well i found it oddly disturbing that during the trail in colorado in wich ward churchill and colorado university butted heads over ultimately the issue of the weather the right to free speech and a diffrent perspective are permissable in this country or not i was disturbed that more issues were raised by the trial and it was not until i entered those metas in the search window that revealed there was a debate on the net as to weather or not Native Americans or American Indians or Amerindian or wahtever the politically correct police call our indiginous population (or what is left of them) these days were diliberately given smallpox blankets as an act of genocide by occupying whites.
i could not believe this was at issue!
it is collective (anglo) American history . . . . . known fact.
now maybe after the thanks giving union that wiped out whole peoples was accidental
but there are recorded text and documentation of these events occurring, after the spanish wiped out whole peoples with the pox then enslavement there came other euopeans to the "new world"
if the question must focus on st.louis or a specific location that becomes a bit more shadey as well. Like the Vatican buries unsavory text in the "sea" like (a book written by one of Jesus' most beloved deciples and is probably the closest most accurate record of his teaching) the book of st. timothy so to does our beurocracy.
let's look at this in an objective manner and allow reason to dictate meaning ("dot to dot to dot")
starting with Jeffrey Amherst (by the way there is a university named after him)
Letters by General Amherst and Colonel Bouquet mentioning spreading smallpox to Indians
In a letter (1763) to Colonel Bouquet, Lord Amherst wrote,
"Could it not be contrived to send the Small Pox among those disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them"
Bouquet replied that he would try and use infected blankets as a means of introducing the disease among the Indians, but was wary of the effects that it would have on his own men
The Amherst letter has been used to support the proposition of germ warfare or genocide against native populations. Bouquet was afraid of what it would do to his own men and with good reason.
There is no evidence that Col. Bouquet took any action on Amherst's letter, but there is evidence that Captain Ecuyer at Fort Pitt did.
Carl Waldman had written with reference to a siege of Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh) by Chief Pontiac's forces during the summer of 1763:
... Captain Simeon Ecuyer had bought time by sending smallpox-infected blankets and handkerchiefs to the Indians surrounding the fort -- an early example of biological warfare -- which started an epidemic among them. Amherst himself had encouraged this tactic in a letter to Ecuyer.
These letters were written between General Amherst and his officers and others during his command the summer of 1763, as the British were fighting what Pontiac's Rebellion.
Pontiac, an Ottawa chief who had sided with the French, led an uprising against the British after the French surrender in Canada. Indians were angered by Amherst's refusal to continue the French practice of providing supplies in exchange for Indian friendship and assistance, and by a generally imperious British attitude toward Indians and Indian land. As Waldman puts it:
Lord Amherst believed the best way to control Indians was through a system of strict regulations and punishment when necessary, not "bribery," as he called the granting of provisions.
let us enter Col. Henry Bouquet who wrote a plan, in a letter to Amherst in the summer of 1763, to innocculate the indians by introducing smallpox ridden blankets and Amherst approved and suggested "to try Every other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race" as well.
Amherst also writes "Could it not be contrived to send the Small Pox among those disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them" in a letter to Boyquet.
Amherst also wrote such memorable one liners like "...Measures to be taken as would Bring about the Total Extirpation of those Indian Nations"
the Journal of William Trent, commander of the local militia of the townspeople of Pittsburgh during Pontiac's seige of the fort,described as "... the most detailed contemporary account of the anxious days and nights in the beleaguered stronghold." [Pen Pictures of Early Western Pennsylvania, John W. Harpster, ed. (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1938).]
Trent's entry for May 24, 1763, includes the following statement:
... we gave them two Blankets and an Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital. I hope it will have the desired effect.
Trent's Journal confirms that smallpox had broken out in Fort Pitt prior to the correspondence between Bouquet and Amherst, thus making their plans feasible.
With smallpox in the garrison at Fort Pitt and Indians attacking the fort, two blankets would have had little to do with the spread of small pox among the Indians. A far greater source for spreading the smallpox virus would have been infected blood from mutilated soldier and settler bodies, scalps, clothing, and in some cases cannibalism, which occurred during the Pontiac Rebellion. Every warrior that returned from Fort Pitt with smallpox infected war trophies to Indian villages up and down the East coast carried the smallpox virus with them.
some have claim the blankets and hankies were really given out to "innoculate" the natives.
let us keep that in mind for a moment.
The smallpox outbreak of 1780-82 followed the distribution and trade route of the Indian horse
The outbreak in 1800-02 spread from the Plains Indians to the Indians along the Pacific coast. Despite heavy losses during these periods, the most devastating outbreak of smallpox was yet to come.
