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Mr. Kwok hails from Clear Lake City, Texas where he filled in as Class President and played "all State" 5A Texas Football. Mr. Kwok earned his BBA from Baylor University in 1991, going to on the Presidential Scholarship and graduating as the Hankamer School of Business Outstanding Student. He by then earned his JD from The University of Houston Law Center in 1993, graduating early. In 1993, Mr. Kwok entered private practice with a little Plaintiff's firm in Houston. Following three years, Mr. Kwok made Robert Kwok and Associates, LLP with one paralegal, paying amazing personality to individuals in vehicle wrecks, ruinous mercilessness and not saw passing cases.


In 2004, Mr. Kwok won a record setting jury decision in Brazoria County, Texas, in a hard battle perilous railroad crossing uncalled for obliteration mix of authentication against the Union Pacific Railroad. The jury restored a decision of $18,200,000.00 for Mr. Kwok's customers.


In 2005, Mr. Kwok was respected to record the major doltish surrendering case moving out of the amazing BP Amoco refinery influence in Texas City. Mr. Kwok settled the upsetting effect case and a social affair of centrality cases, ideal around one. In the fall of 2007, Mr. Kwok was respected to show his last BP shoot case to a Galveston County jury. In the wake of managing voir unbalanced of more than 200 Galveston County tenants, Mr. Kwok and the Plaintiffs sustained a jury and the case in a brief moment settled.


In like way, from 2005 to 2010, Mr. Kwok was regarded to address a party of women who ingested the perilous ace proposed settle, Paxil, amidst their pregnancy. Mr. Kwok recorded the lead case in Brazoria County, Texas and unavoidably amassed a private settlement with lifetime pieces to the family.


In 2011, Mr. Kwok regarded the accomplishments of long time mate and law right hand Thomas Daniel by changing the collusion's name to Kwok Daniel Ltd., L.L.P., building up the assention's relationship to customers statewide and all around, in Beaumont, New Orleans, San Antonio, Dallas, Oklahoma, and Los Angeles. The firm routinely handles more than 1000 savage records at some invigorated time.


In 2012, Mr. Kwok and the suit gather were respected to record an out of line surrendering case moving out of the June 2, 2012 Channelview influence for the party of a welder (and hurt extra things) executed at the Oiltanking Houston terminal. Following 17 months of suit, Mr. Kwok drew in voir pounding of 150 potential gathering of spectators people and dealt with a jury of 12 and 2 substitutes. Following 5 1/2 weeks of starter, and 3 days of get-togethers, the jury restored a decision of $20.2 million for Mr. Kwok's customers. It was the best decision in Harris County for 2013 and a noteworthy 100 decision the nation over for 2013. It was in like way Mr. Kwok's longest jury starter to date.


Over the range everything considered decades, Mr. Kwok has sensibly would when all is said in done people and classes in the arraignment of ensured quickness/stack cases – working condition influence passings/wounds, working condition eats up/releases, spinal rope wounds, cerebrum wounds, defective things, hurt fixes, and out of line pound suits against vehicle and tire makers, compound plants, oil refineries and other corporate mammoths. Mr. Kwok has gone up against and satisfactorily attempted to jury decision or settled focal six, seven and eight figure get-togethers of accreditation against Oiltanking Partners, British Petroleum, Union Pacific Railroad, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, GlaxoSmith Kline, General Motors, Ford, Honda, Toyota, Isuzu, Nissan, Bridgestone/Firestone, Exxon, Phillips 66, and most 18-wheeler and check corporate respondents.


From 2008 to 2018, Mr. Kwok has been flung a check by his amigos a "Texas Super Lawyer" by Thomson Reuters, being joined into Texas Monthly Magazine. In 2012 and 2013, Texas Super Lawyers further respected Mr. Kwok with way to deal with deal with their Blue Ribbon picking board. Being a Super Lawyer places Mr. Kwok in the best 5% of every genuine star in the State of Texas. In like way, Mr. Kwok has been picked as H Texas Magazine's "Top Lawyer" from 2006 to 2018.


Mr. Kwok is Board Certified in Personal Injury Trial Law by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization. Blended toward getting board yielded until present, Mr. Kwok has endeavored immaculate around One Hundred (100) jury rudiments to decision, giving his whole veritable getting to paying unique personality to individuals in like way arraignment the nation over. A sensational bit of Mr. Kwok's jury essentials have been trailed by interfacing and national news working conditions, including the Houston Chronicle, the Galveston County Daily News, KPRC Channel 2, KHOU Channel 11, the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, Forbes, Business Week, Bloomberg, MSNBC, USA Today, Fox News, Dow Jones News Wires and express starter magazines and structures.


Mr. Kwok is evidently investigated "AV Pre-Eminent" by Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory – the library's most raised rating. Mr. Kwok has in like way shown Continuing Legal Education workshops in Harris and Matagorda Counties on close smarts subjects, with a clarify jury choice and harms.


Mr. Kwok talks recognized Mandarin Chinese, Taiwanese, and studies Cantonese, Vietnamese and Spanish. In like way, Mr. Kwok bolsters Bible at Second Baptist Church, where he gives mate, Karen, and their four striking youngsters. Mr. Kwok sits on the sheets of Every Village and Trinity Classical School. The Kwok family is debilitating about vivified Bible understandings and building water wells in South Sudan – with a dash of corporate perfect conditions going to help neighborhood spots of association, affiliations and world missions.


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A DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter) is one of the most important components in digital audio. It is responsible for taking the 1’s and 0’s in the digital bitstream of the music and creating the analog sound that we hear.


For the process to work properly, the timing of the bitstream is critical. That is to say, the 1’s and 0’s must be presented for decoding (converting to analog) in a precisely timed manner. Otherwise, if the timing is inaccurate, and this is called “Jitter”, decoding errors can occur. Take for example Morse Code. The timing of the dots and dashes is necessary for the receiver (the person who decodes the message) to know that a dot is a dot and a dash is a dash. If another dash comes too soon after a dash, the decoder might mistake the dash to be a dot. Digital bitstream decoding is not exactly like Morse Code, but you get the picture.


