2008-10 Agent Orange
L'agent orange est le surnom donné au plus utilisé des herbicides employés par l'armée des États-Unis lors de la guerre du Viêt Nam, en particulier entre 1961 et 1971. Notamment en raison de la présence de dioxine, ce défoliant chimique est responsable de plusieurs maladies chez les personnes ayant eu affaire à cet herbicide. En raison de la stabilité de la dioxine, les générations suivantes au Viêt Nam vivent encore en présence de ce produit cancérogène et tératogène, occasionnant des maladies diverses, des cancers et des malformations à la naissance.
L'Agent Orange en 10 Questions

Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S. military in its Herbicidal Warfare program during the Vietnam War. During the Vietnam War, an estimated 80 000 m³ of Agent Orange was sprayed across South Vietnam.

Agent Orange's usage from 1961 to 1971 was by far the most used of the so-called "Rainbow Herbicides" used during the program. Degradation of Agent Orange (as well as Agents Purple, Pink, and Green) released dioxins, which have caused health problems for those exposed during the Vietnam War. Agents Blue and White were part of the same program but did not contain dioxins. During the Vietnam war, between 1962 and 1971, the United States military sprayed 77 million litres of chemical defoliants in South Vietnam as part of a defoliant program. The first objective was to reduce the dense jungle foliage so that Communist forces might not use it for cover and to deny them use of crops needed for subsistence.The second objective was spot clearing in sensitive areas such as around base perimeters.

According to Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4.8 million Vietnamese people were exposed to agent orange, resulting in 400,000 deaths and disabilities, and 500,000 children born with birth defects. The most affected zones are the mountainous area along Truong Son (Long Mountains) and the border between Vietnam and Cambodia. The affected residents are living in sub-standard conditions with many genetic diseases. The use of Agent Orange still has an affect on the citizens of Vietnam, poisoning their food chain and creating concern about its affect on human beings. This chemical has been reported to cause serious skin diseases as well as a vast variety of cancers in the lungs, larynx, and prostate. Children in the areas where Agent Orange was used have been affected and have multiple health problems including cleft palate, mental retardation, hernias, and extra fingers and toes.

Much of the information on the effects of Agent Orange in Vietnam until the 21st century, were compiled by Vietnamese scientists in Vietnamese and largely unavailable to the worldwide English reader. However, general public perception in Vietnam is that the effects are severe and clearly visible in children of veterans and people in affected areas. Veterans have become increasingly concerned about the effects of Agent Orange to humans. While in Vietnam, the veterans were told not to worry, and were persuaded that the chemical was harmless. In the last few years, this opinion has changed, and studies show the true effects Agent Orange has on humans.

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