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What are my own personal favourite photographs of 2013? May's photograph here.

 

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Freedom of thought and expression are two of the most basic tenants of any free society.

Without those two things, you do not have a free society.

 

We went to a must see movie this weekend. In Ben Stein’s (“Ferris Bueller's Day Off.”) new documentary movie Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed Ben shows how little academic freedom exists in our universities if you want to discuss unpopular topics like the origins of life.

 

Much of the academic world thinks that the conversation should be closed because Darwinian Evolution has answered all of those questions… But, is that true????

 

If you do not think that is true as a professor, get ready to loose you job. Yes, that politically incorrect thought has been banned in the university… I thought the university was a place of open discussion and thought???? Think again…

 

At one point in the movie… (this most unbelievable point I think ) Ben is interviewing Richard Dawkins and pressing him on the point of where did that actual first cell come from for all life to begin so that everything could evolve from it.

Richard actually believes that some advanced life source from outer space seeded our planet with that first cell… Can you believe this stuff???? And he is the one that gets paraded out all the time as the expert in this area…

 

Well, my recommendation is to go see the movie…

 

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed

 

Copyright Wayne Moran Photography 2008

All rights reserved

The forgotten art shop (HDR)

"The Drawing Group" is in the city center of Kingston Upon Hull.

Has been shut for about six moths and I really miss it. :(

Unfortunately these days, more and more people study academic

subjects.

What I truly admire in most British cities is that they have managed to combine the "old" and the "new" architectural element into a wonderful, eye-pleasing and soul - relaxing modern symbiosis .. This harmonic co-existence has managed to turn almost every corner of most of those cities into a vista, worthy enough to photo-shoot against ...

 

The above seen capture is a snapshot of the river Cam at Cambridge, on a heavily cloudy yet extremely peaceful summer afternoon ... A wonderful place to study at, a wonderful place to live in ...

 

NIKON D90 DSLR with Nikon Nikkor 18 - 55 lens, manual mode, shutter speed 1/100 s, ISO 100, f 9, focal length 26 mm, use of HOYA ND X 2 filter, cloudy weather white balance, center weighted average metering mode, HDR processing derived from only one RAW file, no flash, no tripod ...

 

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Be it modern art or classical art, there is clear influence of Art Nouveau here : an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers, where the impact of Japanese art is also obvious ...

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.[1] A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers.

 

English uses the French name Art Nouveau (new art). The style is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time: in Austria it is known as Secessionsstil after Wiener Secession; in Spanish Modernismo; in Catalan Modernisme; in Czech Secese; in Danish Skønvirke or Jugendstil; in German Jugendstil, Art Nouveau or Reformstil; in Hungarian Szecesszió; in Italian Art Nouveau, Stile Liberty or Stile floreale; in Norwegian Jugendstil; in Polish Secesja; in Slovak Secesia; in Ukrainian and Russian Модерн (Modern); in Swedish and Finnish Jugend.

 

Art Nouveau is a total art style: It embraces a wide range of fine and decorative arts, including architecture, painting, graphic art, interior design, jewelry, furniture, textiles, ceramics, glass art, and metal work.

 

By 1910, Art Nouveau was already out of style. It was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and then by Modernism.

A reaction to academic art of the 19th century was inspired by natural forms and structures, not only in flowers and plants, but also in curved lines. Architects tried to harmonize with the natural environment.[3]

 

Art Nouveau is considered a "total" art style, embracing architecture, graphic art, interior design, and most of the decorative arts, as well as the fine arts. According to the philosophy of the style, art should be a way of life. For many well-off Europeans, it was possible to live in an art nouveau-inspired house with art nouveau furniture, silverware, fabrics, ceramics including tableware, jewellery, cigarette cases, etc. Artists desired to combine the fine arts and applied arts, even for utilitarian objects.

 

The Japonisme that was popular in Europe during the 1880s and 1890s was particularly influential on many artists with its organic forms and references to the natural world.

  

Thanx, M, (*_*)

For more of my other work visit here: www.indigo2photography.co.uk

 

IT IS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN (BY LAW!!!) TO USE ANY OF MY image or TEXT on websites, blogs or any other media without my explicit permission. :copyright: All rights reserved

Paranormal researcher Matthew Williams, was the first maker of crop circles in the world to be convicted for his art. Devizes, Wiltshire. (First published in Naked - Magazine of the Weird and Wonderful)

 

Full version of the article:

 

WILL THE REAL MARTIAN PLEASE STAND UP? - Or how to create a myth without really trying

 

Crop circles remain unexplained phenomena, continuing to baffle even the most dedicated of paranormal researchers. Conflicting accounts abound and the truth is unclear. Some maintain they are complex communications from extra terrestrials or messages sent by angels. Others insist they are merely elaborate hoaxes. Certainly, crop circles are not simply modern, or indeed post-modern occurrences. They have been documented in academic texts dating from the 17th Century and over two hundred accounts reported prior to 1970. Yet it is the period since Thatcher’s vicious reign that the circle phenomena has exploded with over ten thousand reported to date. With The X-Files, Dark Skies and more recently M Night Shyamalan's Signs, crop circles seem constantly focused in the media limelight like beams from a flying saucer.

 

Designs can vary widely. They range from simple circles, circles with rings or straight lines, to complex pictograms mimicking computer fractal and elements that relate to quantum physics. Despite the global furore of the headline-hitting ‘Doug and Dave’ case, where two sexagenarians admitted to making crop circles, researchers still insist that this is not a man-made phenomenon. Indeed, such ‘hoaxers’ are dismissed entirely by researchers, and net buzz quickly determined that Doug and Dave were British government and CIA stooges. Whilst admitting that certain circles are clearly terrestrial in origin, the ‘true’ circles present evidence that simply cannot be replicated by mere humans; complex designs in fields that are mathematically precise, strange magnetic interference, bent not broken stalks, huge formations covering up to 200,000 square feet and strange orbs of light that seen above the formation of a circle.

 

Circles have been reported across the globe, yet their focus remains in the small English County of Wiltshire. This is where NAKED found Welshman Matthew Williams, a converted sceptic who has dedicated his life to paranormal research and the crop circle phenomena, and is duty-bound to dispel what he considers are the myths and lies circulated in the paranormal sphere. As both a circle maker and a paranormal investigator, this is a man who presents an entirely different perspective on the phenomena. He also is a good representative of the two camps of thought within the field; those that make circles (circle-makers or 'croppies') and the crop circle researchers (or 'believers'). Yet Matthew Williams’ research has not been without sacrifice. He has been made a criminal because of his efforts, holding the position of being the first person to be convicted of making crop circles. He has found he must operate from the fringe, even secrecy to continue his work.

 

Although always being curious about paranormal activity, it was not until a UFO sighting in 1991 that Williams took a serious interest in the subject. Though still only a hobby, these investigations caused frictions in his working life. Considered something of a liability, he was dismissed from Customs & Excise in 1995, for what he describes as “trumped-up charges of hacking into the departmental computer system.” Relieved from departing a job he hated, Williams concentrated his efforts on professional video editing and paranormal research where his investigations led him to crop circles:

 

“Initially I had the rather naive and uniformed opinion, much like many other people that crop circles couldn’t be made by humans. It sounded plausible that it was too hard to make these things. But I started to realise there were a lot of people claiming to have made crop circles. Unlike the researchers who were very afraid of going to speak to these people or believed they should just be ignored, I interviewed them. I realised straight away that these were very intelligent. Their handle on the subject was far more advanced, straightforward and down-to-earth than the researchers. And it made a lot more sense. So very quickly I realised that I had made a mistake, that in fact these people were probably right on lots of things. But I wasn’t sure if they were right about all the circles. So what I need to needed to know was whether the big claims of the researchers were right or wrong. The only way to truly test them was to make some circles and find out what people believed them to be. My friend and I started off with some pretty basic stuff because we didn’t really know what we were doing, but it was still loved by the researchers. They thought it was marvelous! But throughout all the stuff we did, we were realising that people were having paranormal experiences. They were complaining that their cameras were failing and we were getting stories about researchers seeing things the night before, like lights in the sky above the area that we were working. Researchers would draw conclusions like “the light was above the crop circle, so the light must have made the crop circle.” So it started to teach me a lot about the ways that people make two and two equal six. It's a good education to actually make circles to find out how people react…and how paranormal myths propagate.”

 

Crop circle researchers do not deny that some formations are man-made, but maintain the more complicated designs or those exhibiting paranormal activity are created by a non-human independent force. Williams realised that researchers were making ill-judged connections between paranormal events and the crop circles, but this still did not explain the unusual phenomena that the circle makers were beginning to experience themselves in the obviously man-made formations:

 

“When teams of people go out into the fields and make large talismanic magical symbols, somehow that does actually have some effect on physical reality and strange things happen. A couple of years down the line and a lot more weird experiences had happened to us. But I don’t know how they happen, I just know they happened. I’ve seen small balls of light which have entered the field and chased us out on one occasion. I’ve seen them passing over head. On two occasions we’ve also seen black, shadowy figures. Not as clear as a person, a little bit more rounded, but a human shape. They just disappeared. One night researchers had seen a fog bank come down where we were working, rise in the morning and reveal the crop circle. We didn’t see it and we were working very close to researchers that night and we wondered whether something else was helping us out. But there are so many things like that. People put together mathematical formulas together from the crop circle and say, "well this circle tells us something we didn’t know, something new to science." Researchers have also looked with microscopes into the soil and found globules of metal which don’t appear outside of the circle. The metal is so pure that they think that some of it comes from space. Apparently, this meteoric metal dust is what affects compasses in the crop circle. It’s like, why would we choose a place in the field where that happened to be in the ground to create a certain crop circle around it? Or did it come out of space? Did it happen while we were making the circle or just after we left? Or how did it get there? So what’s attracting us to special places that then turn out to have a synchronistic meaning to someone else?”

 

Williams turned his attention to the researchers, frustrated at their "wild claims about extra terrestrials."

Yet convincing them that he was a maker of crop circles was to create a more fascinating conspiracy than the best net theorists could imagine. It seems most researchers consider suggesting that complicated, unexplainable phenomena-producing circles are the work of a small team of people with metal tapes, bamboo sticks and boards is speaking virtually heresy. This is an incomprehensible notion to them. Not only that, but their dismissing of his claims, leads to a negative impact on the phenomena that the circle can create:

 

"You have people losing interest in a particular circle if they know it is man-made. They shut down their emotions and their professional interest. They maybe don’t go into it. And they will probably like to report you to the police and get you in trouble for admitting that you had done that. If people think it’s just humans, the magic subsides. The other way to make circles is to pay for the formations and keep them secret. Because if it’s secret, people’s unknowing about the crop circle will perhaps attract the strange phenomena, but only when they’ve got an open mind. Crop circles require secrecy in order for the magic to work best. If you shut their mind down by telling them that it is man-made, they might be stopping the phenomena. Researchers will always cry foul of what we do, but without us there would be no subjects to speak of and therefore no strange, unexplained phenomena. So they have to carry on in this antagonistic capacity where we’re doing something that they won’t accept. And they won’t accept it because of the paranormal activities they have seen. They say "how can a UFO appear over what they said they made?" and this sort of stuff. But we’ve also demonstrated making crop circles. We were invited by Japanese TV to make a circle in New Zealand. We made the formation in the hours of darkness making a perfect copy of another circle that had appeared. And there are people out there that say, "oh these circle-makers they never demonstrate what they do." We’ve demonstrated many times, but these people just say that we haven’t! I say, "well what about this one?" Yet they go, "like we said, you never demonstrate!" Fucking hell! We’ve demonstrated what we do, we’ve documented it, we've filmed it. I've put together a three hour tape of interviews with circle makers. They just don’t want it. They aren’t interested. "

 

Yet despite the clash of ideology, their relationship is nonetheless a symbiotic one. "We feed off each other, and are necessary to each other," he says. The researchers fulfill the role of suppressing public awareness of human involvement, thus maintaining the level of secrecy which Williams believes can spark the "magic," while the circle-makers are responsible for evoking the phenomena that the researchers are so fascinated. He suggests that, "maybe it’s the minds of the people that observe crop circles (i.e. the public and the researchers), that are helping to fuel it by the way they understand it." Unfortunately according to Williams, the researchers are intent on discrediting the 'croppies.' Some of researchers who have switched from dismissing 'hoaxers' to becoming circle makers themselves have received tremendous assaults on their credibility. Despite being a highly respected media spokesman for circle researcher, Peter Sorenson's move from belief in ET involvement to the circles being man-made resulted in accusations that he was a government agent sent to dis-inform. Thus, the intention of Matthew Williams video 'CircleMakers' was to demystify his craft, to "make people realise there’s a demonisation going on where horrible things have been said. It’s just sympathy stuff to make us appear like bad guys so that people won’t want to speak to us and discover the truth."

 

'Croppies' have numerous rationales for making circles; some for artistic reasons, some for spirituality and others are interested in the paranormal aspects:

 

"All of us are very different but strangely enough whatever angle you come into crop circles from, all the teams have had paranormal experiences whilst making them. Really, the only way we are going to get round that is if they start making circles and they’ll understand that what we’re saying is true. But I think that for every researcher that comes into the subject maybe ten years later down the line, they probably do start making a couple of circles to test it out. But it takes time and their pride has to be a little bit suppressed before they can do that.”

 

Unfortunately for Williams, his encounter with 'believer' pride was to have serious consequences. He was arrested for making a specific circle, a conspiracy involving circle researcher Michael Glickman and of Whitley Strieber, author of Communion, the famous autobiographical story of alien abduction:

 

"Glickman says that crop circles are extra terrestrial, at the same time believing that he is directly in contact with them and that they are guiding him. Not anyone else mind you, just him! I didn’t like the fact that he was going on Whitley Strieber's radio show, putting forward untruths about the crop circle subject to twenty million listeners in the US on a weekly basis. So I thought that it would be a good idea to say to Whitley, "well look, just for your own piece of mind and balance, do you want to know if your honored, prestigious guest is actually wrong? Because I can prove it to you and it would give you a better balance about what’s going on." He agreed and asked, “how do you think you can show me this?” I said, “Well the way we always show it. I’ll make you a circle, done under real conditions. I’ll send you the details beforehand, then you wait for Glickman to make his comments and determinations and if he’s telling you it’s extra terrestrials you’ll know it’s not.” So we agreed to do that and of course I stressed that he had to keep it secret. So I sent the details of the circle that we were going to make to Whitley Strieber and went down and made it. It was specifically containing a number of elements of design that Mr. Glickman said could not be done by humans. I put them all in this circle! His ears were going to go up on this one! Whitley Strieber gave the details to Michael Glickman and they immediately phoned the authorities. I got the house turned over by the police, looking for evidence of making crop circles. I admitted straight off because I had gone too far in what I was telling the researchers. So when the police said, “Did you admit this?” I said, “Yes.”"

 

Williams was convicted of criminal damage, and fined £125. His computer and editing equipment were also taken for examination, leaving him out of business for over six months. When it was finally returned, he found its components smashed. He filed a complaint but before it went to court, the police settled with a lump sum of £400. This quiet-mannered Welshman now keeps his circle-making involvement closely guarded. "For all intents and purposes I have to be seen to be clean now," he explains disappointedly, now having to remain content with providing public demonstrations by paying the farmer. Yet Williams remains passionate about the subject, still investigating the paranormal activity that he and others have stumbled across. Rather surprisingly though, he doesn’t immediately suggest that such events are the work of extra terrestrials. Refusing to make such connections, he prefers to take a more pragmatic approach. Unconvinced by the alien hypothesis, he considers this knee-jerk reaction to be a symptom of the decline in religious faith in Western society:

 

"I suppose the best way to look at it is like a new folklore, it’s new fairies, it’s new goblins. Whenever you have a genre that people believe in, some people will start seeing it and experiencing it. So for the western world it’s obviously aliens and extra terrestrials and this sort of stuff. In other parts of the world people will be having their experiences that they relate to. It depends on what part of the world, what culture you grew up in.”

 

Perhaps this offers a possible explanation to the stubborn attitude of the researchers, who are fearful of any challenge to this new belief system. Williams' research is almost theological approach then, with the researchers the evangelic custodians of mistruth. Certainly, he holds a position more like an objective investigator, raising plausible solutions to the problem, but resisting the urge to slip into unqualified conclusions:

 

“I would rather believe a more down-to-earth explanation like telepathy or an unknown thing that maybe sometimes you accidentally stumble across. But saying that, I think you stumble across this sort of stuff more often when you are making crop circles, than when you are researching from the outside. I think that being on the inside of this thing is a mystery that seems to have more of an effect if you do get involved on that level. I’m not a scientist, I’m not a mathematician, I'm just a paranormal researcher interested in making crop circles. But if I’m able to pick up on something like that, design a design and go out and do it, then how am I picking that up? Am I picking it up from a group mind, from a group consciousness? Am I being given that idea from extra terrestrials or from intelligence outside of humanity? Or is it just incredible coincidence? But I don’t believe that theory, it doesn't seem to make sense. I think here has to be some sort of guiding influence or something that pushes behind-the-scenes for something to happen. How do we do it? I don’t know, I’m not trying to take credit for it."

 

Matthew Williams will continue to explore the phenomenon, to make crop circles and share paranormal experiences. If his methodology to evoke paranormal activity is true, there are still more questions than answers to the crop circle mythology. And whether he will solve some of these remains unclear. The 'believers' may even be correct in their assumption that circles are the work of extra terrestrials, though it seems to be a far more complicated affair than they consider. Until there is firm evidence to suggest otherwise, these events look to remain in the realm of magic. Matthew Williams poses a challenge and a philosophy:

 

"Everything about the crop circle subject when you get involved as deeply as I have really teaches you how real magic works and how it works in such a way that most people are not aware of. It's very hard to understand from the outside, you’ve got to be on the inside. But there’s nothing stopping anybody from getting on the inside. So if you think I am full of shit, go and make a crop circle and don’t tell anyone and see what they say. Then you’ll see that what I am telling is true and you might have a paranormal experience whilst making the crop circle and you’ll come along and share my belief and everyone will call you a liar (all laugh). It’s waiting to be exploited for anyone who’s willing to try it. Reality is not everything we think it is. I think it is more flexible than a lot of people give it credit for. I mean, these strange experiences are clues to the fact that things are not as solid as they appear to be and that there are other things out there to be discovered. The world is not just physical. Your whole life in some way should be dedicated to looking at these things, otherwise you may have a shock when you die. You may carry on…"

 

(Words and Photos Copyright - Mark Berry)

What are my own personal favourite photographs of 2013? June's photograph here.

 

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Rebuilding the Glasgow School of Art following a the devastating fire could cost at least £100m, according to experts.

 

Academics specialising in fire risk and construction management at Glasgow Caledonian University came up with the estimated cost of rebuilding the Mackintosh ...

 

35.231.217.201/repairing-glasgow-school-of-art-building-w...

Luminis Kanto

 

I want thanx Theoretical Afterthough and you for organize the unique meeting of last night!

Was really a piece of good culture.

Thanx also at all artists ,academics and intelligent peoples who work a lot and free just for love of culture and art ;)

Avenue Foch in the Lorraine city of Nancy at Central European weather conditions, which were called "The Beast from the East" in the UK and "The Russian Whip" in Germany, Grand Est, France

 

Some background information:

 

Nancy is a city in the Grand Est region of France, located about 282 km (175 miles) to the east of French capital city of Paris. The town that is situated on the left bank of the river Meurthe is the capital of the Lorraine department of Meurthe-et-Moselle. Currently the metropolitan area of Nancy has a population of approx. 450,000 inhabitants, making it the 20th largest urban area in France, whilst the inner city of Nancy has about 105,000 residents.

