Fig. 3. Quadratic discriminant analysis of color (black, brown or grey) in extant birds (dots) and in samples from BMNHC PH828 (numbers). The analysis identified properties of melanosome morphology and distribution that predicted color in extant birds and then used these data to predict colors in the fossil sample. Canonical axis 1 is strongly positively associated with melanosome aspect ratio, and axis 2 is strongly positively associated with melanosome density skew. When present, arrows point to the locations of the samples in canonical space: This was done to avoid overlap of sample names.