Image from page 38 of "Introduction to zoology; a guide to the study of animals, for the use of secondary schools;" (1900)
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ation of their enemies, which are seekingfor them, or to avoid being seen by their prey as they ap-proach. This general resemblance to their background isseen even in some caterpillars, e.g. the tomato-worm, whichis colored so exactly like the leaf on which it feeds that itis hard to find. Other caterpillars, belonging to the geo-metrid moths, have the color of the twigs of the plant onwhich they feed, and the resemblance is heightened by theway they have of stiffening and standing out like a branch THE BUTTERFLY AND ITS ALLIES 19 from the stem. The moths of the genus Catocala,1 whichfly by night, rest by day on the bark of trees, which theyso resemble as to be almost indistinguishable. Still more o striking is the resemblance which we find between someadult butterflies and dry leaves as seen, for example, in Kal-lima, a butterfly of the East Indies.2 The resemblance ofthe butterfly to the leaf extends even to details, for theclear patches on the wing resemble holes, while little cir-
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FIG. 18. — Catoccdu ilia, the underwing. Upper wings, bark color; lowerwings, black with orange bauds. Photo, by C. Billiard. cular markings resemble the patches made by particularkinds of fungi. This resemblance of an organism to in-animate objects in its environment is known as protectiveresemblance. There are certain species of butterflies which appear tobe let alone by birds, owing to their disagreeable odor oracrid taste. Examples of such are the Heliconidae, char-acteristic of tropical South America, and the Danaidre, towhich family our Monarch belongs. Closely resembling 1 Fig. 18. 2 Fig. 19. 20 ZOOLOGY the Monarch in this country is the Viceroy, Limenitisarcliippm. This resemblance of the edible Viceroy tothe inedible, acrid Monarch, it is believed, is sufficient to
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