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Sulphur miner and noxious sulphur fumes inside crater of Kawah Ijen volcano - Banyuwangi, Java Indonesia | by Phil Marion (173 million views - THANKS)
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Sulphur miner and noxious sulphur fumes inside crater of Kawah Ijen volcano - Banyuwangi, Java Indonesia

The Ijen volcano complex is a group of stratovolcanoes in the Banyuwangi Regency of East Java, Indonesia. It is inside a larger caldera Ijen, which is about 20 kilometers wide. Ijen volcano, which has a one-kilometer-wide turquoise-colored acid crater lake. The lake is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are carried by hand from the crater floor. The work is low-paid and very onerous. Workers earn around $5.50-$8.30 per day and once out of the crater, still need to carry their loads of sulfur chunks about three kilometers to the nearby Pultuding Valley to get paid.

The active crater at Kawah Ijen has a diameter of 722 metres (2,369 ft) and a surface area of 0.41 square kilometres (0.16 sq mi). It is 200 metres (660 ft) deep and has a volume of 36 cubic hectometres (29,000 acre·ft).

 

The lake is recognised as the largest highly acidic crater lake in the world.

 

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Taken on December 13, 2014