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Rio acima, rio abaixo...

Seen from Vila Nova de Gaia, Porto. Portugal

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Located along the Douro river estuary in northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, and registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996. Its settlement dates back many centuries, when it was an outpost of the Roman Empire. Its Latin name, Portus Cale,[9] has been referred to as the origin for the name "Portugal," based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese the name of the city is spelled with a definite article as "o Porto".

Wine, have been produced in the Douro valley, since the 13th century and transported to Porto city in 'barcos rabelos' (flat sailing vessels). In 1703 the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between Portugal and England. In 1717, a first English trading post was established in Porto. The production of port wine then gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley. He demarcated the region for production of port wine, to ensure the wine's quality; this was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe.

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Taken on February 5, 2012