Illuminatio Lunæ Per Solem
Orbital dynamics between the sun, moon, and earth cause different patterns of illumination on the surface of the moon as seen from earth. As the moon revolves around the earth, it appears to go through a series of illumination phases. The sun constantly illuminates one-half of the lunar surface. The changing orientation in the three body system (sun, earth, and moon), changes to what extent that solar illumination covers areas on the surface of the moon that are visible from earth.
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