Secondly, if the 1’s and 0’s for a particular “word” (8 bits or 24 bits in length) come too slow, the voltage value for that part of the audio waveform will farther into the waveform than it should be.


The timing of the bitstream (keeping jitter to a minimum) is controlled by a digital clock, and reason I bring up the importance of the digital clock is that the Auralic VEGA G2 DAC, which has a very precise clock by itself, can be accompanied by the Auralic LEO GX Master Clock for even more precise bitstream timing. Yeah, it’s expensive, as the total cost of the VEGA G2 and LEO GX is $13,000. But audiophiles will want to have the most precise timing that they can obtain, and this package does just that. I have never seen anything like these two components, as you will discover shortly.




Auralic VEGA G2 DAC






Frequency Response:


20 Hz – 20 kHz, +/- 0.1 dB




Dynamic Range:


130 dB, 20 Hz – 20 kHz, A-weighted


Sampling Rate:


PCM: 44.1 kHz to 384 kHz in 32 Bit

DSD: DSD64 (2.8224 MHz)

DSD128 (5.6448 MHz)

DSD256 (11.2896 MHz)

DSD512 (22.57892 MHz)


Control Software:


AURALiC Lightning DS for iOS

AURALiC Lightning DS for web browser (device setting only)

OpenHome compatible control software (BubbleUPnP, Kazoo)

Roon (Roon Core required separately)


Audio Inputs:


Digital Inputs: Lightning-Link, AES/EBU, Coaxial, Toslink, USB Audio, Analog Inputs: RCA Line-stage (2Vrms maximum)

Streaming Inputs: uPnP/DLNA Media Server, native TIDAL and Qobuz Sublime+ streaming, Spotify Connect, Internet Radio, RoonReady


Audio Outputs:


Balanced: XLR (4.8 Vrms at 0 dBFS, output impedance 5 ohm)

Unbalanced: RCA (4.8 Vrms at 0 dBFS, output impedance 50 ohm)

Headphone: 6.35 mm Headphone Jack (output impedance 5 ohm)




Gigibit Ethernet (wired)




13.4” W x 3.2” H x 12.6” D




17.2 pounds (7.8 kg)




$5,999 USA


Auralic LEO GX Master Clock




Allan Deviation: 2E-12 (1 second)

Equivalent Jitter: 500 times less than an 82 fs femto clock (1 Hz – 10 Hz)

Equivalent Phase Noise: – 110 dBc/Hz@1 Hz (Reference Frequency: 10 MHz)


The Clock:


Frequency: 90.3168 MHz (44.1 kHz) | 98.3040MHz (48 kHz)

Output Level: 3.3 V CMOS (Direct-to-DAC Design)

Reference: Temperature-controlled Rubidium atomic clock

Oscillator: Temperature-controlled SC cut crystal


System Control:


Switch sampling rate automatically via Lightning-Link with G2 DAC


Power Supply:


Dual Purer-Power internal linear power supply, 10 µV low noise designed for audio circuits


Noise Elimination:


Optical isolation between control and clock circuits, EMI-shielding Unity Chassis




Gigabit Ethernet (For firmware upgrade use)




13.4” W x 3.2” H x 12.6” D




17.8 pounds (8.1 kg)




$6,999 USA








There are several steps in the process of playing a digital music file, either from a disc, a computer, a cell phone, or streamed from a music service on-line, and ending up with analog sound from your speakers or headphones. The first is the bitstream. When you press “Play”, the player releases the bitstream from the music file, which is a series of 1’s and 0’s. If it is a 16 bit file, such as 16/44.1, there are 44,100 samples (“Words”) per second, each of which is a series of 16 1’s and 0’s that are the code for a single voltage on the music waveform. If it is a 24 bit file, such as 24/48, 24/96, or 24/192, each word is a 24 bit code for a single voltage, with 48,000, 96,000, or 192,000 words per second. With each of the words being a code for a single voltage, the thousands of words per second form the entire musical waveform.


The DAC converts the words to the analog musical waveform and feeds that analog signal to an op-amp or discrete amplifier that increases the voltage to a level that a preamplifier can use. The purpose of the preamplifier is to (1) switch between the various sources that a consumer has in his/her audio system, such as a CD player, music streamer, turntable, etc., (2) control the volume of the analog output from the preamplifier, and (3) maintain an optimum output impedance regardless of the volume setting.


Accuracy of the bitstream timing (keeping the jitter as low as possible) is controlled by the clock in the DAC. It uses a crystal to which a voltage is applied, resulting in the crystal oscillating at a very precise frequency, as a “reference” for timing the flow of the 1’s and 0’s accurately so that the digital-to-analog conversion produces a waveform that is an accurate representation of the original musical signal. If the DAC’s clock were not used to set the accuracy of the bitstream flow, it would be vulnerable to whatever the accuracy of the flow of the incoming bitstream was, and in many cases, this would result in a mess. What we want is for the bitstream to be 44,1000, 48,000, 96,000, or 192,000 words per second, with each bit and each word properly spaced in time. That is the responsibility of the clock.


The Auralic VEGA G2 DAC has its own clock, which is extremely accurate. However, the addition of the optional LEO GX Master Clock increases the accuracy, using a rubidium crystal as the reference, and as you will see below in the bench tests, the LEO GX re-clocks incoming bitstreams that have a lot of jitter and reduces it in a huge way (jitter cannot be entirely eliminated).




Both the VEGA G2 and LEO GX have massive build quality, like the proverbial tank. The two of them together weigh more than 30 pounds.


Here are photos of the inside of each chassis. The first one is the VEGA G2, and the second one is the LEO GX.


You can see from the images that the insides spell out “precision”.


