Tour de Suisse par l'Extérieur
Tour de Suisse par l'Extérieur
Siena was een Etruskische nederzetting en een kleine Romeinse stad. Tegen de 5e eeuw werd het de zetel van een bisschop, maar pas vanaf de 12e eeuw, toen een autonome commune de eerdere aristocratische regering verving, begon het een stad van belang te worden. De consuls die de republiek regeerden, begonnen langzaam maar zeker steeds meer ook het gewone volk of de poblani te omvatten, en de commune breidde haar territorium uit toen de omringende adel in hun versterkte kastelen zich onderwierpen aan de macht van de stad. De Republiek Siena, die intern worstelde tussen de adel en de volkspartij, werkte doorgaans in politieke oppositie met haar grote rivaal, Florence, en was in de 13e eeuw voornamelijk ghibellijns, in tegenstelling tot de welfse positie van Florence, wat de achtergrond vormde van de Divina Commedia van Dante.
Kaart van Siena uit 1640
Tijdens de middeleeuwen was Siena ook een rivaal van Florence op het gebied van de kunsten. De belangrijke laat-middeleeuwse of vroege renaissanceschilder Duccio (1253-1319) was afkomstig uit Siena, maar werkte in alle delen van het schiereiland. De wandschildering van "Goede Regering" door Ambrogio Lorenzetti in het Palazzo Pubblico is een magnifiek voorbeeld van laat-middeleeuwse/vroege-renaissancekunst, alsmede een weergave van de utopie van een stedelijke samenleving zoals men deze in die tijd voor ogen had. Siena werd zwaar geteisterd door de zwarte dood van 1348 en heeft zijn oude glorie nooit meer hervonden, mede omdat het de rivaliteit met Florence niet aankon. Tot 1557 behield Siena zijn autonomie binnen Toscane.
Sinds 1995 staat de historische binnenstad van Siena op de Werelderfgoedlijst van UNESCO. (zie ook: Monumenten op de Werelderfgoedlijst).
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Siena is located in Italy
Location of Siena in Italy
Coordinates: (53893) 43°19′07″N 11°19′50″ECoordinates: (53893) 43°19′07″N 11°19′50″E
Province / Metropolitan city
Capitoline Wolf at Siena Duomo. According to a legend Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus. When they fled Rome, they took the statue of She-wolf to Siena, which became a symbol of the town.
See also: Republic of Siena and Timeline of Siena
Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was first settled in the time of the Etruscans (c. 900–400 BC) when it was inhabited by a tribe called the Saina. The Etruscans were a tribe of advanced people who changed the face of central Italy through their use of irrigation to reclaim previously unfarmable land, and their custom of building their settlements in well-defended hill forts. A Roman town called Saena Julia was founded at the site in the time of the Emperor Augustus. The first document mentioning it dates from AD 70. Some archaeologists assert that Siena was controlled for a period by a Gaulish tribe called the Senones.
According to local legend, Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus and thus nephews of Romulus, after whom Rome was named. Supposedly after their father's murder by Romulus, they fled Rome, taking with them the statue of the she-wolf suckling the infants (Capitoline Wolf), thus appropriating that symbol for the town. Additionally they rode white and black horses, giving rise to the Balzana, or coat of arms of Siena with a white band atop a dark band. Some claim the name Siena derives from Senius. Other etymologies derive the name from the Etruscan family name Saina, the Roman family name Saenii, or the Latin word senex "old" or its derived form seneo "to be old".
Siena did not prosper under Roman rule. It was not sited near any major roads and lacked opportunities for trade. Its insular status meant that Christianity did not penetrate until the 4th century AD, and it was not until the Lombards invaded Siena and the surrounding territory that it knew prosperity. After the Lombard occupation, the old Roman roads of Via Aurelia and the Via Cassia passed through areas exposed to Byzantine raids, so the Lombards rerouted much of their trade between the Lombards' northern possessions and Rome along a more secure road through Siena. Siena prospered as a trading post, and the constant streams of pilgrims passing to and from Rome provided a valuable source of income in the centuries to come.
