Preview of a Forthcoming Supernova


Supernovae can occur one of two ways. The first occurs when a white dwarf—the vestigial ember of a dead star—passes so close to a living star that its matter leaks into the white dwarf. This causes a catastrophic explosion.


However most people understand supernovae as the death of a massive star. When the star runs out of fuel toward the end of its life, the gravity at its heart sucks the surrounding mass into its center. At temperatures rocketing above 100 billion degrees Fahrenheit, all the layers of the star abruptly explode outward.


The explosions produced by supernovae are so brilliant that astronomers use their luminosity to measure the distance between galaxies, the scale of the universe and the effects of dark energy. For a short period of time, one dying star can appear to shine as brightly as an entire galaxy. Supernovae are relatively common events, one occurring in our own galaxy once every 100 years. In 2014, a person could see the supernova M82 with a pair of binoculars. The cosmologist Tycho Brahe’s observation of a supernova in 1572 allowed him to disprove Aristotle’s theory that the heavens never changed.


After a supernova, material expelled in the explosion can form a nebula—an interstellar pile of gas and dust. Over millions of years, gravity pulls the nebula’s materials into a dense orb called a protostar, which will become a new star. Within a few million years, this new star could go supernova as well.



Original Caption:

NASA image release Feb. 24, 2012


At the turn of the 19th century, the binary star system Eta Carinae was faint and undistinguished. In the first decades of the century, it became brighter and brighter, until, by April 1843, it was the second brightest star in the sky, outshone only by Sirius (which is almost a thousand times closer to Earth). In the years that followed, it gradually dimmed again and by the 20th century was totally invisible to the naked eye.


The star has continued to vary in brightness ever since, and while it is once again visible to the naked eye on a dark night, it has never again come close to its peak of 1843.


NASA's Hubble Telescope captured an image of Eta Carinae. This image consists of ultraviolet and visible light images from the High Resolution Channel of Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys. The field of view is approximately 30 arcseconds across.


The larger of the two stars in the Eta Carinae system is a huge and unstable star that is nearing the end of its life, and the event that the 19th century astronomers observed was a stellar near-death experience. Scientists call these outbursts supernova impostor events, because they appear similar to supernovae but stop just short of destroying their star.


Although 19th century astronomers did not have telescopes powerful enough to see the 1843 outburst in detail, its effects can be studied today. The huge clouds of matter thrown out a century and a half ago, known as the Homunculus Nebula, have been a regular target for Hubble since its launch in 1990. This image, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys High Resolution Channel, is the most detailed yet, and shows how the material from the star was not thrown out in a uniform manner, but forms a huge dumbbell shape.


Eta Carinae is not only interesting because of its past, but also because of its future. It is one of the closest stars to Earth that is likely to explode in a supernova in the relatively near future (though in astronomical timescales the "near future" could still be a million years away). When it does, expect an impressive view from Earth, far brighter still than its last outburst: SN 2006gy, the brightest supernova ever observed, came from a star of the same type, though from a galaxy over 200 million light-years away.


Credit: ESA/NASA


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NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission.


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Taken on February 24, 2012