre painters rarely revealed more than a generous cleavage or stretch of thigh, usually when painting prostitutes or "Italian" peasants.

Portraits

Bartholomeus van der Helst, Sophia Trip (1645), a member of one of the wealthiest families in Holland.[26]

Frans Hals, Willem Heythuijsen (1634), 47 cm × 37 cm (19 in × 15 in).

Jan Mijtens, family portrait, 1652, with the boys in "picturesque" dress.

 

Portrait painting thrived in the Netherlands in the 17th century, as there was a large mercantile class who were far more ready to commission portraits than their equivalents in other countries; a summary of various estimates of total production arrives at between 750,000 and 1,100,000 portraits.[27] Rembrandt enjoyed his greatest period of financial success as a young Amsterdam portraitist, but like other artists, grew rather bored with painting commissioned portraits of burghers: "artists travel along this road without delight", according to van Mander.[28]

 

While Dutch portrait painting avoids the swagger and excessive rhetoric of the aristocratic Baroque portraiture current in the rest of 17th-century Europe, the sombre clothing of male and in many cases female sitters, and the Calvinist feeling that the inclusion of props, possessions or views of land in the background would show the sin of pride leads to an undeniable sameness in many Dutch portraits, for all their technical quality. Even a standing pose is usually avoided, as a full-length might also show pride. Poses are undemonstrative, especially for women, though children may be allowed more freedom. The classic moment for having a portrait painted was upon marriage, when the new husband and wife more often than not occupied separate frames in a pair of paintings. Rembrandt's later portraits compel by force of characterization, and sometimes a narrative element, but even his early portraits can be dispiriting en masse, as in the roomful of 'starter Rembrandts' donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

 

The other great portraitist of the period is Frans Hals, whose famously lively brushwork and ability to show sitters looking relaxed and cheerful adds excitement to even the most unpromising subjects, though the extremely "nonchalant pose" of the example at left is exceptional: "no other portrait from this period is so informal".[29] The sitter was a wealthy textile merchant who had already commissioned Hals' only individual life-sized full length portrait ten years before. In this much smaller work for a private chamber he wears riding clothes.[30] Jan de Bray encouraged his sitters to pose costumed as figures from classical history, but many of his works are of his own family. Thomas de Keyser, Bartholomeus van der Helst, Ferdinand Bol and others, including many mentioned below as history or genre painters, did their best to enliven more conventional works. Portraiture, less affected by fashion than other types of painting, remained the safe fallback for Dutch artists.

 

From what little we know of the studio procedures of artists, it seems that, as elsewhere in Europe, the face was probably drawn and perhaps painted at an initial sitting or two. The typical number of further sittings is unclear - between zero (for a Rembrandt full-length) and 50 appear documented. The clothes were left at the studio and might well be painted by assistants, or a bought in specialist master, although, or because, they were regarded as a very important part of the painting.[31] Married and never-married women can be distinguished by their dress, highlighting how few single women were painted, except in family groups.[32] As elsewhere, the accuracy of the clothes shown is variable - striped and patterned clothes were worn, but artists rarely show them, understandably avoiding the extra work. Lace and ruff collars were unavoidable, and presented a formidable challenge to painters intent on realism. Rembrandt evolved a more effective way of painting patterned lace, laying in broad white stokes, and then painting lightly in black to show the pattern. Another way of doing this was to paint in white over a black layer, and scratch off the white with the end of the brush to show the pattern.[33]

 

At the end of the century there was a fashion for showing sitters in a semi-fancy dress, begun in England by van Dyck in the 1630s, known as "picturesque" or "Roman" dress.[34] Aristocratic, and militia, sitters allowed themselves more freedom in bright dress and expansive settings than burghers, and religious affiliations probably affected many depictions. By the end of the century aristocratic, or French, values were spreading among the burghers, and depictions were allowed more freedom and display.

 

A distinctive type of painting, combining elements of the portrait, history, and genre painting was the tronie. This was usually a half-length of a single figure which concentrated on capturing an unusual mood or expression. The actual identity of the model was not supposed to be important, but they might represent a historical figure and be in exotic or historic costume. Jan Lievens and Rembrandt, many of whose self-portraits are also tronies (especially his etched ones), were among those who developed the genre.

 

Family portraits tended, as in Flanders, to be set outdoors in gardens, but without an extensive view as later in England, and to be relatively informal in dress and mood. Group portraits, largely a Dutch invention, were popular among the large numbers of civic associations that were a notable part of Dutch life, such as the officers of a city's schutterij or militia guards, boards of trustees and regents of guilds and charitable foundations and the like. Especially in the first half of the century, portraits were very formal and stiff in composition. Groups were often seated around a table, each person looking at the viewer. Much attention was paid to fine details in clothing, and where applicable, to furniture and other signs of a person's position in society. Later in the century groups became livelier and colours brighter. Rembrandt's Syndics of the Drapers' Guild is a subtle treatment of a group round a table.

 

Scientists often posed with instruments and objects of their study around them. Physicians sometimes posed together around a cadaver, a so-called 'Anatomical Lesson', the most famous one being Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632, Mauritshuis, The Hague). Boards of trustees in their regentenstuk portraits preferred an image of austerity and humility, posing in dark clothing (which by its refinement testified to their prominent standing in society), often seated around a table, with solemn expressions on their faces.

Bartholomeus van der Helst, Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster, 1648; 5.47 metres wide

 

Most militia group portraits were commissioned in Haarlem and Amsterdam, and were much more flamboyant and relaxed or even boisterous than other types of portraits, as well as much larger. Early examples showed them dining, but later groups showed most figures standing for a more dynamic composition. Rembrandt's famous The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq better known as the Night Watch (1642), was an ambitious and not entirely successful attempt to show a group in action, setting out for a patrol or parade, also innovative in avoiding the typical very wide format of such works.

 

The cost of group portraits was usually shared by the subjects, often not equally. The amount paid might determine each person's place in the picture, either head to toe in full regalia in the foreground or face only in the back of the group. Sometimes all group members paid an equal sum, which was likely to lead to quarrels when some members gained a more prominent place in the picture than others. In Amsterdam most of these paintings would ultimately end up in the possession of the city council, and many are now on display in the Amsterdams Historisch Museum; there are no significant examples outside the Netherlands.

Scenes of everyday life

A typical Jan Steen picture (c. 1663); while the housewife sleeps, the household play.[35]

 

Genre paintings show scenes that prominently feature figures to whom no specific identity can be attached – they are not portraits or intended as historical figures. Together with landscape painting, the development and enormous popularity of genre painting is the most distinctive feature of Dutch painting in this period, although in this case they were also very popular in Flemish painting. Many are single figures, like the Vermeer Milkmaid above; others may show large groups at some social occasion, or crowds. There were a large number of sub-types within the genre: single figures, peasant families, tavern scenes, "merry company" parties, women at work about the house, scenes of village or town festivities (though these were still more common in Flemish painting), market scenes, barracks scenes, scenes with horses or farm animals, in snow, by moonlight, and many more. In fact most of these had specific terms in Dutch, but there was no overall Dutch term equivalent to "genre painting" – until the late 18th century the English often called them "drolleries".[36] Some artists worked mostly within one of these sub-types, especially after about 1625.[37] Over the course of the century, genre paintings tended to reduce in size.