 

Nancy is famous for its three squares Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place de l'Hémicycle (resp. Place d'Alliance). The first one is considered one of the most beautiful places in the world, while the second one is the extension of its axis and the third one is located in close proximity. The baroque architectural ensemble comprising all three places is very unique and was therefore inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List as early as 1983.

 

Furthermore, Nancy is also known for its Art Nouveau and Art Déco architecture, implemented by the so-called School of Nancy. The School of Nancy was born when the Moselle regions were annexed by the Prussians in 1871. Nancy, a French border town at that time, was home to much of the intelligentsia who refused the annexation. These conditions in particular, as well as the presence of industrialists, entrepreneurs and a thriving artistic community led to the establishment of the School of Nancy. World War I marked the end of the Art Noveau movement, but with the between war period came the style Art Déco. In the roaring twenties French Art Déco was at its zenith. In 1930, in the course of the Great Depression, the Art Déco movement lost ground siignificantly, until it had absolutely no more bearing on architecture in the mid-1930s. However, there are still many architectural witnesses of both Art Noveaui and Art Déco movements in today’s Nancy, which even stand side by side quite often.

 

Around 1050, a small fortified town named Nanciacum was built by Gérard, Duke of Lorraine. In 1218, at the end of the War of Succession of Champagne, the town that was already renamed Nancy was burned and conquered by Emperor Frederick II. It was rebuilt in stone over the next few centuries as it grew in importance as the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. In 1477, Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nancy and René II, Duke of Lorraine, became the ruler.

 

In the next few centuries Nancy flourished. At that time in the south of the old town the new town was founded, which was characterised by a street network laid out in a gridiron pattern. But in the Thirty Years’ War, Nancy was affected by heavy demolitions. However, it soon turned upward again.

 

Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's next child. This turned out to be a daughter, Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Duke François of Lorraine, who reluctantly agreed to exchange his ancestral lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

 

The exiled Polish king Stanislaus Leszczyński, father-in-law of the French king Louis XV, was then given the vacant duchy of Lorraine. Under his nominal rule, Nancy experienced even more growth and a flowering of baroque culture and architecture. Stanislaus oversaw the construction of Place Stanislaus, Place de la Carrière and Place de l'Hémicycle. But after Stanislaus' death in 1766, the Duchy of Lorraine that was still part of the Holy Roman Empire (of German Nation) by then became a regular French province. At the same time, Nancy lost its position as a residential capital city with a princely court and patronage.

 

As unrest surfaced within the French armed forces during the French Revolution, a full-scale mutiny, known as the Nancy affair, took place in Nancy in the latter part of summer 1790. A few units loyal to the government laid siege to the town and shot or imprisoned the mutineers. In 1871, Nancy remained French when Prussia annexed Alsace-Lorraine, following the Franco-Prussian War. The flow of refugees reaching Nancy doubled its population in three decades. Artistic, academic, financial and industrial excellence flourished, establishing what is still the capital of Lorraine's trademark to this day. In 1940, Nancy and other areas of France were occupied by German forces. But in September 1944, Nancy was liberated from Nazi Germany by the U.S. Third Army at the Battle of Nancy.

 

Today, Nancy is not only known for its beautiful baroque squares and its many Art Noveau as well as Art Déco buildings, but also for its excellent cuisine. Macarons are from Nancy, Madeleines, likewise biscuits, are from the region, Bergamotes, sweets made of bergamot, are also from the city and the famous Quiche Lorraine can be savoured almost everywhere in the town.

“You can understand nothing about art, particularly modern art, if you do not understand that imagination is a value in itself.”

(Milan Kundera - French writer (born Czech), b.1929)

 

Located at the end of Rajpath, nearby India Gate, this building was a former residential palace of the Maharaja of Jaipur, hence known as Jaipur House.

It was designed by Sir Arthur Bloomfield in 1936, after the construction of Lutyens' Delhi, it became The National Gallery of Modern Art inaugurated by Vice-president Dr S.Radhakrishnan in 1954, in the presence of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.

Hermann Goetz (1898–1976), a noted German art historian became its first curator and in time it added new facilities such as Art restoration services, an Art reference Library and a Documentation Centre.

Then in 2009, a new wing was inaugurated adding almost six times the space to the existing gallery, with a new auditorium, a preview theatre, conservation laboratory, library and academic section as well as a cafeteria and museum shop.

It is the only institution of it's kind in the country, run and administered by the Government of India.

It represents the evolution of the changing art forms through the passage of more than a hundred years starting from about 1857.

In The stately Jaipur House are on display paintings, sculpture and graphic art dating from the mid 19th century to the present day.

More than 14,000 works includes works by artists such as Abanindranath Tagore, (especially his Advent of the Rainy Season, Twilight and Landscape), Nandalal Bose, Ramkumar Kinkar, Rabindranath Tagore, Binod Behari Mukherjee, Amrita Sher-Gil, Thomas Daniell, Raja Ravi Verma among others.

The foremost responsibility of the National Gallery of Modern Art is to ensure quality and set and maintain a standard of excellence that pervades all it's activities.

 

More informations:

ngmaindia.gov.in/index.asp

 

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© All photographs are copyrighted and all rights reserved.

Please do not use any photographs without permission (even for private use).

The use of any work without consent of the artist is PROHIBITED and will lead automatically to consequences.

This is a painting I did about 19 years ago in studio class when I was just beginning to paint. The torso is unfinished.

Oil on canvas.

16 x 20 inches

 

Back in the 90’s, I used to take oil painting at the Art Students League, and the National Academy of Design. At both places I studied with Mary Beth McKenzie, who is a phenomenal painter, and whose advice and teachings still rattle around my head whenever I do anything creative. I don't oil paint anymore, but my work on animated TV shows, as well as my robot building is greatly informed and influenced by the time I spent with her.

What are my own personal favourite photographs of 2013? April's photograph here.

 

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狩野常信(1636–1713) 「菊花菊童子」 三幅(絹本/彩色)

 

*レプリカではありません。本物です。

These are all genuine painings,-not copies.

 

location : Sho-in ( The Study Hall) of Yanagidani Kannon Yokoku-ji temple ,Nagaoka-kyo city,Kyoto prefecture,Japan

  

柳谷観音 揚谷寺(京都府長岡京市)上書院(通常非公開 )The Sho-in ( Study Hall) is normally not open to the public.

 

yanagidani.jp/

 

The Kanō school (狩野派 Kanō-ha) is one of the most famous schools of Japanese painting. The Kanō school of painting was the dominant style of painting from the late 15th century until the Meiji period which began in 1868,by which time the school had divided into many different branches. The Kanō family itself produced a string of major artists over several generations, to which large numbers of unrelated artists trained in workshops of the school can be added. Some artists married into the family and changed their names, and others were adopted. According to the historian of Japanese art Robert Treat Paine, "another family which in direct blood line produced so many men of genius ... would be hard to find".

 

The school began by reflecting a renewed influence from Chinese painting, but developed a brightly coloured and firmly outlined style for large panels decorating the castles of the nobility which reflected distinctively Japanese traditions, while continuing to produce monochrome brush paintings in Chinese styles. It was supported by the shogunate, effectively representing an official style of art, which "in the 18th century almost monopolized the teaching of painting".It drew on the Chinese tradition of literati painting by scholar-bureaucrats, but the Kanō painters were firmly professional artists, very generously paid if successful, who received a formal workshop training in the family workshop, in a similar way to European painters of the Renaissance or Baroque.They worked mainly for the nobility, shōguns and emperors, covering a wide range of styles, subjects and formats. Initially innovative, and largely responsible for the new types of painting of the Momoyama period (1573–1614), from the 17th century the artists of the school became increasingly conservative and academic in their approach.

 

Kanō Tsunenobu

Kanō Tsunenobu (狩野常信) (1636–1713) was a Japanese painter of the Kanō school.He first studied under his father, Kanō Naonobu, and then his uncle, Kanō Tan'yū, after his father's death. He became a master painter and succeed his uncle Tan'yū as head of the Kanō school in 1674. It is believed many works attributed to Tan'yū might actually be Tsunenobu, but it is difficult to know since they often worked on larger pieces together.

  

.-wikipedia

 

Canon EOS M5 / EF-M22mm f/2 STM/ƒ/4.0 22.0 mm 1/15sec

ISO400 / all manual / handheld

  

Lviv National Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet is an opera house located in Lviv, Ukraine's largest western city and one of its historic cultural centers.

According to the inscription in the theater lobby, the building was constructed between 1897 and 1900, and has remained standing throughout several changes in history. For four decades, the theater was known as the Ivan Franko Lviv State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet, having been rechristened in 1956 after the city's famous poet and political activist on the centenary of his birth. In 2000, the Lviv Opera celebrated its own centennial with another rechristening, this time after one of the city's native daughters, Solomiya Krushelnytska, a renowned soprano of the early 20th century.

The Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet is built in the classical tradition with using forms and details of Renaissance and Baroque architecture, also known as the Viennese neo-Renaissance style. The stucco mouldings and oil paintings on the walls and ceilings of the multi-tiered auditorium and foyer give it a richly festive appearance. The Opera's imposing facade is opulently decorated with numerous niches, Corinthian columns, pilasters, balustrades, cornices, statues, reliefs and stucco garlands. Standing in niches on either side of the main entrance are allegorical figures representing Comedy and Tragedy; figures of muses embellish the top of the cornice. The building is crowned by large bronze statues, symbolizing Glory, Poetry and Music.

The theatre, beautifully decorated inside and outside, became a centrefold of the achievements in sculpture and painting of Western Europe at the end of the 19th century.

Other image from the "Smokers" series.

This time in Art Nouveau style. I love that epoch...

Art Nouveau, also known as Jugendstil , is an international movement and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that peaked in popularity at the turn of the 20th century (1890–1905). A reaction to academic art of the 19th century, it is characterized by organic, especially floral and other plant-inspired motifs, as well as highly-stylized, flowing curvilinear forms. Art Nouveau is an approach to design according to which artists should work on everything from architecture to furniture, making art part of everyday life... Japanese wood-block prints, with their curved lines, patterned surfaces, contrasting voids, and flatness of visual plane, also inspired Art Nouveau. Some line and curve patterns became graphic clichés that were later found in works of artists from all parts of the world...

 

Thanks to my friend Alexander Golant ( algont ) www.flickr.com/photos/26114279@N06/ for the original shot. And again I spent a lot of time for damaging his photo: active retouching, sometimes redrawing, texturizing and so ...

 

Much better view in large.

 

Explore front page, #24, 12/06/08

      

From the book "Academics, honoring Caravaggio (2010-2011)".

 

© Aurelio Monge 2011

This image is copyrighted. Don't use without permission of the author.

Books availables at: aureliomonge.prosite.com/35486/books

 

Website: www.aurelioMONGE.com

Facebook: www.facebook.com/aurelioMONGE.artwork

Toulouse Lautrec Impressionist Painting Young Girl & Eros - Adolphe c.1882

Attributed to Henri de Toulouse Lautrec (1864-1901) After William Bouguereau

 

Approx: Size 47" tall x 35.25" wide (without the frame) - 62.75" tall x 51" wide (with Frame)

 

History

 

William Bouguereau was France's most popular painter of the late 1800s. A leader of the Academic School,

 

Bouguereau specialized in carefully detailed mythological and genre scenes, and was particularly noted for his tender

 

portrayals of children. "The Abduction of Psyche" (1895) is probably his best-known work. Today many critics dismiss

 

his style as kitsch and do not look kindly on his harmful opposition to new creative trends; but his exquisite craftsmanship

 

is undeniable. Bouguereau completed over 800 paintings, many of them life-sized. Adolphe William Bouguereau (he

 

never used his first name) was born in La Rochelle, France. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and won the Prix de

 

Rome in 1850. In 1868 he built a lavish studio in Montparnasse and helped make that area the foremost artists' quarter

 

in Paris. Around this time he also began a liason with one of his students, American painter Elizabeth Gardner;

 

Bouguereau's mother opposed the relationship and the couple did not marry until her death in 1896. As comparatively

 

obscure as he is these days, it's difficult to imagine what a star Bouguereau was in the art world of his era. He worked

 

hard to fufil his many commissions and his paintings were so sought after, and fetched such high prices, that he once

 

boasted, "I lose five francs every time I pee". Engraved reproductions of his works sold in the millions. Along with wealth

 

and fame came many honors, including election to the Institute of France and being named a Grand Officer of the Legion

 

of Honor. Reactionary in visual tastes, Bouguereau believed art should idealize beauty and turned up his nose at

 

anything that even remotely deviated from this dictum. As President of the Society of French Artists from 1881, he

 

oversaw the selection of the thousands of paintings shown annually at the Paris Salon, the only real avenue to success

 

for aspiring Gallic painters and sculptors. For decades he used this position to hinder the press and public from

 

discovering the revolutionary changes that were taking place in French painting, including Impressionism, Realism,

 

Pointillism, and the singular efforts of Paul Gaugin, Henri Rousseau, and Toulouse-Lautrec. Paul Cezanne, who

 

submitted canvases to that venue every year only to have them rejected, finally gave up and declared, "I don't stand a

 

chance in Monsieur Bouguereau's Salon". Rival salons sprang up in Paris to combat Bouguereau's conservatism, but he

 

remained powerful and influential until his death at 79. (bio by: Bobb Edwards)

 

In 1882, Lautrec moved from Albi to Paris, where he studied art in the ateliers of two academic painters, Léon Bonnat

 

(1833–1922) and Fernand Cormon (1845–1924), who also taught Émile Bernard (1868–1941) and Vincent van Gogh

 

(1853–1890). Lautrec soon began painting en plein air in the manner of the Impressionists, and often posed sitters in the

 

Montmartre garden of his neighbor, Père Forest, a retired photographer. One of his favorite models was a prostitute

 

nicknamed La Casque d'Or (Golden Helmet), seen in the painting The Streetwalker (2003.20.13). Lautrec used peinture

 

à l'essence, or oil thinned with turpentine, on cardboard, rendering visible his loose, sketchy brushwork. The

 

transposition of this creature of the night to the bright light of day—her pallid complexion and artificial hair color clash with

 

the naturalistic setting—signals Lautrec's fascination with sordid and dissolute subjects. Later in his career, he would

 

devote an entire series of prints, called Elles, to life inside a brothel (1984.1203.166).

 

The most notable painting from the Harris collection was the early Toulouse-Lautrec painting "La blanchisseuse" (1886-

 

87), a young laundress with copper-colored hair and a pearly white blouse. Its optimistic presale estimate of $20 million

 

to $25 million turned out to be justified, as the painting sold for $22.4 million to a phone bidder. The price was a record

 

for a work by the artist sold at auction, $6 million more than the previous highest price.

 

Henri de Toulouse Lautrec (1864-1901) was a French artist of the late 19th Century, most closely associated with the

 

Symbolists, but with a unique, distinctive style of his own. His depictions of Parisian night life and society -- vivid, candid,

 

energetic and unflattering -- are instantly recognizable, and typify that place and period in the minds of many. The

 

painter's own life has become a legend that has inspired many romanticized interpretations.

Henri-Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Montfa was born on November 24, 1864, in the town of Albi, in the south of

 

France. He was the first child and heir of Alphonse Charlers Jean Marie (1838-1913), Count of Toulouse, and his wife

 

Marie Marquette Zoe Adele Tapie de Celeyran (1841-1930). Count Alphonse de Toulouse-Lautrec was an avid

 

sportsman and hunter, with a penchant for flamboyant outfits. Marie de Celeyran, by contrast, was very reserved and shy,

 

and doted on her first child. Young Henri was probably first introduced to painting through his uncles, several of whom

 

were amateur artists. He received his first tutelage in art from Rene Princeteau, a well-known sports-painter and a friend

 

of his father's.

Much of Henri's early childhood was spent in the Chateau de Celeyran, his mother's familial home, near the

 

Mediterranean town of Narbonne, where he spent much time drawing and painting the life and landscape of the estate. In

 

1868, his parents separated; Henri would live mostly with his mother. In 1872, he was enrolled in the prestigious Lycee

 

Fontanes in Paris, but he left the school only three short years later, in 1875, due to health reasons. Together with his

 

mother, he moved back to the south of France, and its gentler climate.

In 1878, Henri broke his left thigh as he was getting up out of a chair. Bed-ridden, he spent his time reading, drawing and

 

painting. A year later and just barely recovered from his first injury, he broke his other thigh whilst taking a walk with his

 

mother. The growth of his legs was stunted forever, and he never grew taller than 5 feet. There is much speculation about

 

the causes of the painter's medical condition. From the evidence we have today, it is probable that he suffered from

 

brittle bone disease (osteogenesis imperfecta), a genetic disorder that prevents bones and connective tissues from

 

developing properly. Osteogenesis imperfecta was not uncommon among the European aristocracy, and this would

 

explain Henri's physical frailty and other symptoms. Be that as it may, his illness was never identified during his lifetime,

 

and nothing his mother and his doctors undertook would help.

Meanwhile, Henri continued to pursue art. By 1880, he had produced as many as two and a half thousand works, in a

 

variety of techniques. Encouraged by his uncle Charles and by Princeteau, he eventually managed to convince his

 

mother to allow him to return to Paris to study art. In 1881, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec set up residence in Princeteau's

 

Paris studio.

In 1882, the young artist was accepted into the studio of the famous painter and art teacher Leon Bonnat. However,

 

Bonnat took an immediate dislike to Toulouse-Lautrec, who, already then, had something of a caustic personality. The

 

two did not get along well, and after Bonnat became a professor at the Paris Academy of Art, Lautrec quit his studio and

 

began to study, instead, under Fernand Cormon. Cormon was a talented artist in his own right, and an enthusiastic

 

teacher, and his workshop attracted many young painters who would later be among the shapers of the art world.

  

Under Cormon, Toulouse-Lautrec explored many styles and techniques. He received a firm grounding in academic

 

painting, but Cormon also encouraged his students to explore Impressionism and contemporary directions in art. Two of

 

the painter's works from this period are the Artist's Mother (1883) and the Young Routy at Celeyran (1883).

In 1883, Lautrec had his first romantic liaison with Marie Charlet, a 17-year-old model. The painter would have many

 

affairs over the course of his rather brief life. All of them would be with women far below his station, and none of them

 

were very long-lasting. Although the artist immersed himself in the life of the lower classes -- the cabarets, the dance

 

halls and the brothels -- he always retained an aristocratic aloofness and a sense of his own superiority. He was not

 

attempting to become part of that life: he was rather an unprejudiced observer; a doctor or a scientist, trying to dissect it

 

and give it life, in his art.

Lautrec moved into the Montmartre district in 1884. Here, he met Edgar Degas, whom he came to admire. He soon

 

began to frequent the district's cabarets, including the Elysee-Montmartre, the Moulin de la Galette and the Mirliton, run

 

by Artistide Bruant, where he displayed his works. That year, he also had his first exhibition at the Pau.

In 1886, Lautrec met Vincent Van Gogh at Cormon's studio, where the Dutch painter had come to study. They quickly

 

became friends, though Lautrec left the studio only a few months later, his education there concluded. This was also the

 

year when he met Suzanne Valadon, who modelled for him, and they began a relationship. It didn't last long; two years

 

later, Valadon attempted suicide and the couple broke up. See The Laundress, which is one of the artist's depiction of

 

his mistress.

By this point, Lautrec's art was beginning to attract greater notice. In 1887, he participated in an exhibition in Toulouse,

 

where he assumed a false name, in order to distance himself from his father, the Count of Toulouse. In Paris, he

 

exhibited together with Van Gogh. He was invited to send some of his work to the les Vingt ("The Twenty") exhibition,

 

taking place early in 1888, in Brussels. At the same exhibition, two years later, Lautrec had a fierce argument with the

 

painter Henry de Groux over the inclusion of Van Gogh's work, and challenged the Belgian to a duel. The duel never took

 

place, but it shows the friendship Lautrec and Van Gogh shared. Van Gogh stayed with Lautrec in Paris, not long before

 

his suicide in 1890. See Toulouse-Lautrec's portrait of Vincent Van Gogh.

