Image from page 406 of "Elements of ecology" (1954)
Title: Elements of ecology
Publisher: New York, Wiley
Contributing Library: MBLWHOI Library
Digitizing Sponsor: MBLWHOI Library
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Parasitism 389 is only a tiny fraction of the bulk of the tarantula, but, by the time it is ready for metamorphosis and independent life, it has consumed all the soft tissue of the giant spider (Petrunkevitch, 1952).
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^-•^5?^^^^^ Fig. 10.11. The giant wasp (Pepsis marginata) stinging the tarantula (Cryto- pholis portoricue) preparatory to attaching an egg to its abdomen. (Petrunke- vitch, 1952, Scientific American, drawing by R. Freund.) Plants and animals are susceptible to invasion by several to many species of parasites at the same time, and conversely many parasites can or must have more than one type of host during their lives. The fact that parasites infest other parasites has been immortalized by the jingle: Fleas have lesser fleas Upon their backs to bite 'em, And lesser fleas still lesser fleas— And so ad infinitum. In a chickadee nest two cowbirds were found both of which were in- fested with hippoboscid flies. Attached to the abdomen of one of the flies were two mallophagan bird lice that thus obtain transporta- tion from one bird to another, and within the bodies of the lice bac- teria were undoubtedly present (Herman, 1937). As many as five links in chains of such hyperparasites and symbionts have been re- ported. During the perpetual war between parasites and their hosts many special adaptations have evolved on both sides. The anti-invasion tactics of the host include external anatomical features and internal
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