 

Though genre paintings provide many insights into the daily life of 17th-century citizens of all classes, their accuracy cannot always be taken for granted.[38] Many which seemed only to depict everyday scenes actually illustrated Dutch proverbs and sayings or conveyed a moralistic message – the meaning of which may now need to be deciphered by art historians, though some are clear enough. Many artists, and no doubt purchasers, certainly tried to have things both ways, enjoying the depiction of disorderly households or brothel scenes, while providing a moral interpretation – the works of Jan Steen, whose other profession was as an innkeeper, are an example. The balance between these elements is still debated by art historians today.[39]

Gerrit van Honthorst (1625), punning visually on the lute in this brothel scene.

 

The titles given later to paintings often distinguish between "taverns" or "inns" and "brothels", but in practice these were very often the same establishments, as many taverns had rooms above or behind set aside for sexual purposes: "Inn in front; brothel behind" was a Dutch proverb.[40]

 

The Steen above is very clearly an exemplum, and though each of the individual components of it is realistically depicted, the overall scene is not a plausible depiction of a real moment; typically of genre painting, it is a situation that is depicted, and satirized.[41]

 

The Renaissance tradition of recondite emblem books had, in the hands of the 17th-century Dutch – almost universally literate in the vernacular, but mostly without education in the classics – turned into the popularist and highly moralistic works of Jacob Cats, Roemer Visscher, and others, often based in popular proverbs. The illustrations to these are often quoted directly in paintings, and since the start of the 20th century art historians have attached proverbs, sayings and mottoes to a great number of genre works. Another popular source of meaning is visual puns using the great number of Dutch slang terms in the sexual area: the vagina could be represented by a lute (luit) or stocking (kous), and sex by a bird (vogelen), among many other options,[42] and purely visual symbols such as shoes, spouts, and jugs and flagons on their side.

Adriaen van Ostade, Peasants in an Interior (1661)

 

The same painters often painted works in a very different spirit of housewives or other women at rest in the home or at work – they massively outnumber similar treatments of men. In fact working class men going about their jobs are notably absent from Dutch Golden Age art, with landscapes populated by travellers and idlers but rarely tillers of the soil.[43] Despite the Dutch Republic being the most important nation in international trade in Europe, and the abundance of marine paintings, scenes of dock workers and other commercial activities are very rare.[44] This group of subjects was a Dutch invention, reflecting the cultural preoccupations of the age,[45] and was to be adopted by artists from other countries, especially France, in the two centuries following.

 

The tradition developed from the realism and detailed background activity of Early Netherlandish painting, which Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder were among the first to turn into their principal subjects, also making use of proverbs. The Haarlem painters Willem Pieterszoon Buytewech, Frans Hals and Esaias van de Velde were important painters early in the period. Buytewech painted "merry companies" of finely dressed young people, with moralistic significance lurking in the detail.

Gabriel Metsu, The Hunter's Gift, c. 1660, a study in marital relations, with a visual pun.[46]

 

Van de Velde was also important as a landscapist, whose scenes included unglamorous figures very different from those in his genre paintings, which were typically set at garden parties in country houses. Hals was principally a portraitist, but also painted genre figures of a portrait size early in his career.[47]

 

A stay in Haarlem by the Flemish master of peasant tavern scenes Adriaen Brouwer, from 1625 or 1626 gave Adriaen van Ostade his lifelong subject, though he often took a more sentimental approach. Before Brouwer, peasants had normally been depicted outdoors; he usually shows them in a plain and dim interior, though van Ostade's sometimes occupy ostentatiously decrepit farmhouses of enormous size.[48]

 

Van Ostade was as likely to paint a single figure as a group, as were the Utrecht Caravaggisti in their genre works, and the single figure, or small groups of two or three became increasingly common, especially those including women and children. The most notable woman artist of the period, Judith Leyster (1609–1660), specialized in these, before her husband, Jan Miense Molenaer, prevailed on her to give up painting. The Leiden school of fijnschilder ("fine painters") were renowned for small and highly finished paintings, many of this type. Leading artists included Gerard Dou, Gabriel Metsu, Frans van Mieris the Elder, and later his son Willem van Mieris, Godfried Schalcken, and Adriaen van der Werff.

 

This later generation, whose work now seems over-refined compared to their predecessors, also painted portraits and histories, and were the most highly regarded and rewarded Dutch painters by the end of the period, whose works were sought after all over Europe.[49] Genre paintings reflected the increasing prosperity of Dutch society, and settings grew steadily more comfortable, opulent and carefully depicted as the century progressed. Artists not part of the Leiden group whose common subjects also were more intimate genre groups included Nicolaes Maes, Gerard ter Borch and Pieter de Hooch, whose interest in light in interior scenes was shared with Jan Vermeer, long a very obscure figure, but now the most highly regarded genre painter of all.

 

The mute Hendrick Avercamp painted almost exclusively winter scenes of crowds seen from some distance.

 

Pieter de Hooch, Courtyard of a House in Delft, 1658, a study in domestic virtue, texture and spatial complexity. The woman is a servant.[50]

 

Judith Leyster, A Boy and a Girl with a Cat and an Eel; various references to proverbs or emblems have been suggested.[51]

 

Nicolaes Maes, The idle servant; housemaid troubles were the subject of several of Maes' works.[52]

 

Landscapes and cityscapes

Esaias van de Velde, Winter Landscape (1623)

 

Landscape painting was a major genre in the 17th century. Flemish landscapes (particularly from Antwerp) of the 16th century first served as an example. These had been not particularly realistic, having been painted mostly in the studio, partly from imagination, and often still using the semi-aerial view from above typical of earlier Netherlandish landscape painting in the "world landscape" tradition of Joachim Patinir, Herri met de Bles and Pieter Bruegel the Elder. A more realistic Dutch landscape style developed, seen from ground level, often based on drawings made outdoors, with lower horizons which made it possible to emphasize the often impressive cloud formations that were (and are) so typical in the climate of the region, and which cast a particular light. Favourite subjects were the dunes along the western sea coast, rivers with their broad adjoining meadows where cattle grazed, often with the silhouette of a city in the distance. Winter landscapes with frozen canals and creeks also abounded. The sea was a favourite topic as well since the Low Countries depended on it for trade, battled with it for new land, and battled on it with competing nations.

 

Important early figures in the move to realism were Esaias van de Velde (1587–1630) and Hendrick Avercamp (1585–1634), both also mentioned above as genre painters – in Avercamp's case the same paintings deserve mention in each category. From the late 1620s the "tonal phase" of landscape painting started, as artists softened or blurred their outlines, and concentrated on an atmospheric effect, with great prominence given to the sky, and human figures usually either absent or small and distant. Compositions based on a diagonal across the picture space became popular, and water often featured. The leading artists were Jan van Goyen (1596–1656), Salomon van Ruysdael (1602–1670), Pieter de Molyn (1595–1661), and in marine painting Simon de Vlieger (1601–1653), with a host of minor figures – a recent study lists over 75 artists who worked in van Goyen's manner for at least a period, including Cuyp.[53]

Jacob van Ruisdael, The Windmill at Wijk (1670)

Aelbert Cuyp, River landscape with Riders (c. 1655); Cuyp specialized in golden evening light in Dutch settings.

 

From the 1650s the "classical phase" began, retaining the atmospheric quality, but with more expressive compositions and stronger contrasts of light and colour. Compositions are often anchored by a single "heroic tree", windmill or tower, or ship in marine works.[54] The leading artist was Jacob van Ruisdael (1628–1682), who produced a great quantity and variety of work, using every typical Dutch subject except the Italianate landscape (below); instead he produced "Nordic" landscapes of dark and dramatic mountain pine forests with rushing torrents and waterfalls.[55] His pupil was Meindert Hobbema (1638–1709), best known for his atypical Avenue at Middelharnis (1689, London), a departure from his usual scenes of watermills and roads through woods. Two other artists with more personal styles, whose best work included larger pictures (up to a metre or more across), were Aelbert Cuyp (1620–1691) and Philips Koninck (1619–1688). Cuyp took golden Italian light and used it in evening scenes with a group of figures in the foreground and behind them a river and wide landscape. Koninck's best works are panoramic views, as from a hill, over wide flat farmlands, with a huge sky.