In 1832, the first steamboat, a small side-wheeler named, Yellow Stone, reached Fort Union at the mouth of the Yellowstone River. The use of steamboats on the Missouri allowed large quantities of trade goods to move up and down the river. The buffalo hide trade now became more important than the trade in furs. Remote Indian villages brought their buffalo hides to the American Fur Company posts. This set the stage for the ensuing disaster.
and here you are Ward i think this is the outbreak that the CU attorney asked you about providing proof concerning the spread of small pox
June of 1837, the St. Peter arrived at Fort Clark, 60 miles north of present day Bismarck, North Dakota. Knowing there were men aboard the boat with smallpox, F. A. Chardon and others of the American Fur Company have left behind historical proof and record of this monumentous event. The two Mandan villages that had provided aid to Lewis and Clark during the winter of 1804-05 were devastated. Thirty-one Mandans out of a population of sixteen hundred survived the epidemic.
The 1837 smallpox outbreaks were initially confined to the Indian tribes that lived by, or had come to trade at, the upper Missouri River trading posts. The Mandan, Blackfeet, and the Assiniboine nations suffered the highest number of deaths. The 1837-40 smallpox outbreaks were said to have a ninety-eight percent death rate among those infected.Despite warnings from the traders, Hidatsa, Arikara, and Sioux warriors raided the empty Mandan villages and carried smallpox back to their people.
“No language can picture the scene of desolation which the country presents. In whatever direction we go we see nothing but melancholy wrecks of human life. The tents are still standing on every hill, but no rising smoke announces the presence of human beings, and no sounds, but the croaking of the raven and the howling of the wolf interrupts the fearful silence (Chittenden).”
The St. Peters continued on to Fort Union arriving there on June 24, 1837. The only Indians at the post were the Indian wives of thirty employees. Hoping to control the infection before the Assiniboine arrived for the September trade, Larpentuer noted that, “prompt measures were adopted to prevent an epidemic.” The measures taken were to vaccinate the Indian women. According to Larpentuer, “their systems were prepared according to Dr. Thomas’ Medical Book and they were vaccinated from Halsey himself…the operation proved fatal to most of our patients.”
remember when i asked you to remember that plan to "innoculate" the indians?
"About fifteen days afterwards there was such a stench in the fort that it could be smelt at a distance of 300 yards. It was awful--the scene in the fort where some went crazy, and others were half eatin [sic] by maggots before they died." This was during the hottest part of the summer (Chittenden). Jacob Halsey was in charge of Fort Union, and had been infected coming upriver on the boat.
The Assiniboine started arriving at the post while the “controlled infection” was in full force. Infected Assiniboine carried smallpox back into Canada. From Fort Union smallpox spread by boat to Fort McKenzie near the junction of the Marias and the Missouri rivers.
the same story was repeated with the Blackfeet. There is no way to know how many Indians of the upper Missouri and the Plains of Canada were infected with smallpox. Estimates on the number killed range from sixty thousand to one hundred and fifty thousand. The most conservative estimate puts the number at more than 15,000 deaths (Chittenden).
also keep in mind that Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse introduced vaccination to the United States in 1800.
In 1832, Congress appropriated twelve hundred dollars to begin the fight against smallpox in Indian country. One year later, actual expenditures were down to seven hundred and twenty-one dollars.
Lack of funding a smallpox vaccination program and the Amherst letters provide a good sence of prevailing beuracratic ideology especially when you consider how eager the urge to fullfill emminant domain and settle the plain states was
these letters are all available at the library of congress for anyone to see
I beleive Ward knows all these things i've spoken of
but truely soldiers of the U.S. government did not give infected blankets in that instant but the Texans did.
there is historic evidence that states like Georgia and California had officially passed laws to wipe native people off the face of the planet the feds hadn't but in 1847 is where this story arose of soldiers providing blankets
Dr. John Sibley had the first official meeting with a Comanche "principal chief" in 1807 at Natchitoches. He gave presents, and later licensed an American trader for them. Other licenses followed. One of his successors, John Jamison, had other visits from Comanche chiefs in 1816 and 1817. These contacts and trading licenses were viewed with alarm in Spanish Texas. The traders not only sold firearms to Comanches and Wichitas, but provided a ready market for stolen horses and mules. After Spanish rule was ended by the Mexican Revolution in 1821, Americans rushed in. William Becknell opened the Santa Fé Trail between Missouri and Santa Fé that year, and Anglo-Americans began to settle in Texas. All of which dramatically increased contacts between Comanches and Americans.
During the 1820s and 30s, most Comanches still made a distinction between Americans and Texans. The fact that Texas was an independent nation for its first ten years only served to confirm this in their minds. Since Comanche relations with Texas during this period were usually hostile, Americans on the Sante Fé Trail did not try to correct this.
1847 Texas allowed the German settlers near Fredericksburg and New Braunfels to make their own treaty with the Texas Comanches. In exchange for land, the Germans promised a trading post and gifts. Unfortunately, the Germans not only encroached beyond the agreed boundary, but were slow to pay, and in response the Comanches made raids.