The rear panels are shown below (VEGA G2 then LEO GX).


The Master Clock In (MCK IN) on the VEGA G2 is connected to the MCK OUT on the LEO GX. This is the main communication from the LEO GX to the VEGA G2. There is also a Lightning Link (L-Link) connection between the two components. I connected them using the included cable (HDMI). This provides jitter-free communication between Auralic components.


The MCK cable is highly engineered. It is extremely important, as any significant amount of reactive impedance could affect the digital clock’s accuracy when it communicates with the VEGA G2. I don’t know how expensive this cable was to make, but I am certain I would not find a generic one for $2.99 anywhere.


VEGA G2 digital inputs include AES (XLR balanced), RCA (Coax), USB (from your computer), and Toslink Optical. Analog outputs include stereo RCA and stereo XLR (balanced). There are also hard-wired network connections that allow firmware updates through your home network and the Internet (from Auralic’s website).


A diagram illustrating the effect of jitter is shown below (modified from diagrams copyright Texas Instruments).


With a perfect (Ideal) clock, the 1’s and 0’s have no jitter, i.e., the timing is as it should be, shown in the left-hand side of the diagram. Frequencies in the music, and their harmonics, are narrow peaks. With the real world (Real Clock), the 1’s and 0’s do not arrive exactly when they should, and the frequencies in the music, and their harmonics, appear with widened peaks, especially at the base (right-hand side of the diagram). Some of this is side-band peaks, distorting the music.


Jitter in a clock signal can be caused by noise from heat, the device itself, and from other circuits.


When jitter is present, as a certain amount is always present since the conversion process is not perfect, all kinds of bad things can happen.


There are several types of jitter. (1) Period Jitter, (2) Cycle-to-Cycle Period Jitter, (3) Long Term Jitter, (4) Phase Jitter, and (5) Time Interval Error. Let’s take a look at one of these, Period Jitter. It is the deviation in cycle time of a clock signal with respect to the ideal period over a number of randomly selected cycles.


Here are diagrams of the effects of period jitter with respect to the setup time and data hold time (Copyright


The setup time is the amount of time that the microprocessor in the DAC needs before the clock rises. If the clock has jitter, and the bits are arriving too soon, the amount of setup time is shortened, and the microprocessor receives incorrect information.


The data hold time is the amount of time that a bit needs to be held in order to be read. If the bit comes too late, again, the microprocessor receives incorrect information.


This is not a paper on jitter, so I won’t go into the other types. Just be aware that jitter is an important issue to be addressed in digital audio. That is the function of the clock that comes standard with the Auralic VEGA G2 and is superbly addressed with the Auralic LEO GX Master Clock option. The effects of jitter can include blurring of high frequency components, such as violins and brass.


In Use


I tested the Auralic VEGA G2 and LEO GX with a digital output from an OPPO UDP-205 Universal Player and the digital output from my computer using a software player configured for digital output through a USB port. To use the Auralic with USB, you need to download the USB driver from the Auralic website.


Additional equipment included a Balanced Audio Technology VK-5i Pure Class A Triode Preamplifier (Fully Balanced), Balanced Audio Technology VK-500 Solid State Stereo Power Amplifier (Fully Balanced) (250 Watts per Channel into 8 ohms), and Magnepan 20.7 Planar Magnetic Full-Range Speakers. Cables were Morrow Audio, Wireworld, and Mogami. I also listened to the Auralic using an OPPO HA-1 Heaphone Amplifier and OPPO PM-1 Planar Magnetic Headphones.


Schola Cantorum “Hymn to the Virgin”


Hymn to the Virgin (2L Norway) is one of my favorite albums of all time. It is a high-resolution download album, and I played it from my computer through a USB port to the Auralic, in 24/96 FLAC. It is obviously a Christian music album, but no matter if you are Christian, Jewish, Muslim, atheist, or whatever, if you like choral music, you would love this album.


It sounded a bit clearer with the LEO GX, but the clarity and detail are phenomenal with both products. This is testimony to the clock in the VEGA G2.


As you will see below in the Bench Tests, no jitter was allowed to pass in 16/44.1 with either setup, and that is probably why 16/44.1 sounded the same with and without the LEO GX, but for high resolution files, jittered bitstreams (I introduced a large amount of jitter using the Audio Precision spectrum analyzer) resulted in a small amount of jitter effects showing up in the analog outputs when the VEGA G2 was used without the LEO GX. When the LEO GX was in the system, there was no visible jitter in the analog output.


I suspect that for bitstreams coming from a computer, phone, or iPad, where the motherboard digital noise can corrupt the effects of the clock, significant amounts of jitter can and probably do occur. I also feel that streaming from a network connection, particularly if it is wireless, can result in higher jitter than found in bitstreams from a physical disc player, such as the OPPO UDP-205. The Auralic has an option for connecting to a network wireless streamer, but I did not explore that particular option. The amount of jitter in streaming situations would depend on the connection, including the speed and amount of noise present. When I used the USB connection from my computer to play digital files, I occasionally felt that the addition of the LEO GX resulted in a cleaner sound. I think those particular files had more jiiter as a result of digital noise contamination from the motherboard.


Lang Lang “The Chopin Album”


I also played DSD (SACD) albums (the ISO files) from my computer to the VEGA G2 using Foobar. They sounded very good, or perhaps I should say, really good. These included Lang Lang’s The Chopin Album (Sony Classical), which has several Etudes and Nocturnes. I was around in the early 1980’s when CD players were introduced.


I remember thinking that the sound was a bit harsh, but nevertheless, I was in love. Those kinds of issues do not exist anymore, but still, you do need to be careful with all of the sources that you can choose from. A top notch DAC is important to refine the digital music to its best.


Windham Hill “A Winter’s Solstice IV”


A nice wintry album in 16/44.1 that I like is A Winter’s Solstice IV (Windham Hill). I guess it is obvious what time of year I reviewed the Auralic. This old CD is nearly $30 on Amazon now. It is not an easy album to find in new condition. The OPPO UDP-205 is a superb disc player with several digital outputs.


