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Soviet Locomotive Class FD. 1931-42. Советский паровоз ФД.

The Railway Museum at Rizhsky Railway Station. Moscow.


The Soviet locomotive class FD (Russian: ФД) was a Soviet main freight steam locomotive type. Between 1932 and 1942, 3213 locomotives were built.



A locomotive was created in connection with the industrialization conducted in the USSR. Planning occupied only 100 days, and general time of building made 170 days. For his creation designers used American experience of creation of steam locomotives. The first locomotive was built at the Lugansk Locomotive Factory in 1931 and sent for a show to Moscow.

Tests on which a locomotive got a good estimation were conducted in 1932. In a that year at the Voroshilovgradskom plant passed to the mass production of ФД20 locomotives. In the process of production their construction got better constantly. From beginning of Great Patriotic war in 1941, a production was interrupted, only in 1942, 4 locomotives were built in Ulan Ude. Total production was 2927 locomotives of ФД20, and 286 locomotives of ФД21. The two subclasses only differed in the type of superheater.

The locomotives of ФД left on areas with high turnover of goods. They worked on 23 from 43 railways of the USSR, including in Siberia and on Ural. From middle of 1950, in connection with passing to the diesel engines and electric locomotives, the locomotives of ФД began to be pushed aside from work. Also in 1958–1960 about 1000 locomotives were passed to China.


Power type Steam

Builder Voroshilovgrad (Lugansk) Locomotive Factory

Build date 1931—1942

Configuration 2-10-2

Gauge 1,524 mm (5 ft)

Leading wheel

diameter 900 mm (35.43 in)

Driver diameter 1,500 mm (59.06 in)

Trailing wheel

diameter 1,050 mm (41.34 in)

Length 15.974 m (52 ft 5 in) (w/o tender), 28.519 m (93 ft 7 in)

Weight on drivers 104.0 tonnes

Locomotive & tender

combined weight 259.5 tonnes

Fuel type Coal, oil (FDP)

Boiler pressure 15 kgf/cm² (1.47 MPa; 213 psi)

Firegrate area 7.04 m2 (75.8 sq ft)

Cylinders Two, outside

Cylinder size 670 × 770 mm (26.38 × 30.31 in)

Top speed 85 km/h (53 mph)

Tractive effort 287.9 kN (64,720 lbf)

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Taken on July 18, 2010