new icn messageflickr-free-ic3d pan white
View allAll Photos Tagged Academic Art

What are my own personal favourite photographs of 2013? May's photograph here.

 

Blog | Twitter | Instagram | DSLR Flickr |

What I truly admire in most British cities is that they have managed to combine the "old" and the "new" architectural element into a wonderful, eye-pleasing and soul - relaxing modern symbiosis .. This harmonic co-existence has managed to turn almost every corner of most of those cities into a vista, worthy enough to photo-shoot against ...

 

The above seen capture is a snapshot of the river Cam at Cambridge, on a heavily cloudy yet extremely peaceful summer afternoon ... A wonderful place to study at, a wonderful place to live in ...

 

NIKON D90 DSLR with Nikon Nikkor 18 - 55 lens, manual mode, shutter speed 1/100 s, ISO 100, f 9, focal length 26 mm, use of HOYA ND X 2 filter, cloudy weather white balance, center weighted average metering mode, HDR processing derived from only one RAW file, no flash, no tripod ...

 

View Awards Count

Paranormal researcher Matthew Williams, was the first maker of crop circles in the world to be convicted for his art. Devizes, Wiltshire. (First published in Naked - Magazine of the Weird and Wonderful)

 

Full version of the article:

 

WILL THE REAL MARTIAN PLEASE STAND UP? - Or how to create a myth without really trying

 

Crop circles remain unexplained phenomena, continuing to baffle even the most dedicated of paranormal researchers. Conflicting accounts abound and the truth is unclear. Some maintain they are complex communications from extra terrestrials or messages sent by angels. Others insist they are merely elaborate hoaxes. Certainly, crop circles are not simply modern, or indeed post-modern occurrences. They have been documented in academic texts dating from the 17th Century and over two hundred accounts reported prior to 1970. Yet it is the period since Thatcher’s vicious reign that the circle phenomena has exploded with over ten thousand reported to date. With The X-Files, Dark Skies and more recently M Night Shyamalan's Signs, crop circles seem constantly focused in the media limelight like beams from a flying saucer.

 

Designs can vary widely. They range from simple circles, circles with rings or straight lines, to complex pictograms mimicking computer fractal and elements that relate to quantum physics. Despite the global furore of the headline-hitting ‘Doug and Dave’ case, where two sexagenarians admitted to making crop circles, researchers still insist that this is not a man-made phenomenon. Indeed, such ‘hoaxers’ are dismissed entirely by researchers, and net buzz quickly determined that Doug and Dave were British government and CIA stooges. Whilst admitting that certain circles are clearly terrestrial in origin, the ‘true’ circles present evidence that simply cannot be replicated by mere humans; complex designs in fields that are mathematically precise, strange magnetic interference, bent not broken stalks, huge formations covering up to 200,000 square feet and strange orbs of light that seen above the formation of a circle.

 

Circles have been reported across the globe, yet their focus remains in the small English County of Wiltshire. This is where NAKED found Welshman Matthew Williams, a converted sceptic who has dedicated his life to paranormal research and the crop circle phenomena, and is duty-bound to dispel what he considers are the myths and lies circulated in the paranormal sphere. As both a circle maker and a paranormal investigator, this is a man who presents an entirely different perspective on the phenomena. He also is a good representative of the two camps of thought within the field; those that make circles (circle-makers or 'croppies') and the crop circle researchers (or 'believers'). Yet Matthew Williams’ research has not been without sacrifice. He has been made a criminal because of his efforts, holding the position of being the first person to be convicted of making crop circles. He has found he must operate from the fringe, even secrecy to continue his work.

 

Although always being curious about paranormal activity, it was not until a UFO sighting in 1991 that Williams took a serious interest in the subject. Though still only a hobby, these investigations caused frictions in his working life. Considered something of a liability, he was dismissed from Customs & Excise in 1995, for what he describes as “trumped-up charges of hacking into the departmental computer system.” Relieved from departing a job he hated, Williams concentrated his efforts on professional video editing and paranormal research where his investigations led him to crop circles:

 

“Initially I had the rather naive and uniformed opinion, much like many other people that crop circles couldn’t be made by humans. It sounded plausible that it was too hard to make these things. But I started to realise there were a lot of people claiming to have made crop circles. Unlike the researchers who were very afraid of going to speak to these people or believed they should just be ignored, I interviewed them. I realised straight away that these were very intelligent. Their handle on the subject was far more advanced, straightforward and down-to-earth than the researchers. And it made a lot more sense. So very quickly I realised that I had made a mistake, that in fact these people were probably right on lots of things. But I wasn’t sure if they were right about all the circles. So what I need to needed to know was whether the big claims of the researchers were right or wrong. The only way to truly test them was to make some circles and find out what people believed them to be. My friend and I started off with some pretty basic stuff because we didn’t really know what we were doing, but it was still loved by the researchers. They thought it was marvelous! But throughout all the stuff we did, we were realising that people were having paranormal experiences. They were complaining that their cameras were failing and we were getting stories about researchers seeing things the night before, like lights in the sky above the area that we were working. Researchers would draw conclusions like “the light was above the crop circle, so the light must have made the crop circle.” So it started to teach me a lot about the ways that people make two and two equal six. It's a good education to actually make circles to find out how people react…and how paranormal myths propagate.”

 

Crop circle researchers do not deny that some formations are man-made, but maintain the more complicated designs or those exhibiting paranormal activity are created by a non-human independent force. Williams realised that researchers were making ill-judged connections between paranormal events and the crop circles, but this still did not explain the unusual phenomena that the circle makers were beginning to experience themselves in the obviously man-made formations:

 

“When teams of people go out into the fields and make large talismanic magical symbols, somehow that does actually have some effect on physical reality and strange things happen. A couple of years down the line and a lot more weird experiences had happened to us. But I don’t know how they happen, I just know they happened. I’ve seen small balls of light which have entered the field and chased us out on one occasion. I’ve seen them passing over head. On two occasions we’ve also seen black, shadowy figures. Not as clear as a person, a little bit more rounded, but a human shape. They just disappeared. One night researchers had seen a fog bank come down where we were working, rise in the morning and reveal the crop circle. We didn’t see it and we were working very close to researchers that night and we wondered whether something else was helping us out. But there are so many things like that. People put together mathematical formulas together from the crop circle and say, "well this circle tells us something we didn’t know, something new to science." Researchers have also looked with microscopes into the soil and found globules of metal which don’t appear outside of the circle. The metal is so pure that they think that some of it comes from space. Apparently, this meteoric metal dust is what affects compasses in the crop circle. It’s like, why would we choose a place in the field where that happened to be in the ground to create a certain crop circle around it? Or did it come out of space? Did it happen while we were making the circle or just after we left? Or how did it get there? So what’s attracting us to special places that then turn out to have a synchronistic meaning to someone else?”

 

Williams turned his attention to the researchers, frustrated at their "wild claims about extra terrestrials."

Yet convincing them that he was a maker of crop circles was to create a more fascinating conspiracy than the best net theorists could imagine. It seems most researchers consider suggesting that complicated, unexplainable phenomena-producing circles are the work of a small team of people with metal tapes, bamboo sticks and boards is speaking virtually heresy. This is an incomprehensible notion to them. Not only that, but their dismissing of his claims, leads to a negative impact on the phenomena that the circle can create:

 

"You have people losing interest in a particular circle if they know it is man-made. They shut down their emotions and their professional interest. They maybe don’t go into it. And they will probably like to report you to the police and get you in trouble for admitting that you had done that. If people think it’s just humans, the magic subsides. The other way to make circles is to pay for the formations and keep them secret. Because if it’s secret, people’s unknowing about the crop circle will perhaps attract the strange phenomena, but only when they’ve got an open mind. Crop circles require secrecy in order for the magic to work best. If you shut their mind down by telling them that it is man-made, they might be stopping the phenomena. Researchers will always cry foul of what we do, but without us there would be no subjects to speak of and therefore no strange, unexplained phenomena. So they have to carry on in this antagonistic capacity where we’re doing something that they won’t accept. And they won’t accept it because of the paranormal activities they have seen. They say "how can a UFO appear over what they said they made?" and this sort of stuff. But we’ve also demonstrated making crop circles. We were invited by Japanese TV to make a circle in New Zealand. We made the formation in the hours of darkness making a perfect copy of another circle that had appeared. And there are people out there that say, "oh these circle-makers they never demonstrate what they do." We’ve demonstrated many times, but these people just say that we haven’t! I say, "well what about this one?" Yet they go, "like we said, you never demonstrate!" Fucking hell! We’ve demonstrated what we do, we’ve documented it, we've filmed it. I've put together a three hour tape of interviews with circle makers. They just don’t want it. They aren’t interested. "

 

Yet despite the clash of ideology, their relationship is nonetheless a symbiotic one. "We feed off each other, and are necessary to each other," he says. The researchers fulfill the role of suppressing public awareness of human involvement, thus maintaining the level of secrecy which Williams believes can spark the "magic," while the circle-makers are responsible for evoking the phenomena that the researchers are so fascinated. He suggests that, "maybe it’s the minds of the people that observe crop circles (i.e. the public and the researchers), that are helping to fuel it by the way they understand it." Unfortunately according to Williams, the researchers are intent on discrediting the 'croppies.' Some of researchers who have switched from dismissing 'hoaxers' to becoming circle makers themselves have received tremendous assaults on their credibility. Despite being a highly respected media spokesman for circle researcher, Peter Sorenson's move from belief in ET involvement to the circles being man-made resulted in accusations that he was a government agent sent to dis-inform. Thus, the intention of Matthew Williams video 'CircleMakers' was to demystify his craft, to "make people realise there’s a demonisation going on where horrible things have been said. It’s just sympathy stuff to make us appear like bad guys so that people won’t want to speak to us and discover the truth."

 

'Croppies' have numerous rationales for making circles; some for artistic reasons, some for spirituality and others are interested in the paranormal aspects:

 

"All of us are very different but strangely enough whatever angle you come into crop circles from, all the teams have had paranormal experiences whilst making them. Really, the only way we are going to get round that is if they start making circles and they’ll understand that what we’re saying is true. But I think that for every researcher that comes into the subject maybe ten years later down the line, they probably do start making a couple of circles to test it out. But it takes time and their pride has to be a little bit suppressed before they can do that.”

 

Unfortunately for Williams, his encounter with 'believer' pride was to have serious consequences. He was arrested for making a specific circle, a conspiracy involving circle researcher Michael Glickman and of Whitley Strieber, author of Communion, the famous autobiographical story of alien abduction:

 

"Glickman says that crop circles are extra terrestrial, at the same time believing that he is directly in contact with them and that they are guiding him. Not anyone else mind you, just him! I didn’t like the fact that he was going on Whitley Strieber's radio show, putting forward untruths about the crop circle subject to twenty million listeners in the US on a weekly basis. So I thought that it would be a good idea to say to Whitley, "well look, just for your own piece of mind and balance, do you want to know if your honored, prestigious guest is actually wrong? Because I can prove it to you and it would give you a better balance about what’s going on." He agreed and asked, “how do you think you can show me this?” I said, “Well the way we always show it. I’ll make you a circle, done under real conditions. I’ll send you the details beforehand, then you wait for Glickman to make his comments and determinations and if he’s telling you it’s extra terrestrials you’ll know it’s not.” So we agreed to do that and of course I stressed that he had to keep it secret. So I sent the details of the circle that we were going to make to Whitley Strieber and went down and made it. It was specifically containing a number of elements of design that Mr. Glickman said could not be done by humans. I put them all in this circle! His ears were going to go up on this one! Whitley Strieber gave the details to Michael Glickman and they immediately phoned the authorities. I got the house turned over by the police, looking for evidence of making crop circles. I admitted straight off because I had gone too far in what I was telling the researchers. So when the police said, “Did you admit this?” I said, “Yes.”"

 

Williams was convicted of criminal damage, and fined £125. His computer and editing equipment were also taken for examination, leaving him out of business for over six months. When it was finally returned, he found its components smashed. He filed a complaint but before it went to court, the police settled with a lump sum of £400. This quiet-mannered Welshman now keeps his circle-making involvement closely guarded. "For all intents and purposes I have to be seen to be clean now," he explains disappointedly, now having to remain content with providing public demonstrations by paying the farmer. Yet Williams remains passionate about the subject, still investigating the paranormal activity that he and others have stumbled across. Rather surprisingly though, he doesn’t immediately suggest that such events are the work of extra terrestrials. Refusing to make such connections, he prefers to take a more pragmatic approach. Unconvinced by the alien hypothesis, he considers this knee-jerk reaction to be a symptom of the decline in religious faith in Western society:

 

"I suppose the best way to look at it is like a new folklore, it’s new fairies, it’s new goblins. Whenever you have a genre that people believe in, some people will start seeing it and experiencing it. So for the western world it’s obviously aliens and extra terrestrials and this sort of stuff. In other parts of the world people will be having their experiences that they relate to. It depends on what part of the world, what culture you grew up in.”

 

Perhaps this offers a possible explanation to the stubborn attitude of the researchers, who are fearful of any challenge to this new belief system. Williams' research is almost theological approach then, with the researchers the evangelic custodians of mistruth. Certainly, he holds a position more like an objective investigator, raising plausible solutions to the problem, but resisting the urge to slip into unqualified conclusions:

 

“I would rather believe a more down-to-earth explanation like telepathy or an unknown thing that maybe sometimes you accidentally stumble across. But saying that, I think you stumble across this sort of stuff more often when you are making crop circles, than when you are researching from the outside. I think that being on the inside of this thing is a mystery that seems to have more of an effect if you do get involved on that level. I’m not a scientist, I’m not a mathematician, I'm just a paranormal researcher interested in making crop circles. But if I’m able to pick up on something like that, design a design and go out and do it, then how am I picking that up? Am I picking it up from a group mind, from a group consciousness? Am I being given that idea from extra terrestrials or from intelligence outside of humanity? Or is it just incredible coincidence? But I don’t believe that theory, it doesn't seem to make sense. I think here has to be some sort of guiding influence or something that pushes behind-the-scenes for something to happen. How do we do it? I don’t know, I’m not trying to take credit for it."

 

Matthew Williams will continue to explore the phenomenon, to make crop circles and share paranormal experiences. If his methodology to evoke paranormal activity is true, there are still more questions than answers to the crop circle mythology. And whether he will solve some of these remains unclear. The 'believers' may even be correct in their assumption that circles are the work of extra terrestrials, though it seems to be a far more complicated affair than they consider. Until there is firm evidence to suggest otherwise, these events look to remain in the realm of magic. Matthew Williams poses a challenge and a philosophy:

 

"Everything about the crop circle subject when you get involved as deeply as I have really teaches you how real magic works and how it works in such a way that most people are not aware of. It's very hard to understand from the outside, you’ve got to be on the inside. But there’s nothing stopping anybody from getting on the inside. So if you think I am full of shit, go and make a crop circle and don’t tell anyone and see what they say. Then you’ll see that what I am telling is true and you might have a paranormal experience whilst making the crop circle and you’ll come along and share my belief and everyone will call you a liar (all laugh). It’s waiting to be exploited for anyone who’s willing to try it. Reality is not everything we think it is. I think it is more flexible than a lot of people give it credit for. I mean, these strange experiences are clues to the fact that things are not as solid as they appear to be and that there are other things out there to be discovered. The world is not just physical. Your whole life in some way should be dedicated to looking at these things, otherwise you may have a shock when you die. You may carry on…"

 

(Words and Photos Copyright - Mark Berry)

A reaction to academic art of the 19th century was inspired by natural forms and structures, not only in flowers and plants, but also in curved lines. Architects tried to harmonize with the natural environment.[3]

 

Art Nouveau is considered a "total" art style, embracing architecture, graphic art, interior design, and most of the decorative arts, as well as the fine arts. According to the philosophy of the style, art should be a way of life. For many well-off Europeans, it was possible to live in an art nouveau-inspired house with art nouveau furniture, silverware, fabrics, ceramics including tableware, jewellery, cigarette cases, etc. Artists desired to combine the fine arts and applied arts, even for utilitarian objects.

 

The Japonisme that was popular in Europe during the 1880s and 1890s was particularly influential on many artists with its organic forms and references to the natural world.

  

Thanx, M, (*_*)

For more of my other work visit here: www.indigo2photography.co.uk

 

IT IS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN (BY LAW!!!) TO USE ANY OF MY image or TEXT on websites, blogs or any other media without my explicit permission. © All rights reserved

“You can understand nothing about art, particularly modern art, if you do not understand that imagination is a value in itself.”

(Milan Kundera - French writer (born Czech), b.1929)

 

Located at the end of Rajpath, nearby India Gate, this building was a former residential palace of the Maharaja of Jaipur, hence known as Jaipur House.

It was designed by Sir Arthur Bloomfield in 1936, after the construction of Lutyens' Delhi, it became The National Gallery of Modern Art inaugurated by Vice-president Dr S.Radhakrishnan in 1954, in the presence of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.

Hermann Goetz (1898–1976), a noted German art historian became its first curator and in time it added new facilities such as Art restoration services, an Art reference Library and a Documentation Centre.

Then in 2009, a new wing was inaugurated adding almost six times the space to the existing gallery, with a new auditorium, a preview theatre, conservation laboratory, library and academic section as well as a cafeteria and museum shop.

It is the only institution of it's kind in the country, run and administered by the Government of India.

It represents the evolution of the changing art forms through the passage of more than a hundred years starting from about 1857.

In The stately Jaipur House are on display paintings, sculpture and graphic art dating from the mid 19th century to the present day.

More than 14,000 works includes works by artists such as Abanindranath Tagore, (especially his Advent of the Rainy Season, Twilight and Landscape), Nandalal Bose, Ramkumar Kinkar, Rabindranath Tagore, Binod Behari Mukherjee, Amrita Sher-Gil, Thomas Daniell, Raja Ravi Verma among others.

The foremost responsibility of the National Gallery of Modern Art is to ensure quality and set and maintain a standard of excellence that pervades all it's activities.

 

More informations:

ngmaindia.gov.in/index.asp

 

Join the photographer at

www.facebook.com/laurent.goldstein.photography

 

© All photographs are copyrighted and all rights reserved.

Please do not use any photographs without permission (even for private use).

The use of any work without consent of the artist is PROHIBITED and will lead automatically to consequences.

Anne Arundel County educators learned to integrate three different art forms into other academic areas. They rotated throughout the day, spending equal time weaving and stitching with Katherine Dilworth, a Young Audiences fiber artist; learning the elements of dance with Lacey Sheppard, Arts Integration Teacher Specialist; and forming clay vessels with Chesapeake Arts Center artist Cami Ascher.

Richard Riemerschmid 1868-1957 München

Garten Eden Le Jardin d'Eden 1900

München Lenbachhaus

Impressionnisme, symbolisme. Surtout connu comme architecte.

Impressionism, symbolism. Mostly known as an architect

 

ART MODERNE : TROIS RUPTURES SUCCESSIVES

  

L'Art Moderne, 1850-1950 en dates approximatives, peut se résumer à trois ruptures successives et progressives par rapport à l'art européen en vigueur depuis la fin du gothique et la renaissance :

1° La rupture impressionniste

2° La rupture post-impressionniste

3° La rupture de l'art abstrait.

 

La Rupture Impressionniste, c'est essentiellement avec "le tachisme", et "l'Esquisse", une remise en question des grands principes classiques : Le dessin exact, parfaitement précis et achevé, et la touche du pinceau invisible, ou le moins visible possible. (Voir sur ce sujet le texte intitulé " La Rupture Impressionniste")

Il ne faut aucunement exagérer cette rupture : L'impressionnisme est en filigrane dans tout l'art européen depuis des siècles. Ne serait ce qu'au travers des esquisses que tous les peintres "classiques" ont réalisé sur le terrain avant de peindre en atelier avec des couleurs qui n'étaient pas transportables à l'extérieur. Et les impressionnistes n'avaient pas loin à aller pour se persuader que cette esthétique, si elle heurtait des habitudes, était en réalité une esthétique existante depuis des siècles : il leur suffisait de se rendre au Louvre. Fragonard ou Watteau c'est déjà de l'impressionnisme et le Tintoret aussi. Denis Diderot,au siècle précédent, s'inquiétait auprès de son ami Hubert Robert : " Mais Robert, vous faites des esquisses depuis si longtemps, ne pourriez vous terminer un tableau ?".

Plus près des peintres impressionnistes certains romantiques comme Delacroix ou Carl Blechen leur avait traçé la voie, comme l'école de Barbizon qui s'inspirait elle même de certains paysagistes néerlandais du 17è siècle.

La Rupture Post-Impressionniste, va plus loin dans le renouvellement des formes de l'esthétique européenne. Elle réunit plusieurs écoles: Nabis, Fauves, Cubistes, Expressionnistes, sans être exhaustif.

Les Post-Impressionnistes ajoutent à l'Impressionnisme, de toutes nouvelles techniques dont les principales sont "la peinture plate" et les couleurs arbitraires. Ces techniques ne sont en réalité pas nouvelles, elles sont empruntées à l'art Paléo-Chrétien, Byzantin et Médiéval. Les post-impressionnistes reviennent à la peinture en deux dimensions, ils renoncent à l'imitation parfaite du réel de la peinture en trois dimensions, qui a caractérisé l'art européen depuis le Gothique tardif et la Renaissance jusqu'à l'art moderne. Là encore, au départ, il suffisait de se rendre au Louvre pour voir des exemples d'une autre esthétique que celle de Raphaël, Vinci et des peintres académiques de l'époque.

 

La reproduction exacte de notre monde environnant, exact c'est à dire tel que notre vue nous le restitue, n'est en effet pas une condition nécessaire de l'Esthétique. C'est ce qu'ont démontré pendant des siècles les peintres Byzantins et ceux de l'époque médiévale. Outre la simplification des lignes, la réduction des volumes et la suppression de la perspective, les couleurs peuvent être inventées, et s'écarter totalement de celles réellement perçues par les hommes : Il en est ainsi pour l'école de Pont Aven, les Cloisonnistes, les Fauves, les Symbolistes, ou les Expressionnistes germaniques.

Les Post-impressionnistes, notamment les Cubistes, vont aller encore plus loin sur le chemin de la nouveauté en décomposant le monde réel en lignes et en volumes de plus en plus simplifiés et en multipliant les points de vue simultanés sur les objets et les êtres. Ils sont une introduction à l'art abstrait.

L'Art Abstrait nait en effet des nouvelles approches esthétiques proposées par les Post-Impressionnistes. Le premier art abstrait ne quitte pas tout à fait le réel, qui reste le point de départ reconnaissable de leur art, mais il développe, à partir du monde environnant, tout un jeu de lignes et de formes schématisées qui sont une évocation, une suggestion, une recomposition, et même une invention du monde.