 

A different type of landscape, produced throughout the tonal and classical phases, was the romantic Italianate landscape, typically in more mountainous settings than are found in the Netherlands, with golden light, and sometimes picturesque Mediterranean staffage and ruins. Not all the artists who specialized in these had visited Italy. Jan Both (d. 1652), who had been to Rome and worked with Claude Lorrain, was a leading developer of the subgenre, which influenced the work of many painters of landscapes with Dutch settings, such as Aelbert Cuyp. Other artists who consistently worked in the style were Nicolaes Berchem (1620–1683) and Adam Pijnacker. Italianate landscapes were popular as prints, and more paintings by Berchem were reproduced in engravings during the period itself than those of any other artist.[56]

 

A number of other artists do not fit in any of these groups, above all Rembrandt, whose relatively few painted landscapes show various influences, including some from Hercules Seghers (c. 1589–c. 1638); his very rare large mountain valley landscapes were a very personal development of 16th-century styles.[57] Aert van der Neer (d. 1677) painted very small scenes of rivers at night or under ice and snow.

 

Landscapes with animals in the foreground were a distinct sub-type, and were painted by Cuyp, Paulus Potter (1625–1654), Albert Jansz. Klomp (1625-1688), Adriaen van de Velde (1636–1672) and Karel Dujardin (1626–1678, farm animals), with Philips Wouwerman painting horses and riders in various settings. The cow was a symbol of prosperity to the Dutch, hitherto overlooked in art, and apart from the horse by far the most commonly shown animal; goats were used to indicate Italy. Potter's The Young Bull is an enormous and famous portrait which Napoleon took to Paris (it later returned) though livestock analysts have noted from the depiction of the various parts of the anatomy that it appears to be a composite of studies of six different animals of widely different ages.

Pieter Jansz Saenredam, Assendelft Church, 1649, with the gravestone of his father in the foreground.

 

Architecture also fascinated the Dutch, churches in particular. At the start of the period the main tradition was of fanciful palaces and city views of invented Northern Mannerist architecture, which Flemish painting continued to develop, and in Holland was represented by Dirck van Delen. A greater realism began to appear and the exteriors and interiors of actual buildings were reproduced, though not always faithfully. During the century understanding of the proper rendering of perspective grew and were enthusiastically applied. Several artists specialized in church interiors.

 

Pieter Jansz Saenredam, whose father Jan Saenredam engraved sensuous nude Mannerist goddesses, painted unpeopled views of now whitewashed Gothic city churches. His emphasis on even light and geometry, with little depiction of surface textures, is brought out by comparing his works with those of Emanuel de Witte, who left in the people, uneven floors, contrasts of light and such clutter of church furniture as remained in Calvinist churches, all usually ignored by Saenredam. Gerard Houckgeest, followed by van Witte and Hendrick van Vliet, had supplemented the traditional view along a main axis of the church with diagonal views that added drama and interest.[58] Gerrit Berckheyde specialized in lightly populated views of main city streets, squares, and major public buildings; Jan van der Heyden preferred more intimate scenes of quieter Amsterdam streets, often with trees and canals. These were real views, but he did not hesitate to adjust them for compositional effect.[59]

 

Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem; Ruisdael is a central figure, with more varied subjects than many landscapists.

 

Jan Both, c. 1650, Italian landscape of the type Both began to paint after his return from Rome.

 

Jan van Goyen, Dune landscape; an example of the "tonal" style

 

The Grote Markt and Sint-Bavokerk, Haarlem, 1696, by Gerrit Berckheyde.

 

Maritime painting

Salomon van Ruisdael, typical View of Deventer Seen from the North-West (1657); an example of the "tonal phase".

 

The Dutch Republic relied on trade by sea for its exceptional wealth, had naval wars with Britain and other nations during the period, and was criss-crossed by rivers and canals. It is therefore no surprise that the genre of maritime painting was enormously popular, and taken to new heights in the period by Dutch artists; as with landscapes, the move from the artificial elevated view typical of earlier marine painting was a crucial step.[60] Pictures of sea battles told the stories of a Dutch navy at the peak of its glory, though today it is usually the more tranquil scenes that are highly estimated. Ships are normally at sea, and dock scenes surprisingly absent.[61]

 

More often than not, even small ships fly the Dutch tricolour, and many vessels can be identified as naval or one of the many other government ships. Many pictures included some land, with a beach or harbour viewpoint, or a view across an estuary. Other artists specialized in river scenes, from the small pictures of Salomon van Ruysdael with little boats and reed-banks to the large Italianate landscapes of Aelbert Cuyp, where the sun is usually setting over a wide river. The genre naturally shares much with landscape painting, and in developing the depiction of the sky the two went together; many landscape artists also painted beach and river scenes. Artists included Jan Porcellis, Simon de Vlieger, Jan van de Cappelle, Hendrick Dubbels and Abraham Storck. Willem van de Velde the Elder and his son are the leading masters of the later decades, tending, as at the beginning of the century, to make the ship the subject, whereas in tonal works of earlier decades the emphasis had been on the sea and the weather. They left for London in 1672, leaving the master of heavy seas, the German-born Ludolf Bakhuizen, as the leading artist.[62]

Still lifes

Pieter Claesz, Vanitas (1630)

 

Still lifes were a great opportunity to display skill in painting textures and surfaces in great detail and with realistic light effects. Food of all kinds laid out on a table, silver cutlery, intricate patterns and subtle folds in table cloths and flowers all challenged painters.

 

Several types of subject were recognised: banketje were "banquet pieces", ontbijtjes simpler "breakfast pieces".[63] Virtually all still lifes had a moralistic message, usually concerning the brevity of life – this is known as the vanitas theme – implicit even in the absence of an obvious symbol like a skull, or less obvious one such as a half-peeled lemon (like life, sweet in appearance but bitter to taste).[64] Flowers wilt and food decays, and silver is of no use to the soul. Nevertheless, the force of this message seems less powerful in the more elaborate pieces of the second half of the century.

Abraham van Beyeren (1667); "ostentatious" still life.

 

Initially the objects shown were nearly always mundane. However, from the mid-century pronkstillevens ("ostentatious still lifes"), which depicted expensive and exotic objects and had been developed as a subgenre in the 1640s in Antwerp by Flemish artists such as Frans Snyders and Adriaen van Utrecht, became more popular.[65] The early realist, tonal and classical phases of landscape painting had counterparts in still life painting.[66] Willem Claeszoon Heda (1595–c. 1680) and Willem Kalf (1619–1693) led the change to the pronkstilleven, while Pieter Claesz (d. 1660) preferred to paint simpler "ontbijt" ("breakfast pieces"), or explicit vanitas pieces.

 

In all these painters, colours are often very muted, with browns dominating, especially in the middle of the century. This is less true of the works of Jan Davidszoon de Heem (1606–1684), an important figure who spent much of his career based over the border in Antwerp. Here his displays began to sprawl sideways to form wide oblong pictures, unusual in the north, although Heda sometimes painted taller vertical compositions. Still life painters were especially prone to form dynasties, it seems: there were many de Heems and Bosschaerts, Heda's son continued in his father's style, and Claesz was the father of Nicholaes Berchem.

