Image from page 151 of "Outlines of the world's history, ancient, mediæval, and modern, with special relation to the history of civilization and the progress of mankind .." (1870)
Authors: Swinton, William, 1833-1892
Subjects: World history
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation
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Italy: in the Early phiios-former by Thales, who lived in the 6th century, op^ers. and was the founder of the Ionic school; in the latter byPythagoras, who belonged to the same century, and was thehead of the Pythagorean school. Thales, Pythagoras, andthe other early sages of Greece chiefly occupied themselveswith natural philosophy; but in the 5 th century they weresucceeded by the Sophists and Rhetors, who taught the arts * R. W. Emerson. 124 HISTORY OF GREECE. SocrateB> of dialectics and rhetoric, and were the paid instructors ofthe Athenian youth. 139. Socrates, one of the wisest and greatest of the hu-man race, belongs to the epoch immediatelysucceeding the age of Pericles (469-399 b. c).He did not teach any positive system of philosophy; hisspecial work was to break down prejudices, to show peopletheir ignorance, to expose fallacies, and to assert the exist-ence of great necessary truths, — of the good, the true, and the beautiful,— and this hedid by a meth-od of search-
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mg mquirycalled, afterhim, the So-cratic. He Socrates. Plato. was Ungainly of person and ascetic in his habits; he taught without payin the porticoes, the market-place, and the street, addressingall who chose to listen, in a homely but most pointed andtelling style. Notwithstanding his pure and noble life, andhis efforts to promote the welfare of mankind, his doctrinesmade him many enemies: he was charged before the Athe-nian magistrates with not believing in the gods, and withbeing a corruptor of youth. Being condemned on thesecharges, he was sentenced to drink a cup of hemlock. Hemet his death calmly, surrounded by his beloved and weep-ing disciples, to whom in his last hours he discoursed onthe Immortality of the Soul. 140. Plato (429-347 B. c), one of the disciples of Soc-rates, was the founder of the Academicschool, so called from the groves of Academus,near Athens, where the philosopher gave his lectures. Theworks of Plato remain in the form of his Dialogues. In these GRECIAN AR
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