De simplifications en schématisations, de synthèses en combinaisons, et de symboles en archétypes, la peinture européenne parvient dans les années 1900 et suivantes au second art abstrait qui s'éloigne totalement de l'observation de la nature pour exploiter esthétiquement les seules ressources de la géométrie euclidienne : c'est l'ère des lignes, cercles, carrés, rectangles, triangles etc, de couleur diverses.

Dans l'histoire universelle de la peinture l'Art Abstrait, à son stade achevé, est une nouveauté absolue : l'art européen cesse de vouloir signifier, d'avoir un sens, de tenir un discours compréhensible par le public. La peinture abstraite devient un jeu de formes et de couleurs sans plus aucune référence au monde environnant, tel que l'homme le perçoit par le sens de la vue, et tel qu'il l'expérimente dans son vécu quotidien. Le Non- sens, compris comme l'absence de signification, est inévitable au bout du chemin de l'art non figuratif.

Mais pendant toute cette période de l'Art Moderne, les artistes européens ne sont pas en rupture avec le passé artistique européen sur un point essentiel : Ils ne renient pas le grand principe de l'Esthétique universelle: créer le Beau le mieux partagé possible. D'autre par si le Non-sens, l'absence de signification, l'absence de discours partagé est une caractéristique de l'art abstrait terminal, l'Art n'est pas encore devenu une religion de l'Absurde et de la Provocation. Le Laid et l'Absurde sont les grandes inventions de l'Art Contemporain Officiel (ACO) qui s'impose en Occident, dans un petit milieu qui se prétend élitiste, à partir de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle.

Evidemment cette présentation en trois points de l'art moderne, comme toutes les synthèses, présente un caractère didactique, relativement simplificateur. Le réel est presque toujours plus complexe que le discours que l'on peut tenir à son propos. L'analyse permet de mieux rapprocher ce discours des faits.

Edouard Manet, est certainement, l'inventeur ou le ré-inventeur de "la peinture plate" dont les caractéristiques apparaissent déjà en 1863 dans "le Déjeuner sur l'herbe". Il n'en demeure pas moins que ce sont bien les post-impressionnistes qui vont utiliser et développer cette esthétique de manière systématique. De même dès ses premiers tableaux Claude Monet annonce très clairement le premier art abstrait et Georges Seurat de même dès les années 1880 et suivantes.

 

Il est impératif de souligner que ces trois ruptures de l'Art Moderne pendant la période 1850-1950 n'ont rien de comparable avec la rupture provoquée par l'Art Contemporain Officiel qui s'impose en Occident après 1950 .

L'Art Moderne était un changement d'esthétique, s'inspirant beaucoup des arts du passé.

L'Art Contemporain c'est le rejet de l'esthétique, et c'est la table rase de tout le passé artistique de la civilisation européenne.

L'Art Moderne c'est un point blanc sur un fond noir.

L'Art Contemporain c'est une paire de chaussures portant des lunettes.

Rien à voir.

Avec l'Art Moderne les artistes sont toujours à la recherche du Beau, ils en explorent seulement les possibilités en dehors des règles de l'art classique tel qu'il se définit depuis la Renaissance et la fin du Gothique. Leur source d'inspiration est en effet dans le passé de la peinture européenne : c'est notamment la peinture plate des temps paléo-chrétiens, byzantins, romans et du premier gothique. C'est aussi l'esquisse pratiquée sans interruption dans l'histoire de l'art européen.

A partir de l'Art Contemporain Officiel le cahier des charges pour être reconnu comme artiste contemporain c'est la provocation par le laid et l'absurde, c'est à dire la sortie proclamée de l'esthétique.

  

MODERN ART: THREE SUCCESSIVE RUPTURES

  

Modern Art, 1850-1950 in approximate dates, can be summed up in three successive and progressive ruptures compared to the European art in force since the end of the Gothic and the Renaissance:

1 ° The Impressionist rupture

2 ° The pos-impressionist rupture

3° The rupture of abstract art.

 

The Impressionist Rupture, it is essentially with the "Tachisme", and "the Sketch", a questioning of the great classical principles: The exact, perfectly precise and completed drawing, and the touch of the invisible brush, or the least visible possible. (See on this subject the text entitled "The Impressionist Rupture")

This rupture must not be exaggerated: Impressionism has been in watermark in all European art for centuries. Through the sketches that all "classical" painters have done on the field before painting in the workshop with colors that were not transportable outside. And the Impressionists had not far to go to convince themselves that this aesthetic, if it clashed habits, was actually an aesthetic that had existed for centuries: all they had to do was go to the Louvre. Fragonard or Watteau is already impressionism and Tintoretto too. Denis Diderot, in the previous century, was worried about his friend Hubert Robert: "But Robert, you make sketches since so long, could not you finish a painting?" Closer to the impressionist painters some romanticists like Delacroix or Carl Blechen had traced the way for them, like the school of Barbizon which itself was inspired by some Dutch landscapers of the 17th century.

 

The Post-impressionistic rupture goes further in renewing the forms of European aesthetics. It brings together several schools: Nabis, Fauves, Cubists, Expressionists, without being exhaustive.

Post-Impressionists add to Impressionism, all new techniques, the main ones are "flat paint" and arbitrary colors. These techniques are actually not new, they are borrowed from the Paleo-Christian, Byzantine and Medieval art. Post-Impressionists return to two-dimensional painting, renouncing the perfect imitation of the real of three-dimensional painting, which has characterized European art from late Gothic and Renaissance to modern art. Again, at the beginning, it was enough to go to the Louvre to see examples of another aesthetic than that of Raphael, Vinci and academic painters of the time.

 

The exact reproduction of our surrounding world, that is to say, such as our sight returns it to us, is in fact not a necessary condition of Aesthetics. This has been demonstrated for centuries Byzantine painters and those of the medieval period. In addition to the simplification of the lines, the reduction of the volumes and the suppression of the perspective, the colors can be invented, and deviate completely from those really perceived by the men: this is so for the school of Pont Aven, the Cloisonnists , the Fauves, the Symbolists, or the Germanic Expressionists.

Post-Impressionists, especially Cubists, will go even further on the path of novelty by decomposing the real world in lines and volumes more and more simplified and multiplying the simultaneous views on objects and beings. They are an introduction to abstract art.

Abstract Art is born of new aesthetic approaches proposed by Post-Impressionists. The first abstract art does not leave quite the real, which remains the recognizable starting point of their art, but it develops, from the surrounding world, a whole set of lines and schematized forms which are an evocation, a suggestion , a recomposition, and even an invention of the world.

From simplifications to schematizations, from syntheses to combinations, and from symbols to archetypes, in the 1900s and beyond, European painting came to the second abstract art, which totally deviates from the observation of nature in order to exploit aesthetically the only resources of Euclidean geometry: it is the era of lines, circles, squares, rectangles, triangles etc, of various colors.

In the universal history of painting, Abstract Art, at its completed stage, is an absolute novelty: European art ceases to mean, to make sense, to hold an understandable speech by the public. Abstract painting becomes a play of shapes and colors without any reference to the surrounding world, as man perceives it by the sense of sight, and as he experiences it in his daily life. Nonsense, understood as the absence of meaning, is inevitable at the end of the path of non-figurative art.

But throughout this period of Modern Art, European artists are not at odds with the European artistic past on one essential point: They do not deny the great principle of universal Aesthetics: to create Beautiful, the better shared possible. On the other hand, if nonsense, the absence of meaning, the absence of shared discourse is a characteristic of the terminal abstract art, Art has not yet become a religion of the absurd and the Provocation. The ugly and the Absurd are the great inventions of the Official Contemporary Art (ACO) which imposes itself in the West, in a small environment that claims to be elitist, from the second half of the 20th century.

 

It is imperative to underline that these three ruptures of the Modern Art during the period 1850-1950 have nothing comparable with the rupture caused by the Official Contemporary Art which imposes itself in the West after 1950.

Modern Art was a change in aesthetics, inspired by the arts of the past.

Contemporary Art is the rejection of aesthetics, and it is the clean slate of the entire artistic past of European civilization

Modern Art is a white dot on a black background.

Contemporary Art is a pair of shoes wearing glasses.

Nothing to see. With Modern Art artists are always in search of the Beauty, they explore only the possibilities of Beauty outside the rules of classical art as it is defined since the Renaissance and the end of Gothic. Their source of inspiration is also in the past of European painting: it is notably the flat painting of the Paleo-Christian, Byzantine, Romanesque and early Gothic times. It is also the sketch practiced without interruption in the history of european art. With the Official Contemporary Art the specifications to be recognized as a contemporary artist is the provocation by the ugly and the absurd, the proclaimed exit of aesthetics

  

What are my own personal favourite photographs of 2013? April's photograph here.

 

Blog | Twitter | Instagram | DSLR Flickr |

Pablo Picasso. 1881-1973. Paris. Femme à l'éventail. Woman with a fan. 1909. ( Collection Chtchoukine Moscou. Musée Pouchkine. Exposition temporaire Fondation Louis Vuitton. Paris. )

 

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques (Delacroix) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation et même de la provocation. L'explosion d'originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement et l'esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants".

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° . The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

  

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

One may even think that Modern Art begins in 1815, with some romantic painters such as Eugène Delacroix, or William Turner, innovative fantastic, annunciator of the impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853.

These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.

One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

 

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. This is the Art of the Table Rase of the Past of Europa : an art without roots, for the elite, so-called "comprenants".

  

Maitre à l’œillet de Baden. Master at Baden's carnation.15-16è.

Retable de la Passion. Retable of the Passion.

Dijon. Musée des Beaux Arts

Le Maître à l’œillet est un nom générique de plusieurs peintres suisses,

tyroliens ou bavarois qui signent leurs œuvres d'un œillet.

The Carnation Master is a generic name of several Swiss painters,

Tyroleans or Bavarians who sign their works with a carnation.

  

UNE HISTOIRE DE LA PEINTURE PLATE (3)

 

L'Art Moderne ?

A partir des années 1830-1850 environ, les peintres romantiques, les premiers, puis les préé-impressionnistes, les impressionnistes, les post-impressionnistes, "les peintres modernes", parcourent, en sens inverse, le chemin qu'avaient pris les peintres de l'art Roman, de l'art Gothique et de "la Renaissance".

A partir de la deuxième moitié du 19è siècle beaucoup de peintres européens rejettent la précision et le réalisme du dessin, refusent la vérité des couleurs telles que nos sens les perçoivent. Les peintres rejettent l'exigence d'une représentation naturaliste et réaliste du monde. Une exigence technique, qui a caractérisée toute la peinture européenne, depuis le gothique tardif et la renaissance.

Finie "la tyrannie" de l'illusion des trois dimensions sur la surface plane du tableau. Vive "la liberté" de la peinture plate, qui épouse son support.

Les peintres suppriment la perspective et les volumes, reviennent à des formes stéréotypées et stylisées. Ils pratiquent le "tachisme", usent et abusent de l'esquisse, inventent les couleurs arbitraires, décomposent les volumes, multiplient les points de vue sur le même objet. Les peintres européens s'éloignent ainsi toujours plus d'une représentation fidèle du monde qui les entoure, pour proposer les plus diverses interprétations et reconstructions, voire même inventions, du réel.

Il est très clair que ce chemin est suivi de manière tout à fait volontariste.

Nous ne sommes plus dans la situation des peintres et des mosaïstes de l'Empire romain finissant, dont les techniques étaient dictées par leurs méconnaissances des règles, techniques, du bien faire. Les imperfections, techniques, de la peinture plate et de l'esquisse, s'imposent non pas comme une incapacité à bien représenter, mais comme une ouverture sur une esthétique nouvelle

 

Les artistes veulent faire du "Nouveau". C'est même une obsession. Et pour faire du nouveau, parfois, il n'y a rien de mieux que l'Ancien ! Mais il ne faut pas trop le dire !

Les visages stéréotypés et les grands yeux inexpressifs des peintures et mosaïques Paléo-chrétiennes et Byzantines retrouvent un charme "moderne" avec Modigliani.

Les corps de femme peuvent aussi se passer des modelés subtiles, et se réduire à des lignes, comme aux temps de Byzance, de la peinture Siennoise et du gothique international (Maurice Denis, Henri Matisse, Edward Munch....).

Masaccio, "moderne" en 1410 parce qu'il donne une épaisseur et un volume plus réaliste à ses personnages, devient un peintre académique en 1900 !

C'est ainsi que, contre les peintres académiques, classiques, accusés d'être réactionnaires et dépassés, Edouard Manet et ses successeurs reviennent à une interprétation stylisée, symbolique, suggestive, inventée, du monde qui les entoure. En fait ils empruntent beaucoup à l'esthétique de Ravenne, des fresques romanes, de Giotto, de l'école de Sienne, et du Gothique international. Une esthétique dont ils avaient évidemment une parfaite connaissance par leurs fréquentations assidues des musées et lieux artistiques européens, leurs voyages en Italie...

Evidemment ces techniques s'appliquent à des thèmes tous différents de ceux de l'époque gothique. Mais c'est un autre aspect de l'histoire de la peinture européenne.

Au bout de ce chemin, la peinture européenne aboutit à l'art abstrait, non figuratif.

En effet, de simplifications et stylisations en synthèses, et d'interprétations et suggestions en inventions, les peintres s'éloignent toujours plus d'une représentation naturaliste et réaliste du réel, le réel tel que les hommes le perçoivent par leurs yeux, et finissent par le quitter.

Les villages et les églises de Lyonel Feininger ne sont bientôt plus que des lignes qui s'entrecroisent.

Les peintres vont ainsi arriver à l'art abstrait, l'art non figuratif qui progressivement rompt tout lien avec le réel.

  

A HISTORY OF THE FLAT PAINTING (3)

 

Modern Art ?

From the years 1830-1850 approximately, The European Romantic painters, the firsts, then the pre-Impressionists, Impressionists, Post-Impressionists, in short the "moderns painters", browse, in the opposite direction, the path that have followed the painters of the Roman art, Gothic art, and "Renaissance."

From the second half of the 19th century, many European painters reject the accuracy and the realism of the drawing, are refusing the truth of the colors, such as our senses perceive them. The Painters reject the requirement of a naturalistic and realistic representation of the world. A technical requirement, which has characterized all European painting since the late Gothic and Renaissance.

Finished the "tyranny" of the illusion of the three dimensions on the flat surface of the painting. Long live the "freedom" of the flat paint, who marries his support.

The painters suppress the perspective and the volumes. They return to stereotyped and stylized forms. They practice the "tachisme", use and abuse of the sketch, invent the arbitrary colors, decompose the volumes, multiply the points of view on the same subject. The European painters move away so always more than a true representation of the world around them, for propose the most diverse interpretations and reconstructions and even inventions, of the real.

It is very clear that this path is followed entirely voluntarist.

We are no longer in the situation of the painters and mosaic artists of the late Roman Empire, whose techniques were dictated by their misunderstandings of the rules, technical, of the doing well. The imperfections, technical, of the flat painting and of the sketching, are needed not as an inability to well represent, but as a an opening on a new aesthetic.

The European artists want to make the "New", this is even an obsession. And to make the New, sometimes there's nothing better than the Old!

But Just don't say it too much!

The stereotyped faces and the big eyes expressionless of the paintings and mosaics Paleo-Christian and Byzantine found a charm "modern" with Modigliani.

The female body can also dispense with subtle patterns, and be reduced to lines, as in the time of Byzantium and Gothic painting XIVth international (Maurice Denis, Henri Matisse, Edward Munch...)

Masaccio, "modern" in 1410 because it gives a more realistic thickness and volumes to his characters, becomes an academic painter in 1900!

Thus, against the academic painters, classics, accused of being reactionary and surpassed, Edouard Manet and his followers return to a stylized interpretation, symbolic, suggestive, invented, of the world around them. In fact they borrow much from the aesthetics of Ravenna, of the Romanesque frescoes, of Giotto, of the Siena School, and of the International Gothic. An aesthetic which they obviously had a perfect knowledge of their courtship of European museums and artistic venues, their travels in Italy ...

Obviously these techniques apply to themes all differents from those of the Gothic period. But this is another aspect of the history of European painting.

At the end of this road, European painting comes to abstract art, non-figurative art.

Indeed, from simplification and stylisation into syntheses, from interpretations and suggestions into inventions, the painters always away more than a naturalistic and realistic representation of the real, this real, as men perceive with their eyes, and eventually leave him.

The villages and churches of Lyonel Feininger. Painters will thus arrive at abstract art, non-figurative art that gradually breaks all links with reality.

   

Harmen Loeding. 1637-1673.

Nature morte avec une coupe de Nautilus.

Still Life with a Nautilus Cup. vers 1650.

Hambourg Kunsthalle.

 

LE BEAU EST UNE EXPÉRIENCE PARTAGÉE

 

"Le monde discerne la beauté, et, par là le laid se révèle. Le monde reconnaît le bien et, par là le mal se révèle."

Dao De Jing, le Livre de la Voie et de la Vertu

LAO TSEU (Laozi)

 

"The world discerns beauty, and hence the ugly is revealed. The world recognizes good and hence evil is revealed."

Dao De Jing, the Book of the Way and Virtue

LAO TSEU (Laozi)

  

"Tout l’art florentin depuis Giotto et tout au long du Quattrocento, possède cette stupéfiante qualité de vérité absolue, reconnue. L’effet immédiat d’un grand Giotto ou d’un Masaccio est de laisser le spectateur sans voix. Cela s’appelait autrefois la Beauté."

MARIE MAC CARTHY "Les Pierres de Florence" 1956.

 

"Everything Florentine art from Giotto and throughout the Quattrocento has this amazing quality of absolute truth recognized. The immediate effect of a large Giotto or Masaccio is to let the audience speechless. It s' once called Beauty. "

MARY MAC CARTHY "The Stones of Florence" 1956.

  

Contrairement à une idée reçue, toute nouvelle, considérée comme une évidence à notre époque, le Beau n'est pas subjectif. Non, le Beau n'est pas seulement une question de goût personnel, un arbitraire total, absolument égocentrique. Le beau n'est pas autiste, il est un partage, même si certaines de ses formes peuvent être plus accessibles à certaines personnes qu'à d'autres, à certaines cultures et pas à d'autres.

La preuve que le Beau existe est qu'il est reconnu et admis de manière unanime par les opinions publiques, et celle des spécialistes, pour des millions d' oeuvres dont les dates de création vont de - 3000 à nos jours. Le Beau est d'ailleurs reconnu, vécu comme une expérience généralement partagée, non seulement dans l'art mais dans tout le spectacle de la Nature.

Il faut laisser de côté les définitions abstraites. Les Philosophes n'ont jamais réussi à donner une définition satisfaisante et incontestable du Beau. Laissons à Platon son Idée d'un Beau transcendant impossible à atteindre. Restons à un niveau plus trivial, celui de la beauté remarquable, concrète : il n'y a absolument aucune discussion sérieuse quant à l'existence du Beau, d'une sensation commune, une émotion poétique, partagée par des millions d'hommes, depuis L'Art Paléolithique, l'Art Egyptien jusqu'à l'Art Moderne, depuis la Chine jusqu'à l'Europe et l'Amérique.

Le Beau ne se définit pas, il se ressent individuellement et collectivement. Individuellement ressenti le beau est seulement subjectif, il n'a d'importance que pour une personne, collectivement ressenti, partagé par les élites et les populations, ensemble, il s'objective. Il devient une réalité à l'échelle d'une collectivité plus ou moins large, et même jusqu'à la Terre entière. Le Beau est tout simplement un fait vérifié par l'expérience de milliers de générations d'humains sur l'ensemble de la Terre.

On peut même soutenir que des trois idées fondamentales Beau, Bien, Vrai, le Beau est la première dont nous pouvons repérer l'apparition avec certitude dans l'histoire des hommes: Parce qu'il laisse des traces que nous constatons. Quand apparait l'idée de Bien? Quand apparaît l'idée de Vrai ?

Le Beau ne se définit pas, il se ressent et il évolue en fonction du temps. Sans aucun doute l'erreur de l'Académie de Paris vers 1850 a été de vouloir définir les règles du Beau, in abstracto, pour tous les temps et toutes les civilisations, erreur profonde, et les impressionnistes ont eu très vite raison contre lui. Ils ont démontré que le Beau partagé pouvait prendre d'autres formes.

Le Beau peut prendre des formes différentes selon les cultures ou les civilisations. Il est reconnu comme Beau à l'intérieur de son domaine culturel, mais aussi souvent à l'extérieur.

La peinture des lettrés chinois est très particulière, il est possible à titre individuel de ne pas l'apprécier, mais il serait faux de parler à son propos d'un Art du laid, et elle n'est pas jugée comme tel par l'épreuve du temps et de sa confrontation avec d'autres cultures comme celle occidentale.

Le Beau est tout simplement un fait vérifié par l'expérience de milliers de générations d'humains sur l'ensemble de la Terre. Le tableau de Léonard de Vinci, la Joconde (Mona Lisa) et le succès qu'il rencontre auprès des populations extrême orientales est une preuve de cette universalité du Beau.

Il existe "un sens du Beau, commun à toute l'humanité" qui est indépendant des modes, des religions et des idéologies et même des cultures. Même s'il ne faut pas négliger certaines spécificités ou variabilités tenant à telle culture ou à telle époque. Le constat global reste celui d'un partage du sentiment du beau à l'échelle universelle.

Le beau s'identifie par une intense satisfaction, un sentiment de bonheur, de joie, d'ordre sensuel ou intellectuel qui envahit la personne, c'est son point de départ subjectif . Ce point de départ subjectif qui s'objective par le partage de ce sentiment avec une foule d'autres personnes, de cultures et d'époques différentes, pour parvenir à l'émergence d'une quasi unanimité et d'une quasi universalité.

Le beau est certes un vécu subjectif en ce qu'il est ressenti individuellement, mais il s'objective par l'opinion convergente, formulée au cours du temps, par les peuples et les élites. C'est ce jugement commun des peuples et des élites, cette expérience partagée, qui objective et prouve le Beau.

Ce qui est subjectif ce sont les préférences des individus. Ce qui est subjectif c'est quand une personne préfère les fresques romanes ou l'art du gothique international à la peinture de la Renaissance Italienne.

Quand une personne préfère l'art du paysage ou la peinture de moeurs à la peinture religieuse.

Si on avait dit à Fra Angelico, à Raphaël ou à Rubens que le Beau n'existe pas et est affaire purement subjective, ils auraient haussé les épaules.

Non seulement le sentiment du Beau est un fait d'expérience, un bien commun à l'humanité, qui traverse les temps et les cultures, mais le Beau peut être ressenti alors que les idéologies qui ont inspiré les oeuvres d'art à une époque donnée, dans une région de la Terre, sont mortes en tant que croyances actives.