In 1889, Lautrec participated in the Salon des Independants for the first time. He would become a frequent contributor to

 

the Salon's exhibitions. He spent the summer on France's Atlantic coast, yachting. This year saw the opening of the

 

cabaret Moulin Rouge in the Montmartre; Lautrec immediately became a regular, and would often show his work at the

 

establishment. In modern popular culture, the name Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is inseparably linked to the Moulin Rouge,

 

and it is true that some of his most iconic work was made there, including his notorious Moulin Rouge poster of 1891 (La

 

Goulue), Valentin "the Boneless" Training the New Girls (1890), and others.

Though Lautrec is most famous for his depictions of Parisian night-life, he was a man of constantly-evolving interests,

 

both artistically and otherwise. Around 1893, moved away from the cabarets and took an interest in literature and

 

theater. He made his first engraving in 1891, and his later works include many lithographs, such as Les Ambassadeurs:

 

Aristide Bruant (1892), May Milton (1895), The Jockey (1899), and others. In 1893, he took part in an exhibition devoted

 

to painters and engravers. That year was important as well, because he had his first solo exhibition at the gallery of

 

Maurice Joyant. In this, he was part of a modern trend for the celebration of individual artistic achievement. Prior to the

 

late 19th Century, exhibitions had always been collective, featuring numerous artists.

Lautrec spent a lot of the time between 1894 and 1897 travelling. He visited London, Madrid and Toledo in Spain,

 

Brussels, Haarlem and Amsterdam. In England, the painter became acquainted with Whistler and Oscar Wilde, both of

 

whom he saw as role models -- the former for his art, the latter for his lifestyle. In Spain, he took inspiration from the old

 

masters: Velasquez, Goya and El Greco. In Holland, he studied Rembrandt, Bruegel and Hals. In Brussels, in 1895 and

 

again in 1897, he took part in exhibitions organized by the group La Libre Esthetique (The Free Aesthetic), the

 

successors to les Vingt, where his work was exhibited side-by-side with that of Cezanne, Signac, Gauguin and Van

 

Gogh.

His lifestyle, ever erratic, was becoming increasingly so as a result of his drinking, which was rapidly spiralling out of

 

control. In 1894, on a whim, he moved into one of the brothels he frequented and lived there for some time. Some works

 

painted from his experience there include Rue de Moulins (1894), Prostitutes Around a Dinner Table (1894), Two

 

Friends (1894-95), In 1896, at a private exhibition in the gallery of Joyant, he got into altercation with no less a

 

personage than the former King of Serbia, Milan Obrenovic, whom he called an ignorant "pig farmer". By this time, he

 

was descending into outright alcoholism. In 1897, he had an attack of delirium tremens, while on summer vacation at

 

Villeneuve-sur-Yonne. His artistic output decreased sharply, as most of his days were spent in various states of

 

intoxication. His health deteriorated sharply. In 1899, he was confined to a mental hospital, attracting jabs from the press.

He died on September 9th, 1901, at the age of 36, at one of his beloved mother's homes in Malrome. His last two

 

paintings were "Admiral Viaud" and "An Examination at the Faculty of Medicine".

 

Biography by Yuri Mataev

Bibliography:

Court Painter to the Wicked. The Life and Work of Toulouse-Lautrec by Jean Bouret. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. NY 1968

Toulouse_Lautrec. A Life. by Julia Frey Viking. 1994

Nightlife of Paris. The Art of Toulouse-Lautrec by Patrick O'Connor. Universe, NY.1991

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec by Herhard Gruitrooy. 1996.

Toulouse-Lautrec by Philippe Huisman and M.G. Dortu. Chartwell Books, Inc.1971

Toulouse-Lautrec His Complete Lithographs and Drypoints by Jean Adhemar. Harry N.Abrams, Inc. NY

Toulouse-Lautrec: The Complete Graphic Works by Gotz Adriani. Thames & Hudson, 1988.

H. de Toulouse-Lautrec: One Hundred Ten Unpublished Drawings by Arthur William Heintzelman, Edouard Julien, M.

 

Roland O. Heintzelman. French & European Pubns, 1955.

Has anyone seen "Work of Art: The Next Great Artist"? Its really good. In fact, if there's a second season, I'm going to try out for it. The challenges the artists go through really seem fun. I have to be 21 to apply...so hopefully if they do cast, it wont be until next year :)

 

NOTE TO ALL OF YOU: I'm taking 4-5 days off. I'm judging a photo competition in Portland, starting on some new photoshoots, finishing up screenplays for my film crew, and preparing for my NEW photo showcases this summer in Sandy, Oregon, and at Vancouver School of Arts and Academics here in my hometown.

Plus, I need time to breathe.

I've been suffocated with so many things this week.

I'll try and respond to messages, and occassionally comment your new pictures.

Feel free to add me on Facebook!

Or

Become a fan of Galen Olson Photography!

Also, I tagged quite a few people. So look at their new work. Its fantastic. I went on a "picture viewing" spree at 4am this morning and these were the people's photostreams I looked at. They're good. In future photographs, I'll try and tag some other of my contacts to feature them. My way of saying "thank you" to all of you, whom continue to support me day after day.

 

This is one of my all time favorite black and white images, by the way.

Joachim Wtewael. 1566-1638. Utrecht

Portrait of Antonetta Wtewael wife of Johan Pater. 1626

Utrecht Centraal Museum

 

LE BEAU N'EST PAS SUBJECTIF. LE BEAU EST UN FAIT D'EXPERIENCE QUI TRANSCENDE LES CULTURES.

 

"Le monde discerne la beauté, et, par là le laid se révèle. Le monde reconnaît le bien et, par là le mal se révèle."

Dao De Jing, le Livre de la Voie et de la Vertu

LAO TSEU (Laozi)

 

"The world discerns beauty, and hence the ugly is revealed. The world recognizes good and hence evil is revealed."

Dao De Jing, the Book of the Way and Virtue

LAO TSEU (Laozi)

  

"Tout l’art florentin depuis Giotto et tout au long du Quattrocento, possède cette stupéfiante qualité de vérité absolue, reconnue. L’effet immédiat d’un grand Giotto ou d’un Masaccio est de laisser le spectateur sans voix. Cela s’appelait autrefois la Beauté."

MARIE MAC CARTHY "Les Pierres de Florence" 1956.

  

Contrairement à une idée reçue, toute nouvelle, considérée comme une évidence à notre époque, le Beau n'est pas subjectif. Non, le Beau n'est pas seulement une question de goût personnel.

La preuve que le Beau existe est qu'il est reconnu et admis de manière unanime par les opinions publiques, et celle des spécialistes, pour des millions d' oeuvres dont les dates de création vont de - 3000 à nos jours.

Il faut laisser de côté les définitions abstraites. Les Philosophes n'ont jamais réussi à donner une définition satisfaisante et incontestable du Beau. Mais il n'y a absolument aucune discussion sérieuse quant à l'existence du Beau, d'une sensation commune, partagée par des millions d'hommes, depuis l'Art Egyptien jusqu'à l'Art Moderne, depuis la Chine jusqu'à l'Europe et l'Amérique.

Le Beau peut prendre des formes différentes selon les cultures ou les civilisations. Il est reconnu comme Beau à l'intérieur de son domaine culturel, mais aussi à l'extérieur.

La peinture des lettrés chinois est très particulière, il est possible à titre individuel de ne pas l'apprécier, mais il serait faux de parler à son propos d'un Art du laid

Le Beau est tout simplement un fait vérifié par l'expérience de milliers de générations d'humains sur l'ensemble de la Terre.

Il existe "un sens commun à toute l'humanité du Beau" qui est indépendant des modes, des religions et des idéologies et même des cultures.

Toutes les arguties ne changeront rien à ce fait.

Ce qui est subjectif ce sont les préférences des individus. Ce qui est subjectif c'est quand une personne préfère les fresques romanes ou l'art du gothique international à la peinture de la Renaissance Italienne.

Quand une personne préfère l'art du paysage ou la peinture de moeurs à la peinture religieuse.

Si on avait dit à Fra Angelico, à Raphaël ou à Rubens que le Beau n'existe pas et est affaire purement subjective, ils auraient haussé les épaules.

Non seulement le sentiment du Beau est un fait d'expérience, un bien commun à l'humanité, qui traverse les temps et les cultures, mais le Beau peut être ressenti alors que les idéologies qui ont inspiré les oeuvres d'art à une époque donnée, dans une région de la Terre, sont mortes en tant que croyances actives.

Il n'est pas nécessaire de croire dans les Esprits, les Dieux Egyptiens, Grecs, Hindous ou dans les Bouddhas pour apprécier la beauté de l'art des cavernes, de l'Egypte antique, de la Grèce, de l'Inde, ou de l'Asie du Sud Est.

De même, les représentations de Dieu et du monde qui sont celles des églises chrétiennes, qui ont été vivantes et profondément significatives pour les populations européennes pendant plus d'un millénaire, peuvent ne plus avoir de sens pour une très large majorité des populations de l'Europe de l'Ouest et du Nord au 21è siècle. Il reste cependant que ces populations, comme d'autres peuples dans d'autres cultures, peuvent reconnaître le Beau dans des oeuvres d'art dont les symboles ne sont plus idéologiquement significatifs pour elles, voire même leur paraissent absurdes. Les croyances changent mais le sentiment du Beau dure.

Mais une élite peut toujours tenter d' imposer la croyance que le Beau n'existe pas, et faire croire que le Laid est une valeur recommandable. L'art contemporain officiel en est la démonstration.

L'affirmation que le Beau n'existe pas, est purement subjectif, est une idée fausse, conçue et répandue au cours de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle pour des motifs idéologiques et économiques.

Les motifs idéologiques sont, notamment, que ce relativisme permet de justifier l'Art Laid officiel et que l'art laid est un critère de distinction entre les Eclairés et ceux qui ne le sont pas. L'homme peut en effet inventer des idéologies, des croyances, qui nient le Beau et le Bien. Cette capacité d'invention de croyances les plus diverses et contraires fait la différence entre l'homme et les animaux.

Outre les motifs idéologiques, cette affirmation permet aussi de fabriquer et de vendre du Laid, ce qui est une excellente affaire.

Cette idée profitable largement diffusée dans le grand public ressort tout simplement de la désinformation. A notre époque il est possible de répandre en quelques heures dans le monde entier une idée fausse, et la faire passer pour une vérité d'évidence à force de la répéter. Nos élites ne s'en privent pas.

 

THE BEAUTIFUL IS NOT SUBJECTIVE. THE BEAUTIFUL IS A FACT OF EXPERIENCE THAT TRANSCENDS THE CULTURES.

 

"Everything Florentine art from Giotto and throughout the Quattrocento has this amazing quality of absolute truth recognized. The immediate effect of a large Giotto or Masaccio is to let the audience speechless. It s' once called Beauty. "

MARY MAC CARTHY "The Stones of Florence" 1956.

Contrary to an accepted idea, all new, considered as obvious in our time, the Beautiful is not subjective. No, the Beautiful is not only a matter of personal taste.

The proof that the Beau exists is that it is recognized and unanimously accepted by the public opinion, and that of the specialists, for millions of works whose creation dates range from - 3000 to the present day.

The abstract definitions must be left aside. The Philosophers have never succeeded in giving a satisfactory and incontestable definition of the Beautiful. But there is absolutely no serious discussion about the existence of Beauty, a common sensation shared by millions of people, from Egyptian Art to Modern Art, from China to Europe and America.

The Beautiful can take different forms according to cultures or civilizations. It is recognized as beautiful inside its cultural domain, but also outside.

The painting of the Chinese scholars is very peculiar, it is possible individually not to appreciate it, but it would be false to speak about it an Art of the ugly

The Beautiful is simply a fact verified by the experience of thousands of generations of humans over the entire Earth.

There is "a common sense to all the humanity of Beau" which is independent of fashions, religions and ideologies and even cultures.

All the quibbles will not change this fact.

What is subjective what are the preferences of individuals. What is subjective is when a person prefers Romanesque frescoes or the art of international Gothic painting of the Italian Renaissance. When a person prefers the art of the landscape or the painting of morals to religious painting.

If someone had told to Fra Angelico, Raphaël or Rubens that beauty does not exist and is purely subjective matter, they would have shrugged.

Not only is the feeling of the Beautiful a fact of experience, a common heritage of humanity, which passes through times and cultures, but the Beautiful can be felt while the ideologies that inspired the works of art at a certain time, in a region of the Earth, have died as active beliefs.

There is no need to believe in spirits, in the Gods of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hindus or in the Buddhas for to appreciate the beauty of the cave art, or of the ancient Egypt, the Greece, of the India, or of South East Asia. Similarly, the representations of God and of the world, which are those of the Christian churches, which have been alive and profoundly meaningful to European populations for more than a millennium, may no longer make sense for a very large majority of the Western and Northern of the Europe in the 21st century. However, these populations, like other peoples in other cultures, can recognize the Beautiful in works of art whose the symbols are no longer ideologically significant for them, or even appear absurd to them. The beliefs change but the feeling of the Beautiful lasts. But an elite can always try to impose the belief that Beauty does not exist, and make believe that the Ugly is a recommendable value. The official contemporary art is its demonstration.

The assertion that Beauty does not exist, is purely subjective, is a false idea, conceived and spread in the second half of the 20th century for ideological and economic reasons. Man can indeed invent ideologies, beliefs, who deny the Beautiful and the Good. This capacity for invention of the most diverse and contrary beliefs makes the difference between man and animals.

The ideological motives are that this relativism makes it possible to justify the ugly art, the academic art , and that the ugly Art is a criterion of distinction between the Enlightened and those who are not.

In addition to the ideological motives, this statement also makes it possible to manufacture and sell the Laid, which is an excellent deal.

This profitable idea widely disseminated in the general public is simply a matter of disinformation. In our time it is possible to spread a false idea in a few hours in the whole world, and to make it pass for a truth of evidence by dint of repeating it. Our elites do not deprive themselves of it.

  

Avec William Merritt Chase (1849.1926), nous sommes au cœur de l’art romantique et académique, l’époque de l’impressionnisme en somme. Aux Etats-Unis, nous baignons en peinture avec Cassatt, Sargent (pour lequel on le compare beaucoup pour ne pas le dénoncer comme honnête « imitateur ») ou ce cher Whistler avec lequel on pourrait lui trouver parfois quelques affinités dans les touches « japonisantes » (ils étaient amis par ailleurs). On le dit également beaucoup influencé par le peintre belge Alfred Stevens. Eclectique, prolifique sont aussi des qualités qu’on lui a largement attribué car cet artiste américain était capable de tout peindre : portraits, nus, scènes du quotidien, paysages, natures mortes, dans des tonalités dépouillées ou luxuriantes, sombres ou colorées selon le thème. Il y en a pour tous les goûts. William M.C. savait aussi travailler sur tout type de supports (huile, pastel, encre).

 

::: On lui reconnait deux formes essentielles de palettes et d’inspirations selon deux périodes de sa vie : la première rayonne de portraits élégants, style étudié à l’Académie de Munich entre 1872-1877. La seconde, suite aux années 1890, à des scènes de Long Island inspirées de l’impressionnisme français qui ont aussi largement contribué à sa réputation et son basculement notoire pour l’impressionnisme.

 

::: Il y aurait encore deux trois petites choses à retenir de son parcours : il fut président de la Society of American Artists (dont il démissionnera en 1902), il deviendra membre du groupe dissident des Dix –The Ten) après la mort de John Henry Twachtman.

 

::: Et enfin à noter que William Merritt Chase fut aussi le professeur de l’illustre Edward Hopper (1882-1967).

 

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With William Merritt Chase (1849.1926), we are at the heart of academic and romantic art, the era of Impressionism in fact. United States, we are immersed in painting with Cassatt, Sargent (for which many compared to not denounce him as honest "imitator") or the dear Whistler with whom he could find some similarities in some cases the keys "japanese" (they were friends elsewhere). It also says much influenced by the Belgian painter Alfred Stevens. Eclectic, prolific are also qualities that he has been widely attributed for this American artist was able to paint everything: portraits, nudes, scenes from everyday life, landscapes, still lifes, in tones skinned or lush, dark or colored depending on the theme . There's something for everyone. William C. knew also work on any type of media (oil, pastel, ink).

 

He recognizes two basic forms of pallets and inspirations into two periods of his life: the first portrait radiates elegant style studied at the Munich Academy between 1872-1877. The second, following 1890's scenes of Long Island, inspired by French Impressionism who also contributed to its reputation and notorious for tipping Impressionism.

 

There would be two or three things to remember from his career: he was president of the Society of American Artists (which he resigned in 1902), he will join the splinter group of the Ten The Ten) after the death of John Henry Twachtman.

 

::: And finally, note that William Merritt Chase was also the teacher of the famous Edward Hopper (1882-1967).

 

::::::::::::: :::

William Merritt Chase

Study of a Girl in a Japanese dress ©

At a time when even mega-malls are trembling in front of the Amazons of this world, I have the chance to live in a neighborhood of Montreal with a commercial street that is doing pretty well. It is still possible to shop on foot on Fleury Street. It has two main business areas with each their merchant association, FLO in the west and La Promenade Fleury in the east.

 

Competition obligates, each association held its summer promotion last weekend. Basically, these are sidewalk sales with street closure to traffic for three days. I live in the east, a block from Fleury East. This year's edition was interesting for its social aspect. The entire street front of the St-Paul-de-la-Croix Church was occupied by social organizations including the church itself and environmental movements. By a curious reversal of the situation, the parish is now animated by a missionary priest of Haitian origin, Father Désiré, who seems to have breathed new life into it and a given it a social presence.

 

On a sadder note, a little further east on the street, the organizers had allowed a car dealer to occupy the pavement without any consideration for the temporary pedestrianization of the street. Go figure what went through their minds.

 

To the west, there was a small scene. On Friday, three young musicians simply presented under the name of their keyboardist, Vivian, offered a well-paced show. A passer-by told me that their sound reminded him of the heydays of Weather Report. I’m sure they will eventually find a sound to call their own. They weren’t born when Weather Report was popular!

 

They were on the street at the invitation of a group that will organize a new festival of music and emerging arts in the neighborhood this fall, Artival Ahuntsic. Vivian told me after the show that this was their very first performance after a week playing together and that the band had just found a name: Moodring.

 

While I enjoyed their performance a couple of neighbors came to meet me. The lady, a recently retired director of a well-known nearby high school, introduced me to Gloria who is the graphic designer and treasurer of Artival.

You see her here in front of the scene where the trio is playing.

 

It was Gloria who designed the festival’s website. Like many of the members of the team, she has artistic and musical skills. Gloria later introduced me to her colleague Lorenzo, the organization's coordinator. Like Gloria, he sang several years in a choir. Among other activities, he now runs a vocal group.

The next day, I saw them both in a group of singers on the same stage. These young people have admirable academic trajectories and seem to have taken their future into their own hands.

 

The first edition of Artival will take place on the grounds of the Sophie-Barat high school on the first and second days of September.

 

You can find out more about it at the following link: artivalahuntsic.com/artistes__trashedequipe/

I wish Gloria a great success in her personal projects and the same to the young organization of and each member of its team whole team.

