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Magnolia

on explore #295 Sehen sie nicht aus, wie eine chinesische Seidenmalerei? Als Teil eines Paravents? Oder wie eine wertvolle Porzellanmalerei?

Magnolien haben eine ganz eigene faszinierende Schönheit.

 

Die Magnolien (Magnolia) sind eine Pflanzengattung in der Familie der Magnoliengewächse (Magnoliaceae), die etwa 230 Arten enthält. Die Gattung wurde nach dem französischen Botaniker Pierre Magnol benannt. Es sind Bäume oder Sträucher, sie stammen aus Ostasien und Amerika. Einige Magnolien-Arten und Sorten sind beliebte Ziergehölze.

 

Die Universität Bournemouth teilte am 4. April 2007 mit, die Rote Liste der Magnoliengewächse führe 132 von insgesamt 245 Arten als gefährdet. Als Hauptursachen der Bedrohung werden die Zerstörung der natürlichen Lebensräume der Magnolien für die Landwirtschaft sowie deren übermäßige Ausbeutung angesehen.

 

Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae.

 

The natural range of Magnolia species is rather scattered and includes eastern North America, Central America and the West Indies and east and southeast Asia. Some species are found in South America. Today many species of Magnolia and an ever increasing number of hybrids can also be found as ornamentals in large parts of North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. The genus is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol, from Montpellier. See Origin of the name Magnolia.

 

Magnolia is an ancient genus. Having evolved before bees appeared, the flowers developed to encourage pollination by beetles. As a result, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are tough, to avoid damage by eating and crawling beetles. Fossilised specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae dating back to 95 million years ago. Another primitive aspect of Magnolias is their lack of distinct sepals or petals. The term tepal has been coined to refer to the intermediate element that Magnolia has instead. Magnolias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Giant Leopard Moth.

 

Magnolia grandiflora is the official state flower of both Mississippi and Louisiana.The flower's abundance in Mississippi is reflected in its state nickname, "Magnolia State". The magnolia is also the official state tree of Mississippi.

 

One of the oldest nicknames for Houston, Texas Is "The Magnolia City" due to the abundance of Magnolias growing along Buffalo Bayou.

 

In general, Magnolia is a genus which has attracted a lot of horticultural interest. Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the species themselves, as well as having more impressive flowers. One of the most popular garden magnolias is a hybrid, M. x soulangeana (Saucer magnolia; hybrid M. liliiflora x M. denudata).

 

The bark from M. officinalis has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is known as hou po (厚朴). In Japan, kōboku, M. obovata has been used in a similar manner. The aromatic bark contains magnolol and honokiol, two polyphenolic compounds that have demonstrated anti-anxiety and anti-angiogenic properties. Magnolia bark also has been shown to reduce allergic and asthmatic reactions.

 

Magnolia has attracted the interest of the dental research community because magnolia bark extract inhibits many of the bacteria responsible for caries and periodontal disease.In addition, the constituent magnolol interferes with the action of glucosyltransferase, an enzyme needed for the formation of bacterial plaque.

 

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Taken on April 4, 2008