Il n'est pas nécessaire de croire dans les Esprits, les Dieux Egyptiens, Grecs, Hindous ou dans les Bouddhas pour apprécier la beauté de l'art des cavernes, de l'Egypte antique, de la Grèce, de l'Inde, ou de l'Asie du Sud Est.

De même, les représentations de Dieu et du monde qui sont celles des églises chrétiennes, qui ont été vivantes et profondément significatives pour les populations européennes pendant plus d'un millénaire, peuvent ne plus avoir de sens pour une très large majorité des populations de l'Europe de l'Ouest et du Nord au 21è siècle. Il reste cependant que ces populations, comme d'autres peuples dans d'autres cultures, peuvent reconnaître le Beau dans des oeuvres d'art dont les symboles ne sont plus idéologiquement significatifs pour elles, voire même leur paraissent absurdes. Les croyances changent mais le sentiment du Beau dure.

Le Beau est donc un fait constaté au travers de toute l'histoire des civilisations.

Le Beau est certes une idée, mais pendant des siècles ce n'était pas une idéologie. Et encore moins son contraire le Laid. Les multiples idéologies, le plus souvent religieuses, qui ont habité durant des millénaires l'esprit des hommes ont utilisé l'idée du beau pour soutenir leurs croyances les plus diverses et même opposées.

A partir de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle les élites idéologiques et politiques de l'Occident, athées, ont décidé d' imposer la croyance que le Beau n'existait pas, et de faire croire que le Laid est une valeur recommandable. L'art contemporain officiel en est la démonstration: Le laid est devenu une idéologie, l'idéologie correcte du mondialisme. La population la plus "éclairée" est invitée à communier avec le Laid, et l'Absurde, à y patauger délicieusement, avec distinction et conceptualisme. .

L'affirmation que le Beau n'existe pas, est purement subjectif, est une idée fausse, conçue et répandue au cours de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle pour des motifs idéologiques et économiques.

Les motifs idéologiques sont, notamment, que ce relativisme permet de justifier l'Art Laid officiel et que l'art laid est un critère de distinction entre les Eclairés et ceux qui ne le sont pas. L'homme peut en effet inventer des idéologies, des croyances, qui nient le Beau et le Bien. Cette capacité d'invention de croyances les plus diverses et contraires fait la différence entre l'homme et les animaux.

C'est une évolution mais ce n'est pas nécessairement un progrès. Ce peut être, c'est toujours, inévitablement, sous certains aspects, aussi une régression. La capacité d'inventer le Beau rencontre son contraire, celle d'inventer le Laid. Et même, comme dans l'art contemporain officiel, d'en faire une règle, une doctrine. La capacité au Bien est inséparable de celle de faire le Mal. Et la formulation de vérités ouvre toute grande la porte aux mensonges.

Outre les motifs idéologiques, cette affirmation permet aussi de fabriquer et de vendre du Laid, ce qui est une excellente affaire. Et ce n'est pas la moindre raison de ce succès. L'Art Contemporain Officiel, étatique, l'art des grandes Organisations Culturelle Internationales a bien évidemment partie liée avec le grand capitalisme des marchands et des financiers, et avec les Grandes Fondations "philanthropiques" qui en sont l'émanation. Des Fondations pour lesquelles le profit peut se faire à propos du beau, mais tout aussi bien avec du laid. Et si le laid est de meilleur profit, ils n'hésiteront pas. Ils peuvent même vous faire croire que le laid est beau. Et en attendant votre conversion, ils vous font croire que c'est légitime et surtout supérieurement intelligent. Car plus l'acheteur potentiel restera bouche béante devant l’œuvre, plus grand il ouvrira son portefeuille.

 

THE BEAUTIFUL IS A SHARED EXPERIENCE

 

"Everything Florentine art from Giotto and throughout the Quattrocento has this amazing quality of absolute truth recognized. The immediate effect of a large Giotto or Masaccio is to let the audience speechless. It s' once called Beauty. "

MARY MAC CARTHY "The Stones of Florence" 1956.

 

Contrary to an accepted idea, all new, considered as obvious in our time, the Beautiful is not subjective. No, the beautiful is not only a matter of personal taste, a total arbitrary, absolutely egocentric. The beautiful is not autistic, it is a sharing, although some of its forms may be more accessible to some people than others, to some cultures and not to others.

The proof that the Beau exists is that it is recognized and unanimously accepted by the public opinion, and that of the specialists, for millions of works whose creation dates range from - 3000 to the present day. The Beautiful is recognized, lived as an experience generally shared, not only in art, but in all the spectacle of Nature

The abstract definitions must be left aside. The Philosophers have never succeeded in giving a satisfactory and incontestable definition of the Beautiful. Let us leave Plato his idea of a beautiful transcendent impossible to reach. Let's stay at a more trivial level, that of remarkable, concrete beauty : there is absolutely no serious discussion about the existence of Beau, a common sensation, a poetic emotion, shared by millions of men, from Egyptian Art to Modern Art, since China to Europe and America. The Beautiful does not define itself, it is felt individually and collectively. Individually felt the beautiful is only subjective, it only matters for a person, collectively felt, shared by the elites and the people, together, he is objectively. The Beautiful becomes a reality at the scale of a community more or less wide and even to the whole earth. The Beautiful is simply a fact verified by the experience of thousands of generations of humans on the whole Earth.

One can even argue that of the three fundamental ideas, Beautiful, Well, Truth, the Beautiful is the first of which we can spot the appearance with certainty in the history of men: Because the Beautiful leaves traces that we see. When does the idea of the Well appear? When does the idea of Truth appear?

Undoubtedly the error of the Paris Academy around 1850 was to want to define the rules of Beautiful , in abstracto, for all times and all civilizations, profound error, and the impressionists were very quickly right against him. They demonstrated that the shared Beautiful could take other forms.

But there is absolutely no serious discussion about the existence of Beauty, a common sensation, a poetic émotion, shared by millions of people, since the Paleolithic art, the Egyptian Art to Modern Art, from China to Europe and America.

The Beautiful can take different forms according to cultures or civilizations. It is recognized as beautiful inside its cultural domain, but also often outside.

The painting of the Chinese scholars is very particular, it is possible individually not to appreciate it, but it would be wrong to speak about it an Art of the ugly, and it is not judged as such by the the test of time and its confrontation with other cultures like the Western one. The Beautiful is simply a fact verified by the experience of thousands of generations of humans all over the Earth. The painting of Leonardo da Vinci, the Mona Lisa (Mona Lisa) and the success met among the populations of the Far East testify to this universality of the Beautiful.

There is "a sense of beauty, common to all mankind" which is independent of modes, religions and ideologies and even cultures. Even though certain specificities or variability should not be neglected in relation to such a culture or at that time. The overall observation remains that of a sharing of the feeling of beauty on a universal scale.

The beauty is identified by an intense satisfaction, a feeling of happiness, of joy, of sensual or intellectual order that invades the person, it is his subjective starting point. This subjective starting point becomes objective by sharing this sentiment with a multitude of other people, cultures and different eras, in order to achieve the emergence of almost unanimity and almost universality.

The beauty is certainly a subjective experience in that it is felt individually, but it is objective by the convergent opinion, formulated in the course of time, by the peoples and the elites. It is this common judgement of peoples and elites, this shared experience, which objective and proves the beautiful.

 

What is subjective what are the preferences of individuals. What is subjective is when a person prefers Romanesque frescoes or the art of international Gothic painting of the Italian Renaissance. When a person prefers the art of the landscape or the painting of morals to religious painting.

If someone had told to Fra Angelico, Raphaël or Rubens that beauty does not exist and is purely subjective matter, they would have shrugged.

The Beautiful is certainly a subjective, individually felt, but it is objectified by the synthesis of the multiple opinions of peoples and their elites.

Not only is the feeling of the Beautiful a fact of experience, a common heritage of humanity, which passes through times and cultures, but the Beautiful can be felt while the ideologies that inspired the works of art at a certain time, in a region of the Earth, have died as active beliefs.

There is no need to believe in spirits, in the Gods of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hindus or in the Buddhas for to appreciate the beauty of the cave art, or of the ancient Egypt, the Greece, of the India, or of South East Asia. Similarly, the representations of God and of the world, which are those of the Christian churches, which have been alive and profoundly meaningful to European populations for more than a millennium, may no longer make sense for a very large majority of the Western and Northern of the Europe in the 21st century. However, these populations, like other peoples in other cultures, can recognize the Beautiful in works of art whose the symbols are no longer ideologically significant for them, or even appear absurd to them. The beliefs change but the feeling of the Beautiful lasts.

The beautiful is therefore a fact of experience found throughout the history of civilizations.

The beautiful is certainly an idea, but for centuries it was not an ideology. And even less its opposite the Ugly. The multiple ideologies, most often religious, that have inhabited men's minds for thousands of years have used the idea of the beautiful to support their beliefs the most diverse and even opposite.

The assertion that Beauty does not exist, is purely subjective, is a false idea, conceived and spread in the second half of the 20th century for ideological and economic reasons. Man can indeed invent ideologies, beliefs, who deny the Beautiful and the Good. This capacity for invention of the most diverse and contrary beliefs makes the difference between man and animals.

It is an evolution but it is not necessarily a progress. It may be, it is always, inevitably, in some aspects, also a regression. The ability to invent the beautiful meets its opposite, that of inventing the Ugly. And even, as in official contemporary art, to make it a rule, a doctrine. The capacity for good is inseparable from that of doing evil. And the formulation of truths opens the door wide to lies.

The ideological motives are that this relativism makes it possible to justify the ugly art, the academic art , and that the ugly Art is a criterion of distinction between the Enlightened and those who are not.

In addition to the ideological motives, this statement also makes it possible to manufacture and sell the Laid, which is an excellent deal.

And this is not the least reason for this success. The Official, State-owned Contemporary Art, the art of the great International Cultural Organizations has of course been linked to the great capitalism of merchants and financiers, and to the "philanthropic" Great Foundations which are the emanation of it. Foundations for which profit can be made about beauty, but just as well with the ugly. And if the ugly is of better profit, they will not hesitate. They can even make you believe that the ugly is beautiful. And while waiting for your conversion, they make you believe that it is legitimate and especially superiorly intelligent. Because the more the potential buyer will remain gaping mouth in front of the "work of art" the bigger he opens open its wallet.

  

Jean François Millet. 1814-1875. Paris.

La Becquée. The Becquée.

Lille. Musée des Beaux Arts

Naturalisme, Réalisme

  

1815/30-1940 UNE PERIODE PLURIELLE

DE LA PEINTURE EUROPENNE 2

 

De 1830/1850 à 1940 environ, c'est en Europe la période de l'Art Moderne.

Le 19è siècle et les toutes premières années du 20è, en Europe, se caractérisent en peinture par la très grande diversité des thèmes abordés par les peintres, dans un registre aussi bien profane que religieux. De même que par la grande diversité des techniques picturales, tantôt classiques, tantôt modernes, utilisées souvent simultanément. Cette période de la peinture européenne est multiple, comme en équilibre entre son riche passé et un avenir encore mal défini. Pendant tout ce siècle l'Europe n'obéit pas à une idéologie unique. Au contraire, des élites partisanes de doctrines très différentes, prétendent à la domination du continent, mais sans pouvoir s'imposer seules et exclure leurs rivaux. En peinture c'est un magnifique chant du cygne de l'Europe, qui se déploie dans un environnement politique totalement chaotique, marqué par des guerres absurdes et autodestructrices.

Quand l'Europe se suicide politiquement, son art explose, une fois de plus, (une dernière fois ?) dans un festival de Beauté et d'Inventivité.

Un Art très imaginatif, dont l'extraordinaire diversité, technique et thématique, est le reflet des tensions existantes entre les différentes composantes de la culture européenne, les différentes croyances alors encore vivantes dans cette fin de l'Europe :

- Les croyances traditionnelles héritées des valeurs du passé de l'Europe, qui sont encore très actives dans le peuple, et aussi dans une partie de l'élite économique, idéologique et politique. Dieu, la Religion, les Devoirs, Ordre, Tradition, Travail, Famille, Patrie ...

- Les croyances nouvelles, revendiquant les idées conçues par la nouvelle idéologie montante, la nouvelle religion pour tous les Hommes, celle des Lumières : Révolution, Science, Progrès, Homme, Démocratie, les Droits, Bonheur, Modernité....De nouvelles valeurs très influentes dans une autre partie de l'élite économique, idéologique et politique de l'Europe.

Cette diversité des croyances en des valeurs différentes et même totalement opposées est l'explication de ce double constat :

En politique des affrontements incessants et meurtriers, jusqu'aux génocides à répétition.

En peinture, l'Art Moderne, ce sont des inventions remarquables : Une esthétique renouvelée par l'observation des arts du passé de l'Europe : byzantins, romans et gothiques. La peinture plate de ces "temps obscurs" a en réalité inspiré toute la peinture de l'Art Moderne. Mais d'autres approches du Beau ont été développées : l'esquisse, le tachisme.... et une nouveauté absolue apparaît, du moins en Europe: l'Art Abstrait. En Europe, parce que dans le domaine de l'art abstrait, la Chine nous avait précédé, de très loin.

Les artistes bénéficient de cette situation de concurrence idéologique : ils y gagnent la liberté de peindre selon leurs goûts et leurs idées propres. Ils ne sont pas contraints d'obéir aux injonctions d'institutions officielles ou dominantes. En France la résistance de l'Académie à la peinture impressionniste n'a duré que quelques années. Le 19è siècle est très certainement dans toute l'histoire de la peinture européenne le siècle où les artistes ont jouit de la plus grande liberté.

Les artistes européens de cette époque ont la liberté de choisir leurs thèmes dans une très large gamme de sujets et de les traiter selon pratiquement toutes les techniques possibles, aussi bien classiques que modernistes ou ressurgies d'un passé lointain comme "la peinture plate".

Comme l'écrit Aude Kerros dans "L'Imposture de l'art contemporain" (Eyrolles 2016) : " La création à Paris se définit, fait unique au monde, comme autonome. Les artistes peuvent être reconnus et légitimés en dehors de la reconnaissance de ses principaux commanditaires, l’État, l’Église et les critères de l'Académie. Paris est le lieu de la coexistence de l'académisme et de la modernité. Cette exception remarquable durera plus d'un siècle".

Il est certain que Paris est à cette époque le centre de l'art européen, mais cette situation se retrouve dans toute l'Europe au moins de l'Ouest.

C'est une première dans l'histoire européenne. Il est certain que les artistes découvrent une liberté que ne connaissaient pas leurs ancêtres de l'époque médiévale ou même de la Renaissance et des Temps Classiques.

 

Cela ne signifie nullement d'ailleurs que les artistes de l'époque médiévale, catholique et orthodoxe, aient vécu leur situation comme une contrainte. Tout l'art européen démontre par sa spontanéité, sa beauté, sa sincérité, sa permanence pendant mille ans, que les élites et les peuples partageaient la même vision du monde et adhéraient, sauf des exception non significatives en terme de civilisation globale, aux croyances formulées par l'Eglise catholique à l'ouest, orthodoxe à l'est.

A la Renaissance il n'apparaît aucune rupture idéologique réelle. Seulement une évolution qui ouvre à certains artistes les portes d'accès à des thèmes nouveaux tirés de l'antiquité grecque et romaine, thèmes destinés à une petite élite aristocratique et grand bourgeoise. Rien ne change en ce qui concerne la peinture destinée aux populations. On ne constate pas de réel conflit entre les deux inspirations artistiques qui se côtoient paisiblement. Les élites de ces temps n'ont pas un art séparé, elles continuent de partager avec les populations l'art religieux. Mais elles ont développé un art particulier dont les thèmes sont profanes et totalement orientés vers le passé gréco-romain de l'Europe.

La Réforme dans les pays qu'elle concerne s'impose sans souci aucun des croyances des peuples exactement comme l'avait fait le catholicisme à partir du 5è siècle. La Réforme impose ainsi l'abandon presque total des thèmes religieux ou de ceux tirés de l'antiquité, et les artistes devront se conformer à cette nouvelle idéologie. Il faudra qu'ils se tournent vers une description de la nature et de la société de leur temps. Mais là encore on n'observe pas que les artistes oeuvrant dans ce nouveau contexte aient ressenti ces nouvelles orientations comme une contrainte. Elites, artistes et populations de ces pays du nord de l'Europe, peu marqués par les influences romaines, tant celle de l'Antiquité que celle de l'Eglise, partagent sans aucun doute une même vision du monde dont leur art est une expression libre exactement comme l'avait été la peinture romane et gothique pendant un millénaire.

La peinture officielle, académique, totalement élitiste, idéologiquement monolithique et totalitaire apparaît à partir des années 1950 et suivantes, en provenance de New York, où elle était apparue dans les années 1920 et suivantes. C'est l'Art Contemporain, un art officiel, imposé, pas seulement réservé mais séparé, hautement financé, et fortement financier. Les artistes libres se réfugieront alors dans l'art commercial privé et l'art des rues. Cette dichotomie artistique est certainement très significative, un reflet de certaines caractéristiques majeures de la société contemporaine.

Le constat le plus évident est que s'est imposé en haut de l'échelle sociale un art séparé, réservé aux élites et qui n'a plus la fonction inter-sociale qui a été constamment celle des arts anciens dans l'histoire de l'Europe et même celle universelle. C'est le constat d'une rupture du dialogue entre les classes, tout au moins à ce niveau de l'art. Cela n'exclut pas nécessairement que le dialogue inter-social puisse s'établir par d'autres voies. Mais plus par le biais de l'art officiel, sauf peut être l'exception de l' architecture.

La radio, le cinéma, la grande presse, la publicité ne fonctionnent pas comme des vecteurs d'une réelle communication entre les élites et les peuples mais bien plus essentiellement comme des instruments de propagande. Ils sont les circuits déterminants par lesquels les élites idéologiques et politiques exercent leur contrôle sur la pensée des peuples, à tous les étages de l'échelle sociale et culturelle..

L'art privé et l'art des rues, un secteur important de l'art vrai, fonctionnent plus comme des "réserves culturelles", bien délimitées, dont la fonction est fort proche de celles des réserves naturelles ou animales.

Il en est de même d'ailleurs du non art des rues, des graffitis vandales.

De tous temps, à toutes les époques, l'art autorise une lecture des conditions idéologiques, politiques, sociales, techniques, dans lequel il s'est exprimé.

 

1815/30 - 1940 A PLURAL PERIOD OF THE EUROPEAN PAINTING 2

 

From 1830/1850 to around 1940, it was in Europe the period of Modern Art.

The 19th century and the first years of the 20th, in Europe, are characterized in painting by the very great diversity of the themes addressed by the painters, in a register as well profane as religious. As well as by the great diversity of pictorial techniques, sometimes classical, sometimes modern, often used simultaneously. This period of European painting is multiple, as in balance between its rich past and a future still ill-defined. Throughout this century Europe does not obey a single ideology. On the contrary, partsan elites from very different doctrines claim to dominate the continent, but can not impose themselves and exclude their rivals.

In painting it is a magnificent song of the swan of Europe, which unfolds in a totally chaotic political environment, marked by absurd and self-destructive wars.

When Europe commits suicide politically, its art explodes, once again, (one last time?) In a festival of Beauty and Inventiveness.

A very imaginative Art, whose extraordinary diversity, technical and thematic, is a reflection of the tensions existing between the different components of European culture, the different beliefs then still alive in this end of Europe:

- Traditional beliefs inherited from the values of Europe's past, which are still very active in the people, and also in part of the economic, ideological and political elite. God, Religion, Duties, Order, Tradition, Work, Family, Fatherland ...

- New beliefs, claiming the ideas conceived by the new rising ideology, the new religion for all men, the "Enlightenment": Revolution, Science, Progress, Man, Democracy, Rights, Happiness, Modernity .... New values very influential in another part of the economic, ideological and political elite of Europe.

This diversity of beliefs in different and even totally opposite values is the explanation of this double observation:

In politics of incessant and deadly clashes, until repeated genocides.

In painting, Modern Art, these are remarkable inventions: An aesthetic renewed by the observation of the arts of the past of Europe: Byzantine, Romanesque and Gothic. The flat painting of these "dark times" has in fact inspired all the painting of Modern Art. But other approaches of Beau have been developed: the sketch, the tachisme .... and an absolute novelty appears, at least in Europe: Abstract Art. In Europe, because in the field of abstract art, China had preceded us, from very far away.

Artists benefit from this situation of ideological competition: they gain the freedom to paint according to their own tastes and ideas. They are not forced to obey the injunctions of official or dominant institutions. In France, the Academy's resistance to Impressionist painting lasted only a few years. The 19th century is certainly in the history of European painting the century when artists have enjoyed the greatest freedom.

European artists of this period have the freedom to choose their themes in a very wide range of subjects and to treat them according to practically all the possible techniques, as well classic as modernist or ressurgies of a distant past like "the flat painting".

As Aude de Kerros writes in "The Imposture of Contemporary Art" (Eyrolles 2016): "The creation in Paris is defined himself as autonomous, a fact unique in the world. The artists can be recognized and legitimized outside the recognition of its main sponsors, the State, the Church and the criteria of the Academy. Paris is the place of the coexistence of academism and modernity.This remarkable exception will last more than a century "

It is true that Paris was at this time the center of European art, but this situation is found throughout Europe at least from the West.

This is a first in European history. It is certain that artists discover a freedom that their ancestors of the medieval or even of the Renaissance and Classical times did not know.

 

This does not mean that artists of the medieval and catholic period have experienced their situation as a constraint. All the European art shows by its spontaneity, its beauty, its sincerity, its permanence for a thousand years, that the elites and peoples shared the same view of the world and adhered, except for non-significant exceptions in terms of global civilization, to the beliefs formulated by the Church. Catholic in the west, orthodox in the east.

 

At the Renaissance there is no real ideological break. Only an evolution that opens to some artists the doors of access to new themes drawn from Greek and Roman antiquity, themes intended for a small aristocratic elite and bourgeois. Nothing changes as far as painting for the peoples. There is no real conflict between the two artistic inspirations that coexist peacefully. The elites of those times do not have a separate art, they continue to share religious art with the peoples. But the elites have developed a particular art whose themes are secular and totally oriented towards the Greco-Roman past of Europe.

 

The Reformation in the countries it concerns imposes themselves without concern any of the beliefs of the peoples exactly as Catholicism had done at the 5th century. The Reformation thus imposes the almost total abandonment of religious themes or those drawn from antiquity, and the artists will have to conform to this new ideology. They will have to turn to a description of the nature and society of their time. But again it is not observed that artists working in this new context have felt these new orientations as a constraint. Elites, artists and populations of these countries of northern Europe, little marked by Roman influences, both that of antiquity and that of the Church, undoubtedly share the same vision of the world whose art is an expression free exactly as Romanesque and Gothic painting had been since a millennium.