 

À l’époque où même les méga-centres commerciaux tremblent devant les Amazons de ce monde, j’ai la chance de vivre dans un quartier de Montréal avec une rue commerciale qui se porte plutôt bien. Il est encore possible de faire des achats à pied sur la rue Fleury. Elle a deux secteurs commerciaux principaux avec chacun leur association de marchands, FLO dans l’ouest et La Promenade Fleury, dans l’est.

 

Concurrence oblige, chaque association tenait sa promotion la fin de semaine dernière. Fondamentalement, ce sont des ventes de trottoirs avec fermeture de la rue à la circulation automobile pendant trois jours.

 

J’habite dans l’est, à un coin de rue de Fleury est. L’édition de cette année était intéressante pour son volet social. Tout le bloc devant l’église St-Paul-de-la-croix était occupé par des organismes sociaux, incluant l’église elle-même, et des mouvements environnementaux. Par un curieux renversement de situation, la paroisse est maintenant animée par un curé missionnaire d’origine haïtienne, le père Désiré, qui semble lui avoir insufflé un nouveau souffle et une vie citoyenne.

 

Seule ombre au tableau, un peu plus loin, les organisateurs avaient permis à un concessionnaire automobile d’occuper la chaussée sans aucune considération pour la piétonisation temporaire de la rue. Je ne sais pas ce qui leur a passé par la tête.

 

Un peu plus à l’ouest, il y avait une petite scène. Vendredi, trois jeunes musiciens simplement présentés sous le prénom de la claviériste, Vivian, offrait un spectacle bien rythmé. Un passant m’a dit que leur son lui rappelait la belle époque de Weather Report. Ils se trouveront bien un son à eux. Ils n’étaient pas nés quand Weather Report était populaire!

Ils étaient sur la rue à l’invitation d’un groupe qui organisera un tout nouveau festival de musique et d’arts émergents dans le quartier cet automne, Artival Ahuntsic. Vivian m’a précisé après le spectacle qu’il s’agissait de leur toute première prestation après une semaine à jouer ensemble et que le groupe venait de se trouver un nom : Moodring.

Pendant que j’appréciais leur prestation, un couple de voisins est venu à ma rencontre. La dame, une directrice de niveau récemment retraitée d’une école secondaire réputée du quartier, m’a présentée Gloria qui est la graphiste et trésorière d’Artival.

 

Vous la voyez ici devant la scène où jouait le trio.

C’est Gloria qui a conçu le site web du festival. Comme plusieurs des membres de l’équipe, elle a des aptitudes artistiques et musicales. Gloria m’a plus tard à son tour présenté son collègue Lorenzo, coordonnateur de l’organisme. Tout comme Gloria, il a chanté plusieurs années dans une chorale. Parmi d’autres activités, Il dirige maintenant un groupe vocal.

 

Je lendemain, je les ai d’ailleurs vu tous les deux au sien d’un groupe de chanteurs sur la même scène. Ces jeunes ont de beaux parcours académique et semblent bien avoir pris leur avenir en main.

 

La première édition d’Artival aura lieu sur le terrain de l’école secondaire Sophie-Barat le premier et le deux septembre prochain.

 

Vous pouvez en savoir plus au lien suivant : artivalahuntsic.com/artistes__trashedequipe/

Je souhaite un bon succès à Gloria dans ses projets personnels de même qu’au jeune organisme au jeune organisme et à toute son équipe.

 

This is my sixteenth submission to The Human Family group.

Visit the group here to see more portraits and stories: www.flickr.com/groups/thehumanfamily.

 

Joan Llimona. 1860-1926. Barcelone. Volviendo del campo.

Returning from the plot. Le retour des champs. 1896.

Barcelone Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (MNAC)

 

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques (Delacroix) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° Le Géométrisme. La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque). On a parlé aussi de Cloisonnisme. Qui va déboucher sur l'art abstrait.

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

7° L'art Abstrait, enfin, une nouveauté à peu près totale dans l'art européen.

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation et même de la provocation. L'explosion d'originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement et l'esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants".

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° The Geometrism. The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque). We also talked about Cloisonnism. Which will lead to abstract art.

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

7° Abstract art, finally, a novelty almost complete in European art.

 

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

One may even think that Modern Art begins in 1815, with some romantic painters such as Eugène Delacroix, or William Turner, innovative fantastic, annunciator of the impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853.

These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.

One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

 

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. This is the Art of the Table Rase of the Past of Europa : an art without roots, for the elite, so-called "comprenants".

  

Alfred Sisley 1839-1899. Paris. La neige à Louveciennes. The snow in Louveciennes. Paris Orsay

 

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques (Delacroix) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation et même de la provocation. L'explosion d'originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement et l'esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants".

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° . The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

  

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

One may even think that Modern Art begins in 1815, with some romantic painters such as Eugène Delacroix, or William Turner, innovative fantastic, annunciator of the impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853.

These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.

One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

 

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. This is the Art of the Table Rase of the Past of Europa : an art without roots, for the elite, so-called "comprenants".

 

William Bouguereau. 1825-1905. Paris. Flore et Zéphyr. Flora and Zephyr. 1875. Mulhouse. Musée des Beaux Arts.

 

LA PEINTURE ENTRE 1815 ET 1880.

 

Il faut attendre la fin des guerres imposées à l'Europe par la Révolution et l'Empire français pour que la peinture reprenne vie et vigueur. Tout la première partie du 19è siècle voit coexister les deux grands courants classiques et romantiques. L'Académisme et les premières tendances modernistes.

Les thèmes de l'art se diversifient, la religion, l'histoire, la mythologie perdent du terrain, la peinture de moeurs, la nature morte et le paysage se répandent. Une école réaliste fait son apparition qui prend de l'importance et représente la première contestation de la "Grande Peinture" Académique.

La diversification et la sécularisation des thèmes de la peinture française et européenne, le recul de la peinture d'histoire et mythologique se fait en définitive à l'imitation de la peinture des Pays Bas, qui pratiquent l'art profane et séculier depuis le 17è siècle.

D'autre part certaines techniques nouvelles apparaissent qui annoncent l'Art Moderne.

Dès les années 1830 le romantique Delacroix a multiplié les esquisses et les tableaux peints à grandes ou petites touches de couleur juxtaposées, au détriment de la précision du dessin. C'est une révolution qui est qualifiée par la critique de "tartouillade". Et la critique, quoi qu'on en dise , n'avait pas absolument tort.

Dans les années 1840 Corot peint, notamment en Italie, des tableaux qui annoncent clairement "la peinture plate", le retour à une vision du monde en deux dimensions. Une esthétique qui atténue ou même supprime la perspective et les volumes. Corot abandonnera ensuite ce style pour inventer un "tachisme" très souple, très dilué, flou, tout à fait personnel, qui annonce aussi le recul du dessin par rapport à la couleur.

Dans les années 1840-50 les peintres de l'Ecole pré-impressionniste de Barbizon s'inspirent beaucoup du paysage néerlandais quant aux coloris, relarivement sombres et neutres, mais avec des techniques de peinture moins lisses, un accent mis sur la touche, et une imprécision du dessin, qui préfigurent l'impressionnisme.

Mais l'époque voit aussi se perpétuer "la Grande Peinture", attentive au dessin exact et précis, enseigné par Dominique Ingres, et attachée aux grands thèmes tirés de la religion, de la littérature ou de l'histoire européenne. Ces peintres Académiques, dont William Bouguereau fait partie, vont entrer en conflit avec les Réalistes, les Préimpressionnistes et les Impressionnistes et finiront par perdre le combat. Ils seront qualifiés de "Pompiers" par le siècle suivant. Dès les années 1860 le réaliste Courbet, et Manet, difficilement classable, représentent, de manière un peu différente, la peinture de contestation de l'Académisme.

 

PAINTING BETWEEN 1815 AND 1880.

Not until the end of the wars imposed on Europe by the French Revolution and the Empire for that the painting back to life and vigor. All the first part of the 19th century saw the two great classical and romantic currents coexist. The Academism and the first modernist tendencies.

The themes of art diversify, the religion, the history, the mythology lose ground, the paintings of manners, still life and landscape are spread. A realistic school is emerging which becomes important and represents the first challenge against the Academic Great Painting.

The diversification and the secularization of the themes of the French and European painting, the decline of historical and mythological painting is ultimately done in imitation of the painting of the Netherlands, which practiced profane and secular art since the 17th century.

As early as the 1830s, the romantic Delacroix multiplied the sketches and paintings with large or small touches of color juxtaposed, to the detriment of the precision of the drawing. It is a revolution which is described by critics as "tartouillade" (daub). And criticism, whatever may be said of it, was not absolutely wrong.

In the 1840s Corot painted, especially in Italy, paintings that clearly announce "the flat painting", the return to a two-dimensional worldview. An aesthetic that attenuates or even suppresses the perspective and the volumes. Corot then abandoned this style to invent a very flexible, diluted, fuzzy, completely personal "tachism", which also announces the recession of drawing in relation to color.

In the years 1840-50 the painters of the Pre-Impressionist School of Barbizon were inspired by the Dutch landscape as regards the colors, relatively dark and neutral, but with less smooth painting techniques, an accent on the touch, and an inaccuracy of the drawing, which prefigure the Impressionism.

But the era also saw the "Great Painting" perpetuate, attentive to the exact and precise drawing, taught by Dominique Ingres, and attached to the great themes drawn from religion, literature or European history. These Academic painters, including William Bouguereau, will enter into conflict with the Realists, the Pre-Impressionists and the Impressionists and will eventually lose the fight. They will be called "Firemen" by the next century. As early as the 1860s, the realistic Courbet, and Manet, hardly classifiable, represent, in a different way, the painting of contestation of Academism.

   

Adolf Hitler presents Hermann Goering with The Falconer (1880), a painting by the 19th century Austrian academic painter Hans Makart. Hitler bought the painting legitimately from art dealer Karl Haberstock. It is now in the Neue Pinakothek in Munich.

 

Photo Source: Lynn Nicholas

At a time when even mega-malls are trembling in front of the Amazons of this world, I have the chance to live in a neighborhood of Montreal with a commercial street that is doing pretty well. It is still possible to shop on foot on Fleury Street. It has two main business areas with each their merchant association, FLO in the west and La Promenade Fleury in the east.

 

Competition obligates, each association held its summer promotion last weekend. Basically, these are sidewalk sales with street closure to traffic for three days. I live in the east, a block from Fleury East. This year's edition was interesting for its social aspect. The entire street front of the St-Paul-de-la-Croix Church was occupied by social organizations including the church itself and environmental movements. By a curious reversal of the situation, the parish is now animated by a missionary priest of Haitian origin, Father Désiré, who seems to have breathed new life into it and a given it a social presence.

 

On a sadder note, a little further east on the street, the organizers had allowed a car dealer to occupy the pavement without any consideration for the temporary pedestrianization of the street. Go figure what went through their minds.

 

To the west, there was a small scene. On Friday, three young musicians simply presented under the name of their keyboardist, Vivian, offered a well-paced show. A passer-by told me that their sound reminded him of the heydays of Weather Report. I’m sure they will eventually find a sound to call their own. They weren’t born when Weather Report was popular!

 

They were on the street at the invitation of a group that will organize a new festival of music and emerging arts in the neighborhood this fall, Artival Ahuntsic. Vivian told me after the show that this was their very first performance after a week playing together and that the band had just found a name: Moodring.

 

While I enjoyed their performance a couple of neighbors came to meet me. The lady, a recently retired director of a well-known nearby high school, introduced me to Gloria who is the graphic designer and treasurer of Artival.

You see her here in front of the scene where the trio is playing.

 

It was Gloria who designed the festival’s website. Like many of the members of the team, she has artistic and musical skills. Gloria later introduced me to her colleague Lorenzo, the organization's coordinator. Like Gloria, he sang several years in a choir. Among other activities, he now runs a vocal group.

The next day, I saw them both in a group of singers on the same stage. These young people have admirable academic trajectories and seem to have taken their future into their own hands.

 

The first edition of Artival will take place on the grounds of the Sophie-Barat high school on the first and second days of September.

 

You can find out more about it at the following link: artivalahuntsic.com/artistes__trashedequipe/

I wish Gloria a great success in her personal projects and the same to the young organization of and each member of its team whole team.

 

À l’époque où même les méga-centres commerciaux tremblent devant les Amazons de ce monde, j’ai la chance de vivre dans un quartier de Montréal avec une rue commerciale qui se porte plutôt bien. Il est encore possible de faire des achats à pied sur la rue Fleury. Elle a deux secteurs commerciaux principaux avec chacun leur association de marchands, FLO dans l’ouest et La Promenade Fleury, dans l’est.

 

Concurrence oblige, chaque association tenait sa promotion la fin de semaine dernière. Fondamentalement, ce sont des ventes de trottoirs avec fermeture de la rue à la circulation automobile pendant trois jours.

 

J’habite dans l’est, à un coin de rue de Fleury est. L’édition de cette année était intéressante pour son volet social. Tout le bloc devant l’église St-Paul-de-la-croix était occupé par des organismes sociaux, incluant l’église elle-même, et des mouvements environnementaux. Par un curieux renversement de situation, la paroisse est maintenant animée par un curé missionnaire d’origine haïtienne, le père Désiré, qui semble lui avoir insufflé un nouveau souffle et une vie citoyenne.

 

Seule ombre au tableau, un peu plus loin, les organisateurs avaient permis à un concessionnaire automobile d’occuper la chaussée sans aucune considération pour la piétonisation temporaire de la rue. Je ne sais pas ce qui leur a passé par la tête.

 

Un peu plus à l’ouest, il y avait une petite scène. Vendredi, trois jeunes musiciens simplement présentés sous le prénom de la claviériste, Vivian, offrait un spectacle bien rythmé. Un passant m’a dit que leur son lui rappelait la belle époque de Weather Report. Ils se trouveront bien un son à eux. Ils n’étaient pas nés quand Weather Report était populaire!

Ils étaient sur la rue à l’invitation d’un groupe qui organisera un tout nouveau festival de musique et d’arts émergents dans le quartier cet automne, Artival Ahuntsic. Vivian m’a précisé après le spectacle qu’il s’agissait de leur toute première prestation après une semaine à jouer ensemble et que le groupe venait de se trouver un nom : Moodring.

Pendant que j’appréciais leur prestation, un couple de voisins est venu à ma rencontre. La dame, une directrice de niveau récemment retraitée d’une école secondaire réputée du quartier, m’a présentée Gloria qui est la graphiste et trésorière d’Artival.

 

Vous la voyez ici devant la scène où jouait le trio.

C’est Gloria qui a conçu le site web du festival. Comme plusieurs des membres de l’équipe, elle a des aptitudes artistiques et musicales. Gloria m’a plus tard à son tour présenté son collègue Lorenzo, coordonnateur de l’organisme. Tout comme Gloria, il a chanté plusieurs années dans une chorale. Parmi d’autres activités, Il dirige maintenant un groupe vocal.

 

Je lendemain, je les ai d’ailleurs vu tous les deux au sien d’un groupe de chanteurs sur la même scène. Ces jeunes ont de beaux parcours académique et semblent bien avoir pris leur avenir en main.

 

La première édition d’Artival aura lieu sur le terrain de l’école secondaire Sophie-Barat le premier et le deux septembre prochain.

 

Vous pouvez en savoir plus au lien suivant : artivalahuntsic.com/artistes__trashedequipe/

Je souhaite un bon succès à Gloria dans ses projets personnels de même qu’au jeune organisme au jeune organisme et à toute son équipe.

  

This photo is part of my second 100 strangers project. Find out more about the project and see pictures taken by other photographers at the 100 Strangers Flickr Group page

www.flickr.com/groups/100strangers/

Frantisek Janoušek 1890-1943. Prague et Paris. Man from the underground. L'Homme des Bas Fonds. 1936. Prague Narodni galerie Veletrzni Palac

 

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques (Delacroix) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

7° L'art Abstrait, enfin, une nouveauté à peu près totale dans l'art européen.

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation et même de la provocation. L'explosion d'originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement et l'esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants".

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° . The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

7° Abstract art, finally, a novelty almost complete in European art.

 

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

One may even think that Modern Art begins in 1815, with some romantic painters such as Eugène Delacroix, or William Turner, innovative fantastic, annunciator of the impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853.

These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.

One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

 

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. This is the Art of the Table Rase of the Past of Europa : an art without roots, for the elite, so-called "comprenants".

  

Comission Art

Model:Dolce Flores-Ortiz

 

Original

 

Mini Progress (or Little tutorial how I'm painting cloth)

 

P.s. YAY GOOD NEWS,GUYS!

I hope you have a good time!

 

I have successfully completed this academic year! And I can say that I'm gonna fully devote myself to painting! ^^

 

I have 3 months holidays, I can work with you all and much faster upload new arts :3 yayy

 

♥ A.L.

Pablo Picasso. 1881-1973. Trois femmes. Three Women. 1907.

(Collection Chtchoukine. Saint Pétersbourg. Ermitage.

Exposition temporaire Fondation Louis Vuitton. Paris. )

 

PICASSO. ART MODERNE ART CONTEMPORAIN ART MARCHAND ART DES RUES

 

Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) est un peintre exemplaire de l'Art Moderne (1830-1950 en dates grosses) et annonce remarquablement, quoique encore très discrètement, l'Art Contemporain qui s'impose à partir des années 1950 et suivantes.

Il est un génial découvreur, et même un accumulateur de Formes Nouvelles d'expression artistique.

On peut penser que l'histoire de l'art reconnaîtra cette richesse d'invention esthétique et le classera parmi les plus grands maîtres européens.

Picasso est actif à la fin d'une des époques les plus fastes de la peinture européenne (1815-1940). Une période de très grande diversité idéologique, et en conséquence d'affrontements terribles, mais qui est aussi une époque de création artistique intense et de recherches formelles, esthétiques, les plus diverses. Parmi ces recherches l'Art Abstrait auquel Picasso introduit.

Picasso est un artiste essentiellement figuratif, toujours très attaché au valeurs du Beau et du Sens dans la peinture. Mais il annonce cependant déjà certaines impasses, qui apparaissent nécessairement quand va s'installer un Système, un Art officiel, Académique et même un Art Sacré. A partir de la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale : l'Art Contemporain

 

L'Art Contemporain est un Système, un Art Officiel, Politiquement Correct, qui est le reflet des valeurs, ou des non-valeurs, les valeurs inversées, imposées par les élites de notre actuelle société occidentale.

De tous temps, de nos jours comme dans le passé, l'Art se décide dans les niveaux supérieurs des sociétés. L'idéologie démocratique n' a absolument rien changé à ce fait. Au contraire.

L'Art contemporain officiel, celui des musées, est un drapeau distinctif et un vecteur idéologique. Cela n'est pas nouveau. Seule à changé l'idéologie en place dans la société européenne, et les valeurs qu'elle impose. Un changement que l'art reflète.

Le monde contemporain ne repose pas du tout sur les mêmes valeurs que l'Europe chrétienne (catholique et orthodoxe) qui a fait l'art européen de 500 à 1600.

Ces valeurs ont mis du temps à mourir en Europe, entre 1600 et 2000, au travers de deux étapes idéologiques essentielles : la Réforme et les Lumières.

Donc l'art européen ne peut pas être le même, mais le changement s'est fait lentement et même subrepticement.

En 1900, et même encore en 1940, l'Europe n'était pas encore entrée dans un autre monde, culturellement totalement différent. Mais en 2000 c'est totalement fait.

Un demi siècle, pendant lequel la démocratie libérale occidentale a mis en place son Art Sacré, qui est devenu omniprésent à partir de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle.

