Image from page 448 of "Commercial fisheries review" (1946)
Title: Commercial fisheries review
Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Biodiversity Heritage Library
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OCEANOGRAPHY 17 Drifting 'Ben Franklin' Will Carry Modern Equipment When the research submarine Ben Franklin begins her Gulf Stream drift mission early in 1969, she will carry the most sophisticated scientific equipment available foroceano- graphic work. She will start at the Florida end of the Gulf Stream and, 4 weeks later, arrive at a point in the Stream off Massachu- setts.
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Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp., Ben Franklin's owner and operator, developed the world's largest nonmilitary research sub- marine with the help of Jacques Piccard, an authority on deep-diving vehicles. The U.S. Oceanographic Office (NOO) provided most of the sub's scientific equipment. Also, it will send 2 or 3 oceanographers on the mission and provide the surface support ship. The Mission The scientists will drift with the Gulf Stream in the 50-foot, 130-ton sub. Data supplied to them by a current sensor system mounted on the top deck will enable them to measure the sub's relative current speed and diversion. The vehicle has a 36-man-week life-sup- port capability. The scientists will be able to view their surroundings from 2 external camera systems designed to provide stereo photographs of the seafloor--and two 70 mm. cameras integrated into a closed-circuit television system to observe marine life and phenomena. Several bracket-mounted, hand- held, still- and motion-picture cameras will be used to photograph the scientists at work. The scientists will use a narrow-beam, side-scan sonar to see the outline of the sea floor passed over by the sub. A continuous FM sonar system will monitor obstacles that may be encountered. It will observe and monitor the Deep Scattering Layer--horizon- tal, sound-scattering bands of marine life that oftenproduce "false bottoms" on the record- ing traces of echo-sounding devices. Special Equipment The scientists will use a water-sensing pod to measure on magnetic tape continuous digital information on temperature, salinity, depth, and pressure of the water surround- ing the sub. A proton magnetometer will provide data on the magnetic field and local anomalies-- irregularities in the magnetic field pattern. A transmissometer will measure the light absorbed by one meter of water. It may be able to determine the level of natural light with an ambient light meter, still being de- veloped, A turbulence measurement instrument is expected to determine fluid velocity by tem- perature change--and then produce a profile of the current shear (the whirlpool-like tur- bulence where 2 opposing currents meet) f roin top to bottom of the sub. An acoustic system will determine continuously the sub's total depth and the total water depth. Although the sub is equipped with four 25- horsepower AC electric motors, she was de- signed to be propelled northward along the Gulf Stream by the current itself. This will provide the scientists with a noiseless re- search and observation platform. The Ben Franklin is expected to hover in midwaterfor "continuous observations of the same volume of ocean for the entire 4-week mission." See article by Jacques Piccard, p. 53. 1 •\
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