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一二八事变 1932 Shanghai Incident

Shanghai January 28 Incident (from WIKIPEDIA)

 

After the Mukden Incident, Japan had acquired the vast northeastern region of China and would eventually establish the puppet government of Manchukuo. However, the Japanese military planned to increase Japanese influence further, especially into Shanghai where Japan, along with the various western powers, had extraterritorial concessions.

 

In order to provide a casus belli to justify further military action in China, the Japanese military instigated seemingly anti-Japanese incidents. On January 18, five Japanese Buddhist monks, members of an ardently nationalist sect, were beaten near Shanghai's Sanyou Factory (traditional Chinese: 三友實業社; pinyin: sānyǒushíyèshè) by agitated Chinese civilians. Two were seriously injured, and one died.[1] Over the next few hours, a group burnt down the factory (sources argue this was done by Japanese agents[1], though it might have been carried out by Chinese in response to the Shanghai Municipal Police's aggressive anti-riot tactics in the aftermath of the beating of the monks).

 

One policeman was killed and several more hurt when they arrived to quell the disorder.[1] This caused an upsurge of anti-Japanese and anti-imperialist protests in the city and its concessions, with Chinese residents of Shanghai marching onto the streets and calling for a boycott of Japanese-made goods.

 

The battle

Main article: Order of Battle January 28 Incident

 

The situation continued to deteriorate over the next week. By January 27, the Japanese military had already concentrated some thirty ships, forty airplanes, and nearly seven thousand troops around the shoreline of Shanghai, in order to put down any resistance in the event that violence broke out. The military's justification was that it had to defend its concession and citizens.

 

The Japanese also issued an ultimatum to the Shanghai Municipal Council demanding public condemnation and monetary compensation by the Chinese for any Japanese property damaged in the monk incident, and demanding that the Chinese government take active steps to suppress further anti-Japanese protests in the city. In the afternoon of January 28, the Shanghai Municipal Council agreed to these demands.

 

Throughout this period the Chinese 19th Route Army (Chinese: 十九陸軍; pinyin: shíjǐulùjūn) had been massing outside the city, causing consternation to both the civil Chinese administration of Shanghai and the foreign-run Concessions. As such, the 19th Route Army was generally seen as little more than a warlord force of equal danger to Shanghai than the Japanese military. In the end, Shanghai donated a substantial bribe to the 19th Route Army with the hope that they would leave and not incite a Japanese attack.

 

However, on the midnight of January 28th, Japanese carrier aircraft bombed Shanghai in the first major aircraft carrier action in the Far East. Three thousand Japanese troops proceeded to attack various targets, such as the northern train station, around the city and began an invasion of the de facto Japanese settlement in Hongkew and other areas north of Suzhou Creek. In what was a surprising about-face for many, the 19th Route Army, who many had expected to leave after having been paid, stayed to put up a fierce resistance.

 

Though the opening battles of the conflict took place in the Hongkew district of the International Settlement, this soon spread outwards to much of Chinese-controlled Shanghai. The majority of the Concessions remained untouched by the conflict, and it was often the case that those in the Shanghai International Settlement would watch the war from the banks of Suzhou Creek, and could even visit the battle lines by virtue of their extraterritoriality.

 

Being a metropolitan city with many foreign interests invested in it, other countries, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and France attempted to negotiate a ceasefire between Japan and China. However, Japan refused, instead continuing to mobilize troops in the region. On February 12, American, British, and French representatives brokered a half-day cease fire for humanitarian relief to civilians caught in the crossfire. On 30 January, Chiang Kai-shek decided to temporarily relocate the capital from Nanjing to Luoyang as an emergency measure, since Nanjing's proximity to Shanghai could make it a target.

 

On February 12, the Japanese issued another ultimatum, demanding that the Chinese Army retreat twenty kilometers from the border of Shanghai Concessions, a demand promptly refused by the Chinese forces. This only intensified fighting in Hongkew. The Japanese were still not able to take the city by the middle of February, and the number of Japanese troops was increased to nearly ninety thousand with the arrival of the 9th Infantry Division and the IJA 24th Mixed Brigade, supported by eighty warships and three hundred airplanes.

 

On 14 February, Chiang Kai-shek sent his 5th Army, including his "elite" (that is to say, professional) 87th and 88th divisions into Shanghai. At that time, the 5th Army was considered the best fighting force in China due to its German training and modern equipment.

 

On 20 February, Japanese bombardments were increased to force the Chinese away from their defensive positions near Miaoxing, while commercial and residential districts of the city were set on fire. The Chinese defensive positions deteriorated rapidly without naval and armored support, with the number of defenders dwindling to fewer than fifty thousand. Japanese forces increased to over a hundred thousand troops, backed by both aerial and naval bombardments.