L'Art Contemporain est un art officiel qui véhicule, directement ou indirectement, certains des commandements principaux du catéchisme prêché par les élites actuelles : L’Évolution, L'Homme, le Matérialisme, l’Économie, la Richesse, La Science, La Technique, Le Progrès, La Démocratie, La Liberté, Les Droits, Le Changement, le Gouvernement Mondial. Mais aussi tout un ensemble complexe de messages, ésotériques, implicites, discrets, qui ne sont pas destinés au grand public, mais réservés à l'élite.

Plus encore que sous "l'Ancien Régime" les Élites de la Démocratie sont bien décidées à cultiver leur différence, et l'Art Contemporain est un des lieux privilégiés, un des clubs, où les élites "démocratiques" se retrouvent avec délice.

Tout ceci n'est pas encore totalement en place à l'époque de la grande activité de Picasso.

 

Mais déjà l'Art Moderne, précisément avec Picasso, est exemplaire de ce qui paraît être une nouveauté, du moins à cette échelle: l'Art Marchandise. Une nouveauté qui va s'imposer totalement avec l'Art Contemporain.

Tout le système de création de l'Art a été modifié par la révolution industrielle, l'idéologie matérialiste et la priorité à l'Economie et à la Richesse qui s'est installée en Occident au cours du 19è siècle.

L'art ne peut pas être le même quand les niveaux supérieurs d'une civilisation sont occupés par des banquiers et des grands marchands, assistés et servis par les idéologues, à la place des anciennes élites, beaucoup plus diversifiées. dans leurs origines et leurs valeurs.

Les élites européennes du passé étaient à la fois rivales et associées, affrontées et dialectiquement complémentaires :

Aristocratie foncière et guerrière. Ouverte au commerce aussi, dans certains pays européens (Italie, Pays Bas notamment).

Eglises (catholique et orthodoxe).

Bourgeoisie commerçante, plus ou moins frottée d'aristocratie selon les pays.

Haut Artisanat citadin, organisé en corporations et métiers, qu'il ne faut pas négliger car il était un des acteurs principaux du faire artistique.

Une diversité qui a été source d'une grande richesse culturelle.

 

Ce qui est tout à fait nouveau au cours de la période dite de l'Art Moderne c'est que l'Art ( peinture et sculpture) a commencé à devenir, de manière avouée, une marchandise.

L'Art contemporain est totalement conditionné par un marché très organisé, finalement très monolithique et parfaitement totalitaire dans ses valeurs, pour lequel les buts profitables sont tout à fait essentiels.

Ce n'était absolument pas le cas des mécènes des siècles précédents : aristocrates fonciers et guerriers, ploutocrates marchands, et Eglises, pour lesquels l'art n'était que très secondairement un placement financier. L'art, la peinture notamment, était pour eux un moyen de communication avec les peuples ou/et une dépense de prestige.

Il a certes toujours existé des marchands d'Art, dès l'Antiquité, mais ils ne décidaient pas des grandes orientations de l'Art de leur époque. Et certainement pas entre 500 et 1800.

Les marchands d'art étaient seulement des intermédiaires, et de temps en temps, ils faisaient des copies et des faux !

Le marchand d'art qui participe activement à la définition des orientations de l'art de son époque est une nouveauté apparue au cours du 19è siècle, à peu près à l'époque des impressionnistes, qui s'est répandue au début du 20è. Ils sont l'une des manifestations de la mercantilisation des valeurs de la société européenne.

Picasso, qui n'avait pas que les qualités d'un artiste, avait très bien compris et exploité ces deux réalités, la première ancienne, l'Art est idéologique, la seconde plus nouvelle, l'Art est marchandise, et l'artiste est à vendre.

Il faut compléter ce panorama très synthétique de l' évolution récente de l'art de la peinture européenne puis occidentale, en mentionnant, juste pour mémoire ici, car cette considération n'a rien à voir avec Picasso, une autre nouveauté, plus récente : l'Art des rues. Un art apparu dans les années 1960 et suivantes, principalement à New York. Un art populaire d'origine, en marge, et non pas officiel et élitiste.

Cet art ne fait que commencer son histoire.

  

PICASSO. MODERN ART. CONTEMPORARY ART. MERCHANT ART. ART OF THE STREETS

 

Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) is an exemplary painter of Modern Art (1830-1950 in big dates) and announces remarkably, although still very discreetly, the Contemporary Art which imposes itself from the years 1950 and following.

He is a brilliant discoverer, and even an accumulator of new forms of artistic expression.

One can think that the history of art will recognize this richness of aesthetic invention and classify it among the greatest European masters.

Picasso was active at the end of one of the most splendid eras of European painting (1815-1940). A period of great ideological diversity, and consequently of terrible confrontations, but which is also an era of intense artistic creation and of formal, aesthetic, and most diverse research. Among these researches the Abstract Art to which Picasso introduces.

Picasso is an essentially figurative artist, always very attached to the values of Beauty and Sense (Meaning) in painting. But it already announces certain impasses, which necessarily appear when a System, an Official Art, Academic, and even a Sacred Art will settle. From the end of the Second World War: Contemporary Art

Contemporary Art is a System, an Official, Politically Correct Art, which reflects the values, or the non-values, or the inverted values, imposed by the elites of our present Western society.

At all times, in our days as in the past, the Art is decided in the higher levels of society. The democratic ideology has absolutely nothing to do with this fact. On the contrary.

The Contemporary art, official art, that of museums, is a distinctive flag and an ideological vector. This is not new. Only changed the ideology in place in European society, and the values it imposes. A change that art reflects.

The contemporain world is not based at all on the same values as the Christian Europe (Catholic and Orthodox) which made the European art from 500 to 1600.

These values have taken a long time to die in Europe, between 1600 and 2000, through two essential ideological steps: the Reformation and the Enlightenment.

So European art can not be the same, but the change has taken place slowly and even surreptitiously.

In 1900, and even in 1940, Europe had not yet entered another world, culturally totally different. But in 2000 it is totally done.

A half century, during which the liberal Western democracy established its Sacred Art, which became ubiquitous from the second half of the 20th century.

Contemporary Art is an official art that carries, directly or indirectly, some of the main commandments of the catechism preached by the current elites: Evolution, Man, Materialism, Economy, Wealth, Science, Technology, Progress, Democracy , Freedom, Rights, Change, World Government. But also a whole complex of messages, esoteric, implicit, discrete, which are not intended for the general public but reserved for the elite.

Even more than under the "Ancien Régime", the Elites of Democracy are determined to cultivate their differences, and Contemporary Art is one of the privileged places, one of the clubs where the "democratic" elites find themselves with delight.

All this is not yet fully in place at the time of Picasso's great activity.

 

But already Modern Art, precisely with Picasso, is exemplary of what appears to be a novelty, at least on this scale: the Art of Merchandise. A novelty that will impose itself totally with the Contemporary Art.

The whole system of creation of Art was modified by the industrial revolution, materialistic ideology and priority to Economy and Wealth that settled in the West during the 19th century.

Art can not be the same when the higher levels of a civilization are occupied by bankers and big merchants, assisted and served by the ideologists, instead of the old elites, who are much more diversified. In their origins and values.

The European elites of the past were at the same time rival and associated, confronted and dialectically complementary:

Land and warrior aristocracy. Also open to trade, in some European countries (Italy, the Netherlands in particular).

Churches (Catholic and Orthodox).

Trading bourgeoisie, more or less rubbed with the aristocracy, according to country.

Top urban craft, organized in corporations and trades, which should not be neglected because it was one of the main actors of the artistic.

A diversity that has been a source of great cultural richness.

What is quite new during the period known as Modern Art is that Art (painting and sculpture) has begun to become, in an avowed way, a commodity.

Contemporary art is totally conditioned by a highly organized market, ultimately very monolithic and perfectly totalitarian in its values, for which profitable goals are absolutely essential.

This was absolutely not the case for the patrons of the previous centuries: land and warriors aristocrats, merchant plutocrats, and churches, for whom art was only very secondarily a financial investment. Art, painting in particular, was for them a means of communication with peoples and / or an expense of prestige.

Art traders have always existed, since Antiquity, but they did not decide the main orientations of the Art of their time. And certainly not between 500 and 1800.

The merchants of art were only intermediaries, and from time to time they made copies and fakes!

The art dealer who actively participates in defining the orientations of the art of his time is a novelty that appeared in the 19th century, at about the time of the Impressionists, which spread at the beginning of the 20th century. They are one of the manifestations of the mercantilisation of the values of the European society.

Picasso, who had not, only the qualities of an artist, had very well understood and exploited these two realities, the first ancient, Art is ideological, the second newest, Art is merchandise, and the artist Is for sale.

It is necessary to complete this very synthetic panorama of the recent evolution of the art of European and then Western painting, mentioning, just for the record here, because this consideration has nothing to do with Picasso, another novelty, more recent: The Art of the Streets. An art appeared in the 1960s and later, mainly in New York. A folk art of origin, on the margin, and unofficial and non-elitist.

This art is only beginning its history.

  

Edouard Manet 1832-1883. Paris. Chez la modiste. At the milliner's. 1881. Paris Orsay. Prêt du Fine Arts Museums de San Francisco. Oeuvre non achevée. Loan from the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Work not completed

  

1815-1940 UNE PERIODE PLURIELLE DE LA PEINTURE EUROPENNE

 

De 1792 à 1815 l'Europe n'a pas le temps d'être artistique : Elle est totalement occupée par les grandes ambitions françaises de la Révolution et du Premier Empire. Une fois liquidées les aventures révolutionnaires et impériales, l'Europe entre dans une période d'expansion économique et politique qui se traduit dans la peinture par une des phases les plus créatives, les plus inventives et les plus diversement inspirées de l'histoire de la peinture européenne.

L'Europe continentale a pu enfin connaitre, après l'Angleterre, sa seconde renaissance, technique, scientifique et économique. La seconde naissance de l'Europe, après celle des 11è-12è siècles. Les révolutions industrielles peuvent se succéder.

Dans l'Europe en expansion économique du 19è siècle et du début du 20è siècle, l'art de la peinture voit apparaitre une explosion d'écoles et de mouvements totalement différents, qui coexistent sans problèmes majeurs, pendant plus d'un siècle. La peinture européenne n'est pas plus belle que celle antérieure, ou que la peinture d'autres civilisations, mais elle est certainement plus diverse. Plus diverse par ses techniques et par ses thèmes.

Comment expliquer cette diversité de l'art et cette liberté d'expression des artistes européens à cette époque ?

La diversité et la créativité des écoles de la peinture européenne est la conséquence d'une situation de pluralité culturelle et idéologique.

Dans la période qui va de 1815 à 1914, puis encore jusqu'en 1940, l'Europe n'est pas soumise à une idéologie, profane ou sacrée, unique et exclusive.

Dans cette Europe du 19è et du début du 20è coexistent, malgré de très graves tensions, plusieurs représentations du monde différentes, et même opposées, conflictuelles :

Catholicisme, orthodoxie, protestantismes, judaïsme, "Lumières" de toutes tendances, jacobines ou pragmatiques, socialismes modérés ou extrémistes, nationalismes raisonnables ou ultra, aucune de ces idéologies, sacrées ou profanes, ne domine absolument la pensée et la politique européenne, et ne monopolise son territoire de l'Atlantique à l'Oural.

Certes, cette Europe est loin d'être idéale. L'Europe connait des affrontements très graves, des guerres absurdes. Précisément parce qu'aucune idéologie, sacrée ou profane, n'est absolument dominante. Parce que aucune idéologie ne peut régenter totalement les sociétés européennes. La diversité idéologique, source de tensions et même de guerres, est aussi source de liberté, de diversité.

On n'en finirait pas de citer les écoles de peintures, du romantisme à l'art abstrait. Cette multiplication d'écoles à la recherche de nouveaux moyens d'expression est éminemment créatrice. Juste pour mémoire, sans aucune exhaustivité et même dans le désordre:

Romantisme, néo-classicisme, préraphaélites, académisme, réalisme, idéalisme, symbolisme, préimpressionnisme, impressionnisme, nabis, fauvisme, cubisme, orientalisme, expressionnisme, sécessionnisme, surréalisme, art abstrait, dada, néo-plasticisme......

Ce n'est pas seulement une floraison de noms nouveaux, des appellations inventés pour cacher le vide de l'art. C'est une explosion de formes, réellement nouvelles, de thèmes nouveaux, de sensibilités et de significations nouvelles, de beautés neuves.

L'Art Abstrait est une de ces recherches très positives qui renouvellent le paysage de la peinture européenne.

Pas de monolithisme de la pensée européenne, à cette époque qui va de 1815 à 1940 en dates grosses.

Conséquence : Pas de monolithisme de l'Art européen pendant la même période, et notamment de la peinture.

A l'exception de la Russie, qui rentre dès 1917 dans le monde de la pensée unique et du Non Art.

A l'exception aussi de l'Allemagne hitlérienne où l'art meurt à partir des années 1930 et suivantes.

Avant et ailleurs en Europe, toutes les écoles coexistent, depuis le figuratif académique jusqu'à l'art l'abstrait.

L'Art de la peinture de cette époque, appelé "Art Moderne", est ainsi un témoin du dynamisme européen. Sa diversité de styles et de sujets, sa créativité, son esprit de recherche, sans reniement du passé, sont comme un splendide chant du cygne de la diversité. Et effectivement cela ne durera pas.

C'est ainsi que s'est imposé dans nos musées d'Occident, à partir des années 1950, sans que personne dans le peuple ait donné son avis, l'Art Contemporain : un nouvel Académisme, un Art Officiel, qui cumule le Laid et le Non-Sens, et qui fait se ressembler presque toutes les oeuvres d'art, de tous les musées d'Art Contemporain, du nord au sud, et de l'est à l'ouest de l'Europe et de l'Occident. Le Massacre de la Peinture et l'Art de la pensée unique.

  

1815 - 1940 A PLURAL PERIOD OF THE EUROPEAN PAINTING

 

From 1792 to 1815 Europe has no time to be artistic: It is fully occupied by the great French ambitions of the Revolution and the First Empire. Upon completion of the revolutionary and imperial adventures, Europe enters a period of economic and political expansion, which reflected in the painting by one of the most creative, the most inventive and the most diversely inspired phases, from the history of European painting.

Continental Europe could finally know, after England, his second renaissance, technical, scientific and economic. The second birth of Europe, after that of the 11th-12th centuries. The industrial revolutions can succeed.

In Europe in economic expansion of the 19th century and early 20th century, the art of painting sees appear an explosion of schools, and totally different movements that coexist without major problems, during more than a century. European painting is not more beautiful than the previous one, or the painting of other civilizations, but it is certainly more diverse. More diverse in its technical and its themes.

How to explain this diversity of art and this freedom of expression of European artists at that time?

The diversity and creativity of the schools of European painting is the result of a situation of cultural and ideological plurality. In the period from 1815 to 1914 and then again until 1940, Europe is not subject to an ideology, secular or sacred, unique and exclusive.

In this Europe of the 19th and early 20th, coexist, despite very severe tensions, several different representations of the world, and even contrary, conflictual:

Catholicism, Orthodoxy, Protestantism, Judaism, "Enlightenment" of all tendencies, Jacobinical or pragmatic, moderate socialism or extremist, reasonable or ultra nationalism, none of these ideologies, sacred or profane, absolutely dominates the thinking and the European policy, and monopolizes its territory, from the Atlantic to the Urals.

Certainly, this Europe is far from ideal. Europe knows very serious confrontations, absurd wars. Precisely because none ideology, sacred or profane, is absolutely dominant. Because none ideology can completely govern European societies. Ideological diversity, a source of tension and even from wars, is also a source of freedom, of diversity.

There is no end to mention the schools of paintings, from romanticism to abstract art. This multiplication of schools looking for new means of expression is eminently creative. Just for memory, without completeness, and even in the disorder: Romanticism, neoclassicism, Pre-Raphaelites, academicism, realism, idealism, symbolism, pre impressionism, impressionism, Nabis, fauvism, cubism, orientalism, expressionism, secessionism, surrealism, abstract art, dada, neo-Plasticism ......

This is not only a flowering of new names, names invented to hide the emptiness of art. It is an explosion of formes, really news, new themes, sensitivities and new meanings, of new beauties.

Abstract Art is one of those very positive research which renew the landscape of European painting.

No monolithic quality of European thinking at that time that goes from 1815 to 1940 in large dates.

Consequence: No monolithic quality European Art, particularly in painting.

With the exception of Russia, which arrived in 1917 in the world of the unique thought and of Non Art.

With the exception also of Hitler's Germany, where art dies, from the 1930s and followings years.

Before and elsewhere in Europe, all schools coexist, from the academic figurative art to abstract art.

The art of painting of that time, called "Modern Art", is thus a witness of European dynamism. Its diversity of styles and subjects, his creativity, his spirit of research, without denial of the past, are like a beautiful swan song of diversity. And indeed it will not last.

It thus has established itself in our museums of the West, from the 1950s, without that person in the people has given his opinion, the Contemporary Art: a new Academism, an Officila Art, which combines the Ugly and the Non-Sense, and that make be similar almost all the works of art, of all museums of Contemporary Art, from North to South and East to Western Europe and the West. The Massacre of Painting and the Art of Single Thought.

  

Academic and musical life flourished in the Pieta, so much so that it directed the ebb and flow of all creativity in Venice. If the Pieta were a midwife-priestess of sorts, the inhabitants, all females, were its Vestal Virgins. But this was not Rome in the height of her glory. No, this was La Serenissima, the Republic of Venice, the Byzantine jewel of the Roman Catholic world. This was the world of high Baroque life and art and politics, the world of a peculiar Maryolatry and great variances in morality. Religion and politics, having travelled together along convoluted pathways from Rome and Constantinople, had found their home in the city. And Antonio Vivaldi had been born at precisely the right time for his destiny to be in alignment with his city’s. The earthquake on the day of his birth had been no coincidence. [from Antonia of Venice by Ellyn Peirson}

 

Antonio Vivaldi's Church in the heart of Venice

Visit ANTONIA OF VENICE

 

my textures

Henri Fantin Latour. 1836-1904. Paris. Fleurs. Flowers

Louvre.

Un délicat équlibre entre le classicisme et la modernité

  

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques (Delacroix) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

7° L'art Abstrait, enfin, une nouveauté à peu près totale dans l'art européen.

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation et même de la provocation. L'explosion d'originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement et l'esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants".

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° . The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

7° Abstract art, finally, a novelty almost complete in European art.

 

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

One may even think that Modern Art begins in 1815, with some romantic painters such as Eugène Delacroix, or William Turner, innovative fantastic, annunciator of the impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853.

These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.

One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

 

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. This is the Art of the Table Rase of the Past of Europa : an art without roots, for the elite, so-called "comprenants".

  

l'art architectural capté par l'art photographique transformé avec l'art graphique digital (photoshop)= fine art ;-)

 

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my google+ Clic Here

  

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www.damail.fr

  

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Guggenheim Museum (disambiguation).

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

Museo Guggenheim Bilbao / Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa

Guggenheim-bilbao-jan05.jpg

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, along the Nervión River in downtown Bilbao

EstablishedOctober 18, 1997

LocationAbando, Bilbao, Spain

TypeArt museum

Visitors1,002,963 (2007)[1]

951,369 (2008)[2]

DirectorJuan Ignacio Vidarte

Websitewww.guggenheim-bilbao.es

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art, designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, and located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. The museum was inaugurated on October 18, 1997, by King Juan Carlos I of Spain. Built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Cantabrian Sea, it is one of several museums belonging to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and features permanent and visiting exhibits of works by Spanish and international artists.