It was originally about $1,300 direct from OPPO. Now, it is available on the Internet from private sellers for nearly three times that price. I am never going to let mine out of my sight, that is for sure.


To reiterate, for 16/44.1, I did not hear any difference between the VEGA G2 alone or with the LEO GX. As I mentioned previously, 16/44.1 jittered bitstreams do not appear to make it through the Auralic components without the jitter being removed when using the VEGA G2 alone or with the LEO GX. However, I will say at this point, that if I were to listen to a lot of streamed music, especially high-resolution, I would get the LEO GX just to insure that no jitter gets through.


Ola Gjeilo “Piano Improvisations”


This 24/192 PCM (formatted in FLAC) album, Piano Improvisations (2L Norway) is truly excellent. I like in particular track 6, Seven Eight with three pianos. Piano is a good instrument for testing audio equipment because the slightest imperfection in the sound is noticeable. I didn’t notice any imperfections at all.


Aulos MusiKado “Historical Organs in Poland”


I cannot resist good organ music, and this album (16/44.1 CD) Historical Organs in Poland (Aulos MusiKado) is a nice example. Organ can blow a listener out of the room, and I like that (occasionally). The Auralic components did not disappoint. I started out in the living room and ended up in the kitchen (good nachos).


On The Bench


I performed the bench tests using the AES (XLR) digital input and XLR analog balanced outputs from the VEGA G2. I set the volume control on the front of the VEGA G2 to 90 (the control has a maximum setting of 100).


The figure below shows a 1 kHz sine wave at -5 dB (digital volume level, different than the analog voltage output level, which is in dBV). Distortion is almost non-existent. The low amount of noise probably represents the major portion of the THD+N number.


Since we want to look at jitter, I performed a 16/44.1 test using a 10 kHz sine wave, with the spectrum window set to 8 kHz on the left and 12 kHz on the right. First, the spectrum with no jitter added to the test signal. Notice that the 10 kHz peak has no side peaks. This indicates a signal with very low jitter.


In the spectrum shown below, I added 496 nSec (nano-seconds) of 1 kHz sine wave jitter to the test signal. The 10 kHz peak still has no side peaks. So, jitter is suppressed by the Auralic VEGA G2, with no LEO GX attached.


Now let’s look at a 1 kHz sine wave test with the LEO GX Master Clock attached. The distortion is virtually the same as when the LEO GX is not attached. So, distortion-wise, the LEO GX does not change the amount. That is because the VEGA G2 has such low distortion to begin with. However, as you will see, the jitter measurements do show a difference at higher sampling rates.


We continue now with further measurements on the VEGA G2 DAC by itself.


Using 19 kHz and 20 kHz sine waves, the B-A peak at 1 kHz is not visible, if there is one. Something is going on at 21 kHz, but it is so low (-120 dBV), it is insignificant. This peak is also present when the LEO GX is attached.


For the IMD test, I used 60 Hz and 7 kHz sine waves. IMD is 0.005%, but no modulation peaks are visible. This is truly exemplary performance. The IMD with the LEO GX attached was exactly the same.


The linearity at 16/44.1 sampling, using a 1 kHz sine wave, is shown below. The VEGA G2 DAC is linear down to almost -100 dBV, which is excellent.


Here is the linearity of a 1 kHz sine wave 24 bit file, in this case, 24/96. You can see that it is linear all the way down to 10 µV – that is, 10 millionths of a volt. At this point, the measurement starts to be noisy, so I did not go any farther. In any case, this is superb.


Now let’s take a look at frequency response. The Auralic VEGA G2 DAC has 4 PCM filters that you can use to fine tune the sound to your tastes. They are Smooth, Balance, Dynamic, and Precise.


For the following four spectra, I had the LEO GX attached.


Here is the frequency response with the Smooth filter active. I used this filter for all the tests because the instruction manual states that this is the best filter for music listening.


The response is very flat, rolling off only about a tenth of a dB by 20 kHz.


Next, the Balance filter. The frequency response is the same as with the Smooth filter. The differences are in the pass-band, stop-band, group delay, pre-echo, and ringing.


With the Dynamic filter, the response rolls off rapidly above 16 kHz.


And, the Precise filter. In this case, the response extends to 22 kHz and is down 0.2 dB. With this filter, the effects extend to all the sampling rates, while for the other three filters, the effects do not extend past 22 kHz.


There are also two separate filters that work with DSD (SACD) music. All of the filters do their job in the digital domain.


At 24/96 sampling, and with the LEO GX Master Clock attached, the 1 kHz test signal appears to have a very small second harmonic. At -100 dB, this harmonic is inaudible, as it is at the level of 10 millionths of a volt. Overall, the bulk of the noise is lower than it is at 16/44.1 sampling.


For the 19 kHz – 20 kHz test, there is no B-A peak at 1 kHz. The peaks that are near that point are random. There is a small peak at 21 kHz, but it is at the same level as many of the other random peaks. All of the noise peaks (random or otherwise) are at -110 dBV or lower. Totally inaudible.


IMD is also pretty much non-existent.


The frequency response is flat to 10 kHz and then rolls off 0.15 dBV at 20 kHz and drops precipitously at 45 kHz.


Here is the 10 kHz test for jitter, using 24/192 sampling. First, the Auralic VEGA G2 DAC alone, no jitter.


Now, the same test, with 519 nSec of 1 kHz sine wave jitter. You can see the peaks on either side of the base of the test tone. These are some of the characteristic artifacts produced by jitter. I also tried adding 1 nSec of 1 kHz sine wave jitter, and I could see very tiny side peaks (data not shown).


With the LEO GX Master Clock attached, no jitter added.


Now, with 519 nSec jitter added. You can see that the LEO GX suppresses all the jitter.


