The 18 parameters of HIPAA de-identification are:

(1) Names

(2) All geographic subdivisions smaller than a state, except
for the initial three digits of the zip code if the geographic unit formed by combining all zip codes with the same three initial digits contains more than 20,000 people.

(3) All elements of dates except year and all ages over 89

(4) Telephone numbers

(5) Fax numbers

(6) E-mail addresses

(7) Social security numbers

(8) Medical record numbers

(9) Health plan beneficiary numbers

(10) Account numbers

(11) Certificate or license numbers

(12) Vehicle identifiers and license plate numbers

(13) Device identifiers and serial numbers

(14) URLs

(15) IP addresses

(16) Biometric identifiers

(17) Full face photographic images and any comparable image

(18) Any other unique identifying number, characteristic, or code

These images meet the 18 identifier requirement. The argument could be made, however, that radiographs are a biometric identifier (# 16). Forensic pathologists use radiographs to make positive ID when they have a likely source of comparison. However, you must have a similar view to satisfy the points of ID to make a statistically probable match. That similar comparison in itself is a protected piece of information that can't be freely shared.


Most of these are JPEG images downconverted from the original 10Mb DICOM data. The older, film based images were copied with a Sony DSC-V3. Presentation here is for use in teaching radiologic science.

Attribution is expected.
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