 

Flower paintings formed a sub-group with its own specialists, and were occasionally the speciality of the few women artists, such as Maria van Oosterwyck and Rachel Ruysch.[67] The Dutch also led the world in botanical and other scientific drawings, prints and book illustrations. Despite the intense realism of individual flowers, paintings were composed from individual studies or even book illustrations, and blooms from very different seasons were routinely included in the same composition, and the same flowers reappear in different works, just as pieces of tableware do. There was also a fundamental unreality in that bouquets of flowers in vases were not in fact at all common in houses at the time – even the very rich displayed flowers one by one in delftware tulip-holders.[68]

Jacob Gillig, Freshwater Fish (1684)

 

The Dutch tradition was largely begun by Ambrosius Bosschaert (1573–1621), a Flemish-born flower painter who had settled in the north by the beginning of the period, and founded a dynasty. His brother-in-law Balthasar van der Ast (d. 1657) pioneered still lifes of shells, as well as painting flowers. These early works were relatively brightly lit, with the bouquets of flowers arranged in a relatively simple way. From the mid-century arrangements that can fairly be called Baroque, usually against a dark background, became more popular, exemplified by the works of Willem van Aelst (1627–1683). Painters from Leiden, The Hague, and Amsterdam particularly excelled in the genre.

 

Dead game, and birds painted live but studied from the dead, were another subgenre, as were dead fish, a staple of the Dutch diet – Abraham van Beijeren did many of these.[69] The Dutch were less given to the Flemish style of combining large still life elements with other types of painting – they would have been considered prideful in portraits – and the Flemish habit of specialist painters collaborating on the different elements in the same work. But this sometimes did happen – Philips Wouwerman was occasionally used to add men and horses to turn a landscape into a hunting or skirmish scene, Berchem or Adriaen van de Velde to add people or farm animals.

 

Willem van Aelst, Still life with a watch (c. 1665), with typical dark background.

 

Willem Claeszoon Heda, Breakfast Table with Blackberry Pie (1631); Heda was famous for his depiction of reflective surfaces.

 

Jan Davidszoon de Heem, Vanitas (1629)

 

Jan Weenix, Still Life with a Dead Peacock (1692), set in the gardens of a large country house.

 

Foreign lands

Frans Post, scene in Dutch Brazil; painted in 1662, some years after the colony was lost.

 

Karel van Mander's Schilderboeck was meant not only as a list of biographies, but also a source of advice for young artists. It quickly became a classic standard work for generations of young Dutch and Flemish artists in the 17th century. The book advised artists to travel and see the sights of Florence and Rome, and after 1604 many did so. However, it is noticeable that the most important Dutch artists in all fields, figures such as Rembrandt, Vermeer, Hals, Steen, Jacob van Ruisdael, and others, had not made the voyage.[12]

 

Many Dutch (and Flemish) painters worked abroad or exported their work; printmaking was also an important export market, by which Rembrandt became known across Europe. The Dutch Gift to Charles II of England was a diplomatic gift which included four contemporary Dutch paintings. English painting was heavily reliant on Dutch painters, with Sir Peter Lely followed by Sir Godfrey Kneller, developing the English portrait style established by the Flemish Anthony van Dyck before the English Civil War. The marine painters van der Velde, father and son, were among several artists who left Holland at the French invasion of 1672, which brought a collapse in the art market. They also moved to London, and the beginnings of English landscape painting were established by several less distinguished Dutch painters, such as Hendrick Danckerts.

 

The Bamboccianti were a colony of Dutch artists who introduced the genre scene to Italy. Jan Weenix and Melchior d'Hondecoeter specialized in game and birds, dead or alive, and were in demand for country house and shooting-lodge overdoors across Northern Europe. Frans Post, a landscapist, and Albert Eckhout, a still life painter who also turned his hand to native figures, were sent to the brief-lived Dutch Brazil; the far more economically significant Dutch East Indies were covered much less well artistically.

Subsequent reputation

Philips Wouwerman, Travelers Awaiting a Ferry (1649); a landscape with Wouwerman's trademark highlight of a white horse.

 

The enormous success of 17th-century Dutch painting overpowered the work of subsequent generations, and no Dutch painter of the 18th century—nor, arguably, a 19th-century one before Van Gogh—is well known outside the Netherlands. Already by the end of the period artists were complaining that buyers were more interested in dead than living artists.

 

If only because of the enormous quantities produced, Dutch Golden Age painting has always formed a significant part of collections of Old Master paintings, itself a term invented in the 18th century to describe Dutch Golden Age artists. Taking only Wouwerman paintings in old royal collections, there are more than 60 in Dresden and over 50 in the Hermitage.[70] But the reputation of the period has shown many changes and shifts of emphasis. One nearly constant factor has been admiration for Rembrandt, especially since the Romantic period. Other artists have shown drastic shifts in critical fortune and market price; at the end of the period some of the active Leiden fijnschilders had enormous reputations, but since the mid-19th century realist works in various genres have been far more appreciated.[71]

 

Vermeer was rescued from near-total obscurity in the 19th century, by which time several of his works had been re-attributed to others. However the fact that so many of his works were already in major collections, often attributed to other artists, demonstrates that the quality of individual paintings was recognised even if his collective oeuvre was unknown.[72] Other artists have continued to be rescued from the mass of little known painters: the late and very simple still lifes of Adriaen Coorte in the 1950s,[73] and the landscapists Jacobus Mancaden and Frans Post earlier in the century.[74]

Gerard ter Borch, Paternal Admonition, or Brothel Scene (c. 1654; Amsterdam version).

 

Genre paintings were long popular, but little-regarded. In 1780 Horace Walpole disapproved that they "invite laughter to divert itself with the nastiest indelicacy of boors".[75] Sir Joshua Reynolds, the English leader of 18th-century academic art, made several revealing comments on Dutch art. He was impressed by the quality of Vermeer's Milkmaid (illustrated at the start of this article), and the liveliness of Hals' portraits, regretting he lacked the "patience" to finish them properly, and lamented that Steen had not been born in Italy and formed by the High Renaissance, so that his talent could have been put to better use.[76] By Reynold's time the moralist aspect of genre painting was no longer understood, even in the Netherlands; the famous example is the so-called Paternal Admonition, as it was then known, by Gerard ter Borch. This was praised by Goethe and others for the delicacy of its depiction of a father reprimanding his daughter. In fact to most (but not all) modern scholars it is a proposition scene in a brothel – there are two versions (Berlin & Amsterdam) and it is unclear whether a "tell-tale coin" in the man's hand has been removed or overpainted in either.[77]

 

In the second half of the 18th century, the down to earth realism of Dutch painting was a "Whig taste" in England, and in France associated with Enlightenment rationalism and aspirations for political reform.[78] In the 19th century, with a near-universal respect for realism, and the final decline of the hierarchy of genres, contemporary painters began to borrow from genre painters both their realism and their use of objects for narrative purposes, and paint similar subjects themselves, with all the genres the Dutch had pioneered appearing on far larger canvases (still lifes excepted).

 

In landscape painting, the Italianate artists were the most influential and highly regarded in the 18th century, but John Constable was among those Romantics who denounced them for artificiality, preferring the tonal and classical artists.[56] In fact both groups remained influential and popular in the 19th century.

See also

 

Art of the Low Countries

 

Notes

 

In general histories 1702 is sometimes taken as the end if the Golden Age, a date which works reasonably well for painting. Slive, who avoids the term (see p. 296), divides his book into two parts: 1600–1675 (294 pages) and 1675–1800 (32 pages).

