Corvus macrorhynchos, Large-billed Crow
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The Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos), is a widespread Asian species of crow. They are very adaptable and are able to survive on a wide range of food sources making them capable of colonizing new areas due to which they are often considered a nuisance, especially on islands. They have a large bill and due to this they are also sometimes called Large-billed Crow or Thick-billed Crow.
It has 11 subspecies, and some of these are distinctive vocally, morphologically and genetically, leading to speculations that more than one species is involved. For example:
Corvus (m.) levaillantii - Eastern Jungle Crow
Corvus (m.) culminatus - Indian Jungle Crow
Corvus (m.) japonensis - Large-billed Crow
The overall size (46-59 cm in length) and body proportions vary regionally. The range of this species is extensive and stretches from the northeastern Asian seaboard to Afghanistan and eastern Iran in the west, through South and Southeast Asia, to the Lesser Sundas and the Philippines in southeast. Extremely versatile in its feeding, it will take food from the ground or in trees. They feed on a wide range of items and will attempt to feed on anything appearing edible, alive or dead, plant or animal. The nest is a platform of twigs, usually high up on a tree with a preference for tall Conifers like Fir or Pine. There are normally 3-5 eggs laid and they are incubated for 17-19 days. The young are fledged usually by about the 35th day. During the day pairs may be involved in defending their territory but at night they may roost in large groups. They have linear dominance hierarchies that are remembered based on individual recognition. The voice is similar to the House Crow with which it is closest to, but deeper and usually more resonant and described as the usual loud "caaa-caaa-caaa". However it makes a range of calls, some which could be described as "cau cau" and others that could be mistaken for a woodpecker drumming.