Here is the frequency response at 24/192. It starts rolling off at 10 kHz and is down 1 dB at 65 kHz.




I don’t know how much better digital audio decoding can get. Auralic has achieved a new level of performance with the VEGA G2 DAC and LEO GX MASTER CLOCK. The distortion is so low, it is reaching the limits of my Audio Precision spectrum analyzer. Jitter, which is an important issue to be dealt with, is dealt with superbly.




Auralic VEGA G2 DAC:


Terrific sound quality


Excellent jitter suppression


Auralic LEO GX Master Clock:


Even better jitter suppression


Easy integration with VEGA G2 DAC


Would Like To See


Auralic VEGA G2 DAC:


Choice of “None” in filter menu


HDMI input


Auralic LEO GX Master Clock:


No improvements necessary


I could not hear any difference between the VEGA G2 alone or with the LEO GX only in 16/44 sampling. I could hear a difference with 24/96 and 24/192 when I streamed the music. This did not occur with all streaming. Just some of it. This was due to the LEO GX’ ability to suppress all the jitter that probably is present in some streamed music. The VEGA G2 alone could not suppress all the jitter. Most of it, but not all. The VEGA G2 is a very good DAC. The LEO GX is better at jitter suppression, but both products are excellent. I would recommend the two be purchased by consumers who are streaming all or much of their music rather than playing it from disc.


The post Auralic VEGA G2 DAC and LEO GX Master Clock Review appeared first on


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On display at the Pacific Northwest College of Art through June 26th.

1241 NW Johnson St., Portland, OR 97209


Dealing With Dealing With


A series of six 14x20" reductive woodblock prints exploring alternate views of depression and the effect it has on the mind.


The images were created through a labor-intensive process of carving and printing that, for each image, involves 40 to 50 hours of work. This process, to me, emulates the process of therapy and self analysis. I would start with an idea of what I wanted create, and through patience and a faith in myself, slowly work towards that image. The unforgiving nature of carving wood requires a mixture of confidence in your own skill, and an ability to both accept any mistakes and adapt them into the work.


In focusing on a traditionally dark topic, I wanted to explore not only what it is to be depressed, but also why this overwhelming sense of sorrow or numbness is so common. Working on the hypothesis that psychological pain must serve a beneficial function--much like the way physical pain helps us avoid further injury--each image captures a fragment of what it would be to interact with a physical manifestation of one's own little dark cloud.

Taken on an evening walk round Deal with Deal & District Camera Club

On display at the Pacific Northwest College of Art through June 26th.

1241 NW Johnson St., Portland, OR 97209


Dealing With Dealing With


A series of six 14x20" reductive woodblock prints exploring alternate views of depression and the effect it has on the mind.


The images were created through a labor-intensive process of carving and printing that, for each image, involves 40 to 50 hours of work. This process, to me, emulates the process of therapy and self analysis. I would start with an idea of what I wanted create, and through patience and a faith in myself, slowly work towards that image. The unforgiving nature of carving wood requires a mixture of confidence in your own skill, and an ability to both accept any mistakes and adapt them into the work.


In focusing on a traditionally dark topic, I wanted to explore not only what it is to be depressed, but also why this overwhelming sense of sorrow or numbness is so common. Working on the hypothesis that psychological pain must serve a beneficial function--much like the way physical pain helps us avoid further injury--each image captures a fragment of what it would be to interact with a physical manifestation of one's own little dark cloud.


Man understands a little of the work of today and the work of the future, but he does not understand the destination into which mankind will enter. As a creature, man should perform the duty of a creature: Man should follow God in whatever He does, and you should proceed in whatever way I tell you to. You have no way of making arrangements for yourself, and you are incapable of controlling yourself; all must be left to the mercy of God, and everything is controlled by His hands. If the work of God provided man with an end, a wonderful destination, ahead of time, and if God used this to entice man and cause man to follow Him—if He did a deal with man—then this would not be conquest, nor would it be to work the life of man. Were God to use the end to control man and gain his heart, then in this He would not be perfecting man, nor would He be able to gain man, but instead would be using the destination to control him. Man cares about nothing more than the future end, the final destination, and whether or not there is something good to hope for. If man were given a beautiful hope during the work of conquest, and if, prior to the conquest of man, he were given a proper destination to pursue, then not only would the conquest of man not achieve its effect, but the effect of the work of conquest would also be influenced. That is to say, the work of conquest achieves its effect by taking away the fate and prospects of man and judging and chastising the rebellious disposition of man. It is not achieved by doing a deal with man, that is, by giving man blessings and grace, but by revealing man’s loyalty through stripping him of his freedom and eradicating his prospects. This is the substance of the work of conquest. If man were given a beautiful hope at the very beginning, and the work of chastisement and judgment were done after, then man would accept this chastisement and judgment on the basis that he had prospects, and in the end, the unconditional obedience and worship of the Creator by all His creatures would not be achieved; there would only be blind, ignorant obedience, or else man would make blind demands of God, and so it would be impossible to fully conquer man’s heart. Consequently, such work of conquest would be incapable of gaining man, nor, moreover, of bearing testimony to God. Such creatures would be unable to perform their duty, and would only strike bargains with God; this would not be conquest, but mercy and blessing. The biggest problem with man is that he thinks of nothing but his fate and prospects, that he idolizes them. Man pursues God for the sake of his fate and prospects; he does not worship God because of his love for Him. And so, in the conquest of man, man’s selfishness, greed and the things that most obstruct his worship of God must all be eliminated. In doing so, the effects of man’s conquest will be achieved. As a result, in the earliest conquest of man it is necessary to first purge the wild ambitions and most grievous weaknesses of man, and, through this, to reveal man’s love of God, and change his knowledge of human life, his view of God, and the meaning of his existence. In this way, man’s love of God is cleansed, which is to say, man’s heart is conquered. But in His attitude toward all creatures, God does not conquer only for the sake of conquering; instead, He conquers in order to gain man, for the sake of His own glory, and in order to recover the earliest, original likeness of man. Were He to conquer only for the sake of conquering, then the significance of the work of conquest would be lost. That is to say that if, after conquering man, God washed His hands of man, and paid no heed to his life or death, then this would not be the management of mankind, nor would man’s conquest be for the sake of his salvation. Only the gaining of man following his conquest and his ultimate arrival at a wonderful destination is at the heart of all the work of salvation, and only this can achieve the aim of man’s salvation. In other words, only man’s arrival at the beautiful destination and his entry into rest is the prospects that should be possessed by all creatures, and the work that should be done by the Creator. If man were to do this work, then it would be too limited: It could take man to a certain point, but it would not be able to bring man to the eternal destination. Man is not able to decide man’s destiny, nor, moreover, is he able to ensure man’s prospects and future destination. The work done by God, however, is different. Since He created man, He leads him; since He saves man, He will thoroughly save him, and will completely gain him; since He leads man, He will bring him to the proper destination; and since He created and manages man, He must take responsibility for man’s fate and prospects. It is this which is the work done by the Creator. Though the work of conquest is achieved by purging man of his prospects, man must ultimately be brought into the proper destination prepared for him by God. It is precisely because God works man that man has a destination and his fate is assured. Here, the suitable destination referred to is not man’s hopes and prospects purged in times past; the two are different. That which man hopes for and pursues are the yearnings of his pursuit of the extravagant desires of the flesh, rather than the destination due to man. What God has prepared for man, meanwhile, are the blessings and promises due to man once he has been made pure, which God prepared for man after creating the world, and which are not tainted by the choice, conceptions, imagination or flesh of man. This destination is not prepared for a particular person, but is the place of rest of the whole of mankind. And so, this destination is the most suitable destination for mankind.


