Homage à Escher
Potsdamer Place, Berlin CityCenter.
Maurits Cornelis Escher (* 17. June 1898 in Leeuwarden ; † 27 March 1972 in Laren , north Holland ) was a Netherlands artist and commercial artist and became known particularly by its representation of impossible figures .
E it created in the techniques of the woodcut, the Lithografie and the erasure to technical perfection excluding graphic work and brought. As a young man it traveled by Italy and the Mediterranean area to Portugal and created many landscape representations and architecture studies in a broad pallet of graphic styles. The motives of the southern landscapes formed at the same time the form canons of its later nature-strange work. By his many journeys connected E special loving with the sea and the navigation. Thus it still held at the age lectures on the manifold nature phenomena and impressions, which meet a ship traveler in the Mediterranean.
The impossible pictures
Its most well-known works, which almost brought in E the status of a Popstars, are occupied with the representation of perspective impossiblenesses, optical deceptions and multistable perception phenomena . We see articles or architectural buildings, which seem to be completely natural at first sight, on which second however in their construction are impossible.
The impossible Penrose triangle, also tribar mentioned , described by Roger Penrose, formed the basis to Eschers picture "wasserfall". It shows a watercourse, which moves itself from the viewer, then left flows, when a wasserfall falls downward and attaches again to its own beginning. Which seems to function in the two-dimensional picture easily, would be simply impossible in the reality, since the water would have to up-flow for this the mountain. Besides the wasserfall propels a water wheel and becomes in such a way the Perpetuum mobile . The picture "Treppauf Treppab" shows in a similar way designed square, endless stairs.
The impossible crate is starting point of the picture "Belvedere". Upper and basement of a prospect pavilion in an northItalian landscape are against each other rotated around 90°. A ladder, which on the soil of the basement stands, leans at the external wall the upper floor. The columns, which carry the building, change imperceptibly the sides. Paradoxes the building works nevertheless at first sight completely stably.
On the basis of the ornamentation aluminum art of the maurischen Majolika , which had studied E in south Spain, it developed a further technology of the regular surface filling in its pictures "metamorphosis I" up to" metamorphosis III "and many by partial fantastische figures. The refined it still, by letting easy variations flow into these surface samples again and again, so that the used figures, about birds transform fish to become.
E also topics dedicated themselves such as Moebiusbaendern, crystalline forms , reflections , optical distortions and Fraktalen in its work . Admits is a Selbstportrait in the reflection of a glass ball.
For the history of art always a problem remained E. Its argument with perspective impossiblenesses and optical deceptions differs strongly from the classical topics of forming art and can in none of the classical drawers be arranged. Thus E time long of the world of art as an artist in the classical sense one did not accept.
In contrast became E already early of scientists and mathematicians very estimated, there his clean, accurate work in an intuitive and sinnliche way mathematical topics to approximate and problem definitions of the science illustrate. E to mathematics lectures invited, although he said of itself, it would not rarely understand nothing about mathematics. It held also even strongly frequented lectures on its work in completely Europe .
Paradoxes and not rarely Mysti of its mysterious pictures also resemblance found with Esoterikern and the Pop culture 20. Century. Its pictures were printed as poster and used as Plattencover....