 

Official, academic, totally elitist, ideologically monolithic and totalitarian painting appears from the 1950s onward, from New York, where it appeared in the 1920s and later. It is Contemporary Art, an official art, imposed, not only reserved but separate, highly financed, and highly financial. Free artists will then take refuge in private commercial art and street art. This artistic dichotomy is certainly very significant, a reflection of certain major characteristics of contemporary society.

The most obvious observation is that at the top of the social ladder there has emerged a separate art, reserved for the elite, which no longer has the intersocial function that has constantly been that of the ancient arts in the history of Europe. and even the universal history. This is the finding of a break in dialogue between classes, at least at this level of art. This does not necessarily exclude that intersocial dialogue can be established by other means. But not through official art, except perhaps the exception of architecture.

Radio, cinema, the press, advertising do not function as vectors of real communication between elites and peoples, but more essentially as instruments of propaganda. They are the decisive circuits by which the ideological and political elites exercise their control over the thinking of peoples at all levels of the social and cultural ladder.

Private art and street art, an important sector of true art, function more as well-demarcated, "cultural reserves" whose function is very close to that of natural or animal reserves. The same is also the non-art of the streets, vandal graffitis.

At all times art allows a reading of the ideological, political, social, and technical conditions in which it has expressed itself.

  

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn 1606 1669. Amsterdam

Man with helmet. Homme avec casque sans date.

Groningen. Groninger museum

 

LE BEAU EST UNE EXPÉRIENCE PARTAGÉE

 

"Le monde discerne la beauté, et, par là le laid se révèle. Le monde reconnaît le bien et, par là le mal se révèle."

Dao De Jing, le Livre de la Voie et de la Vertu

LAO TSEU (Laozi)

 

"The world discerns beauty, and hence the ugly is revealed. The world recognizes good and hence evil is revealed."

Dao De Jing, the Book of the Way and Virtue

LAO TSEU (Laozi)

  

"Tout l’art florentin depuis Giotto et tout au long du Quattrocento, possède cette stupéfiante qualité de vérité absolue, reconnue. L’effet immédiat d’un grand Giotto ou d’un Masaccio est de laisser le spectateur sans voix. Cela s’appelait autrefois la Beauté."

MARIE MAC CARTHY "Les Pierres de Florence" 1956.

 

"Everything Florentine art from Giotto and throughout the Quattrocento has this amazing quality of absolute truth recognized. The immediate effect of a large Giotto or Masaccio is to let the audience speechless. It s' once called Beauty. "

MARY MAC CARTHY "The Stones of Florence" 1956.

  

Contrairement à une idée reçue, toute nouvelle, considérée comme une évidence à notre époque, le Beau n'est pas subjectif. Non, le Beau n'est pas seulement une question de goût personnel, un arbitraire total, absolument égocentrique. Le beau n'est pas autiste, il est un partage, même si certaines de ses formes peuvent être plus accessibles à certaines personnes qu'à d'autres, à certaines cultures et pas à d'autres.

La preuve que le Beau existe est qu'il est reconnu et admis de manière unanime par les opinions publiques, et celle des spécialistes, pour des millions d' oeuvres dont les dates de création vont de - 3000 à nos jours. Le Beau est d'ailleurs reconnu, vécu comme une expérience généralement partagée, non seulement dans l'art mais dans tout le spectacle de la Nature.

Il faut laisser de côté les définitions abstraites. Les Philosophes n'ont jamais réussi à donner une définition satisfaisante et incontestable du Beau. Laissons à Platon son Idée d'un Beau transcendant impossible à atteindre. Restons à un niveau plus trivial, celui de la beauté remarquable, concrète : il n'y a absolument aucune discussion sérieuse quant à l'existence du Beau, d'une sensation commune, une émotion poétique, partagée par des millions d'hommes, depuis L'Art Paléolithique, l'Art Egyptien jusqu'à l'Art Moderne, depuis la Chine jusqu'à l'Europe et l'Amérique.

Le Beau ne se définit pas, il se ressent individuellement et collectivement. Individuellement ressenti le beau est seulement subjectif, il n'a d'importance que pour une personne, collectivement ressenti, partagé par les élites et les populations, ensemble, il s'objective. Il devient une réalité à l'échelle d'une collectivité plus ou moins large, et même jusqu'à la Terre entière. Le Beau est tout simplement un fait vérifié par l'expérience de milliers de générations d'humains sur l'ensemble de la Terre.

On peut même soutenir que des trois idées fondamentales Beau, Bien, Vrai, le Beau est la première dont nous pouvons repérer l'apparition avec certitude dans l'histoire des hommes: Parce qu'il laisse des traces que nous constatons. Quand apparait l'idée de Bien? Quand apparaît l'idée de Vrai ?

Le Beau ne se définit pas, il se ressent et il évolue en fonction du temps. Sans doute l'erreur de l'Académisme a-t-elle été de vouloir définir les règles du Beau, in abstracto, et les impressionnistes ont eu très vite raison contre lui.

Le Beau peut prendre des formes différentes selon les cultures ou les civilisations. Il est reconnu comme Beau à l'intérieur de son domaine culturel, mais aussi souvent à l'extérieur.

La peinture des lettrés chinois est très particulière, il est possible à titre individuel de ne pas l'apprécier, mais il serait faux de parler à son propos d'un Art du laid, et elle n'est pas jugée comme tel par l'épreuve du temps et de sa confrontation avec d'autres cultures comme celle occidentale.

Le Beau est tout simplement un fait vérifié par l'expérience de milliers de générations d'humains sur l'ensemble de la Terre. Le tableau de Léonard de Vinci, la Joconde (Mona Lisa) et le succès qu'il rencontre auprès des populations extrême orientales est une preuve de cette universalité du Beau.

Il existe "un sens du Beau, commun à toute l'humanité" qui est indépendant des modes, des religions et des idéologies et même des cultures. Même s'il ne faut pas négliger certaines spécificités ou variabilités tenant à telle culture ou à telle époque. Le constat global reste celui d'un partage du sentiment du beau à l'échelle universelle.

Le beau s'identifie par une intense satisfaction, un sentiment de bonheur, de joie, d'ordre sensuel ou intellectuel qui envahit la personne, c'est son point de départ subjectif . Ce point de départ subjectif qui s'objective par le partage de ce sentiment avec une foule d'autres personnes, de cultures et d'époques différentes, pour parvenir à l'émergence d'une quasi unanimité et d'une quasi universalité.

Le beau est certes un vécu subjectif en ce qu'il est ressenti individuellement, mais il s'objective par l'opinion convergente, formulée au cours du temps, par les peuples et les élites. C'est ce jugement commun des peuples et des élites, cette expérience partagée, qui objective et prouve le Beau.

Ce qui est subjectif ce sont les préférences des individus. Ce qui est subjectif c'est quand une personne préfère les fresques romanes ou l'art du gothique international à la peinture de la Renaissance Italienne.

Quand une personne préfère l'art du paysage ou la peinture de moeurs à la peinture religieuse.

Si on avait dit à Fra Angelico, à Raphaël ou à Rubens que le Beau n'existe pas et est affaire purement subjective, ils auraient haussé les épaules.

Non seulement le sentiment du Beau est un fait d'expérience, un bien commun à l'humanité, qui traverse les temps et les cultures, mais le Beau peut être ressenti alors que les idéologies qui ont inspiré les oeuvres d'art à une époque donnée, dans une région de la Terre, sont mortes en tant que croyances actives.

Il n'est pas nécessaire de croire dans les Esprits, les Dieux Egyptiens, Grecs, Hindous ou dans les Bouddhas pour apprécier la beauté de l'art des cavernes, de l'Egypte antique, de la Grèce, de l'Inde, ou de l'Asie du Sud Est.

De même, les représentations de Dieu et du monde qui sont celles des églises chrétiennes, qui ont été vivantes et profondément significatives pour les populations européennes pendant plus d'un millénaire, peuvent ne plus avoir de sens pour une très large majorité des populations de l'Europe de l'Ouest et du Nord au 21è siècle. Il reste cependant que ces populations, comme d'autres peuples dans d'autres cultures, peuvent reconnaître le Beau dans des oeuvres d'art dont les symboles ne sont plus idéologiquement significatifs pour elles, voire même leur paraissent absurdes. Les croyances changent mais le sentiment du Beau dure.

Le Beau est donc un fait constaté au travers de toute l'histoire des civilisations.

Le Beau est certes une idée, mais pendant des siècles ce n'était pas une idéologie. Et encore moins son contraire le Laid. Les multiples idéologies, le plus souvent religieuses, qui ont habité durant des millénaires l'esprit des hommes ont utilisé l'idée du beau pour soutenir leurs croyances les plus diverses et même opposées.

A partir de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle les élites idéologiques et politiques de l'Occident, athées, ont décidé d' imposer la croyance que le Beau n'existait pas, et de faire croire que le Laid est une valeur recommandable. L'art contemporain officiel en est la démonstration.

L'affirmation que le Beau n'existe pas, est purement subjectif, est une idée fausse, conçue et répandue au cours de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle pour des motifs idéologiques et économiques.

Les motifs idéologiques sont, notamment, que ce relativisme permet de justifier l'Art Laid officiel et que l'art laid est un critère de distinction entre les Eclairés et ceux qui ne le sont pas. L'homme peut en effet inventer des idéologies, des croyances, qui nient le Beau et le Bien. Cette capacité d'invention de croyances les plus diverses et contraires fait la différence entre l'homme et les animaux.

C'est une évolution mais ce n'est pas nécessairement un progrès. Ce peut être, c'est toujours, inévitablement, sous certains aspects, aussi une régression. La capacité d'inventer le Beau rencontre son contraire, celle d'inventer le Laid. Et même, comme dans l'art contemporain officiel, d'en faire une règle, une doctrine. La capacité au Bien est inséparable de celle de faire le Mal. Et la formulation de vérités ouvre toute grande la porte aux mensonges.

Outre les motifs idéologiques, cette affirmation permet aussi de fabriquer et de vendre du Laid, ce qui est une excellente affaire.

 

THE BEAUTIFUL IS A SHARED EXPERIENCE

 

"Everything Florentine art from Giotto and throughout the Quattrocento has this amazing quality of absolute truth recognized. The immediate effect of a large Giotto or Masaccio is to let the audience speechless. It s' once called Beauty. "

MARY MAC CARTHY "The Stones of Florence" 1956.

 

Contrary to an accepted idea, all new, considered as obvious in our time, the Beautiful is not subjective. No, the beautiful is not only a matter of personal taste, a total arbitrary, absolutely egocentric. The beautiful is not autistic, it is a sharing, although some of its forms may be more accessible to some people than others, to some cultures and not to others.

The proof that the Beau exists is that it is recognized and unanimously accepted by the public opinion, and that of the specialists, for millions of works whose creation dates range from - 3000 to the present day. The Beautiful is recognized, lived as an experience generally shared, not only in art, but in all the spectacle of Nature

The abstract definitions must be left aside. The Philosophers have never succeeded in giving a satisfactory and incontestable definition of the Beautiful. Let us leave Plato his idea of a beautiful transcendent impossible to reach. Let's stay at a more trivial level, that of remarkable, concrete beauty : there is absolutely no serious discussion about the existence of Beau, a common sensation, a poetic emotion, shared by millions of men, from Egyptian Art to Modern Art, since China to Europe and America. The Beautiful does not define itself, it is felt individually and collectively. Individually felt the beautiful is only subjective, it only matters for a person, collectively felt, shared by the elites and the people, together, he is objectively. The Beautiful becomes a reality at the scale of a community more or less wide and even to the whole earth. The Beautiful is simply a fact verified by the experience of thousands of generations of humans on the whole Earth.

One can even argue that of the three fundamental ideas, Beautiful, Well, Truth, the Beautiful is the first of which we can spot the appearance with certainty in the history of men: Because the Beautiful leaves traces that we see. When does the idea of the Well appear? When does the idea of Truth appear?

The beautifful is not defined, it is felt and it evolves with time. No doubt the mistake of Academism has been to want to define the rules of the Beautiful, in abstracto, and the impressionists were very quickly right against him .

But there is absolutely no serious discussion about the existence of Beauty, a common sensation, a poetic émotion, shared by millions of people, since the Paleolithic art, the Egyptian Art to Modern Art, from China to Europe and America.

The Beautiful can take different forms according to cultures or civilizations. It is recognized as beautiful inside its cultural domain, but also often outside.

The painting of the Chinese scholars is very particular, it is possible individually not to appreciate it, but it would be wrong to speak about it an Art of the ugly, and it is not judged as such by the the test of time and its confrontation with other cultures like the Western one. The Beautiful is simply a fact verified by the experience of thousands of generations of humans all over the Earth. The painting of Leonardo da Vinci, the Mona Lisa (Mona Lisa) and the success met among the populations of the Far East testify to this universality of the Beautiful.

There is "a sense of beauty, common to all mankind" which is independent of modes, religions and ideologies and even cultures. Even though certain specificities or variability should not be neglected in relation to such a culture or at that time. The overall observation remains that of a sharing of the feeling of beauty on a universal scale.

The beauty is identified by an intense satisfaction, a feeling of happiness, of joy, of sensual or intellectual order that invades the person, it is his subjective starting point. This subjective starting point becomes objective by sharing this sentiment with a multitude of other people, cultures and different eras, in order to achieve the emergence of almost unanimity and almost universality.

The beauty is certainly a subjective experience in that it is felt individually, but it is objective by the convergent opinion, formulated in the course of time, by the peoples and the elites. It is this common judgement of peoples and elites, this shared experience, which objective and proves the beautiful.

 

What is subjective what are the preferences of individuals. What is subjective is when a person prefers Romanesque frescoes or the art of international Gothic painting of the Italian Renaissance. When a person prefers the art of the landscape or the painting of morals to religious painting.

If someone had told to Fra Angelico, Raphaël or Rubens that beauty does not exist and is purely subjective matter, they would have shrugged.

The Beautiful is certainly a subjective, individually felt, but it is objectified by the synthesis of the multiple opinions of peoples and their elites.

Not only is the feeling of the Beautiful a fact of experience, a common heritage of humanity, which passes through times and cultures, but the Beautiful can be felt while the ideologies that inspired the works of art at a certain time, in a region of the Earth, have died as active beliefs.

There is no need to believe in spirits, in the Gods of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hindus or in the Buddhas for to appreciate the beauty of the cave art, or of the ancient Egypt, the Greece, of the India, or of South East Asia. Similarly, the representations of God and of the world, which are those of the Christian churches, which have been alive and profoundly meaningful to European populations for more than a millennium, may no longer make sense for a very large majority of the Western and Northern of the Europe in the 21st century. However, these populations, like other peoples in other cultures, can recognize the Beautiful in works of art whose the symbols are no longer ideologically significant for them, or even appear absurd to them. The beliefs change but the feeling of the Beautiful lasts.

The beautiful is therefore a fact of experience found throughout the history of civilizations.

The beautiful is certainly an idea, but for centuries it was not an ideology. And even less its opposite the Ugly. The multiple ideologies, most often religious, that have inhabited men's minds for thousands of years have used the idea of the beautiful to support their beliefs the most diverse and even opposite.

The assertion that Beauty does not exist, is purely subjective, is a false idea, conceived and spread in the second half of the 20th century for ideological and economic reasons. Man can indeed invent ideologies, beliefs, who deny the Beautiful and the Good. This capacity for invention of the most diverse and contrary beliefs makes the difference between man and animals.

It is an evolution but it is not necessarily a progress. It may be, it is always, inevitably, in some aspects, also a regression. The ability to invent the beautiful meets its opposite, that of inventing the Ugly. And even, as in official contemporary art, to make it a rule, a doctrine. The capacity for good is inseparable from that of doing evil. And the formulation of truths opens the door wide to lies.

The ideological motives are that this relativism makes it possible to justify the ugly art, the academic art , and that the ugly Art is a criterion of distinction between the Enlightened and those who are not.

In addition to the ideological motives, this statement also makes it possible to manufacture and sell the Laid, which is an excellent deal.

   

Diego Maria Rivera 1886-1957 Mexico Paris

Le sculpteur français Pauls Cornet

The french sculptor Paul Cornet

Copenhague Statens Museum for Kunst

 

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques ( Constable, Turner, Delacroix ) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° Le Géométrisme. La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque). On a parlé aussi de Cloisonnisme. Qui va déboucher sur l'art abstrait.

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

7° L'art Abstrait, enfin, une nouveauté à peu près totale dans l'art européen.

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès la paix revenue en Europe après 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain s'impose en Europe après 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec beaucoup de raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation. L'explosion d'originalité, de libertés, et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient avec l'Art Contemporain, un système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement correct. Et l'ldéologie nouvelle veut que l'esthétique et le partage du beau avec la population, ne soit plus un but de l'art officiel. L'art se doit d'être le contraire de tout ce qui s'est fait dans le passé. L'inversion des valeurs est totale, et totalitairement imposée.

Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, ou dans certaines expositions spécialisées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau, La Modernité. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants" qui méprisent les peuples, qu'ils gouvernent "démocratiquement". Il est vrai qu'à côté de l'art officiel, il existe un espace de liberté pour les artistes dans l'art privé commercial et l'art des rues. Mais la question essentielle demeure : Comme l'art Egyptien, Grec, Romain, Catholique, l'art officiel est le reflet de la pensée de l'élite idéologique et politique actuelle, de sa vision du monde, et de son projet pour les peuples. On peut dire qu'il révèle ses intentions profondes.

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

 

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Constable, Turner, Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° The Geometrism. The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque). We also talked about Cloisonnism. Which will lead to abstract art.

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

7° Abstract art, finally, a novelty almost complete in European art.

 

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

We can even think that Modern Art began as soon as the peace returned to Europe after 1815, with some romantic painters like the French Eugène Delacroix, or with William Turner, a fantastic innovator, announcer of impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853. These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

Contemporary Art imposes itself in Europe after 1945. Some historians fixed its birth in the 1950s. One can also claim, with a lot of reasons, that its date of birth, in any case ideological and political, is the creation in New York. of the Moma by the Rockefellers (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation.

The explosion of originality, freedom, and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes with contemporary art, a system that congeals in the ideologically correct. And the new ideology wants that aesthetics and the sharing of beauty with the population, is no longer a goal of the official art. Art must be the opposite of everything that has been done in the past. The inversion of the values is total, and totally imposed.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, or in some specialized exhibitions, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New, the Modernity. This is the Art of the clean slate of the Past: an art without roots, reserved for an elite of so-called "Comprenants" who despise the people, that they govern "democratically". It is true that alongside official art, there is a space of freedom for artists in private commercial art and street art. But the essential question remains: Like Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Catholic art, the official art is a reflection of the thinking of the current ideological and political elite, of its vision of the world, and of its project for the peoples . It can be said that he reveals his deep intentions.

  

Willem Claesz Heda. 1594-1682.

Nature morte ornée.

Ornate Still Life. 1638.

Hamburg Kunsthalle.

 

LE BEAU ET LE BIEN. LE LAID ET LE MAL. LE VRAI ET LE FAUX.

 

L'art de tous les temps et dans toutes les sociétés est un moyen pour les élites d'imposer une religion (sacrée) ou une idéologie (profane, laïque). L'art est donc un intéressant révélateur de la pensée philosophique et morale qui inspire les élites d'une société donnée en un temps donné. Ces religions ou idéologies peuvent différer beaucoup quant au bénéfice que les peuples vont, ou non, en retirer. Certaines sont propices à l'établissement de civilisations au long cours (Egypte ancienne, Antiquité greco-romaine, Christianisme, Hindouisme, Bouddhisme, Islam....) d'autres sont plus ou moins rapidement mortelles ( Sociétés Aztèque et Inca, Communisme, National-Socialisme).

En effet certaines idéologies, sacrées ou profanes, conçues par les élites, ont été, à plus ou moins court terme, acceptées et totalement partagées par les peuples qui y ont adhéré sans réticence. Elles peuvent alors s'imposer totalement sans heurter les sentiments et les libertés des populations, ou tout au moins d'une majorité largement significative, voire faire l'unanimité à l'intérieur de leur société durant une longue période de temps.

D'autres idéologies par contre ont été imposées par les élites, mais n'ont pas suscité l'adhésion unanime ou majoritaire des peuples qui sont entrés en résistance, passive ou active avec plus ou moins de succès au bout d'une période plus ou moins longue.

 

Ce n'est certainement pas par hasard si l'art catholique et orthodoxe peignait Dieu, le Christ, la Vierge et les Anges beaux, et Satan et les démons laids. C'est une convention qui se retrouve à peu près dans toutes les civilisations. Platon dans certains de ses dialogues enseigne que le vrai, le beau et le bien sont trois formes de l'être suprême. La Beauté ce serait aussi, selon lui, la Vérité et le Bien. " Le Beau est la splendeur du Vrai". Les artistes des temps passés et leurs commanditaires savaient qu'il existe entre le Beau et le Bien d'une part et le Laid et le Mal, le Vrai et le Faux, d'autre part des correspondances subtiles, des accords profonds. Les peuples qui en restent aux faits apparents, et aux évidences de bon sens simples, mais pas toujours simplistes, ressentent instinctivement, ces consonances.

 

Il faut donc questionner le renversement total des valeurs que les élites politiques et idéologiques, politiquement correctes, et les artistes à leur service , ont imposé à la peinture occidentale depuis le milieu du 20è siècle en décidant de favoriser une peinture (et une sculpture), non seulement absurde, mais aussi totalement et volontairement laide. Un art officiel, académique et obligatoire, qui remplit les musées de tout l'Occident et qui s'exporte avec profit. Un art contemporain qu'il ne faut pas confondre avec l'art commercial privé et celui des rues, mais dont tout l'intérêt est de révéler les réelles tendances, intellectuelles et morales, qui inspirent et motivent, contrairement à tous leurs discours publics, les élites idéologiques et politiques qui gouvernent l'Occident.

Les choix artistiques des élites sont conditionnées par les idéologies, religieuses ou profanes, qu'elles inventent et imposent aux peuples. Ces idéologies ne sont jamais neutres. Elles ont des conséquences bonnes ou mauvaises, plus ou moins bonnes et/ou plus ou moins mauvaises sur les civilisations. Mais en définitive ce sont toujours les peuples qui paient la note.

 

Certes les équivalences Beau-Bien, Laid-Mal, Vrai-Faux peuvent être tout à fait trompeuses. Pour séduire le monde l'Antéchrist sera très Beau, tout le monde chrétien le sait. Certaines théories ou démonstrations scientifiques, qualifiées de magnifiquement belles par les mathématiciens et les physiciens, se sont effondrées : elles étaient fausses. Comme la très belle théorie de la gravitation de Newton, qui devra laisser la place à celle de la relativité générale d'Einstein.