The Creator intends to orchestrate all of creatures. You must not discard or disobey anything that He does, nor should you be rebellious toward Him. The work He does will ultimately achieve His aims, and in this He will gain glory. Today, why is it not said that you are the descendants of Moab, or the offspring of the great red dragon? Why is there no talk of chosen people, and only talk of the creatures? The creature—this was man’s original title, and it is this which is his innate identity. Names vary only because the ages and periods of work are different; in fact, man is an ordinary creature. All creatures, whether they be the most corrupt or the most holy, must perform the duty of a creature. When He carries out the work of conquest, God does not control you using your prospects, fate or destination. There is actually no need to work in this way. The aim of the work of conquest is to make man perform the duty of a creature, to make him worship the Creator, and only after this can he enter the wonderful destination. The fate of man is controlled by the hands of God. You are incapable of controlling yourself: Despite always rushing and busying about for himself, man remains incapable of controlling himself. If you could know your own prospects, if you could control your own fate, would you still be a creature? In short, regardless of how God works, all His work is for the sake of man. Take, for example, the heavens and earth and all things that God created to serve man: The moon, the sun, and the stars that He made for man, the animals and plants, spring, summer, autumn and winter, and so on—all are for the sake of man’s existence. And so, regardless of how He chastises and judges man, it is all for the sake of man’s salvation. Even though He strips man of his fleshly hopes, it is for the sake of purifying man, and the purification of man is for the sake of his existence. The destination of man is in the hands of the Creator, so how could man control himself?


