Wien, 4. Bezirk, Marienstatue, Estadua de la Virgen María, Statue de la Vierge Marie, Statua della Vergine Maria, Statue of the Virgin Mary (Irene Harand Platz)
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Irene Harand Square
Irene Harand (born September 7th, 1900 in Vienna , † February 2nd, 1975 in New York City) was an Austrian writer and opponent of National Socialism.
The in 2010 erected monument to Irene Harand on the square of the same name
In the late 1920s Harand worked in the "Federation of small savers and pensioners of Austria" of the Jewish advocate Moriz Zalman (born November 7th, 1882 in Bârlad, Romania , † May 29th, 1940 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp), free of charge campaigning for victims of inflation. In this association she eventually became his vice-president and wrote for whose newspaper world in the morning ("Welt am Morgen").
In 1930 she together with Zalman founded the "Austrian People's Party -Volkspartei" (not connected with the People's Party of the 2nd Republic), which lobbied for small pensioners and poorer people and, in contrast to the other parties in Austria, actively opposed the anti-Semitism. In the 1930 elections the party clearly failed to make the grade, which was due to low funds and campaigns of the Social Democrats, those Zalman previously was close and about whose candidacy they were upset.
In the fall of 1933 Harand and Zalman founded the "world movement against racial hatred and Menschennot (people's hardship)", which became known under the name "Harand movement" and appeared as the antithesis of Nazi "Hitler movement". Mouthpiece of the "Harand Movement" was the weekly newspaper justice, from 1933 to 1938 in an edition of about 28,000 copies - for a short time also in Polish and French - appearing. The convinced Catholic Irene Harand was until the 1940s monarchist and a supporter of the Austro-fascism. The "Harand Movement" became part of the Fatherland Front and defended until the end the authoritarian course of the governments of Engelbert Dollfuss and Kurt Schuschnigg. Against anti-Semitism within the Austro-fascism and the Catholic Church in Austria the "Harand Movement" but behaved massively.
The "Harand Movement" between 1933 and 1938 had several thousand members and local groups in many European countries. A World Congress of "Harand movement" failed in 1937 due to financial capabilities of the organization and the lack of support by the Austrian authorities. In extensive lecture tours through Europe and the USA (1937) Irene Harand tried to mobilize the public against Nazism and in particular anti-Semitism. Because she believed that precarious economic conditions were a breeding ground for the ideology of the Nazis, she assumed godmother sponsorships and organized Christmas Bescherungen (distribution of presents) for the children from deprived families and the sending of food parcels to the needy. She promised hoteliers, especially in rural regions free ads in the newspaper justice ("Gerechtigkeit"), provided those subscribe to the magazine and engage themselves every guest, regardless of his/her origin or religious affiliation to accommodate. As a protest against the Munich exhibition "The Eternal Jew", the "Harand movement" edited seal stamps with portraits of famous Jewish personalities.
Three years after the publication of her book, his battle. Answer to Hitler, which she published at her own expense, in 1938 a bounty of 100,000 Reichsmarks was placed on her and her books in Salzburg publicly burned. Harand, which was at that time in England, but could not be caught and fled to the USA where she co-founded the exile organization "Austrian Forum" and in the 1940s the women's organization of the American "Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League to Champion Human Rights" led. Moreover, she also helped Austrian Jews to get visas for the United States, by which more than 100 people were able to escape from Nazi persecution. In 1941 she was involved in London in the founding of the Free Austrian Movement. In 1969 she was honored by the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial as "Righteous Among the Nations" and received 1971 the Golden Badge of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria. Irene Harand died in 1975 in New York. Her ashes were on 27th June 1975 in an honorary dedicated grave (Department ARI , number 153) of the City of Vienna buried in Urnenhain (urn grove) of the fire hall Simmering.
Since 1990 the house Jews Gasse 4 - a Viennese community housing - was baptized on the initiative of Peter Marboe with the name of Irene Harand Hof, was on 29th October 2008 the Irene Harand Square before the Pauline Church at Wiedner Hauptstrasse named after her.
Irene Harands book His fight
As part of a new edition by the publisher Franz Richard Reiter, on 12th March 2005 more than 100 artists, writers, scientists and journalists in the Archbishop's palace in Vienna and via video wall on the Stephansplatz the Austrian gave back her voice. The reading took place under that picture of Christ which on 8th October 1938 was pierced during the assault of the Hitler Youth with daggers and left as a reminder in this state.