Le bon sens populaire le sait aussi depuis longtemps: "C'est trop beau pour être vrai". "Visage d'ange, âme de démon", "l'habit ne fait pas le moine" etc

Il n'existe pas de lien absolument constant et évidemment nécessaire entre la Beauté et le Bien ou la Vérité. C'est plus subtile que cela, mais le lien est véritable, profond, même s'il n'est que relatif, et apparemment, pour nous, imparfait, aperçu indistinctement, intuitivement ressenti, mais exactement insaisissable en raison discursive.

Certains scientifiques posent clairement la question en termes à la fois affirmatifs et prudents. Paul Dirac :"si l'on travaille avec le but d'obtenir de la beauté dans ses équations on est dans une voie sûre de progrès". Roger Penrose: "c'est une chose mystérieuse que ce qui paraît élégant a de meilleures chances d'être vrai que ce qui est laid". Il est exact aussi que la perception du Beau est partiellement fonction des cultures, des apprentissages, et des intelligences. Il est vrai que Lascaux est beau depuis 30.000 ans, mais peu nombreux sont ceux qui sont capables de ressentir la beauté d'une formule mathématique. Et cela n'a finalement rien d'étonnant. L'hindouisme enseigne depuis plus de deux millénaires que la vérité telle qu'elle peut être perçue par les hommes est plurielle et donc relative. Il est bien normal que le Beau et le Bien fonctionnent selon les mêmes schémas aléatoires pour notre entendement limité.

Quand une forme de beauté ne rend plus compte de la réalité telle qu'elle est ressentie à une certaine époque de l'histoire par une population, ou telle qu'elle peut être techniquement rendue par les artistes de l'époque, il faut changer les critères du Beau. Mais pas nécessairement faire de l'art laid.

C'est ce qu'on fait les artistes des temps paléochrétiens et romans : Ils n'étaient plus capables de peindre comme leurs anciens de l'antiquité gréco-romaine. Ils ont peint autrement. Plus simplement. Ils ont supprimé les volumes, les expressions psychologiques, la perspective. Ils ont créé la "peinture plate" qui a duré en Europe du 5è siècle au début du 14è siècle environ. Ils ont changé les sujets de leur art bien sûr et les ont rendus conformes à l'idéologie chrétienne nouvelle. Mais ils n'ont pas peint laid. Ils n'ont pas peint absurde. Ils ont peint plat, mais beau, et plein de sens.

Un sens compréhensible par les peuples, même et surtout par les illettrés, qui constituaient l'immense majorité de la population européenne à laquelle ces artistes s'adressaient, sur instruction des élites idéologiques et politiques. C'est toute l'explication de l'architecture, mais aussi des fresques, des vitraux, des chapiteaux des églises Paléo-chrétiennes, de celles du "Moyen Age" Roman et Gothique: Communiquer avec les peuples, et bien sûr communiquer un message conforme au catéchisme officiel. Un art techniquement simple, mais inter-social, partagé entre les élites et les populations. Car les deux mondes, élites et peuples, croyaient en une même vision du monde.

De même pour les artistes de l'Art Moderne. Par exemple les Impressionnistes, en opposition aux Académiques. Les impressionnistes ont seulement changé les critères du beau. Cette nouvelle esthétique a suscité quelques oppositions très temporaires. Les taches floues et informes de Delacroix en premier, et des impressionnistes ensuite, vues par Jean Dominique Ingres ou Alexandre Cabanel, c'était l'horreur du non-art. On peut comprendre les deux camps.

Mais les impressionnistes n'ont pas peint laid, ni absurde. Ils n'ont aucunement peint contre les sentiments des peuples. Au contraire, c'étaient eux le peuple face aux grands bourgeois de l'Académie de Peinture. Leurs thèmes, le paysage essentiellement, étaient autrement plus populaires que les grands sujets historiques et mythologiques des peintres académiques. Sur bien des points les pré-impressionnistes et les impressionnistes se mettaient seulement à l'heure de la peinture des Pays Bas du siècle d'or qui avait près de deux siècles "d'avance", notamment quand aux thèmes, sur la peinture néoclassique et académique. C'est pourquoi d'ailleurs Napoléon III, qui avait tout compris, a très vite créé le Salon des Refusés.

Ce schéma s'est reproduit ensuite avec les post-impressionnistes, plus audacieux encore car ils sont allés chercher leurs modèles plus loin dans le passé. Ces peintres ce sont inspirés de la peinture plate de l'époque et paléo-chrétienne et romane, du premier gothique, qu'ils connaissaient fort bien, parce qu'ils fréquentaient assidument le musée du Louvre. Les post-impressionnistes n'ont pas peint laid ni absurde, ils ont seulement changé les règles du Beau.

Le Beau est un sentiment subjectif, personnel, qui s'objective par le partage et l'approbation des peuples et des élites. C'est un fait d'expérience collective et durable. Il est tout à fait possible de modifier les critères du beau. Ce n'est pas une révolution. C'est juste une évolution qui devra subir l'épreuve de l'approbation des élites, des peuples, et du temps.

Mais quand une élite idéologique et politique remplace, autoritairement et systématiquement, d'en haut, dans tout son art officiel, le beau par le laid, le sens partagé par l'absurde incommunicable, l'harmonie par l'abject, la sensation de joie et de bonheur par un sentiment de déréliction et d'avilissement, cette élite change totalement les repères fondamentaux de l'humanité au point peut être de quitter la civilisation.

C'est une question qui concerne directement les peuples, leur survie même : l'art officiel, laid et absurde, est nécessairement le reflet de la morale et de la politique qui inspire les élites idéologiques et politiques gouvernant l'Occident. Les élites ont nécessairement la morale et la politique de leur esthétique. Le Laid et l'Absurde, dans l'Art Contemporain Officiel, c'est la preuve d'une idéologie et d'une politique globale laide et absurde. Quand une élite érige en modèle artistique, une anti esthétique, c'est qu'elle a perdu le sens de la mesure et de l'harmonie. La négation systématique, méthodique, doctrinale, du Beau et du Sens est nécessairement la négation du Bien et du Vrai.

 

L'histoire de l'art européen contient un enseignement qui tient en un constat de fait et un jugement :

1° De - 500 à + 1950 l'art européen en peinture et en sculpture s'est voulu Beau et dans son ensemble a été beau.

2° A partir de la deuxième moitié du 20è siècle l'art européen, devenu l'art occidental, l'art officiel, celui des élites idéologiques et politiques, a rejeté la finalité du Beau. L'Art Contemporain officiel est Laid. Une anti esthétique, revendiquée comme telle.

Ce sont des faits. Il est possible de les nier, et de construire un "réel idéologique", une réalité inventée, c'est à dire fabriquée pour être conforme aux croyances actuelles. Mais ce sont des faits quand même.

3° l'Art Contemporain Officiel, laid, est un signe de décadence, de destruction, de mort. Car tout est lié, le Beau, le Bien, le Vrai. C'est un jugement, une opinion, qu'il est possible de ne pas partager.

  

BEAUTIFUL AND GOOD. UGLY AND EVIL. TRUE AND FALSE.

 

The art of all times and in all societies is a means for the elites to impose a (sacred) religion or an ideology (secular, secular). Art is therefore an interesting revealer of the philosophical and moral thought that inspires the elites of a given society in a given time. These religions or ideologies can differ a lot as to the benefit that peoples will or will not withdraw. Some are conducive to the establishment of long-term civilizations (ancient Egypt, Greek-Roman antiquity, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam ...) others are more or less rapidly mortal (Aztec and Inca society, Communism, national Socialism).

Indeed, certain ideologies, sacred or secular, conceived by the elites, have been, more or less short term, accepted and totally shared by the peoples who adhered to it without reluctance. They can then impose themselves completely without hurting the feelings and freedoms of the people, or at least a largely significant majority, even unanimity within their society for a long period of time.

Other ideologies, on the other hand, have been imposed by the elites, but did not generate the membership unanimous or majority of peoples that came into resistance, passive or active with more or less success after a shorter or longer period.

It is certainly not by chance that Catholic and Orthodox art painted God, Christ, the Virgin and the Angels, always beautifuls, and Satan and the demons, always ugly. It is a convention that is found in almost all civilizations. Plato in some of his dialogues teaches that the true, the beautiful and the good are three forms of the supreme being. Beauty is also, according to him, Truth and Good. "Beauty is the splendor of truth". The artists of past times and their sponsors knew that there is between Beauty and Good on the one hand and the Ugly and the Evil, the True and the False, on the other hand, subtle correspondences, deep chords. The peoples who prefer the apparent facts, and the simple but not always simplistic evidences of common sense, instinctively feel these consonances

It is therefore necessary to question the total reversal of the values that the political and ideological elites, politically correct, and the artists at their service have imposed on Western painting since the middle of the 20th century by deciding to favor a painting (and a sculpture), not only absurd, but also totally and willingly ugly. An official, academic and obligatory art, which fills the museums of all the Occident and which exports with profit. A contemporary art that should not be confused with commercial art and that of the streets (street art) , but whose whole interest is to reveal the real trends, intellectual and moral, which inspire and motivate, contrary to all their public speeches, the ideological and political elites that govern the West.

The artistic choices of the elites are conditioned by ideologies, religious or secular, which they invent and impose on the peoples. These ideologies are never neutral. They have good or bad consequences, more or less good and / or more or less bad on civilizations. But ultimately it is always the peoples who pay the bill.

Certainly the equivalences Beau-Bien, Laid-Mal, True-False can be quite misleading. To seduce the world the Antichrist will be very beautiful, every Christian knows it. Some theories or scientific demonstrations, described as magnificently beautiful by mathematicians and physicists, have collapsed: they were false. Like Newton's beautiful theory of gravitation, which will have to be replaced by Einstein's general relativity.

Popular wisdom has also known it for a long time: "It's too good to be true". "Angel face, soul of demon", "the habit does not make the monk" etc.

There is no absolutely constant and obviously necessary link between Beauty and Good or Truth. It is more subtle than that, but the connection is real, profound, even if it is only relative, and apparently, for us, imperfect, seen indistinctly, intuitively felt, but exactly elusive by discursive reason.

Some scientists clearly pose the question in both affirmative and cautious terms. Paul Dirac: "if you work with the goal of obtaining beauty in your equations, you are in a sure way of progress". Roger Penrose: "It's a mysterious thing that what looks elegant has a better chance of being true than what is ugly". It is also true that the perception of beauty is partly a function of cultures, learning, and intelligence. It is true that Lascaux has been beautiful for 30,000 years, but few people are able to feel the beauty of a mathematical formula. And this is not surprising. Hinduism has been teaching for more than two millennia that the truth as it can be perceived by men is plural and therefore relative. It is quite normal that Beauty and Good work according to the same random patterns for our limited understanding.

When a form of beauty no longer reflects reality as it is felt at a certain time in history by a population, or as it can be technically rendered by the artists of the time, we must change the criteria of Beau. But not necessarily make ugly art.

This is what the artists of paleochristian and Romanesque times have done: They were no longer able to paint like their ancients in Greco-Roman antiquity. They painted differently. More simply. They deleted the volumes, the psychological expressions, the perspective. They created the "flat paint" that lasted in Europe from the 5th century to the early 14th century. They changed the subjects of their art of course and made them conform to the new Christian ideology. But they did not paint ugly. They did not paint absurd. They painted flat, but beautiful, and full of meaning.

A meaning understandable by the people, even and especially by the illiterate, who constituted the vast majority of the European population to which these artists addressed, on the instruction of the ideological and political elites. This is the whole explanation of architecture, but also frescoes, stained glass, capitals of the Paleo-Christian churches, those of the "Middle Ages" Roman and Gothic: Communicating with the people, and of course communicating a message conform to the official catechism. A technically simple but inter-social art, shared between elites and populations. The both worlds, elites and peoples, believed in the same vision of the world.

Similarly for artists of Modern Art. For example the Impressionists, in opposition to Academicist. The Impressionists have only changed the criteria of the beautiful. This new aesthetic has given rise to some very temporary oppositions. The fuzzy and shapeless spots of Delacroix first, and the impressionists then, seen by Jean Dominique Ingres or Alexandre Cabanel, was the horror of non-art. We can understand both sides.

But the Impressionists did not paint ugly or absurd. They did not paint against the feelings of the people. On the contrary, they were the people against the great bourgeois of the Academy of Painting. Their themes, essentially the landscape, were far more popular than the great historical and mythological subjects of academicist painters. In many respects the pre-Impressionists and the Impressionists were returned only at the time of the painting of the Netherlands of the Golden Age, which had been "in advance" for two centuries, especially compared to the themes of neoclassicism and of academic painting. This is why Napoleon III, who had understood everything, quickly created the Salon des Refusés.

This pattern was then repeated with the post-Impressionists, even more daring because they went to look for their models further in the past. These painters are inspired by the flat painting of the time paleo-Christian and Romanesque, the first Gothic, which they knew very well, because they frequented the museum of the Louvre. The post-impressionists did not paint ugly or absurd, they only changed the rules of the Beautiful.

The beautiful is a subjective, personal feeling, which is objectified by the sharing and approval of peoples and elites. It is a fact of collective and lasting experience. It is quite possible to change the criteria of the beautiful. It's not a revolution. It is just an evolution that will have to be tested by the approval of elites, peoples, and time.

But when an ideological and political elite replaces, authoritatively and systematically, from above, in all its official art, the beautiful by the ugly, the sense shared by the incommunicable absurd, the harmony by the abject, the sensation of joy and happiness by a feeling of dereliction and degradation, this elite completely changes the fundamental landmarks of humanity, to the point may be, to leave the civilization.

It is a question that directly concerns the peoples, their very survival: the official art, ugly and absurd, is necessarily the reflection of the morality and politics that inspires the ideological and political elites governing the West. The elites necessarily have the moral and the politics of their aesthetics. The Ugly and the Absurd, in the Official Contemporary Art, is the proof of an ideology and an ugly and absurd global policy. When an elite erects as an artistic model, an anti-aesthetic, it is that it has lost the sense of measure and harmony. The systematic, methodical, doctrinal negation of Beauty and Sense is necessarily the negation of Good and Truth.

 

The history of European art contains a teaching that is based on a statement of fact and judgment:

1 ° From - 500 to + 1950 European art in painting and sculpture wanted to be beauitful, and as a whole was beautiful.

2 ° From the second half of the 20th century, European art, now Western art, the official art, that of ideological and political elites, rejected the finality of the beautiful. Official Contemporary Art is Ugly.

An anti aesthetic, claimed as such.

These are facts. It is possible to deny them, and to build an "ideological real", an invented reality, that is to say manufactured to conform to current beliefs. But these are facts anyway.

3 ° Official Contemporary Art, ugly, is a sign of decadence, destruction, death. Because everything is linked, the beautiful, the good, the true. It is a judgment, an opinion, that it is possible not to share.

  

Jubilee Hall is the oldest academic building on the campus of Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. When construction started in 1873 and was completed in 1876, it was the university's first permanent building, and is a good local example of Gothic Revival architecture. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1974, in recognition of the university's place as one of the first historically black colleges and universities to be established after the American Civil War. It presently serves as an undergraduate residence hall. In 2017 the Tennessee Historical Commission installed a marker honoring the Jubilee Singers, whose 1870s European tour raised the funds to pay for the building’s construction.

 

Three bracketed photos were taken with a handheld Nikon D5200 and combined with Photomatix Pro to create this HDR image. Additional adjustments were made in Photoshop CS6.

 

"For I know the plans I have for you", declares the LORD, "plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future." ~Jeremiah 29:11

Artist: Smith, Livingston. [designer]

Terracotta 1907

Location: North Academic Center, Rudin Writing Center

Fabricator: Perth Amboy Terra Cotta Co., New Jersey

 

George Browne “Post’s exterior details, executed in white terra-cotta, provided an enriched academic character that could be read with a humanistic, scholarly meaning. The string course, coved cornices, and moldings of the original five buildings are encrusted with over 600 grotesque figures that directly relate to the educational functions in each building. The figures were designed by Livingston Smith, a staff member in Post’s architectural office, modeled by G. Grandellis, and then cast in terra-cotta at the Perth Amboy plant.” [Perth Amboy Terra Cotta Co., New Jersey]

 

“[T]he terra-cotta work for all of the five buildings was advertised as a single contract. Post, one of the earliest and most prolific users of terra-cotta, realized that the material took a long lead time to produce . . . Total cost for the terra-cotta was $246,300.”

 

Quotes from: The City College of New York 150 Years of Academic Architecture by Paul David Pearson (New York: CCNY, 1997).

 

Refurbished, sealed and mounted 2004.

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.[1] A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers.

 

English uses the French name Art Nouveau (new art). The style is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time: in Austria it is known as Secessionsstil after Wiener Secession; in Spanish Modernismo; in Catalan Modernisme; in Czech Secese; in Danish Skønvirke or Jugendstil; in German Jugendstil, Art Nouveau or Reformstil; in Hungarian Szecesszió; in Italian Art Nouveau, Stile Liberty or Stile floreale; in Norwegian Jugendstil; in Polish Secesja; in Slovak Secesia; in Ukrainian and Russian Модерн (Modern); in Swedish and Finnish Jugend.

 

Art Nouveau is a total art style: It embraces a wide range of fine and decorative arts, including architecture, painting, graphic art, interior design, jewelry, furniture, textiles, ceramics, glass art, and metal work.

 

By 1910, Art Nouveau was already out of style. It was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and then by Modernism.

Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències / City of Arts and Sciences

 

The City of Arts and Sciences (Valencian: Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), (Spanish: Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias) is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia.

 

The City of Arts and Sciences is situated at the end of the former riverbed of the river Turia, which was drained and rerouted after a catastrophic flood in 1957. The old riverbed was turned into a picturesque sunken park.

 

Designed by Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela, the project underwent the first stages of construction in July 1996 and the finished "city" was inaugurated April 16, 1998 with the opening of L'Hemisfèric. The last great component of the City of Arts and Sciences, El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia, was presented on October 9, 2005, Valencian Community Day.

 

The complex is made up of the following buildings, in order of their inauguration:

L'Hemisfèric — an Imax Cinema, Planetarium and Laserium. The building is meant to resemble a giant eye, and has an approximate surface of 13,000 m². The Hemesferic also known as the planetarium or the “eye of knowledge,” is the centerpiece of the City of Arts and Sciences. It was the first building completed in 1998. Its design resembles an eyelid that opens to access the surrounding water pool. The bottom of the pool is glass, creating the illusion of the eye as a whole. This planetarium is a half-sphere composed of concrete 110 meters long and 55.5 meters wide. The shutter is built of elongated aluminum awnings that fold upward collectively to form a brise soleil roof that opens along the curved axis of the eye. It opens to reveal the dome, the pupil of the eye, which is the Ominax theater. The City of Arts and Sciences is divided in half by a set of stairs that descend into the vaulted concrete lobby. The underground spaces are illuminated with the use of translucent glass panels within the walking path. The transparent roof is supported by concrete arches that connect to the sunken gallery. There is a miraculous echo inside of the building and if two people stay on the two opposite pillars inside of the eye they can seamlessly speak with each other.

 

El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe — Is an interactive museum of science that resembles the skeleton of a whale. It occupies around 40,000 m² on three floors. The hotch-potch of exhibits is designed more for 'entertainment value' than for science education. The building is much more impressive outside than inside and its meagre contents show how little thought was put into the whole project. Much of the ground floor is taken up by a basketball court sponsored by a local team and various companies. The building is made up of three floors of which 26,000 square meters is used for exhibitions. The first floor has a beautiful view of the Turia Garden that surrounds it; which is over 13,500 square meters of water. The second floor hosts “The Legacy of Science” exhibition by the researchers; Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Severo Ochoa y Jean Dausset. The third floor is known as the “Chromosome Forest” which shows the sequencing of human DNA. Also on this floor is the “Zero Gravity,” the “Space Academy,” and “Marvel Superheroes” exhibitions. The building’s architecture is known for its geometry, structure, use of materials, and its design around nature. The building is about 42,000 square meter and 26,000 square meters of is exhibition space, which is currently the largest in Spain. It has 20,000 square meters of glass, 4,000 panes, 58,000 m³ of concrete, and 14.000 tons of steel. This magnificent building stands 220 meters long, 80 meters wide and 55 meters high.

 

El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe FelipeL'Umbracle — a landscaped walk with plant species indigenous to Valencia (such as rockrose, lentisca, romero, lavender, honeysuckle, bougainvillea, palm tree). It harbors in its interior The Walk of the Sculptures, an outdoor art gallery with sculptures from contemporary artists. (Miquel from Navarre, Francesc Abbot, Yoko Ono and others). The Umbracle is a space that is a home to numerous sculptures surrounded by nature. It was designed as an entrance to the City of Arts and Sciences. It is 320 meters long and 60 meters wide, located on the southern side of the complex. It 55 fixed arches and 54 floating arches that stand 18 meters high. The plants in the garden were carefully picked to change color with the seasons. The garden consists of 99 palm trees, 78 small palm trees, 62 bitter orange trees. There are 42 varieties of shrubs from the Region of Valencia including Cistuses, Mastics, Buddleia, Pampas grass, and Plumbagos. In the garden there are 16 plants of Beauty of the Night. Honeysuckle and hanging Bougainvilea are two of the 450 climbing plants in the umbracle. It also has 5,500 carpet plants such as Lotus, Agateas, Spanish Flags, and Fig Marigolds. There are over a hundred aromatic plants including Rosemary and Lavender.

 

L'UmbracleL'Oceanogràfic — an open-air oceanographic park. It is the largest oceanographic aquarium in Europe with 110,000 square meters and 42 million liters of water. It was built in the shape of a water lily and is the work of architect Félix Candela. Each building represents different aquatic environments including the Mediterranean, Wetlands, Temperate and Tropical Seas, Oceans, the Antarctic, the Artctic, Islands and the Ted Sea. This aquarium is a home to over 500 different species including dolphins, belugas, sawfish, jellyfish, starfish, sea urchins, walruses, sea lions, seals, penguins, turtles, sharks,and rays. It also inhabits wetland bird species.

 

El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia — an opera house and performing arts center. It contains four large rooms: a Main Room, Magisterial Classroom, Amphitheater and Theater of Camera. It is dedicated to music and the scenic arts. It is surrounded by 87,000 square meters of landscape and water, as well as 10,000 square meters of walking area. The Palau de Les Arts has four sections; the main hall, the master hall, the auditorium, and the Martin y Soler theatre. It holds many events such as opera, theatre and music in its auditoriums. Panoramic lifts and stairways connect platforms at different heights on the inside of the metallic frames of the building. The building has an metallic feather outer roof that rests on two supports and is 230 meters long and 70 meters high. One of the supports allows for part of the building to overhang. The building is supported by white concrete. Two laminated steel shells cover the building weighing over 3,000 tons. These shells are 163 meters wide and 163 meters long.