Once the work of conquest has been completed, man will be brought into a beautiful world. This life will, of course, still be on earth, but it will be totally unlike man’s life today. It is the life that mankind will have after the whole of mankind has been conquered, it will be a new beginning for man on earth, and for mankind to have such a life will be proof that mankind has entered a new and beautiful realm. It will be the beginning of the life of man and God on earth. The premise of such a beautiful life must be that, after man has been purified and conquered, he submits before the Creator. And so, the work of conquest is the last stage of God’s work before mankind enters the wonderful destination. Such a life is man’s future life on earth, it is the most beautiful life on earth, the kind of life that man longs for, the kind that man has never before achieved in the history of the world. It is the final outcome of the 6,000 years of work of management, it is what mankind yearns for most, and it is also God’s promise to man. But this promise cannot come to pass immediately: Man will enter the future destination only once the work of the last days has been completed and he has been completely conquered, that is, once Satan has been utterly defeated. Man will be without a sinful nature after he has been refined, because God will have defeated Satan, which means that there will be no encroachment by hostile forces, and no hostile forces that can attack the flesh of man. And so man will be free, and holy—he will have entered eternity. Only if the hostile forces of darkness are bound will man be free wherever he goes, and without rebelliousness or opposition. Satan has but to be bound for man to be okay; today, he is not okay because[a] Satan still stirs up trouble everywhere on earth, and because the entire work of God’s management has yet to reach its end. Once Satan has been defeated, man will be completely liberated; when man gains God and comes out from under the domain of Satan, he will behold the Sun of righteousness. The life due to normal man will be regained; all that should be possessed by normal man—such as the ability to discern good from evil, and understanding of how to eat and clothe oneself, and the ability to live normally—all of this will be regained. Even if Eve had not been tempted by the serpent, man should have had such a normal life after he was created in the beginning. He should have eaten, been clothed, and led the life of normal man on earth. Yet after man became depraved, this life became a pipe dream, and even today man does not dare to imagine such things. In fact, this beautiful life that man longs for is a necessity: If man were without such a destination, then his depraved life on earth would never cease, and if there were not such a beautiful life, then there would be no conclusion to Satan’s fate or to the age in which Satan holds dominion over earth. Man must arrive at a realm unreachable by the forces of darkness, and when he does, this will prove that Satan has been defeated. In this way, once there is no disturbance by Satan, God Himself will control mankind, and He will command and control the entire life of man; only this will count as the defeat of Satan. Man’s life today is mostly a life of filth, and still a life of suffering and affliction. This could not be called the defeat of Satan; man has yet to escape from the sea of affliction, has yet to escape from the hardship of the life of man, or the influence of Satan, and he still has but an infinitesimal knowledge of God. All of man’s hardship was created by Satan, it was Satan that brought the sufferings into the life of man, and only after Satan is bound will man be able to completely escape from the sea of affliction. Yet the bondage of Satan is achieved through the conquest and gain of the heart of man, by making man the spoils of the battle with Satan. Today, man’s pursuit of becoming an overcomer and being made perfect are the things that are pursued before he has the life of a normal man on earth, and are the objectives that man seeks prior to the bondage of Satan. In substance, man’s pursuit of becoming an overcomer and being made perfect, or being made great use of, is to escape from Satan’s influence: The pursuit of man is to become an overcomer, but the final outcome will be his escape from the influence of Satan. Only by escaping from the influence of Satan can man lead the life of normal man on earth, the life of worshiping God. Today, man’s pursuit of becoming an overcomer and being made perfect are the things that are pursued prior to having the life of a normal person on earth. They are pursued primarily for the sake of being cleansed and putting the truth into practice, and in order to achieve the worship of the Creator. If man possesses the life of a normal person on earth, a life without hardship or affliction, then man will not engage in the pursuit of becoming an overcomer. “Becoming an overcomer” and “being made perfect” are the objectives that God gives man to pursue, and through the pursuit of these objectives He causes man to put the truth into practice and live out a life of significance. The objective is to make man complete and to gain him, and the pursuit of becoming an overcomer and being made perfect is merely a means. If, in the future, man enters into the wonderful destination, there will be no reference to becoming an overcomer and being made perfect; there will only be each creature performing their duty. Today, man is made to pursue these things simply in order to define a scope for man, so that man’s pursuit is more targeted and practical. Without it, man’s pursuit of entry into eternal life would be vague and abstract, and if this were so, would man not be even more pitiable? To pursue in this way, without goals or principles—is it not self-deception? Ultimately, this pursuit would naturally be fruitless; in the end, man would still live under the domain of Satan and would be incapable of extricating himself from it. Why subject himself to such aimless pursuit? When man enters the eternal destination, man will worship the Creator, and because man has gained salvation and entered eternity, man will not pursue any objectives, nor, moreover, will he need to worry that he is besieged by Satan. At this time, man will know his place, and will perform his duty, and even if they are not chastised or judged, each person will perform their duty. At that time, man will be a creature in both identity and status. There will no longer be the distinction of high and low; each person will simply perform a different function. Yet man will still live in an orderly, suitable destination of mankind, man will perform his duty for the sake of worshiping the Creator, and a mankind such as this will be the mankind of eternity. At that time, man will have gained a life illuminated by God, a life under the care and protection of God, and a life together with God. Mankind will lead a normal life on earth, and the whole of mankind will enter onto the right track. The 6,000-year management plan will have utterly defeated Satan, which means that God will have recovered the original image of man following his creation, and as such, the original intention of God will have been fulfilled. In the beginning, before mankind was corrupted by Satan, mankind led a normal life on earth. Later, when he was corrupted by Satan, man lost this normal life, and so there began the work of God’s management, and the battle with Satan to recover the normal life of man. Only when the 6,000-year work of God’s management comes to an end will the life of all mankind officially begin on earth, only then will man have a wonderful life, and God will recover the purpose of creating man in the beginning, as well as the original likeness of man. And so, once he has the normal life of mankind on earth, man will not pursue becoming an overcomer or being made perfect, for man will be holy. The victory and perfection spoken of by man are the objectives given to man to pursue during the battle between God and Satan, and they exist only because man has been corrupted. It is by giving you an objective, and causing you to pursue this objective, that Satan will be defeated. Asking you to be an overcomer or to be made perfect or used is requiring that you bear testimony in order to shame Satan. In the end, man will lead the life of normal man on earth, and man will be holy, and when this happens, will they still seek to become overcomers? Are they not all creatures? Being an overcomer and being a perfected one are both directed at Satan, and the filthiness of man. Is this “overcomer” not in reference to the victory over Satan and the hostile forces? When you say that you have been made perfect, what in you has been made perfect? Isn’t it that you have divested yourself of the corrupt satanic disposition, so that you can achieve the supreme love of God? Such things are said in relation to the filthy things within man, and in relation to Satan; they are not spoken of in relation to God.


Today, if you do not pursue becoming an overcomer and being made perfect, then in the future, when mankind leads a normal life on earth, there will be no opportunity for such pursuit. At that time, the end of every kind of person will have been revealed. At that time, it will be clear what kind of thing you are, and if you wish to be an overcomer or wish to be made perfect it will be impossible. It is only that because of his rebelliousness man will be punished after being revealed. At that time, the pursuit of man will not be a higher position than others, for some to be overcomers and others made perfect, or for some to be the firstborn sons of God and others to be the sons of God; they will not pursue these things. All will be creatures of God, all will live on earth, and all will live together with God on earth. Now is the time of the battle between God and Satan, it is a time in which this battle has yet to be concluded, a time in which man has yet to be completely gained, and is a period of transition. And so, man is required to pursue becoming an overcomer or one of the people of God. Today there are distinctions in status, but when the time comes there will be no such distinctions: The status of all those who have been victorious will be the same, they will all be qualified mankind, and will live equally upon earth, meaning that they will all be qualified creatures, and what they are given will all be the same. Because the ages of God’s work are different, and the objects of His work are also different, if this work is done in you, you are eligible to be made perfect and become overcomers; if it were done abroad, then they would be eligible to become the first group of people to be conquered, and the first group of people to be made perfect. Today, this work is not done abroad, so they are not eligible to be made perfect and become overcomers, and it is impossible for them to become the first group. Because the object of God’s work is different, the age of God’s work is different, and its scope is different, so there is the first group, that is, there are the overcomers, and so too will there be a second group that is made perfect. Once there is the first group that has been made perfect, there will be a specimen and model, and so in the future there will be a second and third group of those who are made perfect, but in eternity they will all be the same, and there will be no classifications in status. They will simply have been made perfect at different times, and there will be no differences in status. When the time comes that everyone has been made complete, and the work of the entire universe has been concluded, there will be no distinctions in status, and all will be of equal status. Today, this work is done among you so that you will become the overcomers. If it were done in England, then England would have the first group, in the same way that you will be. I am merely being particularly gracious by carrying out My work in you today, and if I didn’t do this work in you, then equally you would be the second group, or the third, or the fourth, or the fifth. This is merely because of the difference in the order of work; the first group and the second group do not denote that one is higher or lower than the other, it simply denotes the order in which these people are made perfect. Today these words are communed to you, but why were you not informed earlier? Because, without a process, people tend to go to extremes. For example, Jesus said at that time: “As I departed, so shall I arrive.” Today, many have been infatuated by these words, and they want only to wear white robes and await their rapture into heaven. Thus, there are many words that cannot be spoken too early; if they were spoken too early man would go to extremes. Man’s stature is too small, and he is incapable of seeing through to the truth of these words.


