Monte-Carlo

Monte-Carlo (en monégasque Monte-Carlu) est l'un des onze quartiers de la cité-État de la principauté de Monaco. C'est le plus connu, avec son célèbre casino.

 

Monte-Carlo (le « Mont-Charles ») porte ce nom italien en l'honneur du prince Charles III de Monaco et ce depuis le 1er juillet 1866.

 

Ce nom a été adapté en monégasque : Monte-Carlu [ˌmõteˈkaʀlu]. Cette appellation récente sonnant particulièrement bien a été donnée au lieu-dit les Spélugues (à comprendre les « Grottes » ; en monégasque Ë Speřüghe, du roman commun et au singulier *speluca, correspondant au latin classique spelunca lui-même issu du grec 'σπήλαιον'='spèlaion' signifiant grotte) après son urbanisation (Casino) : ne disait-on pas que l'ancien nom portait malchance puisqu'en allemand Spelunke (pluriel Spelunken) malgré son étymologie identique, désigne un « établissement douteux ».

 

Ce sont les règles typographiques relatives aux toponymes en usage à l'Imprimerie nationale qui imposent d'écrire Monte-Carlo avec un trait d'union. Il existe une commune italienne graphiée Montecarlo située dans la province de Lucques en Italie ; ses habitants sont les montecarlesi.

 

On prononce généralement« Monté-Carlo », mais certains disent « Monté-Carl' ». On n'utilise pas d'autre gentilé que Monégasques pour les habitants de Monte-Carlo.

 

Monte-Carlo est le quartier le plus célèbre de Monaco, au point d'être parfois confondu avec le pays entier, ou considéré — à tort — comme sa capitale. Les plaques automobiles de la Principauté portent la mention "MC" rappelant Monte Carlo alors qu'il s'agit d'une abréviation de Monaco. RMC (Radio Monte-Carlo) porte le nom du quartier et non celui du pays. Pour les courses automobiles, il y a le Grand Prix automobile de Monaco et le Rallye automobile Monte-Carlo.

 

Le développement de Monte-Carlo entraîna la création d'une véritable « banlieue » en territoire français qui devint une commune sous le nom de Beausoleil en 1904 et que l'on avait d'abord pensé appeler Monte-Carlo supérieur.

 

En 1856, le Prince de Monaco, pour créer des ressources, autorise l'ouverture d'un casino. Après une première installation infructueuse dans le Monaco historique (Munegu Autu - Monaco Ville), en 1862, on élève à Monte-Carlo, pour les jeux, une humble bâtisse (inaugurée en 1863) qui reste isolée, nul ne voulant acheter aux alentours un terrain avec obligation de construire. Mais tout va changer quand François Blanc, le directeur du casino de Bad Homburg, ville d'eau hessoise (située dans l'État de Hesse-Hombourg) devient concessionnaire. Grâce à ses talents et à ses capitaux, il réussit là où ses prédécesseurs s'étaient ruinés : en peu d'années, la vogue est acquise et une ville couvre bientôt le plateau de ses constructions de luxe.

 

En 1911, la constitution monégasque divisa la principauté en trois communes, la Commune de Monte-Carlo fut ainsi créée couvrant également les actuels quartiers de La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins et Saint Michel. En 1917, on revint à une commune unique pour toute la principauté.

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Monte Carlo é um dos 11 bairros de Mónaco. Conhecida estância luxuosa, conhecida pelo seu glamour, celebridades que enxameiam as revistas cor de rosa, praias e casinos.

 

É aí que se situa o Circuito do Mónaco, onde decorre o Grande Prémio do Mónaco de Fórmula 1. É palco, ainda, de competições de boxe, apresentações de moda e outros eventos de grande repercussão cultural.

 

Em uma pesquisa realizada em 2009 pelo Global Property Guide ("Word´s Most Expensives Residential Real Estate Markets 2009"), os imóveis em Monte Carlo foram considerados os mais caros do mundo, com o metro quadrado custando 47.578 dólares, mais que o dobro da segunda colocada, Moscou

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Monte Carlo (French: Monte-Carlo, Occitan: Montcarles, Monégasque: Monte-Carlu) is one of Monaco's administrative areas.The official capital is the city of Monaco, which is coterminous with the country itself.

Monte Carlo is widely known for its casino. The permanent population is about 3,000. Monte Carlo quarter includes not only Monte Carlo proper where the Le Grand Casino is located, it also includes the neighbourhoods of Saint-Michel, Saint-Roman/Tenao, and the beach community of Larvotto. It borders the French town of Beausoleil (sometimes referred to as Monte-Carlo-Supérieur).

 

Founded in 1866, Monte Carlo has a name of Italian origin meaning "Mount Charles", in honor of the then-reigning prince, Charles III of Monaco. The specific mountain is the escarpment at the foot of the Maritime Alps on which the town stands.

 

The history of the area and the ruling Grimaldi family, however, dates back centuries. The port of Monaco is first mentioned in historical records as early as 43 BC, when Julius Caesar concentrated his fleet there while waiting in vain for Pompey. In the 12th century, the area fell under the sovereignty of Genoa, which was granted the entire coastline from Porto Venere to Monaco. After much conflict, the Grimaldis regained the rock in 1295, but suffered a significant amount of opposition in the ensuing years. In 1506 the Monegasques, under Lucien, Lord of Monaco, were under siege for some four months by the Genoan army, which had ten times the number of men. Monaco officially received full autonomy in 1524, but experienced difficulty retaining power, and on occasions briefly fell under the domination of Spain, Sardinia, and France.

 

By the 1850s, Monaco’s reigning family was almost bankrupt; this was a result of the loss of two towns, Menton and Roquebrune, which had provided most of the principality’s revenues with their lemon, orange and olive crops.[3] At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg[disambiguation needed]. In 1856, Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, and to build a German-style casino in Monaco.[3] The initial casino was opened in La Condamine in 1862, but was not a success; its present location in the area called "Les Spelugues" (The Caves) of Monte Carlo, came only after several relocations in the years that followed. The success of the casino grew slowly, largely due to the area's inaccessibility from much of Europe. The installation of the railway in 1868, however, brought with it an influx of people into Monte Carlo and saw it grow in wealth.[3]

 

In 1911, when the Constitution divided the principality of Monaco in 3 municipalities, the municipality of Monte Carlo was created covering the existing neighborhoods of La Rousse / Saint Roman, Larvotto / Bas Moulins and Saint Michel. The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer" and they were accorded the status of wards (quartiers) thereafter. Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh ward planned (but currently postponed) to encompass land reclaimed from the sea (see the "Administrative Divisions" section of Monaco for additional details).

 

The quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from 1900 to 1953, linking all parts of Monaco. In 2003, a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo.

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Taken on September 14, 2010