Fuchs, 104

Franits, 2-3

Lloyd, 15, citing Jonathan Israel. Perhaps only 1% survive today, and "only about 10% of these were of real quality".

Franits, 2

Jan Steen was an innkeeper, Aelbert Cuyp was one of many whose wealthy wives persuaded them to give up painting, although Karel Dujardin seems to have run away from his to continue his work. Conversely Jan van de Cappelle came from a very wealthy family, and Joachim Wtewael was a self-made flax tycoon. See their biographies in MacLaren. The fish artist Jacob Gillig also worked as a warder in the Utrecht prison, conveniently close to the fish market.[1]. Bankrupts included: Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Jan de Bray, and many others.

Franits, 217 and ff. on 1672 and its effects.

Fuchs, 43; Franits, 2 calls this "oft-quoted" remark "undoubtedly exaggerated".

Fuchs, 104

Prak (2008), 151-153, or Prak (2003), 241

Prak (2008), 153

Fuchs, 43

Franits' book is largely organized by city and by period; Slive by subject categories

Franits throughout, summarized on p. 260

Fuchs, 76

See Slive, 296-7 and elsewhere

Fuchs, 107

Fuchs, 62, R.H. Wilenski, Dutch Painting, "Prologue" pp. 27–43, 1945, Faber, London

Fuchs, 62-3

Slive, 13-14

Fuchs, 62-69

Franits, 65. Catholic 17th-century Dutch artists included Abraham Bloemaert and Gerard van Honthorst from Utrecht, and Jan Steen, Paulus Bor, Jacob van Velsen, plus Vermeer who probably converted at his marriage.[2] Jacob Jordaens was among Flemish Protestant artists.

Slive, 22-4

Fuchs, 69-77

Fuchs, 77-78

Trip family tree. Her grandparents' various portraits by Rembrandt are famous.

Ekkart, 17 n.1 (on p. 228).

Shawe-Taylor, 22-23, 32-33 on portraits, quotation from 33

Ekkart, 118

Ekkart, 130 and 114.

Ekkart (Marike de Winkel essay), 68-69

Ekkart (Marike de Winkel essay), 66-68

Ekkart (Marike de Winkel essay), 69-71

Ekkart (Marike de Winkel essay), 72-73

Another version at Apsley House, with a different composition, but using most of the same moralizing objects, is analysed by Franits, 206-9

Fuchs, 42 and Slive, 123

Slive, 123

Franits, 1, mentioning costume in works by the Utrecht Caravagggisti, and architectural settings, as especially prone to abandon accurate depiction.

Franits, 4-6 summarizes the debate, for which Svetlana Alpers' The Art of Describing (1983) is an important work (though see Slive's terse comment on p. 344). See also Franits, 20-21 on paintings being understood differently by contemporary individuals, and his p.24

On Diderot's Art Criticism. Mira Friedman.p. 36 Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.

Fuchs, 39-42, analyses two comparable scenes by Steen and Dou, and p. 46.

Fuchs, pp 54, 44, 45.

Slive, 191

Slive, 1

Explored at length by Schama in his Chapter 6. See also the analysis of The Milkmaid (Vermeer), claimed by different art historians for each tradition.

Franits, 180-182, though he strangely seems to discount the possibility that the couple are married. Married or not, the hunter clearly hopes for a return from his gift of (punning) birds, though the open shoe and gun on the floor, pointing in different directions, suggest he may be disappointed. Metsu used opposed dogs several times, and may have invented the motif, which was copied by Victorian artists. A statue of Cupid presides over the scene.

Franits, 24-27

Franits, 34-43. Presumably these are intended to imply houses abandoned by Catholic gentry who had fled south in the Eighty Years' War. His self-portrait shows him, equally implausibly, working in just such a setting.

Fuchs, 80

Franits, 164-6.

MacLaren, 227

Franits, 152-6. Schama, 455-460 discusses the general preoccupation with maidservants, "the most dangerous women of all" (p. 455). See also Franits, 118-119 and 166 on servants.

Slive, 189 – the study is by H.-U. Beck (1991)

Slive, 190 (quote), 195-202

Derived from works by Allart van Everdingen who, unlike Ruysdael, had visited Norway, in 1644. Slive, 203

Slive, 225

Rembrandt owned seven Seghers; after a recent fire only 11 are now thought to survive – how many of Rembrandt's remain is unclear.

Slive, 268-273

Slive, 273-6

Slive, 213-216

Franits, 1

Slive, 213-224

MacLaren, 79

Slive, 279-281. Fuchs, 109

Pronkstilleven in: Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms

Fuchs, 113-6

and only a few others, see Slive, 128, 320-321 and index, and Schama, 414. The outstanding woman artist of the age was Judith Leyster. Other female artists are described here [3]

Fuchs, 111-112. Slive, 279-281, also covering unseasonal and recurring blooms.

Slive, 287-291

Slive, 212

See Reitlinger, 11-15, 23-4, and passim, and listings for individual artists

See Reitlinger, 483-4, and passim

Slive, 319

Slive, 191-2

"Advertisement" or Preface to Vol. 4 of the 2nd edition of Anecdotes of Painting in England, based on George Vertue's notebooks, page ix, 1782, J. Dodwell, London, google books

Slive, 144 (Vermeer), 41-2 (Hals), 173 (Steen)

Slive, 158-160 (coin quote), and Fuchs, 147-8, who uses the title Brothel Scene. Franits, 146-7, citing Alison Kettering, says there is "deliberate vagueness" as to the subject, and still uses the title Paternal Admonition.

 

Reitlinger, I, 11-15. Quote p.13

 

References

History of Dutch and Flemish painting

Early Netherlandish (1400–1523)

Renaissance painting (1520–1580)

Northern Mannerism (1580–1615)

Dutch "Golden Age" painting (1615–1702)

Flemish Baroque painting (1608–1700)

List of Dutch painters

List of Flemish painters

 

For more details and many more painters see Dutch Golden Age, List Of People – Painters and List of Dutch painters. MacLaren is the main source for biographical details.

 

"Ekkart": Rudi Ekkart and Quentin Buvelot (eds), Dutch Portraits, The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals, Mauritshuis/National Gallery/Waanders Publishers, Zwolle, 2007, ISBN 978-1-85709-362-9

Franits, Wayne, Dutch Seventeenth-Century Genre Painting, Yale UP, 2004, ISBN 0-300-10237-2

Fuchs, RH, Dutch painting, Thames and Hudson, London, 1978, ISBN 0-500-20167-6

Ingamells, John, The Wallace Collection, Catalogue of Pictures, Vol IV, Dutch and Flemish, Wallace Collection, 1992, ISBN 0-900785-37-3

Lloyd, Christopher, Enchanting the Eye, Dutch Paintings of the Golden Age, Royal Collection Publications, 2004, ISBN 1-902163-90-7

MacLaren, Neil, The Dutch School, 1600–1800, Volume I, 1991, National Gallery Catalogues, National Gallery, London, ISBN 0-947645-99-3

Prak, Maarten, (2003) "Guilds and the Development of the Art Market during the Dutch Golden Age." In: Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, vol. 30, no. 3/4. (2003), pp. 236–251. Expanded version is Prak (2008)

Prak, Maarten, (2008), Painters, Guilds and the Art Market during the Dutch Golden Age, in Epstein, Stephen R. and Prak, Maarten (eds), Guilds, innovation, and the European economy, 1400–1800, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-521-88717-8, ISBN 978-0-521-88717-5

Reitlinger, Gerald; The Economics of Taste, Vol I: The Rise and Fall of Picture Prices 1760–1960, Barrie and Rockliffe, London, 1961

Schama, Simon, The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age, 1987

Shawe-Taylor, Desmond and Scott, Jennifer, Bruegel to Rubens, Masters of Flemish Painting, Royal Collection Publications, London, 2008, ISBN 978-1-905686-00-1

Slive, Seymour, Dutch Painting, 1600–1800, Yale UP, 1995, ISBN 0-300-07451-4

 

Further reading

 

Alpers, Svetlana. The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983, (review by Ernst Gombrich)

Dutch and Flemish paintings from the Hermitage. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1988. ISBN 978-0-87099-509-5.