When man achieves the true life of man on earth, the entire forces of Satan will be bound, and man will live easily upon earth. Things will not be as complex as they are today: Human relationships, social relationships, complex familial relationships…, they are such bother, so painful! Man’s life here is so miserable! Once man has been conquered, his heart and mind will change: He will have a heart that reveres God and a heart that loves God. Once all those within the universe who seek to love God have been conquered, which is to say, once Satan has been defeated, and once Satan—all the forces of darkness—has been bound, then man’s life on earth will be untroubled, and he will be able to live freely upon earth. If man’s life is without the fleshly relationships, and is without the complexities of the flesh, then it would be so much easier. Man’s relationships of the flesh are too complex, and for man to have such things is proof that he has yet to free himself of the influence of Satan. If you had the same relationship with the brothers and sisters, if you had the same relationship with your regular family, then you would have no concerns, and would not need to worry about anyone. Nothing could be better, and in this way man would be relieved of half of his suffering. Living a normal human life on earth, man will be similar to an angel; though still being of the flesh, he will be much like an angel. This is the final promise, it is the last promise that is bestowed upon man. Today man undergoes chastisement and judgment; do you think man’s experience of such things is meaningless? Could the work of chastisement and judgment be done for no reason? Previously it has been said that to chastise and judge man is to place him into a bottomless pit, which means the taking away of his fate and prospects. This is for the sake of one thing: the cleansing of man. Man is not placed in a bottomless pit deliberately, after which God washes His hands of him. Instead, it is in order to deal with the rebelliousness within man, so that in the end the things within man may be cleansed, so that he may have a true knowledge of God, and be like a holy person. If this is done, then all will be accomplished. In fact, when those things within man that are meant to be dealt with are dealt with, and man bears resounding testimony, Satan will also be defeated, and even though there may be a few of those things which are originally within man that are not completely cleansed, once Satan is defeated, it will no longer cause trouble, and at that time man will have been completely cleansed. Man has never experienced such a life, but when Satan is defeated, all will be settled and those trifling things within man will all be solved; all other troubles will end once that main problem has been solved. During this incarnation of God on earth, when He personally does His work among man, all the work He does is in order to defeat Satan, and He will defeat Satan through the conquest of man and making you complete. When you bear resounding testimony, this, too, will be a mark of Satan’s defeat. Man is first conquered and ultimately completely made perfect in order to defeat Satan. In substance, however, along with the defeat of Satan this is simultaneously the salvation of all mankind from this hollow sea of affliction. Regardless of whether this work is carried out throughout the entire universe or in China, it is all in order to defeat Satan and bring salvation to the whole of mankind so that man may enter the place of rest. You see, the normal flesh of God incarnate is precisely for the sake of defeating Satan. The work of the God of flesh is used to bring salvation to all those beneath heaven who love God, it is for the sake of conquering all mankind, and, moreover, for the sake of defeating Satan. The core of all God’s management work is inseparable from the defeat of Satan to bring salvation to all mankind. Why, in much of this work, is it always said for you to bear testimony? And whom is this testimony directed at? Isn’t it directed at Satan? This testimony is made to God, and it is made to testify that the work of God has achieved its effect. Bearing testimony is related to the work of defeating Satan; if there were not a battle with Satan, then man would not be required to bear testimony. It is because Satan must be defeated that, at the same time as saving man, God requires that man bear testimony to Him before Satan, which He uses to save man and do battle with Satan. As a result, man is both the object of salvation and a tool in the defeat of Satan, and so man is at the core of the work of God’s entire management, and Satan is merely the object of destruction, the enemy. You may feel that you have done nothing, but because of the changes in your disposition, testimony has been borne, and this testimony is directed at Satan and is not made to man. Man is not fit to enjoy such a testimony. How could he understand the work done by God? The object of God’s fight is Satan; man, meanwhile, is only the object of salvation. Man has the corrupt satanic disposition, and is incapable of understanding this work. This is because of the corruption of Satan. It is not inherently within man, but is directed by Satan. Today, God’s main work is to defeat Satan, that is, to completely conquer man, so that man may bear final testimony to God before Satan. In this way, all things will be accomplished. In many cases, to your naked eye it appears that nothing has been done, but in fact, the work has already been completed. Man requires that all the work of completion be visible, yet without making it visible to you, I have completed My work, for Satan has submitted, which means that it has been utterly defeated, that all of God’s wisdom, power and authority have vanquished Satan. This is exactly the testimony that must be borne, and though it has no clear expression in man, though it is not visible to the naked eye, Satan has already been defeated. The entirety of this work is directed against Satan, and carried out because of the battle with Satan. And so, there are many things that man does not see as having been successful, but which, in God’s eyes, were successful long ago. This is one of the inner truths of all God’s work.


from The Word Appears in the Flesh



a. The original text reads “today, it is because.”


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