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川秋沙 Common Merganser (雄成鳥) | by Hiyashi Haka
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川秋沙 Common Merganser (雄成鳥)

學名: Mergus merganser Goosander

英名: Common Merganser

Family : Merginae (鴨科). Length: 58–72 cm.

普通秋沙鴨是秋沙鴨中個體最大的一種。雄鳥頭和上頸黑褐色而具綠色金屬光澤,枕部有短的黑褐色冠羽,使頭頸顯得較為粗大。下頸、胸以及整個下體和體側白色,背黑色,翅上有大型白斑,腰和尾灰色。雌鳥頭和上頸棕褐色,上體灰色,下體白色,冠羽短,棕褐色,喉白色,具白色翼鏡,特徵亦甚明顯,容易鑑別。體羽具蓬鬆的副羽,較中華秋沙鴨的為短但比體型較小的為厚。飛行時次級飛羽及覆羽全白,並無紅胸秋沙鴨那種黑斑。

分佈於北美地區,包括美國、加拿大、格陵蘭、百慕大群島、聖皮埃爾和密克隆群島及墨西哥境內北美與中美洲之間的過渡地帶。印度次大陸及中國的西南地區,中南半島和中國的東南沿海地區,包括緬甸、越南、老撾、柬埔寨、泰國以及中國的東南沿海地區、香港、海南島。春季於3月初至3月中下旬開始從越冬地遷飛,4月初至4月中旬到達繁殖地。秋季於9月末10月初離開繁殖地,10月末至11月初到達最北邊的越冬地,11月中下旬到達南方越冬地。呈小群遷飛,一般沿河流遷徙。飛行高度通常不高,多緊靠水面飛行。

The Common Merganser (North American) or Goosander (Eurasian) Mergus merganser is a large duck, of rivers and lakes of forested areas of Europe, northern and central Asia, and North America. It eats fish and nests in holes in trees. It is 58–72 cm long with a 78–97 cm wingspan; males average slightly larger than females but with some overlap. Like other species in the genus Mergus, it has a crest of longer head feathers, but these usually lie smoothly rounded behind the head, not normally forming an erect crest. Adult males in breeding plumage are easily distinguished, the body white with a variable salmon-pink tinge, the head black with an iridescent green gloss, the rump and tail grey, and the wings largely white on the inner half, black on the outer half. Females, and males in "eclipse" (non-breeding plumage, July to October) are largely grey, with a reddish-brown head, white chin, and white secondary feathers on the wing. Juveniles (both sexes) are similar to adult females but also show a short black-edged white stripe between the eye and bill. The bill and legs are red to brownish-red, brightest on adult males, dullest on juveniles.

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Taken on March 5, 2012