 

One of the most admired works of contemporary architecture, the building has been hailed as a "signal moment in the architectural culture", because it represents "one of those rare moments when critics, academics, and the general public were all completely united about something."[3] The museum was the building most frequently named as one of the most important works completed since 1980 in the 2010 World Architecture Survey among architecture experts.[3]

 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation selected Frank Gehry as the architect, and its director, Thomas Krens, encouraged him to design something daring and innovative.[10] The curves on the exterior of the building were intended to appear random; the architect said that "the randomness of the curves are designed to catch the light".[11] The interior "is designed around a large, light-filled atrium with views of Bilbao's estuary and the surrounding hills of the Basque country".[12] The atrium, which Gehry nicknamed The Flower because of its shape, serves as the organizing center of the museum.[7]

 

When the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao opened to the public in 1997, it was immediately hailed as one of the world's most spectacular buildings in the style of Deconstructivism (although Gehry does not associate himself with that architectural movement),[13] a masterpiece of the 20th century.[14] Architect Philip Johnson described it as "the greatest building of our time",[15] while critic Calvin Tomkins, in The New Yorker, characterized it as "a fantastic dream ship of undulating form in a cloak of titanium," its brilliantly reflective panels also reminiscent of fish scales.[14] Herbert Muschamp praised its "mercurial brilliance" in The New York Times Magazine.[16] The Independent calls the museum "an astonishing architectural feat".[12] The building inspired other structures of similar design across the globe, such as the Cerritos Millennium Library in Cerritos, California.[citation needed]

 

The museum is seamlessly integrated into the urban context, unfolding its interconnecting shapes of stone, glass and titanium on a 32,500-square-meter (350,000 sq ft) site along the Nervión River in the old industrial heart of the city; while modest from street level, it is most impressive when viewed from the river.[4][16] With a total 24,000 m2 (260,000 sq ft), of which 11,000 m2 (120,000 sq ft) are dedicated to exhibition space, it had more exhibition space than the three Guggenheim collections in New York and Venice combined at that time.[6] The 11,000 m2 of exhibition space are distributed over nineteen galleries, ten of which follow a classic orthogonal plan that can be identified from the exterior by their stone finishes. The remaining nine galleries are irregularly shaped and can be identified from the outside by their swirling organic forms and titanium cladding. The largest gallery measures 30 meters wide and 130 meters long (98 ft × 427 ft).[5][16] In 2005, it housed Richard Serra's monumental installation The Matter of Time, which Robert Hughes dubbed "courageous and sublime".[17]

  

The museum by night, November 2007

The building was constructed on time and budget, which is rare for architecture of this type. In an interview in Harvard Design Magazine, Gehry explained how he did it. First, he ensured that what he calls the "organization of the artist" prevailed during construction, to prevent political and business interests from interfering with the design. Second, he made sure he had a detailed and realistic cost estimate before proceeding. Third, he used computer visualizations produced by his own Digital Project software and collaborated closely with the individual building trades to control costs during construction.

 

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines donated $1,000,000 towards its construction.

Juan Bautista Nieto 1963 Séville

Desnudo de espaldas. Naked back. 2006

Musée Européen d'Art Moderne.(MEAM)

European Museum of Modern Art

 

LE BEAU N'EST PAS SUBJECTIF. LE BEAU EST UN FAIT D'EXPERIENCE.

 

"Tout l’art florentin depuis Giotto et tout au long du Quattrocento, possède cette stupéfiante qualité de vérité absolue, reconnue. L’effet immédiat d’un grand Giotto ou d’un Masaccio est de laisser le spectateur sans voix. Cela s’appelait autrefois la Beauté."

MARIE MAC CARTHY "Les Pierres de Florence" 1956.

  

Contrairement à une idée reçue, toute nouvelle, considérée comme une évidence à notre époque, le Beau n'est pas subjectif. Non, le Beau n'est pas seulement une question de goût personnel.

La preuve que le Beau existe est qu'il est reconnu et admis de manière unanime par les opinions publiques, et celle des spécialistes, pour des millions d' oeuvres dont les dates de création vont de - 3000 à nos jours.

Il faut laisser de côté les définitions abstraites. Les Philosophes n'ont jamais réussi à donner une définition satisfaisante et incontestable du Beau. Mais il n'y a absolument aucune discussion sérieuse quant à l'existence du Beau, d'une sensation commune, partagée par des millions d'hommes, depuis l'Art Egyptien jusqu'à l'Art Moderne, depuis la Chine jusqu'à l'Europe et l'Amérique.

Le Beau peut prendre des formes différentes selon les cultures ou les civilisations. Il est reconnu comme Beau à l'intérieur de son domaine culturel, mais aussi à l'extérieur.

La peinture des lettrés chinois est très particulière, il est possible à titre individuel de ne pas l'apprécier, mais il serait faux de parler à son propos d'un Art du laid

Le Beau est tout simplement un fait vérifié par l'expérience de milliers de générations d'humains sur l'ensemble de la Terre.

Toutes les arguties ne changeront rien à ce fait.

Ce qui est subjectif ce sont les préférences des individus. Ce qui est subjectif c'est quand une personne préfère les fresques romanes ou l'art du gothique international à la peinture de la Renaissance Italienne.

Quand une personne préfère l'art du paysage ou la peinture de moeurs à la peinture religieuse.

Si on avait dit à Fra Angelico, à Raphaël ou à Rubens que le Beau n'existe pas et est affaire purement subjective, ils auraient haussé les épaules.

L'affirmation que le Beau n'existe pas, est purement subjectif, est une idée fausse, conçue et répandue au cours de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle pour des motifs idéologiques et économiques.

Les motifs idéologiques sont que ce relativisme permet de justifier l'Art Laid officiel et que l'art laid est un critère de distinction entre les Eclairés et ceux qui ne le sont pas.

Outre les motifs idéologiques, cette affirmation permet aussi de fabriquer et de vendre du Laid, ce qui est une excellente affaire.

Cette idée profitable largement diffusée dans le grand public qui ressort tout simplement de la désinformation. A notre époque il est possible répandre en quelques heures dans le monde entier une idée fausse, et la faire passer pour une vérité d'évidence à force de la répéter. Nos élites ne s'en privent pas.

 

BEAUTY IS NOT SUBJECTIVE. LE BEAU IS A FACT OF EXPERIENCE.

 

"Everything Florentine art from Giotto and throughout the Quattrocento has this amazing quality of absolute truth recognized. The immediate effect of a large Giotto or Masaccio is to let the audience speechless. It s' once called Beauty. "

MARY MAC CARTHY "The Stones of Florence" 1956.

Contrary to an accepted idea, all new, considered as obvious in our time, the Beautiful is not subjective. No, the Beautiful is not only a matter of personal taste.

The proof that the Beau exists is that it is recognized and unanimously accepted by the public opinion, and that of the specialists, for millions of works whose creation dates range from - 3000 to the present day.

The abstract definitions must be left aside. The Philosophers have never succeeded in giving a satisfactory and incontestable definition of the Beautiful. But there is absolutely no serious discussion about the existence of Beauty, a common sensation shared by millions of people, from Egyptian Art to Modern Art, from China to Europe and America.

The Beautiful can take different forms according to cultures or civilizations. It is recognized as beautiful inside its cultural domain, but also outside.

The painting of the Chinese scholars is very peculiar, it is possible individually not to appreciate it, but it would be false to speak about it an Art of the ugly

The Beautiful is simply a fact verified by the experience of thousands of generations of humans over the entire Earth.

All the quibbles will not change this fact.

What is subjective what are the preferences of individuals. What is subjective is when a person prefers Romanesque frescoes or the art of international Gothic painting of the Italian Renaissance. When a person prefers the art of the landscape or the painting of morals to religious painting.

If someone had told to Fra Angelico, Raphaël or Rubens that beauty does not exist and is purely subjective matter, they would have shrugged.

The assertion that Beauty does not exist, is purely subjective, is a false idea, conceived and spread in the second half of the 20th century for ideological and economic reasons.

The ideological motives are that this relativism makes it possible to justify the ugly art, the academic art , and that the ugly Art is a criterion of distinction between the Enlightened and those who are not.

In addition to the ideological motives, this statement also makes it possible to manufacture and sell the Laid, which is an excellent deal.

This profitable idea widely disseminated in the general public is simply a matter of disinformation. In our time it is possible to spread a false idea in a few hours in the whole world, and to make it pass for a truth of evidence by dint of repeating it. Our elites do not deprive themselves of it.

   

Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson. 1889-1946. The Soul of the Soulless City. (New York) 1920. Londres. Tate Britain.

 

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques (Delacroix) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation et même de la provocation. L'explosion d'originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement et l'esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants".

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° . The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

  

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

One may even think that Modern Art begins in 1815, with some romantic painters such as Eugène Delacroix, or William Turner, innovative fantastic, annunciator of the impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853.

These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.

One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

 

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. This is the Art of the Table Rase of the Past of Europa : an art without roots, for the elite, so-called "comprenants".

  

Pop art is a visual art movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in parallel in the late 1950s in the United States. The coinage of the term Pop Art is often credited to British art critic/curator, Lawrence Alloway in an essay titled The Arts and the Mass Media, although the term he uses is ;"popular mass culture" Nevertheless, Alloway was one of the leading critics to defend mass culture and Pop Art as a legitimate art form. Pop art is one of the major art movements of the twentieth century. Characterized by themes and techniques drawn from popular mass culture, such as advertising and comic books, pop art is widely interpreted as either a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism or an expansion upon them. Pop art, like pop music, aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture. It has also been defined by the artists use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques that down play the expressive hand of the artist. Pop art at times targeted a broad audience, and often claimed to do so.

 

Much of pop art is considered very academic, as the unconventional organizational practices used often make it difficult for some to comprehend. Pop art and minimalism are considered to be the last modern art movements and thus the precursors to postmodern art, or some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves

  

font: Wikipedia.

Mestre de la Seu d'Urgell. Actif à Perpignan à la fin du 15è.

Saint Jérôme pénitent. vers 1495.

Barcelone Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (MNAC)

 

LE BEAU N'EST PAS SUBJECTIF. LE BEAU EST UN FAIT D'EXPERIENCE QUI TRANSCENDE LES CULTURES.

 

"Tout l’art florentin depuis Giotto et tout au long du Quattrocento, possède cette stupéfiante qualité de vérité absolue, reconnue. L’effet immédiat d’un grand Giotto ou d’un Masaccio est de laisser le spectateur sans voix. Cela s’appelait autrefois la Beauté."

MARIE MAC CARTHY "Les Pierres de Florence" 1956.

Contrairement à une idée reçue, toute nouvelle, considérée comme une évidence à notre époque, le Beau n'est pas subjectif. Non, le Beau n'est pas seulement une question de goût personnel.

La preuve que le Beau existe est qu'il est reconnu et admis de manière unanime par les opinions publiques, et celle des spécialistes, pour des millions d' oeuvres dont les dates de création vont de - 3000 à nos jours.

Il faut laisser de côté les définitions abstraites. Les Philosophes n'ont jamais réussi à donner une définition satisfaisante et incontestable du Beau. Mais il n'y a absolument aucune discussion sérieuse quant à l'existence du Beau, d'une sensation commune, partagée par des millions d'hommes, depuis l'Art Egyptien jusqu'à l'Art Moderne, depuis la Chine jusqu'à l'Europe et l'Amérique.

Le Beau peut prendre des formes différentes selon les cultures ou les civilisations. Il est reconnu comme Beau à l'intérieur de son domaine culturel, mais aussi à l'extérieur.

La peinture des lettrés chinois est très particulière, il est possible à titre individuel de ne pas l'apprécier, mais il serait faux de parler à son propos d'un Art du laid

Le Beau est tout simplement un fait vérifié par l'expérience de milliers de générations d'humains sur l'ensemble de la Terre.

Toutes les arguties ne changeront rien à ce fait.

Ce qui est subjectif ce sont les préférences des individus. Ce qui est subjectif c'est quand une personne préfère les fresques romanes ou l'art du gothique international à la peinture de la Renaissance Italienne.

Quand une personne préfère l'art du paysage ou la peinture de moeurs à la peinture religieuse.

Si on avait dit à Fra Angelico, à Raphaël ou à Rubens que le Beau n'existe pas et est affaire purement subjective, ils auraient haussé les épaules.

Non seulement le sentiment du Beau est un fait d'expérience, un bien commun à l'humanité, qui traverse les temps et les cultures, mais le Beau peut être ressenti alors que les idéologies qui ont inspiré les oeuvres d'art à une époque donnée, dans une région de la Terre, sont mortes en tant que croyances actives.

Il n'est pas nécessaire de croire dans les Esprits, les Dieux Egyptiens, Grecs, Hindous ou dans les Bouddhas pour apprécier la beauté de l'art des cavernes, de l'Egypte antique, de la Grèce, de l'Inde, ou de l'Asie du Sud Est.

De même, les représentations de Dieu et du monde qui sont celles des églises chrétiennes, qui ont été vivantes et profondément significatives pour les populations européennes pendant plus d'un millénaire, peuvent ne plus avoir de sens pour une très large majorité des populations de l'Europe de l'Ouest et du Nord au 21è siècle. Il reste cependant que ces populations, comme d'autres peuples dans d'autres cultures, peuvent reconnaître le Beau dans des oeuvres d'art dont les symboles ne sont plus idéologiquement significatifs pour elles, voire même leur paraissent absurdes. Les croyances changent mais le sentiment du Beau dure.

Mais une élite peut toujours tenter d' imposer la croyance que le Beau n'existe pas, et faire croire que le Laid est une valeur recommandable. L'art contemporain officiel en est la démonstration.

L'affirmation que le Beau n'existe pas, est purement subjectif, est une idée fausse, conçue et répandue au cours de la seconde moitié du 20è siècle pour des motifs idéologiques et économiques.

Les motifs idéologiques sont, notamment, que ce relativisme permet de justifier l'Art Laid officiel et que l'art laid est un critère de distinction entre les Eclairés et ceux qui ne le sont pas. L'homme peut en effet inventer des idéologies, des croyances, qui nient le Beau et le Bien. Cette capacité d'invention de croyances les plus diverses et contraires fait la différence entre l'homme et les animaux.

Outre les motifs idéologiques, cette affirmation permet aussi de fabriquer et de vendre du Laid, ce qui est une excellente affaire.

Cette idée profitable largement diffusée dans le grand public ressort tout simplement de la désinformation. A notre époque il est possible de répandre en quelques heures dans le monde entier une idée fausse, et la faire passer pour une vérité d'évidence à force de la répéter. Nos élites ne s'en privent pas.

 

THE BEAUTIFUL IS NOT SUBJECTIVE. THE BEAUTIFUL IS A FACT OF EXPERIENCE THAT TRANSCENDS THE CULTURES.

 

"Everything Florentine art from Giotto and throughout the Quattrocento has this amazing quality of absolute truth recognized. The immediate effect of a large Giotto or Masaccio is to let the audience speechless. It s' once called Beauty. "

MARY MAC CARTHY "The Stones of Florence" 1956.

Contrary to an accepted idea, all new, considered as obvious in our time, the Beautiful is not subjective. No, the Beautiful is not only a matter of personal taste.

The proof that the Beau exists is that it is recognized and unanimously accepted by the public opinion, and that of the specialists, for millions of works whose creation dates range from - 3000 to the present day.

The abstract definitions must be left aside. The Philosophers have never succeeded in giving a satisfactory and incontestable definition of the Beautiful. But there is absolutely no serious discussion about the existence of Beauty, a common sensation shared by millions of people, from Egyptian Art to Modern Art, from China to Europe and America.

The Beautiful can take different forms according to cultures or civilizations. It is recognized as beautiful inside its cultural domain, but also outside.

The painting of the Chinese scholars is very peculiar, it is possible individually not to appreciate it, but it would be false to speak about it an Art of the ugly

The Beautiful is simply a fact verified by the experience of thousands of generations of humans over the entire Earth.

All the quibbles will not change this fact.

What is subjective what are the preferences of individuals. What is subjective is when a person prefers Romanesque frescoes or the art of international Gothic painting of the Italian Renaissance. When a person prefers the art of the landscape or the painting of morals to religious painting.

If someone had told to Fra Angelico, Raphaël or Rubens that beauty does not exist and is purely subjective matter, they would have shrugged.

Not only is the feeling of the Beautiful a fact of experience, a common heritage of humanity, which passes through times and cultures, but the Beautiful can be felt while the ideologies that inspired the works of art at a certain time, in a region of the Earth, have died as active beliefs.

There is no need to believe in spirits, in the Gods of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hindus or in the Buddhas for to appreciate the beauty of the cave art, or of the ancient Egypt, the Greece, of the India, or of South East Asia. Similarly, the representations of God and of the world, which are those of the Christian churches, which have been alive and profoundly meaningful to European populations for more than a millennium, may no longer make sense for a very large majority of the Western and Northern of the Europe in the 21st century. However, these populations, like other peoples in other cultures, can recognize the Beautiful in works of art whose the symbols are no longer ideologically significant for them, or even appear absurd to them. The beliefs change but the feeling of the Beautiful lasts. But an elite can always try to impose the belief that Beauty does not exist, and make believe that the Ugly is a recommendable value. The official contemporary art is its demonstration.

The assertion that Beauty does not exist, is purely subjective, is a false idea, conceived and spread in the second half of the 20th century for ideological and economic reasons. Man can indeed invent ideologies, beliefs, who deny the Beautiful and the Good. This capacity for invention of the most diverse and contrary beliefs makes the difference between man and animals.

The ideological motives are that this relativism makes it possible to justify the ugly art, the academic art , and that the ugly Art is a criterion of distinction between the Enlightened and those who are not.

In addition to the ideological motives, this statement also makes it possible to manufacture and sell the Laid, which is an excellent deal.

This profitable idea widely disseminated in the general public is simply a matter of disinformation. In our time it is possible to spread a false idea in a few hours in the whole world, and to make it pass for a truth of evidence by dint of repeating it. Our elites do not deprive themselves of it.

  

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Le musée Guggenheim de Bilbao est un musée d'art moderne et contemporain situé à Bilbao au Pays basque Espagne qui a ouvert au public en 1997. C'est l'un des trois musées de la fondation Solomon R. Guggenheim. La structure innovante du bâtiment a été dessinée par Frank Gehry dans le style qui l'a rendu célèbre. Sa silhouette est le fruit d'un assemblage singulier de pierre et de verre, d'eau et de titane. Le musée devint rapidement un des bâtiments contemporains les plus connus et appréciés au monde, faisant énormément pour le renouveau et la notoriété de la ville1,2. Cet impact sur une ville est depuis nommé par les chercheurs par l'expression « Effet Guggenheim ».

En plus des pièces prêtées temporairement par la fondation mère new-yorkaise et par d'autres musées, le musée possède sa propre collection permanente, rassemblant des œuvres signées d'artistes majeurs de l'après-guerre.

La construction du musée a été décidée par le gouvernement basque et le gouvernement de Biscaye afin de donner une image à la région et la ville, qui, après avoir été plongées dans un marasme économique dû à la reconversion de l'industrie lourde, se relevait grâce aux importants investissements réalisés par la région lors du plan Bilbao Ria 2000 : extension de l'aéroport de Sondika, raccordement au réseau d'autoroutes européen, zones économiques à fiscalité avantageuse tournées vers les nouvelles technologies, etc. Le musée n'est qu'une des étapes d'un plan économique beaucoup plus ambitieux et l'effet Bilbao régulièrement avancé pour justifier la construction de bâtiments iconiques ne saurait être évoqué sans une compréhension plus large de toute la dynamique mise en place par la région, et dont le musée Guggenheim n'est que la partie la plus visible. Le coût du musée, financé par la "Diputación" de Biscaye et le Gouvernement Basque a été de 100 millions de dollars, les collections et leur gestion étant de la responsabilité de la fondation Guggenheim. L'ouverture du musée s'est faite le 17 octobre 1997.

