No 42. - James II
Reigned 1665AD - 1668AD
Second son of Charles I who ended up being disposed.
He ascended the throne following the death of his older brother Charles II. During his short reign he struggled with the English Parliament as well as the issues that came from his attempt to give relgious liberty to English Catholics and Protestant nonconformists.
When he had a 'Catholic' heir the tension exploded, and leading nobles called on his Protestant son-in-law and nephew William of Orange, to land an invasion army from the Netherlands, which he did in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James fled England (and thus was held to have abdicated).
During his attempt to flee he is alleged to have have thrown the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames.