This is "Negress", a bust by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, 1868. Note that it was completed just after the end of the US Civil war.
This is an unusual piece of art, since it is from a time when you could go to a sculpture artist and have your portrait made. Hence, there are tonnes of marble and bronze depicting rich men and their children, wives and relatives. Not many depicting, poor people, female slaves and people of non-aryan origin. And perhaps just one having the the text "Why be born a slave?"
The original bronze cast of the bust is to be found at IMA collection.imamuseum.org/artwork/56494/
This particular one is at Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.