Le musée par lui-même crée un très important afflux de touristes parfois plus intéressés par le bâtiment que par les collections, car ceux-ci s'intéressent plus au plaisir de contempler le musée qu'au plaisir de contempler les expositions. Quatorze ans après son ouverture, il est admis que le musée, qui accueille un million de visiteurs par an, contribue à hauteur de 1,57 milliard d'euros à l'économie du Pays basque espagnol et a généré 4 500 emplois directs ou indirects sur la période.

Le directeur général actuel du musée est Juan Ignacio Vidarte assisté de 13 directeurs associés.

Créé par Frank Gehry et son cabinet d'architectes, le bâtiment fut extrêmement novateur dans son approche technologique tant du point de vue de la réalisation des dessins et simulation de la faisabilité des courbes par conception assistée par ordinateur (CAO) grâce aux logiciels informatiques développés par la société Dream PGM, initialement réservé à l'aéronautique et à l'automobile (logiciel CATIA), que sur l'aspect de l'esthétique. Le projet développe l'approche déconstructivistes de Gehry promouvant des formes organiques et ondulantes, jouant des matières et des lumières.

Parmi les œuvres importantes du Guggenheim Bilbao, on peut citer les sculptures gigantesques de Richard Serra, les installations de Jenny Holzer, une Araignée de Louise Bourgeois (1999), ou bien encore le chien géant habillé de fleurs de Jeff Koons (1992) situé à l'entrée, que les Basques nomment affectivement « Puppy ». Les peintures et les sculptures traditionnelles sont en minorité par rapport aux arts moins académiques.

  

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a modern and contemporary art museum in Bilbao in the Basque Country Spain, which opened to the public in 1997. This is one of the three museums of the Solomon R. foundation Guggenheim . The innovative structure of the building was designed by Frank Gehry in the style that made ​​him famous . Its silhouette is the result of a unique blend of stone and glass , water and titanium . The museum quickly became one of the most known and popular contemporary buildings in the world , doing so much for the renewal and awareness of the town1 2. This impact on the city has been named by researchers as the " Guggenheim effect ".

In addition to temporarily lent by the parent foundation in New York and other parts museums , the museum has its own permanent collection , collecting signed works by major artists of the postwar period.

The museum building was decided by the Basque Government and the Government of Biscay to give an image to the region and the city, which , after being immersed in a slump due to the conversion of heavy industry was recovering thanks to significant investments made by the region in the plane Bilbao Ria 2000 extension of the airport Sondika trunking European highways , economic zones favorable tax facing new technologies, etc. . The museum is only one step in a much more ambitious economic plan and regularly used to justify the construction of iconic buildings Bilbao effect can not be discussed without a broader understanding of all the dynamics introduced by the region, including the Guggenheim museum is only the most visible part . The cost of the museum, funded by the " Provincial Council " of Biscay and the Basque Government was $ 100 million , collections and management is the responsibility of the Guggenheim Foundation . The opening of the museum took place on 17 October 1997.

The museum itself creates a very large influx of tourists sometimes more interested in the building by the collections, because they are more interested in the pleasure of seeing the museum at the pleasure of watching the shows. Fourteen years after its opening, it is recognized that the museum , which hosts one million visitors per year , contributes 1.57 billion euros in the Spanish Basque Country economy and generated 4,500 direct and indirect jobs over the period.

The current CEO of the museum is assisted by Juan Ignacio Vidarte 13 managing partners .

Designed by Frank Gehry and his architectural firm , the building was extremely innovative in its technological approach from the point of view of the realization of designs and simulation feasibility curves by computer aided design ( CAD ) software developed by the the company Dream PGM , initially for the aviation and automotive ( CATIA ) , only the aspect of aesthetics. The project develops the deconstructivist approach Gehry promoting organic and undulating forms , playing materials and lights.

Among the important works from the Guggenheim Bilbao include the gigantic sculptures of Richard Serra, facilities Jenny Holzer, a spider by Louise Bourgeois (1999) , or even the dog dressed giant flowers Jeff Koons (1992) located entry, the Basques call emotionally " Puppy ". The paintings and sculptures are traditional minority compared to less academic arts.

  

古根海姆博物馆毕尔巴鄂是一个现代和当代艺术博物馆在毕尔巴鄂巴斯克西班牙,这向公众开放于1997年。这是所罗门·R基础的三大博物馆之一古根海姆博物馆。该建筑的创新结构由弗兰克·盖里在,使他成名的风格设计的。它的轮廓是一个独特的石头和玻璃,水和钛的结果。该博物馆迅速成为世界上最知名和流行的现代建筑之一,做了这么多的town1 2的更新和认识。对城市这种影响已被命名的研究人员为“古根海姆效应” 。

除了在纽约的父母基础和其他地区的博物馆暂时转借,该馆拥有自己的永久收藏,由战后时期的主要艺术家收集签名的作品。

该博物馆建筑由巴斯克政府和比斯开政府决定给图像的区域和城市,其中,沉浸在低迷由于重工业的转换后为恢复由于中继欧洲高速公路在平面毕尔包2000分机机场松迪卡所做的地区显著投资,经济特区面临着新的技术等税收优惠。该博物馆是唯一一个在一个更加雄心勃勃的经济计划的步骤,并定期用来证明的标志性建筑物毕尔巴鄂效应的建设离不开所有的动态更广泛地了解所引进的讨论区,包括古根海姆博物馆是唯一最可见部分。博物馆的费用,由“省议会”比斯开湾和巴斯克政府的资助为1亿美元,收藏和管理是古根海姆基金会的责任。博物馆的开放发生于1997年10月17日

博物馆本身造成游客的藏品,有时更感兴趣的是建筑的一个非常大的涌入,因为他们更感兴趣的是看到在博物馆看展览的愉悦快感。其开放十四年后,人们认识到了博物馆,每年举办一百万个访客,有利于1.57十亿欧元的西班牙巴斯克地区的经济和产生4,500直接和间接的就业机会在此期间。

博物馆的现任CEO是由胡安·伊格纳西奥Vidarte 13管理合作伙伴的协助。

由弗兰克·盖里和他的建筑公司设计,该建筑是在其技术方法极具创新性的观点,实现设计和仿真的可行性曲线由计算机辅助设计( CAD)软件的开发点公司梦PGM ,最初为航空及汽车( CATIA ) ,美学只有方面。该项目开发的解构主义方法盖里推动有机和起伏的形式,打材料和灯光。

其中从毕尔巴鄂古根海姆博物馆的重要作品包括理查德·塞拉,设施珍妮•霍尔泽,蜘蛛路易斯布尔乔亚( 1999)的巨大雕塑,甚至狗打扮巨型花杰夫·昆斯( 1992)设入门,巴斯克致电情绪“小狗” 。相比,少了学术艺术的绘画和雕塑作品是传统的少数民族。

  

El Museo Guggenheim Bilbao es un moderno y museo de arte contemporáneo en Bilbao en el País Vasco de España, que se abrió al público en 1997. Este es uno de los tres museos de la Fundación Solomon R. Guggenheim. La innovadora estructura del edificio fue diseñado por Frank Gehry en el estilo que lo hizo famoso . Su silueta es el resultado de una mezcla única de la piedra y el vidrio , el agua y el titanio . El museo se convirtió rápidamente en uno de los edificios contemporáneos más conocidos y populares en el mundo , haciendo tanto por la renovación y la conciencia de la town1 2 . Este impacto en la ciudad ha sido nombrado por los investigadores como el "efecto Guggenheim " .

Además de prestado temporalmente por la fundación de los padres en Nueva York y otros museos de piezas , el museo tiene su propia colección permanente , recogiendo obras firmadas por grandes artistas de la época de la posguerra.

El edificio del museo fue decidida por el Gobierno Vasco y la Diputación de Vizcaya para dar una imagen de la región y la ciudad, que , después de haber sido sumergido en una depresión debido a la conversión de la industria pesada fue recuperando gracias a las importantes inversiones realizadas por la región en el 2000 extensión avión Bilbao Ría del aeropuerto de Sondika trunking carreteras europeas , las zonas económicas fiscal favorable frente a las nuevas tecnologías , etc . El museo es sólo un paso en un plan económico mucho más ambicioso y se usa con regularidad para justificar la construcción de edificios emblemáticos efecto Bilbao no puede ser discutido sin una comprensión más amplia de toda la dinámica introducida por la región, incluyendo el Museo Guggenheim es sólo la parte más visible. El costo del museo , fundado por el "Consejo Provincial " de Bizkaia y el Gobierno Vasco fue de $ 100 millones, colecciones y la gestión es responsabilidad de la Fundación Guggenheim. La apertura del museo tuvo lugar el 17 de octubre de 1997.

El museo en sí crea una gran afluencia de turistas a veces más interesados ​​en el edificio por las colecciones , ya que están más interesados ​​en el placer de ver el museo en el placer de ver los espectáculos. Catorce años después de su apertura , se reconoce que el museo , que alberga a un millón de visitantes al año, contribuye € 1570 millones en la economía española del País Vasco y genera 4.500 empleos directos e indirectos durante el período.

El actual director general del museo está asistido por Juan Ignacio Vidarte 13 socios administrativos .

Diseñado por Frank Gehry y su estudio de arquitectura , el edificio fue muy innovador en su enfoque tecnológico desde el punto de vista de la realización de los diseños y las curvas de viabilidad de simulación mediante el diseño asistido por ordenador ( CAD) software desarrollado por el la empresa Sueño PGM , inicialmente para la aviación y del automóvil (CATIA ) , sólo el aspecto de la estética. El proyecto desarrolla el enfoque deconstructivista Gehry promoción de formas orgánicas y ondulantes , materiales de juego y las luces.

Entre las obras importantes desde el Guggenheim Bilbao se compone de las gigantescas esculturas de Richard Serra, instalaciones Jenny Holzer, una araña de Louise Bourgeois ( 1999 ) , o incluso los perros vestidos de flores gigantes Jeff Koons ( 1992 ) encuentra entrada , los vascos llaman emocionalmente " perrito" . Las pinturas y esculturas son minoría tradicional en comparación con menos de artes académicas.

  

Das Guggenheim Museum Bilbao ist ein moderner und zeitgenössischer Kunst -Museum in Bilbao im Baskenland, Spanien, das für die Öffentlichkeit im Jahr 1997 eröffnet. Dies ist eines der drei Museen der Stiftung Solomon R. Guggenheim . Die innovative Struktur des Gebäudes wurde von Frank Gehry in dem Stil, der ihn berühmt gemacht konzipiert. Seine Silhouette ist das Ergebnis einer einzigartigen Mischung aus Stein und Glas , Wasser und Titan. Das Museum wurde schnell zu einem der bekanntesten und beliebtesten zeitgenössischen Gebäude der Welt , tun so viel für die Erneuerung und das Bewusstsein für die town1 2 . Diese Auswirkungen auf die Stadt ist von den Forschern als " Guggenheim -Effekt" genannt.

Neben vorübergehend von der Mutter Stiftung in New York und anderen Teilen Museen geliehen hat das Museum seine eigene ständige Sammlung , sammeln unterzeichnet Werke bedeutender Künstler der Nachkriegszeit .

Das Museumsgebäude wurde von der baskischen Regierung und der Regierung von Biskaya beschlossen, ein Bild, um die Region und die Stadt, die , nachdem sie in einer Krise aufgrund der Umwandlung der Schwerindustrie eingetaucht war, erholt geben aufgrund der großen Investitionen, die von der Region, in der Ebene Bilbao Ria 2000 Erweiterung des Flughafens Sondika gemacht Trunking europäischen Autobahnen, Wirtschaftszonen günstigen Steuer vor neuen Technologien , etc.. Das Museum ist nur ein Schritt in einem sehr viel ehrgeiziger Wirtschaftsplan und regelmäßig verwendet werden, um den Bau von ikonischen Gebäuden Bilbao-Effekt rechtfertigt nicht ohne ein erweitertes Verständnis von all der Dynamik durch die eingebrachte diskutiert werden Region, darunter das Guggenheim-Museum ist nur der sichtbarste Teil . Die Kosten für das Museum, das von der " Provincial Council" von Biskaya und der baskischen Regierung finanziert betrug 100 Millionen US-Dollar Sammlungen und Verwaltung liegt in der Verantwortung der Guggenheim Foundation . Die Eröffnung des Museums fand am 17. Oktober 1997 .

Das Museum selbst schafft einen sehr großen Zustrom von Touristen manchmal mehr Interesse an dem Gebäude durch die Sammlungen , weil sie mehr Interesse an der Freude zu sehen, das Museum im Vergnügen, Ausstellungen . Vierzehn Jahre nach seiner Eröffnung wird anerkannt, dass das Museum, das eine Million Besucher pro Jahr veranstaltet , trägt 1570000000 € im spanischen Baskenland Wirtschaft und erzeugt 4.500 direkte und indirekte Arbeitsplätze über den Zeitraum .

Der bisherige CEO des Museums wird von Juan Ignacio Vidarte 13 Managing Partner unterstützt.

Das von Frank Gehry und sein Architekturbüro , war das Gebäude sehr innovativ in ihren technologischen Ansatz aus der Sicht der Realisierung des Designs und Simulation Machbarkeits Kurven, die durch Computer Aided Design (CAD) Software durch die entwickelte das Unternehmen Traum PGM , zunächst für die Luftfahrt-und Automobilindustrie ( CATIA ) , nur den Aspekt der Ästhetik. Das Projekt entwickelt den dekonstruktivistischen Ansatz Gehry Förderung der Bio- und wellenförmige Formen , Materialien und Licht spielen .

Zu den wichtigen Werken aus dem Guggenheim Bilbao sind die gigantischen Skulpturen von Richard Serra, Einrichtungen Jenny Holzer, eine Spinne von Louise Bourgeois (1999) , oder auch die Hund gekleidet riesige Blumen Jeff Koons (1992) liegt Eintrag , rufen Sie die Basken emotional " Welpe" . Die Gemälde und Skulpturen sind traditionelle Minderheit im Vergleich zu weniger akademische Kunst.

  

متحف جوجنهايم بلباو هو متحف الفن الحديث والمعاصر في بلباو في اقليم الباسك اسبانيا ، الذي افتتح للجمهور في عام 1997. هذا هو واحد من ثلاثة متاحف للمؤسسة سولومون ر. غوغنهايم . وقد تم تصميم بنية مبتكرة للمبنى عن طريق فرانك جيري في النمط الذي جعلته الشهيرة. صورة ظلية ل هو نتيجة ل مزيج فريد من الحجر والزجاج والماء و التيتانيوم. المتحف وسرعان ما أصبحت واحدة من المباني المعاصرة الأكثر شهرة و شعبية في العالم ، فعل الكثير من أجل التجديد و الوعي town1 2 . وقد سميت هذه الآثار على المدينة من قبل الباحثين باسم " تأثير غوغنهايم " .

بالإضافة إلى أقرض مؤقتا من قبل المؤسسة الأم في نيويورك وأجزاء أخرى من المتاحف ، و المتحف مجموعة دائمة خاصة بها ، وجمع المصنفات التي وقعتها الفنانين الكبار من فترة ما بعد الحرب .

وتقرر بناء المتحف من قبل حكومة الباسك وحكومة بسكاي لإعطاء صورة للمنطقة والمدينة، والتي، بعد أن مغمورة في ركود بسبب تحويل الصناعات الثقيلة كان يتعافى وذلك بفضل الاستثمارات الهامة التي قامت بها المنطقة في عام 2000 تمديد الطائرة بلباو ريا من المطار سونديكا الكابلات الطرق السريعة الأوروبية ، والمناطق الاقتصادية الضريبية المواتية التي تواجه التكنولوجيات الجديدة، وما إلى ذلك. المتحف هو خطوة واحدة فقط في خطة اقتصادية أكثر طموحا بكثير، و تستخدم بانتظام لتبرير تشييد المباني الأيقونية بلباو تأثير لا يمكن مناقشتها دون فهم أوسع من كل الديناميات التي أدخلتها المنطقة، بما في ذلك متحف غوغنهايم ليست سوى الجزء الأكثر وضوحا . كانت تكلفة المتحف، بتمويل من " مجلس محافظة " بسكاي وحكومة الباسك 100 مليون دولار، وإدارة مجموعات هي مسؤولية مؤسسة جوجنهايم . استغرق افتتاح المتحف في 17 أكتوبر 1997.

المتحف نفسه يخلق تدفق أعداد كبيرة جدا من السياح أكثر اهتماما في بعض الأحيان في المبنى من قبل مجموعات ، لأنهم أكثر اهتماما في دواعي سروري لرؤية المتحف في متعة مشاهدة العروض. بعد أربعة عشر عاما افتتاحه، فمن المسلم به أن المتحف، الذي يستضيف من مليون زائر سنويا، وتساهم 1570000000 € في الاقتصاد الباسك الإسبانية و لدت 4،500 فرصة عمل مباشرة و غير مباشرة خلال تلك الفترة.

ويساعد الرئيس التنفيذي الحالي للمتحف من قبل خوان اجناسيو Vidarte 13 شركاء إدارة.

صممه فرانك جيري و شركة الهندسة المعمارية له، وكان المبنى مبتكرة للغاية في النهج التكنولوجية من وجهة نظر إعمال التصاميم و المنحنيات المحاكاة الجدوى التي كتبها التصميم بمساعدة الحاسوب ( CAD ) والبرمجيات التي طورتها شركة دريم PGM ، في البداية للطيران والسيارات ( CATIA ) ، إلا جانب من جوانب الجماليات. يطور المشروع النهج deconstructivist جيري تعزيز الأشكال العضوية و متموجة ، ومواد اللعب و الاضواء.

من بين الأعمال المهمة من غوغنهايم بلباو تشمل تماثيل عملاقة ل ريتشارد سيرا ، ومرافق جيني هولزر ، العنكبوت التي كتبها لويز بورجوا (1999 ) ، أو حتى الكلب يرتدي الزهور العملاقة جيف كونز (1992 ) الواقعة الدخول، الباسك استدعاء عاطفيا " جرو " . اللوحات و المنحوتات هي الأقلية التقليدية بالمقارنة مع الفنون الأكاديمي أقل.

  

Музей Гуггенхайма в Бильбао является современным и музей современного искусства в Бильбао в Стране Басков Испании , который открылся для публики в 1997 году. Это один из трех музеев Фонда Соломона Р. Гуггенхайма. Инновационная структура здания была разработана Фрэнком Гери в стиле , который сделал его знаменитым. Его силуэт является результатом уникальной смеси камня и стекла , воды и титана. Музей быстро стал одним из самых известных и популярных современных зданий в мире , делает так много для обновления и осознания town1 2. Это воздействие на город был назван исследователями как "эффект Гуггенхайма " .

Кроме того , чтобы временно одолжил материнской основания в Нью-Йорке и других частей музеев , музей имеет собственную постоянную коллекцию , собирая подписанные произведения крупных художников послевоенного периода .

Здание музея было решено правительством Басков и Правительством Бискайском дать изображение на области и города , который после погружения в кризис за счет конверсии тяжелой промышленности был восстанавливается благодаря значительным капиталовложениям, осуществленным регионе в самолет Бильбао Риа 2000 расширение аэропорта Sondika магистральные европейских дорог, экономические зоны благоприятный налоговый сталкивается с новыми технологиями и т.д. . Музей является лишь одним шагом в гораздо более амбициозного экономического плана и регулярно используется для оправдания строительства знаковых зданий Бильбао эффекта не может обсуждаться без широкого понимания всех динамики введенным область, в том числе в музее Гуггенхайма только самая видимая часть . Стоимость музея , финансируется « провинциального совета " Бискайском и баскского правительства составила $ 100 млн. , коллекции и управление является обязанностью Фонда Гуггенхайма . Открытие музея состоялось 17 октября 1997 года .