Liedtke, Walter A. (2001). Vermeer and the Delft School. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-87099-973-4.

Alois Riegl, The Group Portraiture of Holland, reprint 2000, Getty Publications, ISBN 089236548X, 9780892365487, first published in German in 1902, fully available online

 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dutch Golden Age paintings.

 

A Brief Overview of the Dutch Art Market in the 17th century

The Dutch Golden Age – A New Breakthrough for Dutch Art after the Renaissance

 

Francesco Bassano (1549-1592), active in Bassano and Venice

Autumn, around 1576

For the representation of the autumn, following the ancient tradition of calendar illustation, the vintage forms the main motif. As in the other pictures of this series of seasons, a scene from the Old Testament is represented in the background: the handing over of the tablet of the Law to Moses. Francesco Bassano uses a simple composition scheme: in front of a landscape background the activities of the people, pets and equipment are reproduced with a vividly narrative realism.

 

Francesco Bassano (1549-1592), tätig in Bassano und Venedig

Herbst, um 1576

Für die Darstellung des Herbstes bildet, der alten Tradition der Kalenderillustration folgend, die Weinlese das Hauptmotiv. Wie bei den übrigen Bildern dieser Jahreszeitenserie ist im Hintergrund eine Szene aus dem Alten Testament dargestellt: die Übergabe der Gesetzestafeln an Moses. Francesco Bassano bedient sich eines simplen Kompositionsschemas: Vor einem Landschaftshintergrund sind friesartig aufgereiht die Tätigkeiten der Menschen, Haustiere und verwendete Gerätschaften mit anschaulich erzählendem Realismus wiedergegeben.

 

Austria Kunsthistorisches Museum

Federal Museum

Logo KHM

Regulatory authority (ies)/organs to the Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture

Founded 17 October 1891

Headquartered Castle Ring (Burgring), Vienna 1, Austria

Management Sabine Haag

www.khm.at website

Main building of the Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresa-Square

The Kunsthistorisches Museum (KHM abbreviated) is an art museum in Vienna. It is one of the largest and most important museums in the world. It was opened in 1891 and 2012 visited of 1.351.940 million people.

The museum

The Kunsthistorisches Museum is with its opposite sister building, the Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), the most important historicist large buildings of the Ringstrasse time. Together they stand around the Maria Theresa square, on which also the Maria Theresa monument stands. This course spans the former glacis between today's ring road and 2-line, and is forming a historical landmark that also belongs to World Heritage Site Historic Centre of Vienna.

History

Archduke Leopold Wilhelm in his Gallery

The Museum came from the collections of the Habsburgs, especially from the portrait and armor collections of Ferdinand of Tyrol, the collection of Emperor Rudolf II (most of which, however scattered) and the art collection of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm into existence. Already In 1833 asked Joseph Arneth, curator (and later director) of the Imperial Coins and Antiquities Cabinet, bringing together all the imperial collections in a single building .

Architectural History

The contract to build the museum in the city had been given in 1858 by Emperor Franz Joseph. Subsequently, many designs were submitted for the ring road zone. Plans by August Sicard von Sicardsburg and Eduard van der Null planned to build two museum buildings in the immediate aftermath of the Imperial Palace on the left and right of the Heroes' Square (Heldenplatz). The architect Ludwig Förster planned museum buildings between the Schwarzenberg Square and the City Park, Martin Ritter von Kink favored buildings at the corner Währingerstraße/ Scots ring (Schottenring), Peter Joseph, the area Bellariastraße, Moritz von Loehr the south side of the opera ring, and Ludwig Zettl the southeast side of the grain market (Getreidemarkt).

From 1867, a competition was announced for the museums, and thereby set their current position - at the request of the Emperor, the museum should not be too close to the Imperial Palace, but arise beyond the ring road. The architect Carl von Hasenauer participated in this competition and was able the at that time in Zürich operating Gottfried Semper to encourage to work together. The two museum buildings should be built here in the sense of the style of the Italian Renaissance. The plans got the benevolence of the imperial family. In April 1869, there was an audience with of Joseph Semper at the Emperor Franz Joseph and an oral contract was concluded, in July 1870 was issued the written order to Semper and Hasenauer.

Crucial for the success of Semper and Hasenauer against the projects of other architects were among others Semper's vision of a large building complex called "Imperial Forum", in which the museums would have been a part of. Not least by the death of Semper in 1879 came the Imperial Forum not as planned for execution, the two museums were built, however.

Construction of the two museums began without ceremony on 27 November 1871 instead. Semper moved to Vienna in the sequence. From the beginning, there were considerable personal differences between him and Hasenauer, who finally in 1877 took over sole construction management. 1874, the scaffolds were placed up to the attic and the first floor completed, built in 1878, the first windows installed in 1879, the Attica and the balustrade from 1880 to 1881 and built the dome and the Tabernacle. The dome is topped with a bronze statue of Pallas Athena by Johannes Benk.

The lighting and air conditioning concept with double glazing of the ceilings made ​​the renunciation of artificial light (especially at that time, as gas light) possible, but this resulted due to seasonal variations depending on daylight to different opening times .

Kuppelhalle

Entrance (by clicking the link at the end of the side you can see all the pictures here indicated!)

Grand staircase

Hall

Empire

The Kunsthistorisches Museum was on 17 October 1891 officially opened by Emperor Franz Joseph I. Since 22 October 1891 , the museum is accessible to the public. Two years earlier, on 3 November 1889, the collection of arms, Arms and Armour today, had their doors open. On 1 January 1890 the library service resumed its operations. The merger and listing of other collections of the Highest Imperial Family from the Upper and Lower Belvedere, the Hofburg Palace and Ambras in Tyrol will need another two years.

189, the farm museum was organized in seven collections with three directorates:

Directorate of coins, medals and antiquities collection

The Egyptian Collection

The Antique Collection

The coins and medals collection

Management of the collection of weapons, art and industrial objects

Weapons collection

Collection of industrial art objects

Directorate of Art Gallery and Restaurieranstalt (Restoration Office)

Collection of watercolors, drawings, sketches, etc.

Restoration Office

Library

Very soon the room the Court Museum (Hofmuseum) for the imperial collections was offering became too narrow. To provide temporary help, an exhibition of ancient artifacts from Ephesus in the Theseus Temple was designed. However, additional space had to be rented in the Lower Belvedere.

1914, after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne, his " Estonian Forensic Collection " passed to the administration of the Court Museum. This collection, which emerged from the art collection of the house of d' Este and world travel collection of Franz Ferdinand, was placed in the New Imperial Palace since 1908. For these stocks, the present collection of old musical instruments and the Museum of Ethnology emerged.

The First World War went by, apart from the oppressive economic situation without loss. The farm museum remained during the five years of war regularly open to the public.