 

El Pont de l'Assut de l'Or — a suspension bridge that connects the south side with Minorca Street, whose 125 meters high pillar is the highest point in the city.

 

L'Àgora — a covered plaza in which concerts and sporting events (such as the Valencia Open 500) are held.The Agora is a space designed to hold a variety of events such as concerts, performances, exhibitions, conventions, staging of congresses, and international sports meetings. Many important events have been held in this building including the Freestyle Burn Spanish Cup in 2010 and the Christmas Special Program.

 

Torres de València — forming part of a project of the construction of three skyscrapers of 308, 266 and 220 m. The project has been put on hold and the possibilities that it will be finished are seen by many as doubtful.

 

The Architects: Santiago Calatrava and Felix Candela.

 

Santiago Calatrava was born in Valencia Spain on the July 28, 1951. He is a qualified architect and engineer and also known for his artist skills in painting and sculpting. He attended the Art Academy in Valencia in the mid-1960s, then he earned a degree in architecture and a post graduate course in city planning at the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitecturea, studied civil engineering at the Federal Polytechnic University of Zurich, and participated in academic research investigating The Foldability of Space Frames. Calatrava’s architecture is aimed to unite structure and movement. Early in his career, Calatrava was the winner to design The Stadelhofen Station in Zurich. He was recognized for his achievement in creating poetics of movement and integrating public transportation in a natural setting and urban context. Another theme in his work was moving contraptions in his buildings. The dome for the Reichstag Conversion Competition in Berlin that open and closes like a flower. The Planetarium in the City of Arts and Sciences in Valencia opens and closes like eyelids.

 

Felix Candela was born on January 27, 1910 in Madrid Spain and died December 7, 1997. His architectural designs composed of reinforced-concrete structures distinguished by thin, curved shells. His popularity sprung from his design, in collaboration with Jorge Gonzales Reyna, of the Cosmic Ray Pavilion in Mexico. He used his signature design of the reinforced concrete roof that varies in thickness from only 5/8 inch to 2 inches. He also built the church of La Virgin Milagrosa in Mexico City and the church of San Vicente de Paul. His designs consisted of warped-shell industrial buildings, thin-shell centenary, and barrel-vaulted factories and warehouses. Candela was also a teacher at Harvard University and University of Illinois. Felix Candela designed the underwater city, L’Oceanografic, located in the City of Arts and Sciences in Valencia and is reminiscent of Antoni Gaudi work in Barcelona.

  

Report and full photo gallery on my website:

www.obsidianurbexphotography.com/education/the-house-of-m... House of M was a historical academic institution in Romania. It was built in the 1800's and features an eclectic mix of Baroque and Art-Nouveau styles. It is currently undergoing renovation to become a functioning museum, with parts of the impressive building already being in use.

Have you seen the two photos I have posted just before this portrait? They show two Land Art projects by the American artist Patrick Dougherty. Both have recently been completed at the Montréal Botanical Garden.

 

It’s on the day that the second one of them was completed that I met Lilia.

 

These works were created by the artist and his assistants, his son, Samuel Dougherty, and Esla Hoffman with the help of a group of volunteers from the Friends of the Botanical Garden throughout the process. Each morning and each afternoon, five volunteers and a coordinator hired for the summer by the Friends of the Garden would take part to their realization with the support of the Garden’s staff when necessary. I had the pleasure myself of contributing to the first piece titled Thrown for a loop. Lilia, herself has participated to the second one.

These projects were a pleasant experience for all. The work was carried out quietly but efficiently. It was a learning process for the volunteers. The artists were fair in their expectations as well as supportive and thankful of the volunteer’s efforts. In return, we were dedicated in our endeavors.

 

I did initially think it would be an interesting context for a stranger portrait but only attempted once to do one. I have taken some shots on one of the participant, a woman, like most volunteers. I thought they were fine but I lost touch with her. Since I only post photos after they have been OK’d by the subjects you won’t see it. It’s simply that I feel better this way about my Stanger projects.

 

The days went by fast. The volunteer work didn’t leave that much time to connect in a way that led to making a portrait. I finally met Lilia on the project’s last day. She had worked with the artist in the morning. At noon, it was announced that the Garden had officially accepted the piece and that no more volunteers would be required in the afternoon. The artist s would simply do their own final survey in the afternoon by themselves.

 

I stayed around during their lunch break to take photos of the freshly completed piece. I noted Lilia seated near the volunteer’s tents. A cocktail for the volunteers had been held the previous evening. We were all given a potted Echinacea created at the Garden and named Montréal Echinacea. Lilia and a friend who also volunteered hadn’t been able to attend the cocktail but she had received their two plants that morning.

 

I had taken photos throughout the process of these creations for the friends of the Garden and some of them were used to print a poster that was also given as a souvenir to everyone. She was waiting for the artists to come back for lunch so they could autograph one of the posters for her friend.

 

As I was waiting for the proper lighting between two clouds and for a view with no visitor in sight, we chatted. Lilia is originally from Puebla, to the east of Mexico City. She works as a freelance graphic designer. She graduated from the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Mexico and did an academic exchange in Fine Arts at Université Jean Monnet in France.

 

Despite her academic background, she finds it difficult to maintain a steady work flow. She told me she was going to reorient by following a one year professional course in horticulture. It turned out she will be studying at the Centre de formation horticole de Laval. It so happens that my wife has completed the same program Lilia will be following last fall in this same school. Her group of student was an interesting mix of eighteen years old and people reorienting their career later in life.

 

My wife is working for the summer as horticulturist for a community environmental organism in our borough. Lilia is also working for a similar organization elsewhere in town but wishes to specialize. As this type of work is seasonal in a city where landscapers turn to snow removal in the winter, Lilia will continue accepting commissions for graphic design work. You will find a link to her Web pages in the third comment below.

 

Dominique, the friendly coordinator of the Friends of the Botanical Garden activities arrived as we headed for one of the smaller structures so that I could use the woven willow they are built with as a background. When I told her I was about to do Lilia’s portrait, she replied a little ironically that I was cheating by choosing the most beautiful and one of the youngest volunteers.

 

Hey, it was my last chance, what can I say!

 

I’d like to thank Lilia for accepting to be part of my project and wish her success with her professional projects. It was a pleasure meeting her.

 

Avez-vous vu les deux photos que j'ai publiées juste avant ce portrait? pouvez y voir deux œuvres d’Art environnemental de l'artiste américain Patrick Dougherty. Ces deux œuvres ont été récemment achevées au Jardin botanique de Montréal.

 

C'est le jour où la deuxième d'entre elles a été terminée que j'ai rencontré Lilia.

 

Ces œuvres ont été créées par l'artiste et ses assistants, son fils, Samuel Dougherty, et Esla Hoffman avec l'aide d'un groupe de bénévoles des Amis du Jardin botanique tout au long de leur réalisation. Chaque matin et chaque après-midi, cinq bénévoles et un coordonnateur engagés pour l'été par les Amis du jardin ont participé à leur réalisation avec le soutien du personnel du Jardin lorsque nécessaire. J'ai eu le plaisir de contribuer à la première pièce intitulée « Thrown for a loop ». Lilia, pour sa part, a participé à la deuxième.

 

Ces projets ont été une expérience agréable pour tous. Le travail a été réalisé de manière tranquille mais efficace. C'était un processus d'apprentissage pour les bénévoles. Les artistes étaient justes dans leurs attentes et montraient de la gratitude pour le soutien et les efforts des bénévoles. En retour, nous nous sommes dévoués à contribuer de notre mieux à leur créations

 

J'ai tout de suite pensé que ce serait un contexte intéressant pour faire une rencontre menant à un portrait. Je n’avais cependant essayé qu’une fois à ce jour. J'avais précédemment pris quelques clichés d’une des participantes, une femme, comme la plupart des bénévoles. Je pensais tenir un bon portrait d’elle mais j'ai perdu contact avec cette dame. Puisque je ne publie des photos qu'après avoir reçu l’assentiment, de leur sujet, vous ne le verrez pas. C'est tout simplement que je me sens plus à l’aise de fonctionner comme ça.

 

Les jours passaient rapidement. Le travail bénévole ne m’a pas laissé beaucoup de temps pour trouver le meilleur contexte pour faire un portrait. J'ai finalement rencontré Lilia lors du dernier jour du projet. Elle avait travaillé avec l'artiste dans la matinée. À midi, il nous a été annoncé que le Jardin avait officiellement accepté la seconde œuvre et que les services des volontaires ne seraient plus requis l'après-midi. Les artistes fignoleraient par eux-mêmes les derniers menus détails dans l'après-midi.

 

Je suis demeuré sur les lieux pendant leur pause du midi pour prendre des photos cette seconde œuvre fraîchement terminée. J'ai remarqué Lilia qui était assise près de l’abri des artistes et participants. Un cocktail pour les bénévoles avait eu lieu la veille. Nous y avons tous reçu une échinacée en pot créée au Jardin et nommée échinacée de Montréal. Lilia et une amie qui s'est portée volontaire avec elle n'avaient pas pu assister au cocktail. Lilia avait reçu leurs deux plantes ce matin-là.

 

J'ai eu l’opportunité de faire des photos tout au long du processus de ces créations pour les Amis du jardin et certaines d'entre elles ont été utilisées pour produire une affiche qui a également été remise en souvenir à tous. Lilia attendait le retour des artistes de leur lunch afin qu'ils puissent autographier une des affiches pour son amie.

Pendant que je patientais afin d’obtenir l'éclairage approprié entre deux nuages et une vue sans visiteur, nous avons discuté un peu.

 

Lilia est originaire de Puebla, à l'est de la ville de Mexico. Elle travaille comme graphiste pigiste. Elle est diplômée de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla et a participé à un échange académique en arts plastiques à l'Université Jean Monnet en France. Malgré ses antécédents académiques, elle a du mal à maintenir un flux de travail stable. Elle m'a expliqué qu'elle souhaitait donc se réorienter en suivant un cours professionnel d'une année en horticulture. Il s'est avéré qu'elle étudiera au Centre de formation horticole de Laval. Mon épouse y a justement complété l'année dernière le même programme que Lilia suivra cet automne. Son groupe d'étudiants était un mélange intéressant de jeunes de dix-huit ans et de personnes réorientant leur carrière plus tard dans la vie.

 

Mon épouse travaille pour l'été comme horticultrice pour un organisme environnemental communautaire dans notre arrondissement. Lilia travaille également dans une organisation similaire ailleurs dans la ville mais prévois mieux se spécialiser. Comme ce type de travail est saisonnier dans une ville où les paysagistes se tournent vers le déneigement en hiver, elle continuera d'accepter des projets de conception graphique. Vous trouverez un lien vers ses pages Web dans le troisième commentaire ci-dessous.

 

Dominique, la sympathique coordonnatrice des activités des Amis du Jardin botanique, est arrivée au moment où nous nous dirigions vers l'une des plus petites structures, afin que je puisse utiliser le saule tissé dont elles sont construites comme arrière-plan. Quand je lui ai expliqué ce que je me préparais à faire un portrait de Lilia elle a répliqué un peu ironiquement que je trichais en choisissant la plus belle et une des plus jeunes bénévoles.

 

Hé, c'était ma dernière chance, que puis-je vous dire!

 

J'aimerais remercier Lilia pour avoir accepté de faire partie de mon projet et souhaiter son succès avec ses projets professionnels. Ce fut un plaisir de la rencontrer.

 

This is my nineteenth submission to The Human Family group.

Visit the group here to see more portraits and stories: www.flickr.com/groups/thehumanfamily.

 

It is also part of my second 100 strangers project. Find out more about the project and see pictures taken by other photographers at the 100 Strangers Flickr Group page

www.flickr.com/groups/100strangers/

 

Oil on canvas; 31.4 x 33.6 cm.

 

Helene Schjerfbeck was a Finnish painter. She is most widely known for her realist works and self-portraits, and less well known for her landscapes and still lifes. Throughout her long life, her work changed dramatically. "Her work starts with a dazzlingly skilled, somewhat melancholic version of late-19th-century academic realism…it ends with distilled, nearly abstract images in which pure paint and cryptic description are held in perfect balance." (Roberta Smith, New York Times, November 27th 1992).

 

Born Helena Sofia in Helsinki, Finland to Svante Schjerfbeck and Olga Johanna (née Printz), Schjerfbeck showed talent at an early age. By the time Schjerfbeck was eleven, she was enrolled at the Finnish Art Society drawing school. Since the Schjerfbeck family was not very wealthy, Adolf von Becker, a man who saw promise in Schjerfbeck, got her into the school tuition free (Ahtola-Moorhouse). It was at the Finnish Art Society drawing school that Schjerfbeck met Helena Westermarck.

 

Schjerfbeck’s father died of tuberculosis on February 2, 1876. This brought even more financial problems to the Schjerfbeck house, leading Schjerfbeck’s mother to take in boarders so that they could get by. A little over a year after her father’s death, Schjerfbeck graduated from the Finnish Art Society drawing school. She continued her education, with Westermarck, at a private academy run by Adolf von Becker, which utilised the University of Helsinki drawing studio. Professor G. Asp paid for her tuition to Becker’s private academy. There, Becker himself taught her French oil painting techniques.

 

In 1879, at the age of 17, Schjerfbeck began to be recognized for her art. She won third prize in a competition organised by the Finnish Art Society. Her art career started to blossom when some of her work was displayed in an annual Finnish Art Society exhibition in 1880. That summer Schjerfbeck spent time at a manor owned by her aunt on her mother’s side, Selma Printz, and Selma’s husband Thomas Adlercreutz. There she spent time drawing and painting her cousins. Schjerfbeck became particularly close to her cousin Selma Adlercreutz, who was her age. She set off to Paris later that year after receiving a travel grant from the Imperial Russian Senate.

 

In Paris, Schjerfbeck painted with Helena Westermarck, then left to study with Léon Bonnat at Mme Trélat de Vigny’s studio. Schjerfbeck then moved in 1881 to the Académie Colarossi, where she studied once again with Westermarck. The Imperial Senate gave her another scholarship, which she used to spend a couple of months in Meudon, and then a few more months in Concarneau, Brittany. She then went back to the Académie Colarossi briefly before returning to the Adlercreutz family manor. Schjerfbeck continued to move around frequently, painting and studying with various people. Schjerfbeck made money by continuing to put her paintings in the Art Society’s exhibitions, and she also did illustrations for books. In 1884 she was back at the Académie Colarossi with Westermarck, but this time they were working there. She was given more money to travel by a man from the Finnish Art Society and in 1887 she traveled to St Ives, England. There she painted The Convalescent, which won the bronze medal at the 1889 Paris World Fair. The painting was later bought by the Finnish Art Society.

 

In the 1890s Schjerfbeck started teaching regularly at the Art Society drawing school. In 1901, she began to get very sick and was not able to teach; in 1902 she had to resign from her teaching position because her health did not seem to improve. Schjerfbeck moved to Hyvinkää, all while taking care of her mother who lived with her (the mother died in 1923). While living in Hyvinkää, she continued with her art and kept putting her art in exhibitions. "Schjerfbeck’s sole contact with the art world was through magazines sent by friends." (Womans’ Art Journal 14). Since she did not have art, Schjerfbeck took up hobbies like reading and embroidery.

 

It is during this time that Schjerbeck is considered to have become a modern painter. She produced still lifes and landscapes, as well as portraits, such as that of her mother, local school girls and women workers, and also self-portraits. Comparisons have been made with artists such as James McNeill Whistler and Edvard Munch, but as of 1905, her paintings take on a characteristic that can be attributed to her alone; she continued experimenting with various techniques, e.g., different types of underpaintings.

 

In 1913, Schjerfbeck was "rediscovered" by Gösta Stenman, and she was once again a success, with touring exhibitions and even a biography.

 

But as the years passed, Schjerfbeck started to travel less and less. Every now and then, when a family matter arose, such as a death, she would travel back to her home city of Helsinki. She did spend most of 1920 in Ekenäs, but by 1921 she was back living in Hyvinkää.

 

For about a year, Schjerfbeck moved to a farm in Tenala to get away from the Winter War, but went back to Ekenäs in the middle of 1940 (The Finnish National Gallery Ateneum). She then later moved into a nursing home, where she resided for less than a year before moving to the Luontola sanatorium. A couple of years later, in 1944, she moved into the Saltsjöbaden spa hotel in Sweden, where she lived until her death on January 23, 1946.

 

Avenue Foch in the Lorraine city of Nancy at Central European weather conditions, which were called "The Beast from the East" in the UK and "The Russian Whip" in Germany, Grand Est, France

 

Some background information:

 

Nancy is a city in the Grand Est region of France, located about 282 km (175 miles) to the east of French capital city of Paris. The town that is situated on the left bank of the river Meurthe is the capital of the Lorraine department of Meurthe-et-Moselle. Currently the metropolitan area of Nancy has a population of approx. 450,000 inhabitants, making it the 20th largest urban area in France, whilst the inner city of Nancy has about 105,000 residents.

 

Nancy is famous for its three squares Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place de l'Hémicycle (resp. Place d'Alliance). The first one is considered one of the most beautiful places in the world, while the second one is the extension of its axis and the third one is located in close proximity. The baroque architectural ensemble comprising all three places is very unique and was therefore inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List as early as 1983.

 

Furthermore, Nancy is also known for its Art Nouveau and Art Déco architecture, implemented by the so-called School of Nancy. The School of Nancy was born when the Moselle regions were annexed by the Prussians in 1871. Nancy, a French border town at that time, was home to much of the intelligentsia who refused the annexation. These conditions in particular, as well as the presence of industrialists, entrepreneurs and a thriving artistic community led to the establishment of the School of Nancy. World War I marked the end of the Art Noveau movement, but with the between war period came the style Art Déco. In the roaring twenties French Art Déco was at its zenith. In 1930, in the course of the Great Depression, the Art Déco movement lost ground siignificantly, until it had absolutely no more bearing on architecture in the mid-1930s. However, there are still many architectural witnesses of both Art Noveaui and Art Déco movements in today’s Nancy, which even stand side by side quite often.

 

Around 1050, a small fortified town named Nanciacum was built by Gérard, Duke of Lorraine. In 1218, at the end of the War of Succession of Champagne, the town that was already renamed Nancy was burned and conquered by Emperor Frederick II. It was rebuilt in stone over the next few centuries as it grew in importance as the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. In 1477, Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nancy and René II, Duke of Lorraine, became the ruler.

 

In the next few centuries Nancy flourished. At that time in the south of the old town the new town was founded, which was characterised by a street network laid out in a gridiron pattern. But in the Thirty Years’ War, Nancy was affected by heavy demolitions. However, it soon turned upward again.

 

Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's next child. This turned out to be a daughter, Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Duke François of Lorraine, who reluctantly agreed to exchange his ancestral lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

 

The exiled Polish king Stanislaus Leszczyński, father-in-law of the French king Louis XV, was then given the vacant duchy of Lorraine. Under his nominal rule, Nancy experienced even more growth and a flowering of baroque culture and architecture. Stanislaus oversaw the construction of Place Stanislaus, Place de la Carrière and Place de l'Hémicycle. But after Stanislaus' death in 1766, the Duchy of Lorraine that was still part of the Holy Roman Empire (of German Nation) by then became a regular French province. At the same time, Nancy lost its position as a residential capital city with a princely court and patronage.

 

As unrest surfaced within the French armed forces during the French Revolution, a full-scale mutiny, known as the Nancy affair, took place in Nancy in the latter part of summer 1790. A few units loyal to the government laid siege to the town and shot or imprisoned the mutineers. In 1871, Nancy remained French when Prussia annexed Alsace-Lorraine, following the Franco-Prussian War. The flow of refugees reaching Nancy doubled its population in three decades. Artistic, academic, financial and industrial excellence flourished, establishing what is still the capital of Lorraine's trademark to this day. In 1940, Nancy and other areas of France were occupied by German forces. But in September 1944, Nancy was liberated from Nazi Germany by the U.S. Third Army at the Battle of Nancy.

 

Today, Nancy is not only known for its beautiful baroque squares and its many Art Noveau as well as Art Déco buildings, but also for its excellent cuisine. Macarons are from Nancy, Madeleines, likewise biscuits, are from the region, Bergamotes, sweets made of bergamot, are also from the city and the famous Quiche Lorraine can be savoured almost everywhere in the town.

Jules Breton. 1828-1906. Paris

La fileuse, baie de Douarnenez.

The spinner, bay of Douarnenez. vers 1870

Paris Petit Palais (Musée des Beaux Arts de la Ville de Paris)

 

1815/30-1940 UNE PERIODE PLURIELLE

DE LA PEINTURE EUROPENNE 2

 

De 1830/1850 à 1940 environ, c'est en Europe la période de l'Art Moderne.

Le 19è siècle et les toutes premières années du 20è, en Europe, se caractérisent en peinture par la très grande diversité des thèmes abordés par les peintres, dans un registre aussi bien profane que religieux. De même que par la grande diversité des techniques picturales, tantôt classiques, tantôt modernes, utilisées souvent simultanément. Cette période de la peinture européenne est multiple, comme en équilibre entre son riche passé et un avenir encore mal défini. Pendant tout ce siècle l'Europe n'obéit pas à une idéologie unique. Au contraire, des élites partisanes de doctrines très différentes, prétendent à la domination du continent, mais sans pouvoir s'imposer seules et exclure leurs rivaux. En peinture c'est un magnifique chant du cygne de l'Europe, qui se déploie dans un environnement politique totalement chaotique, marqué par des guerres absurdes et autodestructrices.

Quand l'Europe se suicide politiquement, son art explose, une fois de plus, (une dernière fois ?) dans un festival de Beauté et d'Inventivité.

Un Art très imaginatif, dont l'extraordinaire diversité, technique et thématique, est le reflet des tensions existantes entre les différentes composantes de la culture européenne, les différentes croyances alors encore vivantes dans cette fin de l'Europe :

- Les croyances traditionnelles héritées des valeurs du passé de l'Europe, qui sont encore très actives dans le peuple, et aussi dans une partie de l'élite économique, idéologique et politique. Dieu, la Religion, les Devoirs, Ordre, Tradition, Travail, Famille, Patrie ...

- Les croyances nouvelles, revendiquant les idées conçues par la nouvelle idéologie montante, la nouvelle religion pour tous les Hommes, celle des Lumières : Révolution, Science, Progrès, Homme, Démocratie, les Droits, Bonheur, Modernité....De nouvelles valeurs très influentes dans une autre partie de l'élite économique, idéologique et politique de l'Europe.