The oldest aristocratic families in Siena date their line to the Lombards' surrender in 774 to Charlemagne. At this point, the city was inundated with a swarm of Frankish overseers who married into the existing Sienese nobility and left a legacy that can be seen in the abbeys they founded throughout Sienese territory. Feudal power waned however, and by the death of Countess Matilda in 1115 the border territory of the Mark of Tuscia which had been under the control of her family, the Canossa, broke up into several autonomous regions. This ultimately resulted in the creation of the Republic of Siena.
The Republic existed for over four hundred years, from the late 11th century until the year 1555. During the golden age of Siena before the Black Death in 1348, the city was home to 50,000 people.
In the Italian War of 1551–59, the republic was defeated by the rival Duchy of Florence in alliance with the Spanish crown. After 18 months of resistance, Siena surrendered to Spain on 17 April 1555, marking the end of the republic.
The new Spanish King Felipe II, owing huge sums to the Medici, ceded it (apart from a series of coastal fortress annexed to the State of Presidi) to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to which it belonged until the unification of Italy in the 19th century.
A Republican government of 700 Sienese families in Montalcino resisted until 1559.
The picturesque city remains an important cultural centre, especially for humanist disciplines
Interior of the Siena Cathedral.
Façade of the Palazzo Pubblico (town hall) during the Palio days.
Streets of old Siena.
Basilica of San Domenico.
View from the Campanile del Mangia.
The Siena Cathedral (Duomo), begun in the 12th century, is a masterpiece of Italian Romanesque-Gothic architecture. Its main façade was completed in 1380. The original plan called for an ambitiously massive basilica, the largest then in the world, with, as was customary, an east-west nave. However, the scarcity of funds, in part due to war and plague, truncated the project, and the Sienese created a subdued version from the original plan's north-south transept. The east wall of the abandoned original folly of a nave still stands; through an internal staircase, visitors can climb for a grand view of the city.
The Siena Cathedral Pulpit is an octagonal 13th-century masterpiece sculpted by Nicola Pisano with lion pedestals and biblical bas-relief panels. The inlaid marble mosaic floor of the cathedral, designed and labored on by many artists, is among the most elaborate in Italy. The Sacristy and Piccolomini library have well preserved Renaissance frescos by Ghirlandaio and Pinturicchio respectively. Other sculptors active in the church and in the subterranean baptistry are Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Jacopo della Quercia and others. The Museo dell'Opera del Duomo contains Duccio's famous Maestà (1308–11) and various other works by Sienese masters. More Sienese paintings are to be found in the Pinacoteca, e.g. 13th-century works by Dietisalvi di Speme.
The Piazza del Campo, the shell-shaped town square, unfurls before the Palazzo Pubblico with its tall Torre del Mangia. This is part of the site for the Palio horse race. The Palazzo Pubblico, itself a great work of architecture, houses yet another important art museum. Included within the museum is Ambrogio Lorenzetti's frescoes depicting the Allegory and Effects of Good and Bad Government and also some of the finest frescoes of Simone Martini and Pietro Lorenzetti.
The Palazzo Salimbeni, located in a piazza of the same name, was the original headquarters and remains in possession of the Monte dei Paschi di Siena, one of the oldest banks in continuous existence in Europe.
Housed in the notable Gothic Palazzo Chigi-Saracini on Via di Città is the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, Siena's conservatory of music.
Other churches in the city include:
Santa Maria dei Servi
Sanctuary of Santa Caterina, incorporating the old house of St. Catherine of Siena. It houses the miraculous Crucifix (late 12th century) from which the saint received her stigmata, and a 15th-century statue of St. Catherine.
The historic Siena synagogue is also preserved and open to visitors.
The city's gardens include the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Siena, a botanical garden maintained by the University of Siena.
The Medicean Fortress houses the Enoteca Italiana and the Siena Jazz School, with courses and concerts throughout the year, and a festival during the International Siena Jazz Masterclasses.
In the neighbourhood are numerous patrician villa, numerous of which attributed to Baldassarre Peruzzi:
Castle of Belcaro
Villa Volte Alte