Until 1919 the K.K. Art Historical Court Museum was under the authority of the Oberstkämmereramt (head chamberlain office) and belonged to the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. The officials and employees were part of the royal household.

First Republic

The transition from monarchy to republic, in the museum took place in complete tranquility. On 19 November 1918 the two imperial museums on Maria Theresa Square were placed under the state protection of the young Republic of German Austria. Threatening to the stocks of the museum were the claims raised in the following weeks and months of the "successor states" of the monarchy as well as Italy and Belgium on Austrian art collection. In fact, it came on 12th February 1919 to the violent removal of 62 paintings by armed Italian units. This "art theft" left a long time trauma among curators and art historians.

It was not until the Treaty of Saint-Germain of 10 September 1919, providing in Article 195 and 196 the settlement of rights in the cultural field by negotiations. The claims of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, and Italy again could mostly being averted in this way. Only Hungary, which presented the greatest demands by far, was met by more than ten years of negotiation in 147 cases.

On 3 April 1919 was the expropriation of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine by law and the acquisition of its property, including the "Collections of the Imperial House" , by the Republic. Of 18 June 1920 the then provisional administration of the former imperial museums and collections of Este and the secular and clergy treasury passed to the State Office of Internal Affairs and Education, since 10 November 1920, the Federal Ministry of the Interior and Education. A few days later it was renamed the Art History Court Museum in the "Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna State", 1921 "Kunsthistorisches Museum" . Of 1st January 1921 the employees of the museum staff passed to the state of the Republic.

Through the acquisition of the former imperial collections owned by the state, the museum found itself in a complete new situation. In order to meet the changed circumstances in the museum area, designed Hans Tietze in 1919 the "Vienna Museum program". It provided a close cooperation between the individual museums to focus at different houses on main collections. So dominated exchange, sales and equalizing the acquisition policy in the interwar period. Thus resulting until today still valid collection trends. Also pointing the way was the relocation of the weapons collection from 1934 in its present premises in the New Castle, where since 1916 the collection of ancient musical instruments was placed.

With the change of the imperial collections in the ownership of the Republic the reorganization of the internal organization went hand in hand, too. Thus the museum was divided in 1919 into the

Egyptian and Near Eastern Collection (with the Oriental coins)

Collection of Classical Antiquities

Collection of ancient coins

Collection of modern coins and medals

Weapons collection

Collection of sculptures and crafts with the Collection of Ancient Musical Instruments

Picture Gallery

The Museum 1938-1945

Count Philipp Ludwig Wenzel Sinzendorf according to Rigaud. Clarisse 1948 by Baroness de Rothschildt "dedicated" to the memory of Baron Alphonse de Rothschildt; restituted to the Rothschilds in 1999, and in 1999 donated by Bettina Looram Rothschild, the last Austrian heiress.

With the "Anschluss" of Austria to the German Reich all Jewish art collections such as the Rothschilds were forcibly "Aryanised". Collections were either "paid" or simply distributed by the Gestapo at the museums. This resulted in a significant increase in stocks. But the KHM was not the only museum that benefited from the linearization. Systematically looted Jewish property was sold to museums, collections or in pawnshops throughout the empire.

After the war, the museum struggled to reimburse the "Aryanised" art to the owners or their heirs. They forced the Rothschild family to leave the most important part of their own collection to the museum and called this "dedications", or "donations". As a reason, was the export law stated, which does not allow owners to perform certain works of art out of the country. Similar methods were used with other former owners. Only on the basis of international diplomatic and media pressure, to a large extent from the United States, the Austrian government decided to make a change in the law (Art Restitution Act of 1998, the so-called Lex Rothschild). The art objects were the Rothschild family refunded only in the 1990s.

The Kunsthistorisches Museum operates on the basis of the federal law on the restitution of art objects from the 4th December 1998 (Federal Law Gazette I, 181 /1998) extensive provenance research. Even before this decree was carried out in-house provenance research at the initiative of the then archive director Herbert Haupt. This was submitted in 1998 by him in collaboration with Lydia Grobl a comprehensive presentation of the facts about the changes in the inventory levels of the Kunsthistorisches Museum during the Nazi era and in the years leading up to the State Treaty of 1955, an important basis for further research provenance.

The two historians Susanne Hehenberger and Monika Löscher are since 1st April 2009 as provenance researchers at the Kunsthistorisches Museum on behalf of the Commission for Provenance Research operating and they deal with the investigation period from 1933 to the recent past.

The museum today

Today the museum is as a federal museum, with 1st January 1999 released to the full legal capacity - it was thus the first of the state museums of Austria, implementing the far-reaching self-financing. It is by far the most visited museum in Austria with 1.3 million visitors (2007).

The Kunsthistorisches Museum is under the name Kunsthistorisches Museum and Museum of Ethnology and the Austrian Theatre Museum with company number 182081t since 11 June 1999 as a research institution under public law of the Federal virtue of the Federal Museums Act, Federal Law Gazette I/115/1998 and the Museum of Procedure of the Kunsthistorisches Museum and Museum of Ethnology and the Austrian Theatre Museum, 3 January 2001, BGBl II 2/ 2001, in force since 1 January 2001, registered.

In fiscal 2008, the turnover was 37.185 million EUR and total assets amounted to EUR 22.204 million. In 2008 an average of 410 workers were employed.

Management

1919-1923: Gustav Glück as the first chairman of the College of science officials

1924-1933: Hermann Julius Hermann 1924-1925 as the first chairman of the College of the scientific officers in 1925 as first director

1933: Arpad Weixlgärtner first director

1934-1938: Alfred Stix first director

1938-1945: Fritz Dworschak 1938 as acting head, from 1938 as a chief in 1941 as first director

1945-1949: August von Loehr 1945-1948 as executive director of the State Art Collections in 1949 as general director of the historical collections of the Federation

1945-1949: Alfred Stix 1945-1948 as executive director of the State Art Collections in 1949 as general director of art historical collections of the Federation

1949-1950: Hans Demel as administrative director

1950: Karl Wisoko-Meytsky as general director of art and historical collections of the Federation

1951-1952: Fritz Eichler as administrative director

1953-1954: Ernst H. Buschbeck as administrative director

1955-1966: Vincent Oberhammer 1955-1959 as administrative director, from 1959 as first director

1967: Edward Holzmair as managing director

1968-1972: Erwin Auer first director

1973-1981: Friderike Klauner first director

1982-1990: Hermann Fillitz first director

1990: George Kugler as interim first director

1990-2008: Wilfried Seipel as general director

Since 2009: Sabine Haag as general director

Collections

To the Kunsthistorisches Museum are also belonging the collections of the New Castle, the Austrian Theatre Museum in Palais Lobkowitz, the Museum of Ethnology and the Wagenburg (wagon fortress) in an outbuilding of Schönbrunn Palace. A branch office is also Ambras in Innsbruck.