Cette diversité des croyances en des valeurs différentes et même totalement opposées est l'explication de ce double constat :

En politique des affrontements incessants et meurtriers, jusqu'aux génocides à répétition.

En peinture, l'Art Moderne, ce sont des inventions remarquables : Une esthétique renouvelée par l'observation des arts du passé de l'Europe : byzantins, romans et gothiques. La peinture plate de ces "temps obscurs" a en réalité inspiré toute la peinture de l'Art Moderne. Mais d'autres approches du Beau ont été développées : l'esquisse, le tachisme.... et une nouveauté absolue apparaît, du moins en Europe: l'Art Abstrait. En Europe, parce que dans le domaine de l'art abstrait, la Chine nous avait précédé, de très loin.

Les artistes bénéficient de cette situation de concurrence idéologique : ils y gagnent la liberté de peindre selon leurs goûts et leurs idées propres. Ils ne sont pas contraints d'obéir aux injonctions d'institutions officielles ou dominantes. En France la résistance de l'Académie à la peinture impressionniste n'a duré que quelques années. Le 19è siècle est très certainement dans toute l'histoire de la peinture européenne le siècle où les artistes ont jouit de la plus grande liberté.

Les artistes européens de cette époque ont la liberté de choisir leurs thèmes dans une très large gamme de sujets et de les traiter selon pratiquement toutes les techniques possibles, aussi bien classiques que modernistes ou ressurgies d'un passé lointain comme "la peinture plate".

C'est une première dans l'histoire européenne. Il est certain que les artistes découvrent une liberté que ne connaissaient pas leurs ancêtres de l'époque médiévale ou même de la Renaissance et des Temps Classiques.

 

Cela ne signifie nullement d'ailleurs que les artistes de l'époque médiévale, catholique et orthodoxe, aient vécu leur situation comme une contrainte. Tout l'art européen démontre par sa spontanéité, sa beauté, sa sincérité, sa permanence pendant mille ans, que les élites et les peuples partageaient la même vision du monde et adhéraient, sauf des exception non significatives en terme de civilisation globale, aux croyances formulées par l'Eglise catholique à l'ouest, orthodoxe à l'est.

 

A la Renaissance il n'apparaît aucune rupture idéologique réelle. Seulement une évolution qui ouvre à certains artistes les portes d'accès à des thèmes nouveaux tirés de l'antiquité grecque et romaine, thèmes destinés à une petite élite aristocratique et grand bourgeoise. Rien ne change en ce qui concerne la peinture destinée aux populations. On ne constate pas de réel conflit entre les deux inspirations artistiques qui se côtoient paisiblement. Les élites de ces temps n'ont pas un art séparé, ils continuent de partager avec les populations l'art religieux. Mais elles ont un développé un art particulier dont les thèmes sont profanes et totalement orientés vers le passé gréco-romain de l'Europe.

 

La Réforme dans les pays qu'elle concerne s'impose sans souci aucun des croyances des peuples exactement comme l'avait fait le catholicisme à partir du 5è siècle. La Réforme impose ainsi l'abandon presque total des thèmes religieux ou de ceux tirés de l'antiquité, et les artistes devront se conformer à cette nouvelle idéologie. Il faudra qu'ils se tournent vers une description de la nature et de la société de leur temps. Mais là encore on n'observe pas que les artistes oeuvrant dans ce nouveau contexte aient ressenti ces nouvelles orientations comme une contrainte. Elites, artistes et populations de ces pays du nord de l'Europe, peu marqués par les influences romaines, tant celle de l'Antiquité que celle de l'Eglise, partagent sans aucun doute une même vision du monde dont leur art est une expression libre exactement comme l'avait été la peinture romane et gothique pendant un millénaire.

 

La peinture officielle, académique, totalement élitiste, idéologiquement monolithique et totalitaire apparaît à partir des années 1950 et suivantes, en provenance de New York, où elle était apparue dans les années 1920 et suivantes. C'est l'Art Contemporain, un art officiel, imposé, pas seulement réservé mais séparé, hautement financé, et fortement financier. Les artistes libres se réfugieront alors dans l'art commercial privé et l'art des rues. Cette dichotomie artistique est certainement très significative, un reflet de certaines caractéristiques majeures de la société contemporaine. De tous temps, à toutes les époques, l'art autorise une lecture des conditions idéologiques, politiques, sociales, techniques, dans lequel il s'est exprimé.

 

1815/30 - 1940 A PLURAL PERIOD OF THE EUROPEAN PAINTING 2

 

From 1830/1850 to around 1940, it was in Europe the period of Modern Art.

The 19th century and the first years of the 20th, in Europe, are characterized in painting by the very great diversity of the themes addressed by the painters, in a register as well profane as religious. As well as by the great diversity of pictorial techniques, sometimes classical, sometimes modern, often used simultaneously. This period of European painting is multiple, as in balance between its rich past and a future still ill-defined. Throughout this century Europe does not obey a single ideology. On the contrary, partsan elites from very different doctrines claim to dominate the continent, but can not impose themselves and exclude their rivals.

In painting it is a magnificent song of the swan of Europe, which unfolds in a totally chaotic political environment, marked by absurd and self-destructive wars.

When Europe commits suicide politically, its art explodes, once again, (one last time?) In a festival of Beauty and Inventiveness.

A very imaginative Art, whose extraordinary diversity, technical and thematic, is a reflection of the tensions existing between the different components of European culture, the different beliefs then still alive in this end of Europe:

- Traditional beliefs inherited from the values of Europe's past, which are still very active in the people, and also in part of the economic, ideological and political elite. God, Religion, Duties, Order, Tradition, Work, Family, Fatherland ...

- New beliefs, claiming the ideas conceived by the new rising ideology, the new religion for all men, the "Enlightenment": Revolution, Science, Progress, Man, Democracy, Rights, Happiness, Modernity .... New values very influential in another part of the economic, ideological and political elite of Europe.

This diversity of beliefs in different and even totally opposite values is the explanation of this double observation:

In politics of incessant and deadly clashes, until repeated genocides.

In painting, Modern Art, these are remarkable inventions: An aesthetic renewed by the observation of the arts of the past of Europe: Byzantine, Romanesque and Gothic. The flat painting of these "dark times" has in fact inspired all the painting of Modern Art. But other approaches of Beau have been developed: the sketch, the tachisme .... and an absolute novelty appears, at least in Europe: Abstract Art. In Europe, because in the field of abstract art, China had preceded us, from very far away.

Artists benefit from this situation of ideological competition: they gain the freedom to paint according to their own tastes and ideas. They are not forced to obey the injunctions of official or dominant institutions. In France, the Academy's resistance to Impressionist painting lasted only a few years. The 19th century is certainly in the history of European painting the century when artists have enjoyed the greatest freedom.

European artists of this period have the freedom to choose their themes in a very wide range of subjects and to treat them according to practically all the possible techniques, as well classic as modernist or ressurgies of a distant past like "the flat painting".

This is a first in European history. It is certain that artists discover a freedom that their ancestors of the medieval or even of the Renaissance and Classical times did not know.

 

This does not mean that artists of the medieval and catholic period have experienced their situation as a constraint. All the European art shows by its spontaneity, its beauty, its sincerity, its permanence for a thousand years, that the elites and peoples shared the same view of the world and adhered, except for non-significant exceptions in terms of global civilization, to the beliefs formulated by the Church. Catholic in the west, orthodox in the east.

 

At the Renaissance there is no real ideological break. Only an evolution that opens to some artists the doors of access to new themes drawn from Greek and Roman antiquity, themes intended for a small aristocratic elite and bourgeois. Nothing changes as far as painting for the peoples. There is no real conflict between the two artistic inspirations that coexist peacefully. The elites of those times do not have a separate art, they continue to share religious art with the peoples. But the elites have developed a particular art whose themes are secular and totally oriented towards the Greco-Roman past of Europe.

 

The Reformation in the countries it concerns imposes themselves without concern any of the beliefs of the peoples exactly as Catholicism had done at the 5th century. The Reformation thus imposes the almost total abandonment of religious themes or those drawn from antiquity, and the artists will have to conform to this new ideology. They will have to turn to a description of the nature and society of their time. But again it is not observed that artists working in this new context have felt these new orientations as a constraint. Elites, artists and populations of these countries of northern Europe, little marked by Roman influences, both that of antiquity and that of the Church, undoubtedly share the same vision of the world whose art is an expression free exactly as Romanesque and Gothic painting had been since a millennium.

 

Official, academic, totally elitist, ideologically monolithic and totalitarian painting appears from the 1950s onward, from New York, where it appeared in the 1920s and later. It is Contemporary Art, an official art, imposed, not only reserved but separate, highly financed, and highly financial. Free artists will then take refuge in private commercial art and street art. This artistic dichotomy is certainly very significant, a reflection of certain major characteristics of contemporary society. At all times art allows a reading of the ideological, political, social, and technical conditions in which it has expressed itself.

   

The forgotten art shop (HDR)

"The Drawing Group" is in the city center of Kingston Upon Hull.

Has been shut for about six moths and I really miss it. :(

Unfortunately these days, more and more people study academic

subjects.

Oil on canvas; 47 x 38.5 cm.

  

As a member of China’s first generation of foreign-trained oil painters who came of age during the Republican era, Pang Xunqin led a rich and varied life. At age nineteen, he left to study in Paris and returned when he was twenty-four. He founded the Storm Society, China’s first and most important modern art association. In addition, he was a master of Chinese modern art and founded one of China’s earliest design organizations, the Daxiong Industrial Art Society. During the Nationalist era he worked mainly as a professional artist, but after 1949 he became an outstanding educator and scholar. Yet Pang had his share of adversity. His most creative periods occurred alongside war and turmoil. Although he founded the Central Academy of Arts and Design, he served as associate dean for just one year before being branded as a rightist for the next twenty-two. Only one or two out of every ten of Pang’s paintings survive today; of the rest the lesser portion was destroyed during the Sino-Japanese war and the greater portion during the Cultural Revolution. Because of this, the Art Museum of Beijing Fine Art Academy’s “Son of Earth: the Exhibition of Pang Xunqin’s Works during the 1930s and 1940s” [sic] only represents a small portion of Pang’s life work.

 

The exhibition joins art objects and documentation, using an academic, classificatory approach toward understanding Pang and the times he lived in. The works on display consist mostly of watercolors (there are no oil paintings) including Pang’s unique and quite successful work on silk scrolls. His watercolors on silk have a distinctive texture, their colors cool and richly layered. Unlike oil on canvas, in which new paint can cover over old, watercolor on silk is clean and transparent. The brushstrokes are easily seen and one cannot cover up mistakes. Among these works are Pang’s paintings of the Miao people, and the works display deep and profound vitality transforming into a simple and solemn energy. Pang visited eighty different villages in the Guizhou countryside to gain firsthand visual material in order to better portray Miao life. This direct field research confirms Pang’s unique interest in tradition. He did not pursue the literati painting tradition, but rather a continuation of the five thousand-year-old tradition of inspired folk creation by nameless craftsmen.

 

When Pang was studying in Paris, he reached the following conclusion concerning the European art trends of the time: “The reason France has become a world art center is because of its flourishing decorative arts.” French decorative arts directly influenced Pang’s formalist artistic style, particularly his interest in art deco and architecture, unique among his generation; upon his return to China, this interest also played a deciding role in Pang’s choice of profession and research specialty. Pang’s greatest academic work was “Research in Chinese Dynastic Decorative Painting,” on which he spent the greater part of the second half of his life (from when he was branded a rightist in 1958 up to his death in 1985). This book survived the disasters of the Cultural Revolution, and its manuscript and original illustrations are all on view for the first time, allowing us to see up close Pang’s meticulous work and the hardships he overcame. Pang’s design plans for everyday items, including cases for writing materials, teacups and bowls, cushions and bedsheets, carpets and handbags are also on display. There is a special counter in the exhibition hall displaying ten different painting compilations of Pang’s and studies on him assembled by others. While these objects and documents cannot completely express Pang’s artistic achievement, they are enough to bear witness to one of his lifelong precepts: “Live to make art, make art to strengthen the country.” You Yong

 

leapleapleap.com/2010/02/pang-xunqin-son-of-the-earth/

Anne Arundel County educators learned to integrate three different art forms into other academic areas. They rotated throughout the day, spending equal time weaving and stitching with Katherine Dilworth, a Young Audiences fiber artist; learning the elements of dance with Lacey Sheppard, Arts Integration Teacher Specialist; and forming clay vessels with Chesapeake Arts Center artist Cami Ascher.

Luminis Kanto

 

I want thanx Theoretical Afterthough and you for organize the unique meeting of last night!

Was really a piece of good culture.

Thanx also at all artists ,academics and intelligent peoples who work a lot and free just for love of culture and art ;)

Oil on cardboard; 48.5 x 65.5 cm.

 

Hugo Scheiber was born in Budapest in 1873. At the age of eight, he moved with his family from Budapest to Vienna. There, he worked with his father, a sign painter for the Pratertheatre, Vienna's largest entertainment fair. In 1898, to help support his family after they had returned to Budapest , he started working during the day, attending painting classes at the Commercial Art School in the evening. In 1900, he completed his studies. Scheiber showed an early interest in German Expressionism and Futurism. In 1915 he met Marinetti, who invited him to join the Futurist movement.

 

Because Scheiber's paintings conflicted with academic style of the Hungarian art establishment, his work was virtually ignored in his own country. In 1919, he and his friend Béla Kadar held an exhibition organized by Hévesy in Vienna, which was a great success-so much so that the Budapest Art Museum purchased two of his drawings. In 1920, Scheiber returned to Vienna. A turning point in his career came in 1921 when Herwarth Walden, founder of Germany's leading avant-garde periodical, Der Sturm, and of the Der Sturm Gallery in Berlin, became interested in Scheiber's work. Scheiber's paintings soon appeared regularly in Walden's magazine. Exhibitions of his work followed in London, Rome, La Paz, and New York.

 

Another turning point came in 1926, with the New York exhibition of the Société Anonyme, organized by Katherine Dreier. Important avant-garde artists from more than twenty-three countries were represented. Scheiber was invited by Marinette to participate in the great meeting of the Futurists held in Rome in 1933, where he was received with great enthusiasm.

 

The vivid colors of "Portrait of a Lady" are a constant feature throughout Scheiber's work. Details such as the rippling waves of hair and Scheiber's spontaneous and active brush strokes are characteristic of Scheiber's Futurist oeuvre of the 1920's.

 

Café and cabaret life played an important part in the lives of the European avant-garde. Scheiber's focus on café life is exemplified in a number of works illustrated in Schelgl's "Hugo Scheiber, Leben und Werk." His humorous and lively drawings and paintings of dancers, acrobats, singers, and musicians are among his classic works and always elicit a positive response.

 

Scheiber's work has been shown in many important exhibitions since 1945, including: “The Nell Walden Collection” at the Kunsthaus, Zurich (1945), Kunsthaus Aarau (1957), and Kunstmuseum, Bern (1967); “Collection of the Société Anonyme,” Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven (1950); “Paris-Berlin 1900-1930,” Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris (1978); “L'art en Hongrie, 1905-1930,” Musée d'Art et l'Industrie, St. Etienne (1980), and Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville, Paris (1981). Scheiber's work was represented in the exhibition, “Futurismo &Futurismi,” organized by Pontus Hulten at the Palazzo Grassi in Venice in 1986.

 

i was rebellious, arty and political back in high school

couldn't take me for anyone's fool

wanted relevance in everything i was taught

caused a few uprisings and always got caught

  

my thoughts were different and for that i did yearn

whether it was home or at school to learn

in art class i got to be open and free

it was a single sexed school and that was lucky for me

 

having boys around would have inhibited my work

even if most of them were really a jerk

liked being in that environment for artistic and academic gain

thought boys would have been a nuisance and pain

 

impeding my style and holding back my progress

i probably would always need to digress

one day in English class i remember it this way

we were reading Hamlet and a idea came that i had to convey

 

raised my hand as i was never lazy

knowing i'd probably make my teacher crazy

i posed a question to her about the prince

when relayed to her i heard a loud wince

 

the girls in the class laughed loudly and faster

took time to recover from my disaster

 

you see i asked if Hamlet had brothers

their names could be like no others

i wondered what they might have been

perhaps Wallet, Piglet and Toilet to begin

 

this was quite gutsy to say back then (1970)

rebellious and outspoken for a young woman

i found the name Hamlet so plebian

 

Photos Courtesy of Google

Jean Jacques Henner. 1828-1905. Paris

Paysage d'Italie. Pins Parasols.

Italian landscape. Parasols pines. vers 1860

Paris Petit Palais (Musée des Beaux Arts de la Ville de Paris)

  

Un Artiste indépendant qui a mis en œuvre des techniques très modernistes mais a su ne pas entrer en conflit avec l'Académie, notamment par ses thèmes et ses coloris plutôt sombres

 

An independent artist who has implemented very modern techniques but knew how not to clash with the Academy, especially by its themes and its rather dark colors

 

1815/30-1940 UNE PERIODE PLURIELLE

DE LA PEINTURE EUROPENNE 1

 

De 1792 à 1815 l'Europe n'a pas le temps d'être artistique : Elle est totalement occupée par les grandes ambitions françaises de la Révolution et du Premier Empire. Une fois liquidées les aventures révolutionnaires et impériales, l'Europe entre dans une période d'expansion économique et politique qui se traduit dans la peinture par une des phases les plus créatives, les plus inventives et les plus diversement inspirées de l'histoire de la peinture européenne.

L'Europe continentale a pu enfin connaitre, après l'Angleterre, sa seconde renaissance, technique, scientifique et économique. La seconde naissance de l'Europe, après celle des 11è-12è siècles. Les révolutions industrielles peuvent se succéder.

Dans l'Europe en expansion économique du 19è siècle et du début du 20è siècle, l'art de la peinture voit apparaitre une explosion d'écoles et de mouvements totalement différents, qui coexistent sans problèmes majeurs, pendant plus d'un siècle. La peinture européenne n'est pas plus belle que celle antérieure, ou que la peinture d'autres civilisations, mais elle est certainement plus diverse. Plus diverse par ses techniques et par ses thèmes.

Comment expliquer cette diversité de l'art et cette liberté d'expression des artistes européens à cette époque ?

La diversité et la créativité des écoles de la peinture européenne est la conséquence d'une situation de pluralité culturelle et idéologique.

Dans la période qui va de 1815 à 1914, puis encore jusqu'en 1940, l'Europe n'est pas soumise à une idéologie, profane ou sacrée, unique et exclusive.

Dans cette Europe du 19è et du début du 20è coexistent, malgré de très graves tensions, plusieurs représentations du monde différentes, et même opposées, conflictuelles :

Catholicisme, orthodoxie, protestantismes, judaïsme, "Lumières" de toutes tendances, jacobines ou pragmatiques, socialismes modérés ou extrémistes, nationalismes raisonnables ou ultra, aucune de ces idéologies, sacrées ou profanes, ne domine absolument la pensée et la politique européenne, et ne monopolise son territoire de l'Atlantique à l'Oural.

Certes, cette Europe est loin d'être idéale. L'Europe connait des affrontements très graves, des guerres absurdes. Précisément parce qu'aucune idéologie, sacrée ou profane, n'est absolument dominante. Parce que aucune idéologie ne peut régenter totalement les sociétés européennes. La diversité idéologique, source de tensions et même de guerres, est aussi source de liberté, de diversité.

On n'en finirait pas de citer les écoles de peintures, du romantisme à l'art abstrait. Cette multiplication d'écoles à la recherche de nouveaux moyens d'expression est éminemment créatrice. Juste pour mémoire, sans aucune exhaustivité et même dans le désordre:

Romantisme, néo-classicisme, préraphaélites, académisme, réalisme, idéalisme, symbolisme, préimpressionnisme, impressionnisme, nabis, fauvisme, cubisme, orientalisme, expressionnisme, sécessionnisme, surréalisme, art abstrait, dada, néo-plasticisme......

Ce n'est pas seulement une floraison de noms nouveaux, des appellations inventés pour cacher le vide de l'art. C'est une explosion de formes, réellement nouvelles, de thèmes nouveaux, de sensibilités et de significations nouvelles, de beautés neuves.

L'Art Abstrait est une de ces recherches très positives qui renouvellent le paysage de la peinture européenne.

Pas de monolithisme de la pensée européenne, à cette époque qui va de 1815 à 1940 en dates grosses.

Conséquence : Pas de monolithisme de l'Art européen pendant la même période, et notamment de la peinture.

A l'exception de la Russie, qui rentre dès 1917 dans le monde de la pensée unique et du Non Art.

A l'exception aussi de l'Allemagne hitlérienne où l'art meurt à partir des années 1930 et suivantes.

Avant et ailleurs en Europe, toutes les écoles coexistent, depuis le figuratif académique jusqu'à l'art l'abstrait.

L'Art de la peinture de cette époque, appelé "Art Moderne", est ainsi un témoin du dynamisme européen. Sa diversité de styles et de sujets, sa créativité, son esprit de recherche, sans reniement du passé, sont comme un splendide chant du cygne de la diversité. Et effectivement cela ne durera pas.

C'est ainsi que s'est imposé dans nos musées d'Occident, à partir des années 1950, sans que personne dans le peuple ait donné son avis, l'Art Contemporain : un nouvel Académisme, un Art Officiel, qui cumule le Laid et le Non-Sens, et qui fait se ressembler presque toutes les oeuvres d'art, de tous les musées d'Art Contemporain, du nord au sud, et de l'est à l'ouest de l'Europe et de l'Occident. Le Massacre de la Peinture et l'Art de la pensée unique.

  

1815/30 - 1940 A PLURAL PERIOD OF THE EUROPEAN PAINTING 1

 

From 1792 to 1815 Europe has no time to be artistic: It is fully occupied by the great French ambitions of the Revolution and the First Empire. Upon completion of the revolutionary and imperial adventures, Europe enters a period of economic and political expansion, which reflected in the painting by one of the most creative, the most inventive and the most diversely inspired phases, from the history of European painting.

Continental Europe could finally know, after England, his second renaissance, technical, scientific and economic. The second birth of Europe, after that of the 11th-12th centuries. The industrial revolutions can succeed.

In Europe in economic expansion of the 19th century and early 20th century, the art of painting sees appear an explosion of schools, and totally different movements that coexist without major problems, during more than a century. European painting is not more beautiful than the previous one, or the painting of other civilizations, but it is certainly more diverse. More diverse in its technical and its themes.

How to explain this diversity of art and this freedom of expression of European artists at that time?

The diversity and creativity of the schools of European painting is the result of a situation of cultural and ideological plurality. In the period from 1815 to 1914 and then again until 1940, Europe is not subject to an ideology, secular or sacred, unique and exclusive.

In this Europe of the 19th and early 20th, coexist, despite very severe tensions, several different representations of the world, and even contrary, conflictual:

Catholicism, Orthodoxy, Protestantism, Judaism, "Enlightenment" of all tendencies, Jacobinical or pragmatic, moderate socialism or extremist, reasonable or ultra nationalism, none of these ideologies, sacred or profane, absolutely dominates the thinking and the European policy, and monopolizes its territory, from the Atlantic to the Urals.

Certainly, this Europe is far from ideal. Europe knows very serious confrontations, absurd wars. Precisely because none ideology, sacred or profane, is absolutely dominant. Because none ideology can completely govern European societies. Ideological diversity, a source of tension and even from wars, is also a source of freedom, of diversity.

There is no end to mention the schools of paintings, from romanticism to abstract art. This multiplication of schools looking for new means of expression is eminently creative. Just for memory, without completeness, and even in the disorder: Romanticism, neoclassicism, Pre-Raphaelites, academicism, realism, idealism, symbolism, pre impressionism, impressionism, Nabis, fauvism, cubism, orientalism, expressionism, secessionism, surrealism, abstract art, dada, neo-Plasticism ......

This is not only a flowering of new names, names invented to hide the emptiness of art. It is an explosion of formes, really news, new themes, sensitivities and new meanings, of new beauties.

Abstract Art is one of those very positive research which renew the landscape of European painting.

No monolithic quality of European thinking at that time that goes from 1815 to 1940 in large dates.

Consequence: No monolithic quality European Art, particularly in painting.

With the exception of Russia, which arrived in 1917 in the world of the unique thought and of Non Art.

With the exception also of Hitler's Germany, where art dies, from the 1930s and followings years.

Before and elsewhere in Europe, all schools coexist, from the academic figurative art to abstract art.

The art of painting of that time, called "Modern Art", is thus a witness of European dynamism. Its diversity of styles and subjects, his creativity, his spirit of research, without denial of the past, are like a beautiful swan song of diversity. And indeed it will not last.

It thus has established itself in our museums of the West, from the 1950s, without that person in the people has given his opinion, the Contemporary Art: a new Academism, an Officila Art, which combines the Ugly and the Non-Sense, and that make be similar almost all the works of art, of all museums of Contemporary Art, from North to South and East to Western Europe and the West. The Massacre of Painting and the Art of Single Thought

  

Higgins Armory Museum

Worcester, MA

December 20th, 2013

  

Unfortunately, this museum will be closing its doors this December 31st but the collection will be moving to the Worcester Art Museum: www.higgins.org/integration-worcester-art-museum

  

I am bummed that I missed the chance to photograph this with a tripod. Oh well, you get some, you miss some

  

The History of the Museum:

  

"What began as one man's passion for metalcraft and tales of chivalry has today become the only dedicated museum of armor in the western hemisphere, housing one of the few significant collections of knightly armor outside of Europe. The founder, John Woodman Higgins, a prominent Worcester industrialist during the early 1900s, spent a lifetime building his collection. In 1929 he began construction of a five-story building to house it, and in 1931 the John Woodman Higgins Armory opened its doors to the public.

  

The art-deco building, which the museum still occupies today, was one of the first all steel and glass curtain-wall structures built in America; it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. Inside the museum's Great Hall, high ceilings and gothic arches are reminiscent of a medieval castle and offer a powerful setting for the museum's collection.

  

The collection, approximately 2000 pieces in all, includes major examples of arms and armor from medieval and Renaissance Europe, Ancient Greece and Rome, Africa, the Middle East, India, and Japan. On display are two dozen full suits of armor for battle, jousting, and courtly ceremony, in addition to swords, staff weapons, firearms, and artwork from the age of knightly armor. The American Association of Museums in its most recent reaccreditation report described the museum as "a place of national significance ... with superb collections."

  

Upon Higgins' death in 1961 the museum was given to the public but remained under the direction of the Higgins family. In 1979 the museum was entrusted to a public governing board. The new Board of Trustees refined its original mission statement, hired its first executive director, and set out to establish the institution as a presence in the museum world.

  

Open year round, the museum attracts more than 58,000 visitors annually from every corner of the globe. Approximately 12,000 of these visitors are school children from throughout Massachusetts and the New England region whose annual visits here are part of their regular social studies or science curriculum. The outreach program of the museum's education department reaches another 4,000 people in five states. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the museum hosts a variety of special exhibits throughout the year and conducts an ongoing series of special programs, symposia, demonstrations of falconry and period swordplay. The museum's Academy of the Sword is a global leader in researching and teaching medieval and Renaissance swordplay, publishing groundbreaking translations of original treatises and offering classes for adults and juniors taught by some of the world's most important specialists in the field.

  

The museum's unique collection has a proven power to open minds and excite learning. The Higgins education department fosters learning and discovery through interactive participation and personal, meaningful connections with the objects and the people, cultures, and legends they represent. The education team works closely with educators at all academic levels to provide programs that enliven the social studies, humanities and science curricula of local and regional schools and colleges.

  

The museum was first accredited by the American Association of Museums in 1972, and has been consistently reaccredited. We are currently accredited through 2015."

  

SOURCE: www.higgins.org/history-museum

Other image from the "Smokers" series.

This time in Art Nouveau style. I love that epoch...

Art Nouveau, also known as Jugendstil , is an international movement and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that peaked in popularity at the turn of the 20th century (1890–1905). A reaction to academic art of the 19th century, it is characterized by organic, especially floral and other plant-inspired motifs, as well as highly-stylized, flowing curvilinear forms. Art Nouveau is an approach to design according to which artists should work on everything from architecture to furniture, making art part of everyday life... Japanese wood-block prints, with their curved lines, patterned surfaces, contrasting voids, and flatness of visual plane, also inspired Art Nouveau. Some line and curve patterns became graphic clichés that were later found in works of artists from all parts of the world...

 

Thanks to my friend Alexander Golant ( algont ) www.flickr.com/photos/26114279@N06/ for the original shot. And again I spent a lot of time for damaging his photo: active retouching, sometimes redrawing, texturizing and so ...

 

Much better view in large.

 

Explore front page, #24, 12/06/08

      

Oil on canvas; 140 x 175 cm.

 

Hermenegildo Anglada Camarasa, known in Catalan as Hermenegild (or Hermen) Anglada Caramasa, was a Spanish Balearic painter.

 

Born in Barcelona, he studied there at the Llotja School. His early work had the clear academic imprint of his teacher, Modest Urgell.

 

In 1894 he moved to Paris, where he adopted a more personal style, after that of Degas and Toulouse-Lautrec, with their depictions of nocturnal and interior subjects. But his work was also marked by the intense colors which presaged the arrival of Fauvism. Lively brushwork reveals strong Oriental and Arab influences. Allied with the Vienna Secession movement, his decorative style draws comparison to Gustav Klimt.

 

One of his most important works is a portrait of Sonia Klamery.

 

He died in Pollença, on the island of Majorca, and is commemorated by a bronze bust on the 'Pine Walk' at Port de Pollença.

  

Avec William Merritt Chase (1849.1926), nous sommes au cœur de l’art romantique et académique, l’époque de l’impressionnisme en somme. Aux Etats-Unis, nous baignons en peinture avec Cassatt, Sargent (pour lequel on le compare beaucoup pour ne pas le dénoncer comme honnête « imitateur ») ou ce cher Whistler avec lequel on pourrait lui trouver parfois quelques affinités dans les touches « japonisantes » (ils étaient amis par ailleurs). On le dit également beaucoup influencé par le peintre belge Alfred Stevens. Eclectique, prolifique sont aussi des qualités qu’on lui a largement attribué car cet artiste américain était capable de tout peindre : portraits, nus, scènes du quotidien, paysages, natures mortes, dans des tonalités dépouillées ou luxuriantes, sombres ou colorées selon le thème. Il y en a pour tous les goûts. William M.C. savait aussi travailler sur tout type de supports (huile, pastel, encre).

 

::: On lui reconnait deux formes essentielles de palettes et d’inspirations selon deux périodes de sa vie : la première rayonne de portraits élégants, style étudié à l’Académie de Munich entre 1872-1877. La seconde, suite aux années 1890, à des scènes de Long Island inspirées de l’impressionnisme français qui ont aussi largement contribué à sa réputation et son basculement notoire pour l’impressionnisme.

 

::: Il y aurait encore deux trois petites choses à retenir de son parcours : il fut président de la Society of American Artists (dont il démissionnera en 1902), il deviendra membre du groupe dissident des Dix –The Ten) après la mort de John Henry Twachtman.

 

::: Et enfin à noter que William Merritt Chase fut aussi le professeur de l’illustre Edward Hopper (1882-1967).

 

₣.w

 

""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

 

With William Merritt Chase (1849.1926), we are at the heart of academic and romantic art, the era of Impressionism in fact. United States, we are immersed in painting with Cassatt, Sargent (for which many compared to not denounce him as honest "imitator") or the dear Whistler with whom he could find some similarities in some cases the keys "japanese" (they were friends elsewhere). It also says much influenced by the Belgian painter Alfred Stevens. Eclectic, prolific are also qualities that he has been widely attributed for this American artist was able to paint everything: portraits, nudes, scenes from everyday life, landscapes, still lifes, in tones skinned or lush, dark or colored depending on the theme . There's something for everyone. William C. knew also work on any type of media (oil, pastel, ink).

 

He recognizes two basic forms of pallets and inspirations into two periods of his life: the first portrait radiates elegant style studied at the Munich Academy between 1872-1877. The second, following 1890's scenes of Long Island, inspired by French Impressionism who also contributed to its reputation and notorious for tipping Impressionism.

 

There would be two or three things to remember from his career: he was president of the Society of American Artists (which he resigned in 1902), he will join the splinter group of the Ten The Ten) after the death of John Henry Twachtman.

 

::: And finally, note that William Merritt Chase was also the teacher of the famous Edward Hopper (1882-1967).

 

::::::::::::: :::

William Merritt Chase

Study of a Girl in a Japanese dress ©

At a time when even mega-malls are trembling in front of the Amazons of this world, I have the chance to live in a neighborhood of Montreal with a commercial street that is doing pretty well. It is still possible to shop on foot on Fleury Street. It has two main business areas with each their merchant association, FLO in the west and La Promenade Fleury in the east.

 

Competition obligates, each association held its summer promotion last weekend. Basically, these are sidewalk sales with street closure to traffic for three days. I live in the east, a block from Fleury East. This year's edition was interesting for its social aspect. The entire street front of the St-Paul-de-la-Croix Church was occupied by social organizations including the church itself and environmental movements. By a curious reversal of the situation, the parish is now animated by a missionary priest of Haitian origin, Father Désiré, who seems to have breathed new life into it and a given it a social presence.

 

On a sadder note, a little further east on the street, the organizers had allowed a car dealer to occupy the pavement without any consideration for the temporary pedestrianization of the street. Go figure what went through their minds.

 

To the west, there was a small scene. On Friday, three young musicians simply presented under the name of their keyboardist, Vivian, offered a well-paced show. A passer-by told me that their sound reminded him of the heydays of Weather Report. I’m sure they will eventually find a sound to call their own. They weren’t born when Weather Report was popular!

 

They were on the street at the invitation of a group that will organize a new festival of music and emerging arts in the neighborhood this fall, Artival Ahuntsic. Vivian told me after the show that this was their very first performance after a week playing together and that the band had just found a name: Moodring.

 

While I enjoyed their performance a couple of neighbors came to meet me. The lady, a recently retired director of a well-known nearby high school, introduced me to Gloria who is the graphic designer and treasurer of Artival.

You see her here in front of the scene where the trio is playing.

 

It was Gloria who designed the festival’s website. Like many of the members of the team, she has artistic and musical skills. Gloria later introduced me to her colleague Lorenzo, the organization's coordinator. Like Gloria, he sang several years in a choir. Among other activities, he now runs a vocal group.

The next day, I saw them both in a group of singers on the same stage. These young people have admirable academic trajectories and seem to have taken their future into their own hands.

 

The first edition of Artival will take place on the grounds of the Sophie-Barat high school on the first and second days of September.

 

You can find out more about it at the following link: artivalahuntsic.com/artistes__trashedequipe/

I wish Gloria a great success in her personal projects and the same to the young organization of and each member of its team whole team.

 

À l’époque où même les méga-centres commerciaux tremblent devant les Amazons de ce monde, j’ai la chance de vivre dans un quartier de Montréal avec une rue commerciale qui se porte plutôt bien. Il est encore possible de faire des achats à pied sur la rue Fleury. Elle a deux secteurs commerciaux principaux avec chacun leur association de marchands, FLO dans l’ouest et La Promenade Fleury, dans l’est.

 

Concurrence oblige, chaque association tenait sa promotion la fin de semaine dernière. Fondamentalement, ce sont des ventes de trottoirs avec fermeture de la rue à la circulation automobile pendant trois jours.

 

J’habite dans l’est, à un coin de rue de Fleury est. L’édition de cette année était intéressante pour son volet social. Tout le bloc devant l’église St-Paul-de-la-croix était occupé par des organismes sociaux, incluant l’église elle-même, et des mouvements environnementaux. Par un curieux renversement de situation, la paroisse est maintenant animée par un curé missionnaire d’origine haïtienne, le père Désiré, qui semble lui avoir insufflé un nouveau souffle et une vie citoyenne.

 

Seule ombre au tableau, un peu plus loin, les organisateurs avaient permis à un concessionnaire automobile d’occuper la chaussée sans aucune considération pour la piétonisation temporaire de la rue. Je ne sais pas ce qui leur a passé par la tête.

 

Un peu plus à l’ouest, il y avait une petite scène. Vendredi, trois jeunes musiciens simplement présentés sous le prénom de la claviériste, Vivian, offrait un spectacle bien rythmé. Un passant m’a dit que leur son lui rappelait la belle époque de Weather Report. Ils se trouveront bien un son à eux. Ils n’étaient pas nés quand Weather Report était populaire!

Ils étaient sur la rue à l’invitation d’un groupe qui organisera un tout nouveau festival de musique et d’arts émergents dans le quartier cet automne, Artival Ahuntsic. Vivian m’a précisé après le spectacle qu’il s’agissait de leur toute première prestation après une semaine à jouer ensemble et que le groupe venait de se trouver un nom : Moodring.

Pendant que j’appréciais leur prestation, un couple de voisins est venu à ma rencontre. La dame, une directrice de niveau récemment retraitée d’une école secondaire réputée du quartier, m’a présentée Gloria qui est la graphiste et trésorière d’Artival.

 

Vous la voyez ici devant la scène où jouait le trio.

C’est Gloria qui a conçu le site web du festival. Comme plusieurs des membres de l’équipe, elle a des aptitudes artistiques et musicales. Gloria m’a plus tard à son tour présenté son collègue Lorenzo, coordonnateur de l’organisme. Tout comme Gloria, il a chanté plusieurs années dans une chorale. Parmi d’autres activités, Il dirige maintenant un groupe vocal.

 

Je lendemain, je les ai d’ailleurs vu tous les deux au sien d’un groupe de chanteurs sur la même scène. Ces jeunes ont de beaux parcours académique et semblent bien avoir pris leur avenir en main.

 

La première édition d’Artival aura lieu sur le terrain de l’école secondaire Sophie-Barat le premier et le deux septembre prochain.

 

Vous pouvez en savoir plus au lien suivant : artivalahuntsic.com/artistes__trashedequipe/

Je souhaite un bon succès à Gloria dans ses projets personnels de même qu’au jeune organisme au jeune organisme et à toute son équipe.

 

This is my sixteenth submission to The Human Family group.

Visit the group here to see more portraits and stories: www.flickr.com/groups/thehumanfamily.

 

Photos by MT Simao of the 2013 Junior Show, "Invisible Pages," on display in the James S. Hall Memorial Gallery at Butler College in spring 2013.

Lille, Palais des Beaux Arts

www.pba-lille.fr, France

 

French Academic Painter and Illustrator

 

Stylistically influenced by the painters Paul Delaroche, Adolphe -William Bouguereau, Pierre-Auguste Cot, and Jean Leon Gerome (École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, France)

At a time when even mega-malls are trembling in front of the Amazons of this world, I have the chance to live in a neighborhood of Montreal with a commercial street that is doing pretty well. It is still possible to shop on foot on Fleury Street. It has two main business areas with each their merchant association, FLO in the west and La Promenade Fleury in the east.

 

Competition obligates, each association held its summer promotion last weekend. Basically, these are sidewalk sales with street closure to traffic for three days. I live in the east, a block from Fleury East. This year's edition was interesting for its social aspect. The entire street front of the St-Paul-de-la-Croix Church was occupied by social organizations including the church itself and environmental movements. By a curious reversal of the situation, the parish is now animated by a missionary priest of Haitian origin, Father Désiré, who seems to have breathed new life into it and a given it a social presence.

 

On a sadder note, a little further east on the street, the organizers had allowed a car dealer to occupy the pavement without any consideration for the temporary pedestrianization of the street. Go figure what went through their minds.

 

To the west, there was a small scene. On Friday, three young musicians simply presented under the name of their keyboardist, Vivian, offered a well-paced show. A passer-by told me that their sound reminded him of the heydays of Weather Report. I’m sure they will eventually find a sound to call their own. They weren’t born when Weather Report was popular!

 

They were on the street at the invitation of a group that will organize a new festival of music and emerging arts in the neighborhood this fall, Artival Ahuntsic. Vivian told me after the show that this was their very first performance after a week playing together and that the band had just found a name: Moodring.

 

While I enjoyed their performance a couple of neighbors came to meet me. The lady, a recently retired director of a well-known nearby high school, introduced me to Gloria who is the graphic designer and treasurer of Artival.

You see her here in front of the scene where the trio is playing.

 

It was Gloria who designed the festival’s website. Like many of the members of the team, she has artistic and musical skills. Gloria later introduced me to her colleague Lorenzo, the organization's coordinator. Like Gloria, he sang several years in a choir. Among other activities, he now runs a vocal group.

The next day, I saw them both in a group of singers on the same stage. These young people have admirable academic trajectories and seem to have taken their future into their own hands.

 

The first edition of Artival will take place on the grounds of the Sophie-Barat high school on the first and second days of September.

 

You can find out more about it at the following link: artivalahuntsic.com/artistes__trashedequipe/

I wish Gloria a great success in her personal projects and the same to the young organization of and each member of its team whole team.

 

À l’époque où même les méga-centres commerciaux tremblent devant les Amazons de ce monde, j’ai la chance de vivre dans un quartier de Montréal avec une rue commerciale qui se porte plutôt bien. Il est encore possible de faire des achats à pied sur la rue Fleury. Elle a deux secteurs commerciaux principaux avec chacun leur association de marchands, FLO dans l’ouest et La Promenade Fleury, dans l’est.

 

Concurrence oblige, chaque association tenait sa promotion la fin de semaine dernière. Fondamentalement, ce sont des ventes de trottoirs avec fermeture de la rue à la circulation automobile pendant trois jours.

 

J’habite dans l’est, à un coin de rue de Fleury est. L’édition de cette année était intéressante pour son volet social. Tout le bloc devant l’église St-Paul-de-la-croix était occupé par des organismes sociaux, incluant l’église elle-même, et des mouvements environnementaux. Par un curieux renversement de situation, la paroisse est maintenant animée par un curé missionnaire d’origine haïtienne, le père Désiré, qui semble lui avoir insufflé un nouveau souffle et une vie citoyenne.

 

Seule ombre au tableau, un peu plus loin, les organisateurs avaient permis à un concessionnaire automobile d’occuper la chaussée sans aucune considération pour la piétonisation temporaire de la rue. Je ne sais pas ce qui leur a passé par la tête.

 

Un peu plus à l’ouest, il y avait une petite scène. Vendredi, trois jeunes musiciens simplement présentés sous le prénom de la claviériste, Vivian, offrait un spectacle bien rythmé. Un passant m’a dit que leur son lui rappelait la belle époque de Weather Report. Ils se trouveront bien un son à eux. Ils n’étaient pas nés quand Weather Report était populaire!

Ils étaient sur la rue à l’invitation d’un groupe qui organisera un tout nouveau festival de musique et d’arts émergents dans le quartier cet automne, Artival Ahuntsic. Vivian m’a précisé après le spectacle qu’il s’agissait de leur toute première prestation après une semaine à jouer ensemble et que le groupe venait de se trouver un nom : Moodring.

Pendant que j’appréciais leur prestation, un couple de voisins est venu à ma rencontre. La dame, une directrice de niveau récemment retraitée d’une école secondaire réputée du quartier, m’a présentée Gloria qui est la graphiste et trésorière d’Artival.

 

Vous la voyez ici devant la scène où jouait le trio.

C’est Gloria qui a conçu le site web du festival. Comme plusieurs des membres de l’équipe, elle a des aptitudes artistiques et musicales. Gloria m’a plus tard à son tour présenté son collègue Lorenzo, coordonnateur de l’organisme. Tout comme Gloria, il a chanté plusieurs années dans une chorale. Parmi d’autres activités, Il dirige maintenant un groupe vocal.

 

Je lendemain, je les ai d’ailleurs vu tous les deux au sien d’un groupe de chanteurs sur la même scène. Ces jeunes ont de beaux parcours académique et semblent bien avoir pris leur avenir en main.

 

La première édition d’Artival aura lieu sur le terrain de l’école secondaire Sophie-Barat le premier et le deux septembre prochain.

 

Vous pouvez en savoir plus au lien suivant : artivalahuntsic.com/artistes__trashedequipe/

Je souhaite un bon succès à Gloria dans ses projets personnels de même qu’au jeune organisme au jeune organisme et à toute son équipe.

  

This photo is part of my second 100 strangers project. Find out more about the project and see pictures taken by other photographers at the 100 Strangers Flickr Group page

www.flickr.com/groups/100strangers/

Paul Cézanne. 1893-1906. Paris. Le baigneur au rocher. The bather at the rock.

1860-1866. Norfolk Chrisler Museum of Art.

(Paris Orsay exposition temporaire)

 

Cette série de tableaux de Bazille, Cézanne, Cabanel montre que Bazille était nettement plus proche, par la correction de son dessin, des académiques que de Cézanne. Il a fréquenté très assidument Manet, les Impressionnistes, Cezanne lui même, mais son style restait plus en accord avec la tradition plus classique. Cette série de tableau de l'exposition temporaire met bien en évidence la diversité des styles de peinture de l'époque.

  

This series of paintings by Bazille, Cézanne, and Cabanel shows that Bazille was much closer, by the correction of his drawing, to the academic than to Cezanne. He frequented Manet, the Impressionists, and Cezanne himself very assiduously, but his style remained more in keeping with the more classical tradition. This series of paintings in the temporary exhibition highlights the diversity of painting styles of the period.

 

1 3 4 5 6 7 ••• 79 80