 

On 29 February, the Japanese 11th Infantry Division landed near Liuhe behind Chinese lines. The defenders launched a desperate counterattack from 1 March but were unable to dislodge the Japanese. On March 2, the 19th Route Army issued a telegram stating that it was necessary to withdraw from Shanghai due to lack of supplies and manpower. The next day, both the 19th Route Army and the 5th Army retreated from Shanghai, marking the official end of the battle.

 

Peace process

On March 4, the League of Nations passed a resolution demanding a ceasefire, even though sporadic fighting persisted. On March 6, the Chinese unilaterally agreed to stop fighting, although the Japanese rejected the ceasefire. On March 14, representatives from the League of Nations arrived at Shanghai to force the Japanese to negotiate. While negotiation were ongoing, intermittent fighting continued in both outlying areas and the city itself.

 

On May 5, China and Japan signed the Shanghai Ceasefire Agreement (Chinese: 淞滬停戰協定; pinyin: sōnghùtíngzhànxiédìng). This agreement made Shanghai a demilitarized zone and forbade China to garrison troops in areas surrounding Shanghai, Suzhou, and Kunshan, while allowing the presence of a few Japanese units in the city. China was allowed to keep only a small police force within the city.

 

Yoshinori Shirakawa, the commander of the Shanghai Expeditionary Army and joint leader of the Japanese forces, was assassinated by Korean nationalist Yoon Bong-Gil during the battle and died on May 26.

 

After the ceasefire was brokered, the 19th Army was reassigned by Chiang Kai-shek to suppress Chinese Communist insurrection in Fujian. While winning some battles against the communists they then negotiated peace with them. On November 22, leadership of the 19th Route Army revolted against the Kuomingtang government, and established the Fujian People's Government, independent of the Republic of China. This new Fujian government was not supported by all elements of the communists and was quickly crushed by Chiang's armies in January 1934. The leaders of the 19th Route Army escaped to Hong Kong and the rest of the army was disbanded and reassigned to other units of the National Revolutionary Army.

 

1月28日23时30分,日军海军陆战队2300人在裝甲車掩护下,沿北四川路(公共租界北区的越界筑路,已多次划为日军防区)西侧的每一条支路:靶子路(今上海市虹口区武进路)、虬江路、横浜路等等,向西占领淞沪铁路防线,在天通庵车站遇到国军十九路軍的坚决抵抗。一二八事变爆发。

轰炸后的上海商务印书馆

 

1月29日凌晨,日机从停泊在黄浦江上的“能登吕”号航空母舰上起飞轰炸闸北华界,宝山路584号商务印书馆及东方图书馆(中國最大的私人圖書館,藏書超過三十萬冊)均被炸毁。闸北多处燃烧。但日本陆战队夺占北站的企图以失败告终。

 

1月31日,日本第三艦隊開抵上海,有巡洋舰4艘、驱逐舰4艘、航空母舰2艘及海军陆战队7000余人。

 

2月1日,日本军舰从长江上炮轰首都南京。中華民國政府宣布迁往洛阳,表示决不屈服(年底才迁回南京)。

 

2月2日,日軍多次进攻吳淞,均被擊退。2月13日,日军混成第24旅團在蕰藻浜曹家桥偷渡成功后,在永安纱厂门前被国军重兵包围,又有60名敢死队员实施自杀攻击,1600日军全军覆没。日军遭受重创,一举占领吴淞的企图遂破产。

 

在戰事擴大下,日本海軍的陸戰能量無法有效壓制19路軍,因此不斷增兵,指揮官先由海軍少將鹽澤幸一改由海軍中將野村吉三郎擔任,之後陸軍決定介入,指揮權由陸軍第九師團師長植田謙吉接任,最後以陸軍大將、前陸軍大臣白川義則擔任;數度增兵後日方最後投入兵力超過三個師團七万人;並兼以海空軍、戰車助戰。

 

2月24日,日軍決定擴大作戰規模,自日本本土抽調第11師團與第14師團組建為上海派遣軍,並於3月1日自上海戰線後方登陸

第五军官兵战前宣誓

 

中國方面,蔣介石於事變發生後復出主理軍事,以中央軍第八十七、八十八師及稅警團、教導團為第五軍,由張治中指揮,於2月16日加入上海作戰;之後蔣介石再調正在江西圍剿共軍的第十八軍陳誠部入浙。 (摘自维基百科)

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Taken on May 17, 2011