Kunsthistorisches Museum (main building)

Picture Gallery

Egyptian and Near Eastern Collection

Collection of Classical Antiquities

Vienna Chamber of Art

Numismatic Collection

Library

New Castle

Ephesus Museum

Collection of Ancient Musical Instruments

Arms and Armour

Archive

Hofburg

The imperial crown in the Treasury

Imperial Treasury of Vienna

Insignia of the Austrian Hereditary Homage

Insignia of imperial Austria

Insignia of the Holy Roman Empire

Burgundian Inheritance and the Order of the Golden Fleece

Habsburg-Lorraine Household Treasure

Ecclesiastical Treasury

Schönbrunn Palace

Imperial Carriage Museum Vienna

Armory in Ambras Castle

Ambras Castle

Collections of Ambras Castle

Major exhibits

Among the most important exhibits of the Art Gallery rank inter alia:

Jan van Eyck: Cardinal Niccolò Albergati, 1438

Martin Schongauer: Holy Family, 1475-80

Albrecht Dürer : Trinity Altar, 1509-16

Portrait Johann Kleeberger, 1526

Parmigianino: Self Portrait in Convex Mirror, 1523/24

Giuseppe Arcimboldo: Summer 1563

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio: Madonna of the Rosary 1606/ 07

Caravaggio: Madonna of the Rosary (1606-1607)

Titian: Nymph and Shepherd to 1570-75

Portrait of Jacopo de Strada, 1567/68

Raffaello Santi: Madonna of the Meadow, 1505 /06

Lorenzo Lotto: Portrait of a young man against white curtain, 1508

Peter Paul Rubens: The altar of St. Ildefonso, 1630-32

The Little Fur, about 1638

Jan Vermeer: The Art of Painting, 1665/66

Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Fight between Carnival and Lent, 1559

Kids, 1560

Tower of Babel, 1563

Christ Carrying the Cross, 1564

Gloomy Day (Early Spring), 1565

Return of the Herd (Autumn), 1565

Hunters in the Snow (Winter) 1565

Bauer and bird thief, 1568

Peasant Wedding, 1568/69

Peasant Dance, 1568/69

Paul's conversion (Conversion of St Paul), 1567

Cabinet of Curiosities:

Saliera from Benvenuto Cellini 1539-1543

Egyptian-Oriental Collection:

Mastaba of Ka Ni Nisut

Collection of Classical Antiquities:

Gemma Augustea

Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós

Gallery: Major exhibits

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunsthistorisches_Museum

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♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Gallery ErgsArt" application by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Gallery ErgsArt" mobile application by ErgSap on www.ergsart.com

 

♥ Follow us on twitter: www.twitter.com/ergsart

♥ Facebook: www.facebook.com/ErgsArt and

♥ Mobile Play Store :https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&hl=en

  

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Gallery ErgsArt » and reach thousands of art-lovers !

 

Art Gallery ErgsArt is a fine art studio, art museum for artists with great collections of world famous paintings from famous artists like Rembrandt and a modern art exhibition from living artists!

 

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art platform, a timeline in Art history and modern art & culture. Discover artworks, contemporary art and abstract paintings of modern artists in this art gallery and live exhibition.

  

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

  

Pick 60 000 paintings pictures, sculptures, drawings, sketches from 600 famous artists of all time from italian and northen renaissance, baroque, impressionism and realism, romanticism, japanese or chinese art, 18th or 19th important art movements.

 

Among them you will learn from the art gallery of Donatello, Botticelli with The Birth of Venus, Leonardo da Vinci with the famous painting Mona Lisa (Joconde), Michelangelo and Sistine chapel ceiling or its David statue; Raphael and its madonnas, the Titian, Albrecht Durer, El Greco, Caravaggio, Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt or Goya arts.

 

Discover artworks by impressionist painters Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet, Degas, Cezanne, Claude Monet, Renoir, or other masters like Gustave Courbet, Egon Shiele, Modigliani, Rousseau, Mary Cassat, Gauguin, Klimt, Toulouse-lautrec, Seurat, Van Gogh and many other artists, all in a single place.

 

Some advantages of our art gallery ErgsArt :

 

ART MUSEUM

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 world famous paintings from 600 famous artists, watercolor paintings, flowers, landscapes, marines, portraits, self-portraits

 

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Art history and timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen widgets

 

FUN & ART GAME : test and improve your knowledge

■ Art finder game : chase paintings and artists

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Intelligent search of masterpieces by title, artist, location, canvas types, date, art movement, art period

■ Voice recognition

■ Popular paintings in real-time, monthly, weekly or daily artworks

 

SOCIAL

■ Share several paintings in attachment with friends

 

OFFLINE : available once downloaded, no need data connection

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries and paintings for offline use

■ Download all public domain archives

  

Artists and art-lovers, have a great time travel in art history within galleries of famous paintings with ErgsArt !

  

Visit us at www.ergsart.com and get our mobile app at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Studio" by ErgSap on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Studio » and reach thousands of art-lovers !!

  

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

See some great open Art projects :

www.wikiart.org

www.google.com/culturalinstitute/project/art-project

www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection

www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online

 

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more in one place !

 

Get "Art Studio" by ErgSap on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Contact us at ergsap@yahoo.com to join and exhibit your artworks in our live exhibition in "Art Studio » and reach thousands of art-lovers !!

  

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more !

 

Get the application on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

ErgsArt is an innovative virtual art museum & art gallery Android application, a huge collection of artworks for artists and art-lovers to discover thousands of famous masterpieces at a glance and at your fingertips ! Awesome views, details of high resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings from multiple artists with smart features such as search with multiple queries, suggestions for a given artwork, time travel in Art and several related informations.

 

See ErgsArt application in Google Play Store (play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ergsap.ergsart&...) or in Amazon Android appstore.

 

Our facebook page : facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Twitter : @ergsart

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more !

 

Get the application on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

--------

MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !

  

Discover more artworks in "Art Studio" by ErgSap in app stores, a mobile art platform for artists and art-lovers with live exhibition, temporary exhibition and a permanent collection of 60 000 artworks and more !

 

Get the application on art.ergsap.com and follow us on twitter twitter.com/ergsart and Facebook www.facebook.com/ErgsArt

 

Art Studio is a time travel in Art, an innovative virtual art gallery and art museum with permanent collection and an exhibition from living artists right in dashboard !

 

♥ "I love art. And having so many paintings at hand exceeds my expectations" (C. McKay)

♥ "Huge amount of quality artwork." (Patricia*)

♥ "Great! For art's lovers!" (Massim*)

♥ "Unexpected bonus art history app. [...] Surprising depth for a free app." (Graf*)

♥ "Love the wide and vast array of art you can view in this app." (Mills*)

 

A huge collection of 60 000 public domain artworks from 600 great masters of all times for the permanent collection, thousands just from from Monet, Van Gogh, Renoir... at your fingertips !

You will find major artworks in Art Studio : The Joconde (Mona Lisa) by Leonardo Da Vinci or the Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, the statue of David by Michelangelo...

High resolution artworks, paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches from multiple artists with smart search, suggestions, popular & real time views.

 

Some features:

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MUSEUM & ART GALLERY

■ Live exhibition from living artists

■ 60 000 artworks with great masters like Vangogh, Monet, Renoir, Rembrandt, Gauguin, Vermeer, Modigliani ...

■ Paintings, sculptures, drawings, sketches

■ Art movements like impressionism, baroque, realism or romanticism and renaissance

■ Explore hundreds of artworks at once

  

ENTERTAINMENT

■ Timeline

■ Slideshow

■ Filters, frames, colors

■ Bookmark, collections, wallpaper

■ Homescreen & lockscreen beautiful widgets

 

SEARCH & DISCOVERY

■ Search by title, artist, location, media types, date

■ Voice recognition : "flowers 18", "woman portrait 16", "michelangelo" or launching actions 'refresh' - 'load more data' - 'slide show'

 

■ Statistics: see popular artworks & real-time views for discovery

  

SOCIAL

■ Share with several paintings in attachment

■ Comment directly on paintings

  

OFFLINE

■ Offline artworks

■ Fetch entire galleries for offline use

■ Download entire archives

  

FUN & ART GAME

■ Art finder game

■ Art Quiz from dashboard

  

Have a great time travel in Art with Art Studio !