Сам музей создает очень большой приток туристов иногда больше заинтересованных в здании по коллекций , потому что они более заинтересованы в удовольствие видеть музей в удовольствии смотреть шоу. Четырнадцать лет после его открытия , признается, что музей , в котором находится один миллион посетителей в год, способствует 1570000000 евро в испанской Страны Басков экономики и генерируется 4500 прямых и косвенных рабочих мест за период .

Нынешний генеральный директор музея помогают Хуан Игнасио Vidarte 13 управляющих партнеров .

Построен по проекту Франка Гери и его архитектурной фирмы , здание было очень инновационный в своем технологического подхода с точки зрения реализации проектов и кривых моделирования технико-экономических по автоматизированного проектирования (САПР ) , разработанной компания Мечта PGM , первоначально для авиации и автомобильной ( CATIA ) , только аспект эстетики. Проект развивает деконструктивистской подход Гери способствуя органические и волнообразные формы , играя материалы и источники света .

Среди важных работ из музей Гуггенхайма в Бильбао включают гигантские скульптуры Ричарда Серра , объектов Дженни Хольцер , паук Луизы Буржуа (1999) , или даже собака одетый гигантские цветы Джефф Кунс (1992) , расположенных вход, баски называют эмоционально " Щенок " . Картины и скульптуры традиционным меньшинством по сравнению с менее академических искусств.

Jacob Dooyewaard. 1876-1969.

Domingo por la manana. Sunday morning. Dimanche matin 1922.

Barcelone Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (MNAC)

 

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques (Delacroix) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° Le Géométrisme. La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque). On a parlé aussi de Cloisonnisme. Qui va déboucher sur l'art abstrait.

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

7° L'art Abstrait, enfin, une nouveauté à peu près totale dans l'art européen.

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation et même de la provocation. L'explosion d'originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement et l'esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants".

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° The Geometrism. The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque). We also talked about Cloisonnism. Which will lead to abstract art.

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

7° Abstract art, finally, a novelty almost complete in European art.

 

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

One may even think that Modern Art begins in 1815, with some romantic painters such as Eugène Delacroix, or William Turner, innovative fantastic, annunciator of the impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853.

These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.

One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

 

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. This is the Art of the Table Rase of the Past of Europa : an art without roots, for the elite, so-called "comprenants".

   

Returning to Philadelphia from Europe in 1870, Eakins began a series of representations of the sport of sculling, a subject with which he is uniquely identified. This, the first major work in the series, probably commemorates the victory of Max Schmitt (1843–1900), an attorney and skilled amateur rower, in an important race held on the Schuylkill River in October 1870. Also an avid rower, Eakins depicted himself pulling the oars of a scull in the middle distance. Eakins constructed the painting according to the academic principles espoused by his primary Parisian teacher, Jean-Léon Gérôme.

 

[Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York - Oil on canvas, 81.9 x 117.5 cm]

 

gandalfsgallery.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/thomas-eakins-cham...

1/350 sec f/6.7 HDR +2, 0,-2 10 mm Sigma 8-16mm F4.5-5.6 DC HSM

 

This museum was high on my whishlist to shoot as this is one of the most unusual, but beautiful buildings in the World. After the Museum for Islamic Art in Doha, this one had to be in the colection. I didn't have much time and running around to find a place to 'capture the essence' of the building. I had trouble finding a place to park the car and I had only little time left before catching the plane home. Only just before I had to leave the conditions were right. The days before it rained or it was grey and misty.

 

The museum features permanent and visiting exhibits of works by Spanish and international artists.

One of the most admired works of contemporary architecture, the building has been hailed as a "signal moment in the architectural culture", because it represents "one of those rare moments when critics, academics, and the general public were all completely united about something." The museum was the building most frequently named as one of the most important works completed since 1980 in the 2010 World Architecture Survey among architecture experts.

 

The curves on the exterior of the building were intended to appear random; the architect said that "the randomness of the curves are designed to catch the light". When it was opened to the public in 1997, it was immediately hailed as one of the world's most spectacular buildings in the style of Deconstructivism, although Gehry does not associate himself with that architectural movement. Architect Philip Johnson called it "the greatest building of our time". The interior "is designed around a large, light-filled atrium with views of Bilbao's estuary and the surrounding hills of the Basque country.

The museum's design and construction are typical of Gehry's style and method. Like many of his other works, it has a structure that consists of radically sculpted, organic contours. Sited as it is in a port town, it is intended to resemble a ship. Its brilliantly reflective titanium panels resemble fish scales, echoing the other organic life (and, in particular, fish-like) forms, that recur commonly in Gehry's designs, as well as the river Nervión, upon which the museum sits. Also in typical Gehry fashion, the building is a product of the period's technology. Computer Aided Three Dimensional Interactive Application (CATIA) and visualizations were used heavily in the structure's design.

 

Computer simulations of the building's structure made it feasible to build shapes that architects of earlier eras would have found nearly impossible to construct. While the museum is a spectacular monument from the river, at street level it is quite modest and does not overwhelm its traditional architectural surroundings.[citation needed] The museum was opened as part of a revitalization effort for the city of Bilbao.[8] Almost immediately after its opening, the Guggenheim Bilbao became a popular tourist attraction, drawing visitors from around the globe. It inspired other structures of similar design across the globe, such as the Cerritos Millennium Library in Cerritos, California.

 

The building was constructed on time and budget, which is rare for architecture of this type. In an interview in Harvard Design Magazine. Gehry explained how he did it. First, he ensured that what he calls the "organization of the artist" prevailed during construction, in order to prevent political and business interests from interfering with the design. Second, he made sure he had a detailed and realistic cost estimate before proceeding. Third, he used CATIA and collaborated closely with the individual building trades to control costs during construction (text about the building: Wikipedia.

Johan Barthold Jongkind. 1819-1891. Paris. Cours d'eau en Hollande avec barque et moulin. Rivers in Holland with boat and mill. 1877. Louvre.

 

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques (Delacroix) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

7° L'art Abstrait, enfin, une nouveauté à peu près totale dans l'art européen.

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation et même de la provocation. L'explosion d'originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement et l'esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants".

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° . The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque).

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

7° Abstract art, finally, a novelty almost complete in European art.

 

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

One may even think that Modern Art begins in 1815, with some romantic painters such as Eugène Delacroix, or William Turner, innovative fantastic, annunciator of the impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853.

These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.

One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

 

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. This is the Art of the Table Rase of the Past of Europa : an art without roots, for the elite, so-called "comprenants".

  

Paul Sérusier. 1864-1927. Paris.

Femmes à la source. dit aussi les Danaïdes.

Women at the source. also says the Danaides.1899. Paris Orsay.

 

ART MODERNE : LE RENOUVELLEMENT DES FORMES

 

L'Art Moderne, annoncé dès le début du 20è siècle par les peintres romantiques (Delacroix) et les pré-impressionnistes a été un facteur tout à fait remarquable de renouvellement des formes esthétiques dans la peinture européenne.

Sa caractéristique essentielle est certainement sa volonté d'invention, de changement qui s'exprime en peinture, dans l'emploi des couleurs, dans la recherche d'un nouveau dessin, dans la diversité des thèmes abordés. On peut dire que la civilisation européenne se distingue d'autres grandes civilisations par cette recherche constante, à l'échelle des siècles, de l'innovation. Cela n'a pas été le cas par exemple des civilisations islamiques ou chinoises dont les valeurs ont infiniment plus accordé la priorité à la pérennité et au maintien des traditions. Une fois encore on constate que l'art est un révélateur des valeurs qui animent les sociétés.

 

Les techniques utilisées par les peintres européens, au cours du 19è siècle, pour créer un art nouveau sont multiples, sauf omission, on peut les recenser ainsi :

1°"La Peinture Plate": par exemple avec Manet, plus tard Gauguin, Maurice Denis, Raoul Dufy, les Nabis... Cette technique réduit ou supprime les volumes et la perspective et privilégie les lignes. Le peintre ne s'efforce plus de rendre le monde en trois dimensions, comme il l'a fait pendant des siècles. Le peintre propose une vision du monde qui accepte la planéité du tableau. L'artiste peint en deux dimensions. C'est un retour à une esthétique qui était celle de la peinture Byzantine, Romane et Gothique. Avec d'autres thèmes évidemment, puisque une des caractéristiques de l'art moderne est la raréfaction des motifs religieux, ou inspirés par l'antiquité grecque et romaine.

2° La décomposition de la lumière et des couleurs, en taches et en points."Le Tachisme". Les Préimpressionnistes (Ecole de Barbizon, Corot) Les Impressionnistes. Les Pointillistes (Seurat, Signac)

3° Les couleurs arbitraires ou symboliques. L'artiste s'écarte des couleurs "réelles", celles perçues par l'oeil et le cerveau humain, et invente des couleurs apparemment arbitraires: Gauguin, les Fauves, le symbolisme, le surréalisme ... C'est une technique que la peinture romane et gothique avaient mis en pratique très régulièrement.

4° La valorisation de l'Esquisse. L'esquisse a été pendant des siècles, seulement, ce que son nom indique : une Etude préparatoire à un tableau définitif. Au 19è l'esquisse devient un procédé définitif, terminal, d'expression artistique.

5° Le Géométrisme. La décomposition de l'espace et des volumes du monde réel, en lignes et surfaces, plus ou moins synthétiques et significatives. (Cézanne, Braque). On a parlé aussi de Cloisonnisme. Qui va déboucher sur l'art abstrait.

6° La "multiplicité des points de vue" sur un objet ou un sujet. Technique qui cherche à rendre le réel comme si on le regardait, en même temps, depuis plusieurs points de l'espace. (Les Cubistes)

7° L'art Abstrait, enfin, une nouveauté à peu près totale dans l'art européen.

 

L'Art a toujours été, une manière de rêver le monde réel. Mais les nouvelles techniques de l'Art Moderne, s'éloignent toutes, de manière très intentionnelle, volontariste, de la représentation exacte du réel.

Les peintres tendent à créer un art dans lequel l'interprétation du réel l'emporte sur sa reproduction.

L'artiste "moderne" reproduit le réel, mais aussi le rêve et l'invente. Ces tendances ont abouti à l'art non figuratif, autrement appelé l'art abstrait.

Ce renouvellement des formes en peinture est total.

Il a apporté de nouvelles possibilités, très intéressantes, et très belles, d'expression artistique.

 

Il ne faut pas confondre Art Moderne et Art Contemporain. Ils ne recouvrent pas la même période. Ils n'ont pas les mêmes caractéristiques esthétiques ni les mêmes fondements idéologiques.

L'Art Moderne recouvre une période qui va depuis les pré-impressionnistes, vers 1850-60, jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale. C'est du moins la périodisation la plus couramment acceptée par les historiens de l'art.

D'autres historiens le font débuter un peu plus tardivement avec les post-impressionnistes et l'art abstrait, vers 1900. La définition la plus large est certainement la meilleure car les impressionnistes sont des artistes pleinement "modernes". On peut même penser que l'Art Moderne débute dès 1815, avec certains peintres romantiques comme le français Eugène Delacroix, ou avec William Turner, fantastique novateur, annonciateur de l'impressionnisme et de l'art non figuratif, qui meurt en 1853.

Ces deux artistes ont fait de l'esquisse un moyen d'expression artistique privilégié.

Les peintres de cette époque sont déjà profondément inspirés par la volonté d'innovation qui caractérise l'Art Moderne. La période de l'Art Moderne, extrêmement dynamique, est d'autre part, autre caractéristique majeure, riche de diversité. Elle s'inscrit tout à fait dans l'histoire de l'art européen. Elle ne renie pas le passé, l'art académique est tout à fait pratiqué, mais elle est aussi remarquablement créatrice d'oeuvres multiples, inventive de formes tout à fait nouvelles d'expression esthétique.

.

L'Art Contemporain est postérieur à 1945. Certains fixent sa naissance dans les années 1950. On peut aussi prétendre, avec quelques raisons, que sa date de naissance, en tout cas idéologique et politique, est la création à New York du Moma par les Rockefeller (1929). Les dates sont bien sûr approximatives et certains peintres comme Picasso ou Miro appartiennent à l'esprit de l'Art Moderne, alors qu'ils restent très créatifs après 1945.

En peinture et en sculpture, la diversité fait alors place à une profonde uniformité dissimulée derrière les apparences de l'innovation et même de la provocation. L'explosion d'originalité et de non conformisme qui caractérise l'Art Moderne devient un Système qui se fige dans l'idéologiquement et l'esthétiquement correct. Contrairement à ce qu'il prétend être l'Art Contemporain, officiel, celui qui est installé dans les collections permanentes des musées, est un art figé, académique, épuisé par un système et une obsession : le Nouveau. C'est l'Art de la Table Rase du Passé : un art sans racines, réservé à une élite de prétendus "Comprenants".

  

MODERN ART: THE RENEWAL OF FORMS

Modern Art, announced from the beginning of the 20th century by the romantic painters (Delacroix) and pre-impressionists has been a factor quite remarkable renewal of aesthetic forms in European painting. Its essential characteristic is certainly his invention will, his desire for change, expressed in painting, in the use of colors, in the search for a new design, in the diversity of topics. It can be said that European civilization differs from other great civilizations through the constant research, on the scale of centuries, of innovation. This was not the case for example of Islamic and Chinese civilizations whose values have infinitely more given priority to the sustainability and the maintenance of traditions. Once again we see that art is a developer of the values that drive the societies.

 

The techniques used by European painters during the 19th century to create a new art, are many. Except omission, and we can enumerate:

1° "The Flat Painting", for example with Manet, Gauguin, Maurice Denis, the Nabis ... This technique reduces or removes volumes and perspective and focuses on lines. The painter no longer tries to represent the world in three dimensions, as he has done for centuries. The painter proposes a vision of the world that accepts the flatness of the table. The artist paints in two dimensions. She returned to an aesthetic that was practiced by the Byzantine painting, Roman and Gothic. With other themes obviously, since one of the features of modern art is the increasing scarcity of religious motives or inspired by Greek and Roman antiquity.

2° The decomposition of light and colors with spots and dots. "The Tachism". The Pre-Impressionists, the Barbizon School, Corot, The Impressionists. the Pointillist (Seurat, Signac)

3° The arbitrary and symbolic colors. The artist moves away of the colors "real", those perceived by the eye and the human brain, and invents arbitrary colors: Gauguin, the Fauves, symbolism, surrealism ... It is a technique that painting Romanesque and Gothic had practiced regularly.

4° The valorization of the Sketch. The sketch was, for centuries, only what its name indicates: a preparatory study for a final painting. In the 19th the sketch becomes a permanent process, terminal, completed, of artistic expression.

5° The Geometrism. The decomposition of space and volumes of the real world into lines and surfaces, more or less synthetic and significant. (Cézanne, Braque). We also talked about Cloisonnism. Which will lead to abstract art.

6° The "multiplicity of perspectives" on an object. Technique that seeks to make the real, as if you looked at him, at the same time, from several points of space. (The Cubist)

7° Abstract art, finally, a novelty almost complete in European art.

 

Art has always been a way to dream the real world. But news techniques of Modern Art, are moving away from, a manner very intentional, voluntarist, of the exact representation of reality.

The painters tend to create an art in which the interpretation of reality prevails over its reproduction.

The "modern" artist reproduces reality, but also the dream and invents it. These tendencies have led to non-figurative art, otherwise known as abstract art.

This renewal forms in painting is total.

It has brought new opportunities, exciting, and beautiful, artistic expression.

 

It must not confuse Modern and Contemporary Art. They do not cover the same period. They do not have the same aesthetic characteristics or the same ideological foundations.

The Modern Art covers a period that goes from pre-Impressionists, to 1850 to 1860, until the Second World War. This is at least the periodization most commonly accepted by art historians.

Other historians begin Modern Art a little later with the post-impressionist and abstract art, circa 1900. The broadest definition is certainly the best because Impressionist artists are fully "modern".

 

One may even think that Modern Art begins in 1815, with some romantic painters such as Eugène Delacroix, or William Turner, innovative fantastic, annunciator of the impressionism and non-figurative art, who died in 1853.

These two artists have made with the sketch a privileged means of artistic expression.

The painters of this period are already deeply inspired by the desire for innovation that characterizes modern art. The period of Modern Art, extremely dynamic, is the other, another major feature rich diversity. It fits perfectly in the history of European art. She does not repudiate the past, academic art is quite practiced, but it is also remarkably creative multiple works, inventive forms entirely new of aesthetic expression.

 

The Contemporary Art is subsequent to 1945. Some historians establish its birth in the 1950s.

One can also argue, with some reason, that his date of birth in any ideological and political cases, is the creation of the Moma in New York, by the Rockefeller (1929). The dates are of course approximate and certain painters like Picasso or Miro belong to the spirit of the Modern Art, while they remain very creative after 1945.

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a profound uniformity dissimulated behind the appearances of innovation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes Modern Art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and the aesthetically correct.

 

In painting and sculpture, diversity gives way to a deep uniformity, hidden behind the appearances of innovation and even of the provocation. The explosion of originality and non-conformism that characterizes modern art becomes a system that freezes in the ideologically and aesthetically correct. Contrary to what he claims to be, contemporary art, official, one installed in the permanent collections of museums, is a static, academic, exhausted by a system and an obsession: the New. This is the Art of the Table Rase of the Past of Europa : an art without roots, for the elite, so-called "comprenants".

  

Oil on canvas; 57 x 67 cm.

 

Camil Ressu was a Romanian painter and academic, one of the most significant art figures of Romania.

 

Born in Galaţi, Ressu originated from an Aromanian family that migrated to Romania from Macedonia at the start of the 19th century. His father, Constantin Ressu, who was a journalist and had studied law in Brussels, was an artist in his spare time. In 1887, Ressu was enrolled at the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest. He continued his studies at the School of Fine Arts in Iaşi, where he studies with painters Gheorghe Popovici and Gheorghe Panaiteanu Bardasare. In 1902, he finished his studied in Iaşi, being awarded a silver medal, and left Romania for Paris, seeking to further develop his art skills. In Paris, he studied at the Académie Julian.

 

In 1908, Ressu returned to Romania and became interested in social matters, contributing satirical drawings to several publications, including Furnica, Facla and Adevărul. In the same year, he became a member of the Romanian Social Democratic Party (or, rather, its surviving Bucharest circle, Socialist Union of Romania, formed around the paper România Muncitoare). In 1910, his works (landscapes and paintings with bucolic themes) were featured in the Artistic Youth exhibition. Ressu opened his first personal exhibition in 1914, in Bucharest. He died in Bucharest.

 

In 1917, along with the painters Nicolae Dărăscu, Ştefan Dimitrescu, Iosif Iser, Marius Bunescu and the sculptors Dimitrie Paciurea, Cornel Medrea, Ion Jalea and Oscar Han, he founded the Art of Romania association in Iaşi. During these years, he further developed his style as a landscape painter, and frequently visited the countryside in summer to paint portraits of peasants working in the fields and views of villages. He also painted still life, portraits of various personalities, and nudes.

 

In 1921, he became the president of the Artists' Union of Romania. In 1925, after a prolonged stay in the village of Ilovăţ, Mehedinţi County, Ressu finished one of his best-known paintings, Ploughmen Resting, currently housed in the Iaşi Museum of Art. Aside from his artistic pursuits, Camil Ressu was a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Bucharest until 1941. From 1950, he was the honorary president of the Artists' Union and a professor at the Nicolae Grigorescu Art Institute. In 1955, Romania's Communist regime awarded him the title of "People's Artist", and he later became a member of the Romanian Academy.

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