Jellyfishes - Aquarium Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain

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Jellyfish (also known as jellies or sea jellies or medusozoa) are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria. Jellyfish have several different morphologies that represent several different cnidarian classes including the Scyphozoa (over 200 species), Staurozoa (about 50 species), Cubozoa (about 20 species), and Hydrozoa (about 1000–1500 species that make jellyfish and many more that do not). The jellyfish in these groups are also called, respectively, scyphomedusae, stauromedusae, cubomedusae, and hydromedusae. All jellyfish are embodied in the Medusozoa subphylum. Medusa is another word for jellyfish, and as such is used to refer specifically to the adult stage of the life cycle.

Jellyfish are found in every ocean, from the surface to the deep sea. Some hydrozoan jellyfish, or hydromedusae, are also found in fresh water; freshwater species are less than an inch (25 mm) in diameter, are colorless and do not sting. Many of the best-known jellyfish, such as Aurelia, are scyphomedusae. These are the large, often colorful, jellyfish that are common in coastal zones worldwide.

In its broadest sense, the term jellyfish also generally refers to members of the phylum Ctenophora. Although not closely related to cnidarian jellyfish, ctenophores are also free-swimming planktonic carnivores, are generally transparent or translucent, and exist in shallow to deep portions of all the world's oceans.

Lion's Mane Jellyfish are the largest known jellyfish, and arguably the longest animal in the world..... read more Jellyfish - en.wikipedia

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Als Qualle, im wissenschaftlichen Sprachgebrauch auch Medusa (Pl. Meduse; Medusae) genannt, bezeichnet man ein Lebensstadium von Nesseltieren (Cnidaria) und Rippenquallen (Ctenophora). Im populärwissenschaftlichen Sprachgebrauch hat sich die Bezeichnung Quallen für die Gruppen der Nesseltiere eingebürgert, die ein Medusenstadium bilden.

Die meisten Arten mit einem Quallenstadium leben im Meer. Es gibt aber auch Süßwasserquallen, die aus Asien stammen und mittlerweile auch in deutschen Gewässern heimisch sind. Quallen bevölkern seit mehr als 500 Millionen Jahren die Weltmeere.

Quallen sind gallertartige Organismen, die zu rund 98 bis 99 Prozent aus Wasser bestehen. Ihre Gestalt ist schirmartig mit einem hängenden Magenstiel (Manubrium), an dessen Unterseite sich eine Mundöffnung befindet. Sie bestehen aus zwei einschichtigen, nur knapp ein fünfzigstel Millimeter dicken Gewebslagen, der Außenhaut (Exodermis) und der Innenhaut (Endodermis), zwischen denen eine zellfreie Schicht, die Mesogloea, liegt.

Die meisten Quallen haben lange Tentakel, die mit Nesselzellen ausgestattet sind. Diese benutzen sie zum Fang von Beutetieren oder zur Verteidigung. Diese Nesselzellen sind über die Fangarme verstreut und bilden ein giftiges Sekret. Kommt es zu einer Berührung am Cnidocil (einem Fortsatz der Nesselzellen), platzt die Nesselkapsel im Innern der Nesselzelle mit einem Druck von 150 bar auf und stülpt einen Nesselfaden nach außen, der gleichzeitig das in der Nesselkapsel enthaltene, lähmende Gift abgibt. Nachdem die Qualle auf diese Weise ihr Gift verbreitet hat, werden die Nesselkapseln abgestoßen und neue gebildet

Qualle - Wikipedia

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