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Image from page 63 of "Natural history" (1897) | by Internet Archive Book Images
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Image from page 63 of "Natural history" (1897)

Title: Natural history

Identifier: cu31924001567506

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Lydekker, Richard, 1849-1915; Kirby, W. F. (William Forsell), 1844-1912; Woodward, Bernard Barham, 1853-1930; Kirkpatrick, R. (Randolph), b. 1863; Pocock, R. I. (Reginald Innes), 1863-1947; Sharpe, Richard Bowdler, 1847-1909; Garstang, Walter, 1868-1949; Bather, Francis Arthur, 1863-1934; Bernard, Henry Meyners

Subjects: Zoology

Publisher: New York, D. Appleton and company

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN



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44 MAMMALIA—ORDER HL—INSECTIVORA. their fore-paws and sitting up to devour it in a squirrel-like manner. Although chiefly arboreal, they at times seek their food on the ground. The typical tree-shrews (Titpaia), which range from India to the Philippines, and are represented by a large number of species, have the long tail bushy throughout, although the longer hairs are arranged on the upper and lateral surfaces, the under side being short-haired. Two species, of which one is from Borneo and the other from Si;im, have been separated as Dendrogale, although this scarcely seems necessary. Very distinct is, however, the beauti- ful little pen-tailed shrew (PtUocercus lowi) of Borneo and some of the adjacent islands, in which the exceeding long tail is evenly short-haired for the greater portion of its length, although towards its extremity it_bears a double row of long hairs, arranged like the vanes of a, feather. This little creature measures between five and six inches to the root of the tail, which is considerably longer than the head and body. In Africa south of the Sahara the place of the tree-shrews is taken by the terrestrial jumping-shrews, one species of the typical genus ranging into Northern Africa. From the tree-shrews these Jjimping-Shrews. animals differ not only by their terrestrial habits, but also —Family by the elongation of the metatarsal segment of the hind-foot, Macroscdididce. which enables them to take the leaps from which they derive their name ; and likewise by the bony rim of the socket of the eye being incomplete behind. The tail also is not bushy. In the typical genus the snout is elongated so as to form a short proboscis, on which account tlie name of elephant-shrew is applied to these creatures. In the typical jumping-shrews (Macrosceddes) the number of teeth is usually 42, and there are five toes on the fore-foot and generally the same number on the hind-foot; while the ears are large, and the tail is naked and rat-like. In one species {M. tetradadyli(s), from the M(}zambique Coast, there are, however, but 40 teeth, while the number of toes on the hind-foot is reduced to four ; and on this account the animal is generically sepa- rated by some as Petrodomus. A very distinct genus is formed by the long nosed jumping-shrews [Rhynchocyon) Fig. 24.—A Jumping- from the East Coast of Africa, in which there are only Shkew (Macroscdides). gy ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ f^,^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^y^ ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ feet. The hind-legs are also relatively shorter. Unlike the tree-shrews, the members of this family are nocturnal in their habits. In the three remaining families of the group with the cusps on the upper molars arranged in the form of the letter W, the brain-cavity is relatively smaller than in the two preceding families, and Hedg-ehog Tribe, tiie union of the front portion of the lower part of the —Family pelvis in the middle line of the body either shorter or Erinaceidm. altogether wanting, while not only has the Socket of the eye no complete bony ring, but even the post- orbital process found in the jumping-shrews is totally absent. Although the hedgehogs tliemselves are easily distinguished from the other membe°rs of the group by their spiny cox'ering, this is not the case with their more rat-like allies the gymnuras ; and accordingly other characters have to be sought m order to define the family Erinaceida:. In all save one species the feet are five-toed and furnished with claws adapted for diggin" ; " ""


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