Mycobacterial Pseudomembranous Tracheitis
Elderly woman with what the endoscopist thought was Aspergillus pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis. The biopsies show tracheal cartilage with overyling pink pseudomembrane. The GMS stain showed no fungi, but the acid-fast stain showed innumerable beaded bacilli in the exudate. Bronchial washings submitted to the microbiology section from the same procedure were reported as "4+ acid-fast bacilli." Cultures are pending.

I am not able to find any previously reported cases of pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis caused by acid-fast organisms. Aspergillus is the best known cause, and there are reported cases caused by Bacillus cereus and Staph. aureus.
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