Army commanders felt they had no authority to enforce state laws, and meanwhile, Texas continued to operate its ranger companies as military units not under federal control. The Rangers did nothing to prevent encroachment of Comanche lands but would retaliate if the new settlements beyond the line were attacked.many things had changed with the beginning of the Mexican War in 1846. An American army under General Stephan Watts Kearny seized Santa Fé and moved on to California. The Santa Fé Trail became a heavily-travelled military supply route, and forts were built to protect it. Five companies of Missouri volunteers were sent to garrison these posts during the summer of 1847 and quickly became engaged in fights with plains Indians. At least one of these at Fort Mann involved the Pawnee. In the other cases, the fights were probably with Kiowa, Cheyenne and Arapaho, and the amount of Comanche involvement is uncertain. The first part of 1848 was relatively calm, and during that year, Texas Comanches even provided guides for the survey of the route of the new Butterfield (California) trail across southern Texas to El Paso and California. The calm changed suddenly with the discovery of gold in California, As thousands of gold-seekers raced west, they needed horses, and the Comanches moved to meet this new demand with their standard method. Horse raids increased in Texas, but the major target was northern Mexico. Comanche raids struck deep into Coahuila, Chihuahua, Sonora, and Durango, reaching their peak during 1852 when they struck Tepic in Jalisco, 700 miles south of the border at El Paso.
To protect the immigrant routes across the plains, the United States called the "Peace on the Plains" conference at Fort Laramie (Wyoming) in 1851. This was an attempt to end, or at least limit, intertribal warfare by defining boundaries between tribal territories. Almost every plains tribe attended and signed (1851 Fort Laramie Treaty) and received gifts with the exception of the Comanches and Kiowa. Epidemic had broken out in their villages, and there was a deep distrust of the northern tribes. Since the Santa Fé Trail was a vital route, it was essential to reach an agreement with them. As the southern plains tribes gathered around Fort Atkinson for the distribution of the annuities from the Fort Laramie treaty, large groups of Kiowa and Comanches also came, and they were not in a good mood. Eventually, 6,000 to 9,000 Indians were gathered in the vicinity, and the situation was becoming dangerous. The American agent took it upon himself to distribute $9,000 in gifts to the Comanches and Kiowa, and in 1853 the Kiowa and Yamparika signed their own treaty at Fort Atkinson. In return for safe passage and a promise to stop raiding in Mexico, the United States agreed to pay them $18,000/year for ten years.
The Texas agency of the Office of Indian Affairs was officially established on March 20, 1847. Robert S. Neighbors was the first special agent for Texas.(Texas prior to 1848 was an area of “undefined relative jurisdiction,” not yet belonging to the United States) The U.S. was simultaneously waging a war on two fronts, the official war against Mexico and the cultural war against Comanche inhabitants. In a March 19, 1847, his letters are particularly important because they demonstrate how he was essentially evaluating the enemy, as the Indians stood in the way of the “expansion of the white population.” One weapon that Neighbors used to subdue the Indian population was gift giving.
There were several reasons the Comanches and Kiowas had been angry in 1852. The first was they had recently encountered a far more terrible enemy than Texas Rangers or the American army. Their first experience with it had been smallpox (1780-81). This epidemic had been so severe that it temporarily suspended raids and caused the disappearance of some Comanche divisions. They were hit again by smallpox during the winter of 1816-17. The wave of immigration from the California gold rush first brought smallpox (1848) and then cholera (1849) to the Great Plains. These were devastating to every plains tribe, but especially the Comanches and Kiowa. The government census estimated a drop in the Comanches' 1849 population of 20,000 to 12,000 by 1851, and the Comanches never recovered from this loss. More smallpox struck from New Mexico during 1862 and is believed to have been equally devastating. Cholera returned in 1867. By 1870, the Comanches numbered less than 8,000 and were still dropping rapidly.
this was a period of several broken treaties and many historical battles and names become a part of this tale as they did through the historical record
gen.sherman and mc clellan mackenzie Geronimo and Sitting Bull Quanah Parker Buffalo War Battle of Adobe Walls George Custer and the 7th Cavalry General Phillip Sheridan Colonel Kit Carson
it is the making of a john ford film, part of the historical background of America and the folklore of America but it is also part of the oral tradition of a people forced to relocate from east of the mississippi along the trail of tears
that's right the cherokee (of which tribe Ward claims membership that also seems to be debated) carry with them the folklore of this american moment and all the amenities that get wooven into and around it. Why is it so far fetched to believe when indiginous peoples on the americas have always been looked at as subhuman or in the way which should be removed.?
this is where the tale of the infected blankets comes from is this period in time
much of the letters and documents from this period can be found here: