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Armillaria mellea / Armillaria ostoyae / Armillaria solidipes / Armillaire couleur de miel / Honey fungus / Armillaire d'Ostoya | by Charles de Mille-Isles
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Armillaria mellea / Armillaria ostoyae / Armillaria solidipes / Armillaire couleur de miel / Honey fungus / Armillaire d'Ostoya

wikipedia Redoutable parasite, il cause un "pourridié" du bois.

Armillaria mellea est responsable de la pourriture des parties vivantes du bois. Elle dégrade dans un premier temps le système racinaire de l'arbre puis le collet et la base du tronc entraînant un dépérissement plus ou moins rapide du sujet atteint. A ce stade, une lésion se produit au pied de l'arbre et l'attaque du cambium se révèle par un écoulement de sève colorée. Au niveau des racines fortement attaquées, du collet, on observe sous l'écorce la présence de moisissures blanches et des filaments noirs.


L'armillaire couleur de miel est un comestible honorable, mais parfois indigeste. Comme il reste longtemps en place avant de pourrir, on veillera à se limiter aux exemplaires les plus jeunes.

De plus, sa consommation entraîne la formation d'anticorps, dont l'accumulation peut provoquer des symptomes analogues à ceux d'un empoisonnement phalloïdien. Pour éviter ce phénomène effrayant bien que sans danger, on évitera de consommer l'A. mellea de façon rapprochée.

Espèces proches[modifier]

Les débutants pourront confondre l'armillaire couleur de miel avec d'autres champignons lignicoles poussant en touffes, notamment pholiotes ou hypholomes (attention à ces derniers), mais les seules espèces proches sont d'autres armillaires.


Attention ! Il s'agit d'une espèce extrêmement polymorphe, en taille, en forme et en couleur. Il existe même une espèce proche (Armillaria tabescens) sans anneau.


Honey fungus, or Armillaria or оpenky (Ukrainian: опеньки), is a genus of parasitic fungi that live on trees and woody shrubs. It includes about 10 species formerly lumped together as A. mellea. Armillarias are long lived and form some of the largest living organisms in the world. The largest single organism (of the species Armillaria solidipes) covers more than 3.4 square miles (8.9 km²) and is thousands of years old.[1] Some species of Armillaria are bioluminescent and may be responsible for the phenomena known as foxfire and perhaps will o' the wisp.


As a forest pathogen, Armillaria can be very destructive. It is responsible for the "white rot" root disease (see below) of forests and is distinguished from Tricholoma (mycorrhizal) by this parasitic nature. Its high destructiveness comes from the fact that, unlike most parasites, it doesn't need to moderate its growth in order to avoid killing its host, since it will continue to thrive on the dead material.


Edible - Choice. Honey Fungus or pidpenky (Ukrainian: підпеньки) are considered in Ukraine to be one of the best wild mushrooms and highly prized. They are commonly ranked above morels and chanterells and only the cep / porchini is prised more highly. However pidpenky must be thoroughly cooked as they are mildly poisonous raw. Additionally one of the four UK species identified can lead to sickness when ingested with alcohol. Therefore for the non expert mycologist it is advisable not to drink alcohol for 12 hours before and 24 after eating this mushroom to avoid any possible nausea and vomiting. However if these sensible rules are followed this variety of mushroom is a delicacy with a strong distinctive mushroomy and nutty flavour.


L'armillaire d'Ostoya (Armillaria ostoyae) est une espèce de champignons de la famille des Physalacriaceae dont le nom rend hommage au français Paul Ostoya, entre autres mycologue. Le mycète est particulièrement notable pour détenir le titre du plus grand organisme vivant, un individu couvrant une surface de 8,9 km2 ayant été trouvé en Oregon. Dans l'ouest des États-Unis c'est le champignon le plus commun du groupe d'espèces généralement désignées sous le nom d'Armillaria mellea. Armillaria ostoyae is one of the Honey Mushrooms, a group of highly similar more or less virulent species that parasitize growing trees. The ring development on the Honey Mushrooms varies from significant to non-existent and they can be any color of honey from a light blond to a very dark brown. The spore print is always white and the cap always has the same distinctive small dark tufted scales. Armillaria ostoyae and the better-known Armillaria mellea are edible for most people. However, the NAMA data base contains many “Honey Mushroom” poisoning reports clustered in Oregon and California, which I assume are largely if not exclusively due to consumption of Armillaria ostoyae . The poisonings seem to occur regardless of whether or not Armillaria ostoyae is growing on conifers, Eucalyptus or hardwoods. Few if any poisonings are reported for Armillaria mellea itself. When found on northern hardwoods Honey Mushrooms are widely sought-after for the table since they can fruit in tremendous abundance. However, they are not for the unobservant or inexperienced. My students seem to have more trouble getting Honey mushrooms correctly identified than any other they find. Of real concern is the fact that there are some generally similar poisonous, even deadly, dark-spored species that have been mistaken for Honey Mushrooms, notably Galerina autumnalis or correctly Galerina marginata .


wikipedia In most areas of North America, Armillaria solidipes can be separated from other species by its physical features. Its brown colors, fairly prominent scales featured on its cap, and the well-developed ring on its stem sets it apart from any Armillaria. (Herink, 1973)


It is known to be one of the largest living organisms, where scientists have estimated a single specimen found in Malheur National Forest in Oregon to have been growing for some 2,400 years, covering 3.4 square miles. Armillaria solidipes grows and spreads primarily underground and the bulk of the organism lies in the ground, out of sight. Therefore, the organism is not visible to anyone viewing from the surface. It is only in the autumn when this organism will bloom “honey mushrooms”, visible evidence of the organism lying beneath. Low competition for land and nutrients have allowed this organism to grow so huge and become arguably the largest living organism.


The species was formerly known as Armillaria ostoyae Romagn., until a 2008 publication revealed that the species had been described under the name Armillaria solidipes by Charles Horton Peck in 1900,[2] long before Henri Romagnesi had described it in 1970.

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Taken on September 19, 2011