Tsaparang was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Guge in the Garuda Valley, through which the upper Sutlej River flows or Langchan Tsangpo, in Ngari Province of Western Tibet near the border of Ladakh. It is 278 km west of Ali and 26 km west of the 11th century monastery at Thöling, and not far west of Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar.
Nearby is the Bön Gurugem Monastery.
Tsaparang is a huge fortress perched on a pyramid-shaped rock rising about 500 to 600 feet (152 to 183 m) at the end of a long narrow spur. It contains numerous tunnels and caves that have been carved out of the rock. At its base was a village where the common people lived. Above them were two public temples - the Lhakhang Marpo (Red Chapel) and the Lhakhang Karpo (White Chapel), and quarters for the monks. Further up, ascending a twisting stone staircase in a tunnel, were the royal quarters, and at the very top, the summer palace